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A safe dive plan must take into consideration the avoidance of decompression sickness. Therefore, being able to properly use dive tables is one of the most important skills a diver must possess. As a PADI diver you should know how to use the Recreational Dive Planner to plan repetitive dives, and how to apply certain table rules. Also, because of its multilevel capability and other advantages, you should be familiar with how to use The Wheel. However, just knowing how to use the Recreational Dive Planner isnt enough. You should also understand its theoretical basis. What, for example, are the similarities and differences between the Recreational Dive Planner and other dive tables? What advantage does the Recreational Dive Planner provide over other tables? These are only a few of the issues you need to know if you are to have a full appreciation and understanding of the subject. In this section we will review how to use all versions of the Recreational Dive Planner; and you will have an opportunity to apply rules relating to: emergency decompression; ying and driving to altitude after diving; omitted decompression; and special procedures when planning multiple repetitive dives. We will also explore important theoretical issues to ensure that you understand not only how the Recreational Dive Planner works, but why.

Objective 5.1

Explain why the Recreational Dive Planner surface interval credit table times are signicantly shorter than that of the U.S. Navy tables, and why such a difference is possible.

Resources:

Encyclopedia, Chapter Five, under the heading Decompression Models PADI Divemaster Manual, Chapter Five, under the heading Decompression Theory and the RDP

Exercises:

1. A 60-minute tissue compartment requires _____________ to ll or empty completely, while a 120-minute compartment requires _____________. a. 1 hour/2 hours b. 2 hours/4 hours c. 6 hours/12 hours d. 12 hours/24 hours

Section Five: The Recreational Dive Planner 5-1

2. The U.S. Navy selected the 120-minute tissue compartment to control their Surface Interval Credit Table because: a. they didnt know other compartments could be used. b. they were designing tables that enabled decompression diving. c. as most of their diving is surface air supplied, a different decompression model had to be used. d. this was the easiest way to account for individual differences in physiology. 3. The Recreational Dive Planner uses a 60-minute tissue compartment to control its Surface Interval Credit Table because: a. there are no safety factors built into its design. b. the decompression stops are shorter than the Navy tables. c. it is a better way to account for individual differences in physiology. d. if divers dont exceed the NDLs the slow 120-minute compartment can be virtually ignored.

Objective 5.2

Explain what is meant by a multitissue decompression model, and state the number of tissue compartments used in the creation of the Recreational Dive Planner versus U.S. Navy models.

Resources:

Encyclopedia, Chapter Five, under the heading Decompression Models PADI Divemaster Manual, Chapter Five, under the heading Decompression Theory and the RDP

Exercises:

1. The tissue compartments considered within a decompression model are related directly to specic tissues of the body. True False 2. If the human body is made up primarily of water, why cant decompression theory be simplied by using a single-tissue model?

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3. In constructing the U.S. Navy Tables _____________ tissue compartments were used to determine the NDLs. In determining the NDLs for the Recreational Dive Planner _________ ____ tissue compartments were used. a. 6/14 b. 6/6 c. 12/12 d. 6/34 4. While several tissue compartments were used to determine the NDLs for both the Recreational Dive Planner and USN tables, only one tissue compartment was used to control the gas wash-out during the surface interval. True False

Objective 5.3

When diving above sea level, explain why it is critical to know the altitude at which the dive is to take place.

Resources:

PADIs Adventures in Diving Manual, Section One under the heading Altitude Diving

Exercises:

1. The decompression-related problems encountered when diving at altitude occur because the diver begins his dive: a. at an atmospheric pressure less than that at sea level. b. at an atmospheric pressure more than that at sea level. c. with a reduced percentage of nitrogen than that at sea level. d. with a reduced percentage of oxygen than that at sea level. 2. Because it was designed to allow multilevel diving, there is no need to convert actual depths into equivalent sea-level depths in order to use the Recreational Dive Planner at 300 metres/1000 feet (or higher) above sea level. True False

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Objective 5.4

Explain why pressure groups from one model/table cannot necessarily be transferred to another model/table.

Resources:

Encyclopedia, Chapter Five, under the heading Decompression Models PADI Divemaster Manual, Chapter Five, under the heading Decompression Theory and the RDP

Exercises:

1. Because they are based on the same theoretical model, pressure groups may be transferred between the Table and The Wheel version of the Recreational Dive Planner. True False 2. Upon exiting the water a diver using the Recreational Dive Planner determines he is in pressure group J. Another diver who is using the U.S. Navy tables also determines that he is in group J. Is it likely that the two divers have approximately the same dive prole? Explain your response.

5-4

Objective 5.5

Using the RDP Table or eRDP and The Wheel, demonstrate how to nd a nodecompression limit (NDL), and state the procedures for Emergency Decompression and Omitted Decompression.

Resources:

For the RDP Table: PADI Recreational Dive Planner, Instructions for Use For the eRDP: PADI Electronic Recreational Dive Planner, Instructions for Use For The Wheel: The Wheel Instructions for Use and Study Guide, Section Two

Exercises:

1. A diver plans a dive to 30 metres/100 feet for 20 minutes. Losing track of time, he notices that his bottom time is actually 24 minutes. Which of the following procedures should he institute in this situation? a. Immediately ascend to 5 metres/15 feet and make a stop for 15 minutes; avoid diving for 24 hours. b. Immediately ascend to 5 metres/15 feet and make a stop for 8 minutes; avoid diving for 6 hours. c. Immediately ascend to 5 metres/15 feet and make a stop for 3 minutes. d. Immediately surface, rest, be monitored for signs of decompression sickness, breathe 100% oxygen, and do not dive for at least 24 hours. 2. A diver plans a dive to 35 metres for 13 minutes/110 feet for 15 minutes. Upon surfacing he discovers that he misread his timing device. He was actually at depth for 21 minutes. Which of the following procedures should he institute in this situation? a. Reenter the water and decompress at 5 metres/15 feet for 15 minutes; avoid diving for 24 hours. b. Reenter the water and decompress at 5 metres/15 feet for 8 minutes; avoid diving for 6 hours. c. Remain on the surface, rest, be monitored for signs of decompression sickness, breathe 100% oxygen, and do not dive for at least 24 hours. d. Immediately seek medical attention and recompression treatment.

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3. Using the Table or eRDP, what is the no-decompression limit for a dive to 27 metres/ 52 feet? _____________ minutes. 4. Using The Wheel, what is the no-decompression limit for a dive to 27 metres/ 52 feet? _____________ minutes.

Objective 5.6

Using the RDP Table or eRDP and The Wheel, calculate dive proles for three or more repetitive dives demonstrating the correct guidelines and procedures for: determining minimum surface intervals; taking safety stops; and applying the special multiple dive rule.

Resources:

For the Table: PADI Recreational Dive Planner, Instruction for Use For the eRDP: PADI Electronic Recreational Dive Planner, Instructions for Use For The Wheel: The Wheel Instructions for Use and Study Guide, Sections Six and Seven

Exercises:

Note: You are to use the Recreational Dive Planner Table or eRDP in completing the following questions. The dive prole illustrations provided will help you keep track of your calculations. It is recommended that you ll in all appropriate depths, bottom times, pressure groups and required safety stops. 1. A diver exits the water at 10:45 a.m. after a dive to 24 metres/78 feet for 21 minutes. At 11:15 a.m. he reenters the water for a 36 minute dive to 18 metres/60 feet. If he wishes to make a third dive after only a 2 minute surface interval, what is the maximum depth to which he may dive and remain for at least 20 minutes? a. 12 metres/40 feet b. 15 metres/50 feet c. 18 metres/60 feet d. The third dive cannot be made with such a short surface interval.

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2. A diver is planning a dive to 20 metres for 38 minutes/70 feet for 35 minutes. What is the minimum amount of time the diver would have to spend at the surface if he wished to repeat the exact same prole? _____________ minutes

3. A diver is planning a series of 3 dives. Assume he will use minimum surface intervals, follow all Recreational Dive Planner rules and dive the following exact proles. Dive 1 - 24 metres for 26 minutes/80 feet for 28 minutes; Dive 2 - 12 metres for 85 minutes/40 feet for 80 minutes; Dive 3 - 11 metres for 61 minutes/35 feet for 60 minutes. In minutes, approximately how long will the entire dive prole take to completefrom start to nish? Metric responses: a. 201 minutes b. 207 minutes c. 356 minutes d. 362 minutes Imperial responses: a. 188 minutes b. 194 minutes c. 356 minutes d. 362 minutes

Note: You are to use the Recreational Dive Planner Wheel in completing the following questions. The dive prole illustrations provided will help you keep track of your calculations. It is recommended that you ll in all appropriate depths, bottom times, pressure groups and required safety stops.

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4. A diver exits the water at 1:30 p.m. after a dive to 19 metres/63 feet for 34 minutes. He reenters the water at 2:20 p.m. for a dive to 17 metres/55 feet for 24 minutes. How soon could the diver reenter the water for a dive to 15 metres/50 feet for 40 minutes? _____________ minutes.

5. A diver exits the water at 10:40 a.m. after a dive to 28 metres/95 feet for 20 minutes. He reenters the water at 12:20 p.m. for a dive to 19 metres/65 feet for 27 minutes. How soon could the diver reenter the water for a dive to 17 metres/55 feet for 30 minutes? _____________ minutes.

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Objective 5.7

State the recommendations for ying after diving and demonstrate its use.

Resources:

PADI Open Water Diver Manual, Chapter Five, under the heading, Altitude Diving, Flying After Diving, and Cold/Strenuous Dives Encyclopedia, Chapter Five, under the heading Flying After Diving

Exercises:

1. A diver exits the water at 10:00 a.m. after a dive to 18 metres/60 feet for 50 minutes. He has made no previous dives. What is the soonest this diver should board a commercial airliner for his ight home? a. 2:00 p.m. b. 10:00 p.m. c. When he enters pressure group D d. 10:00 a.m. the next day 2. A diver has been on a diving vacation for a week, during which he made in excess of twenty dives. He exits the water at 12:00 noon. What is the soonest this diver should board a commercial airliner for his ight home? a. 2:00 p.m. b. After 6:00 a.m. the next day c. When he enters pressure group D d. 12:00 noon the next day 3. Upon surfacing a diver realizes he has dived the following prole: 29 metres/95 feet for 23 minutes. What is the soonest this diver should board a commercial airliner for his ight home? a. 12 hours after exiting the water b. more than 18 hours after exiting the water c. 24 hours after exiting the water d. Only on the advice of a physician

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Objective 5.8

Using The Wheel, demonstrate how to calculate a multilevel dive.

Resources:

The Wheel Instructions for Use and Study Guide, Section Seven

Exercises:

1. During a multilevel dive, a diver spends 10 minutes at a depth of 34 metres/120 feet. If he then wishes to ascend to 26 metres/85 feet, what would be his remaining no-decompression time during the shallow portion of the dive? a. 19 minutes b. 21 minutes c. 28 minutes d. The dive cannot be made as planned as it is beyond the parameters allowed for a multilevel exposure. 2. A diver is planning a multilevel dive. He wishes to stay at 34 metres/120 feet for 10 minutes, then ascend to 24 metres/80 feet for 10 minutes. What will his pressure group be upon exiting the water. a. Group P b. Group O c. Group I d. The dive cannot be made as planned.

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3. A diver is planning a multilevel dive. He wishes to stay at 34 metres/120 feet for 5 minutes, then ascend to 24 metres/80 feet for 22 minutes. What will his pressure group be upon exiting the water. a. Group R b. Group S c. Group K d. The dive cannot be made as planned as it is outside the allowable parameters for a multilevel exposure. 4. During his safety stop, a diver determines he has dived the following prole: 28 metres/ 90 feet for 15 minutes, ascending to 18 metres/60 feet for an additional 23 minutes. What action should he take as a result? a. Plan any repetitive dive assuming his ending pressure group is T. b. Remain at the safety stop for 8 minutes, upon surfacing; do not dive for 6 hours. c. Remain at the safety stop for 15 minutes, upon surfacing; do not dive for 24 hours. d. Immediately surface, rest, monitor himself for signs of decompression sickness, breath 100% oxygen and not dive for at least 6 hours.

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Section Five

Answer Key

Objective 5.1

Explain why the Recreational Dive Planner surface interval credit table times are signicantly shorter than that of the U.S. Navy tables, and why such a difference is possible.

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

1. (c) A 60-minute tissue compartment requires 6 hours to ll or empty completely, while a 120-minute compartment requires 12 hours. The term half-time is simply a way of representing what is known as an exponential relationship. In our discussion of decompression theory its used to describe how quickly a tissue compartment will ll or empty. For example, a tissue compartment described as having a 5-minute halftime will ll (or empty) half of the total amount of nitrogen it can hold in ve minutes. In ve more minutes it will be 75% full; in ve more minutes 87.5%; in ve more 93.6%; in ve more 96.9% and nally in six half-times (30 minutes total) the compartment is considered full (or empty) at 98.4% of its capacity (mathematically it never reaches 100%). Therefore, a 60-minute tissue will completely ll or empty in 6 hours (60 x 6 = 360 mins. or 6 hours). A 120-minute tissue compartment will ll or empty in 12 hours (120 x 6 = 720 mins. or 12 hours). 2. (b) The U.S. Navy selected the 120-minute tissue compartment to control their Surface Interval Credit Table because: they were designing tables that enabled decompression diving. The primary function of the U.S. Navy tables was to enable safer decompression diving. They also realized with the advent of scuba that provisions were necessary for repetitive diving. This required consideration of how quickly the diver lost residual nitrogen. To accommodate this the Navy developed a Surface Interval Credit Table. To avoid having to develop several such tables to be used according to which tissue compartment controlled the previous dive, they chose an easier approach develop only one table based on a single compartment. Determining which compartment to use was simple. As their tables would provide for decompression diving even repetitive decompression dives they had to

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use the slowest tissue compartment in their model; one which would come into play only during decompression dives. That compartment was the 120-minute compartment, which requires 12 hours to fully in or out gas. This explains why it takes up to 12 hours to fully out-gas when using the U.S. Navy tables.

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

3. (d) The Recreational Dive Planner uses a 60-minute tissue compartment to control its Surface Interval Credit Table because: if divers dont exceed the NDLs, the slow 120-minute compartment can be virtually ignored. When Dr. Ray Rogers developed the conceptual model for the Recreational Dive Planner he realized that recreational (no-decompression) divers almost never get into situations where the 120-minute compartment controlled their decompression status. Only divers exceeding the NDLs are controlled by such a long compartment. Therefore, he could base the Recreational Dive Planner surface credit table on a faster tissue compartment than 120-minutes. The question was which compartment to use. Through computer analysis he determined that a 60-minute compartment was sufcient to control over 98% of all recreational dives. To provide for all possibilities including extended no-decompression bottom times at shallower depths the special rule for multiple repetitive dives was developed (WXYZ rule).

Objective 5.2

Explain what is meant by a multitissue decompression model, and state the number of tissue compartments used in the creation of the Recreational Dive Planner versus U.S. Navy models.

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

1. The tissue compartments considered within a decompression model are related directly to specic tissues of the body. False. This is a very common misconception regarding dive table design. Tissues compartments are simply mathematical concepts. They are not intended to relate one-for-one to actual body tissues. In fact, physiologists who design dive tables prefer the term compartment over tissue as a way of avoiding this misconception. Dividing the body into compartments is just a way of describing and predicting what is likely to occur regarding the decompression status. In fact, no one even knows if any conceptual model used to construct a dive table has any actual physiological basis.

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2. If the human body is made up primarily of water, why cant decompression theory be simplied by using a single-tissue model? Although the human body is made up primarily of water, our tissues are highly complex as compared to simple water. The amount and time required to absorb gas is dependent upon two factors: the type of tissue involved and the amount of blood ow to the tissue. This makes constructing a decompression model for humans far more difcult than describing gas absorption/ elimination in water. An excellent explanation of the phenomenon is provided in the Encyclopedia, Chapter Five, Inert Gas Release Current Theory. 3. (a) In constructing the U.S. Navy tables, 6 tissue compartments were used to determine the NDLs. In determining the NDLs for the Recreational Dive Planner, 14 tissue compartments were used. The Navy constructed their tables almost entirely without the assistance of computers. This made the task difcult and time consuming. Using fewer compartments meant less development time (although this was still one more than Haldane used in his original model). The Recreational Dive Planner, on the other hand, was entirely computer-generated. The number of compartments used for calculation was not signicant in terms of time or difculty. However, there isnt anything innately better about more compartments. In fact, one decompression model, the Canadian Defense and Civilian Institute for Environmental Medical (DCIEM) Tables, uses only four compartments 4. While several tissue compartments were used to determine the NDLs for both the Recreational Dive Planner and USN tables, only one tissue compartment was used to control the gas washout during the surface interval. True. In terms of off-gassing, the slowest compartment controls a subsequent dive. In the case of the Navy tables, they used the 120-minute compartment. The Recreational Dive Planner uses the 60-minute compartment to calculate nitrogen elimination. You may wish to look at the response to Objective 5.1 as a review of this concept.

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Objective 5.3

When diving above sea level, explain why it is critical to know the altitude at which the dive is to take place.

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

1. (a) The decompression-related problems encountered when diving at altitude occur because the diver begins his dive: at an atmospheric pressure less than that at sea level. The Recreational Dive Planner was designed for use assuming the dive starts at an atmospheric pressure of 1 atm/14.7 psi. While some reduction in the atmospheric pressure can be tolerated, the Recreational Dive Planner cannot be used at an altitude above 300 metres/1000 feet without special procedures. One of the most important considerations when diving at altitude is converting the actual depth of the water at altitude to an equivalent sea-level depth. This conversion is then used for dive planning purposes. An explanation of why such a conversion is necessary is discussed in Section Three, Objective 3.14. In addition, you may also wish to review the related concepts discussed in Section Four of this workbook, Objective 4.8. 2. Because it was designed to allow multilevel diving, there is no need to convert actual depths into equivalent sea-level depths in order to the use Recreational Dive Planner at 300 metres/ 1000 feet above sea level or higher. False. The fact that the Recreational Diver Planner was designed to allow multilevel diving has no bearing on the need to convert altitude depths to equivalent sea level depths.

Objective 5.4

Explain why pressure groups from one model/table cannot necessarily be transferred to another model/table.

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

1. Because they are based on the same theoretical model, pressure groups may be transferred between the RDP Table, eRDP and The Wheel. True. Although the data is displayed in different ways, the model from which all versions of the Recreational Dive Planner were derived is the same. Therefore, in this case it is possible to transfer the pressure groups between the RDP Table, the eRDP and The Wheel. This, however, cannot be done if the table models differ. For example, although both the Recreational Dive Planner and the U.S. Navy tables both use alphabetic designations for pressure groups, they cannot be transferred from one table to the other. Pressure groups actually relate to a specic amount of nitrogen tension within the body as dened by the particular model. As the models differ, so might the particular nitrogen tensions.

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2. Upon exiting the water a diver using the Recreational Dive Planner determines he is in pressure group J. Another diver who is using the U.S. Navy tables also determines that he is in group J. Is it likely that the two divers have approximately the same dive prole? The diver cannot transfer tables during a repetitive dive. Although both the Recreational Dive Planner and the U.S. Navy tables use the term J to dene a certain amount of residual nitrogen, these exact amounts differ between the two models. The scenario in question is a classic case of adding apples and oranges. Once a dive is initiated using a particular dive table, that same dive table must be used for any subsequent repetitive diving.

Objective 5.5

Using the RDP Table or eRDP and The Wheel, demonstrate how to nd a nodecompression limit (NDL), and state the procedures for Emergency Decompression and Omitted Decompression.

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

1. (b) A diver plans a dive to 30 metres/100 feet for 20 minutes. Losing track of time, he notices that his bottom time is actually 24 minutes. Which of the following procedures should he institute in this situation? Immediately ascend to 5 metres/15 feet and make a stop for 8 minutes; avoid diving for 6 hours. The diver has exceeded the no-decompression limit for 30 metres/100 feet. However, the overstay has been for less than 5 minutes. Had he overstayed the NDL for more than ve minutes, response A would have been correct. Incidentally, dives should never be planned to the full limit of the table, and this scenario is one reason why. 2. (c) A diver plans a dive to 35 metres for 13 minutes/110 feet for 15 minutes. Upon surfacing he discovers that he misread his timing device. He was actually at depth for 21 minutes. Which of the following procedures should he institute in this situation? Remain on the surface, rest, be monitored for signs of decompression sickness, breathe 100% oxygen, and do not dive for at least 24 hours. In this scenario the diver has exceeded his NDL substantially. The scenario in this question is easily avoided by always taking a safety stop at the end of a dive, double checking your decompression status while you wait. If an oversight is discovered the safety stop can then become an emergency decompression stop.

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Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

3. Metric Using the RDP Table or eRDP, the no-decompression limit for a dive to 27 metres is 20 minutes. Imperial Using the RDP Table or eRDP, the no-decompression limit for a dive to 52 feet is 55 minutes. 4. Metric Using The Wheel, the no-decompression limit for a dive to 27 metres is 23 minutes. The differences in the NDLs for dives to the same depth is explained by the fact that The Wheel (in this example) uses a depth closer to the actual depth. The Table rounded to 30 metres while The Wheel only needed to be rounded to 28 metres. Imperial Using The Wheel, the no-decompression limit for a dive to 52 feet is 65 minutes. The differences in the NDLs for dives to the same depth is explained by the fact that The Wheel uses 5-foot depth increments (in most cases). The Table uses 10foot increments. Therefore, in question 3, the dive had to be planned assuming a depth of 60 feet. In question 4, the dive could be planned closer to the actual depth of 55 feet.

Objective 5.6

Using the RDP Table or eRDP and The Wheel, calculate dive proles for three or more repetitive dives demonstrating the correct guidelines and procedures for: determining minimum surface intervals; taking safety stops; and applying the special multiple dive rule. Note: The RDP Table (or eRDP) was used to answer the following questions.

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

1. (d) A diver exits the water at 10:45 a.m. after a dive to 24 metres/78 feet for 21 minutes. At 11:15 a.m. he reenters the water for a 36-minute dive to 18 metres/60 feet. If he wishes to make a third dive after only a 2 -minute surface interval, what is the maximum depth to which he may dive and remain for at least 20 minutes? The third dive cannot be made with such a short surface interval. Anytime you are planning a series of three or more dives, be sensitive to the multiple repetitive dive rule. In this case, a specic surface interval of either 1 hour is required even though a much shorter interval could be derived using the regular table procedure. Remember, this special rule does not apply if you are only making one repetitive dive. As a reminder, the rule states, if you are planning 3 or more dives in one day: Beginning with the rst dive, if your ending pressure

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group after any dive is W or X, the minimum surface interval between all subsequent dives is 1 hour. If your ending pressure group after any dive is Y or Z, the minimum surface interval between all subsequent dives is 3 hours. Metric Prole

K 3 24 21 20 18

30 F

W 1 00

36 36 56

Imperial Prole

K 3 78 21 19

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

30 F 60 36 36

W 1 00

55

2. A diver is planning a dive to 20 metres for 38 minutes/ 70 feet for 35 minutes. What is the minimum amount of time the diver would have to spend at the surface if he wished to repeat the exact same prole? 2 hours, 31 minutes. If you did not get that answer you should review the procedure for nding minimum surface intervals. More information and practice questions can be found in the PADI Recreational Dive Planner, Instruction for Use (Table version) and in the Electronic Recreational Dive Planner Instructions for Use booklets. Metric Prole

Q 20 38 6

2 31 A 20 38 38

T 3

44

Section Five: Answer Key 5-19

Imperial Prole

Q 3 70 35 5

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

2 31 A 70 35 35

T 3

40

3. (d) A diver is planning a series of 3 dives. Assume he will use minimum surface intervals, follow all Recreational Dive Planner rules and dive the following exact proles: Dive 1 - 24 metres for 26 minute/80 feet for 28 minutes; Dive 2 - 12 metres for 85 minutes/40 feet for 80 minutes; Dive 3 - 11 metres for 61 minutes/35 feet for 60 minutes. In minutes, approximately how long will the entire dive prole take to completefrom start to nish? 362 minutes . If you indicated response A, you made two mistakes: First, you did not apply the multiple repetitive dive rule (a three hour surface interval is required between dives 2 and 3). Secondly, you did not account for two required 3-minute safety stops (one after dive 1 and dive 2). If you selected response B you remembered the safety stops, but not the multiple repetitive dive rule. If you selected response C, you remembered the multiple repetitive dive rule, but forgot the required safety stops. Metric Prole

O 3 24 26 62 9 12

04 N

Z 3 00 A 3 11

85 85 61 147 70

61

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Imperial Prole

P 3 80 28 60 10 40

08 N

Z 3 00 A 3 35

80 80 60 40 70

60

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

4. A diver exits the water at 1:30 p.m. after a dive to 19 metres/63 feet for 34 minutes. He reenters the water at 2:20 p.m. for a dive to 17 metres/55 feet for 24 minutes. How soon could the diver reenter the water for a dive to 15 metres/ 50 feet for 40 minutes? Metric 39 minutes. Lets review the problem using The Wheel. If a diver exits the water at 1:30 p.m. after a dive to 19 metres for 34 minutes, he will be in pressure group P. He reenters the water at 2:20 p.m. This means his surface interval is 50 minutes. In 50 minutes a diver in pressure group P changes to pressure group G. If he then returns to 17 metres for 24 minutes, he will then be in pressure group S. To make the nal dive to 15 metres for 40 minutes (using 40 minutes as the NDL), the diver must be in pressure group J. Therefore, we nd that a diver in pressure group S will enter pressure group J in 39 minutes. So the soonest the diver could reenter the water between the second and third dives is 39 minutes. To be conservative, you could use pressure group I (instead of J) for the nal dive to 15 metres for 40 minutes. By using I as the pressure group, you would need to remain on the surface 45 minutes in between the second and third dives. Why 45 minutes? A diver is pressure group S will enter pressure group I in 45 minutes. More information and practice questions can be found in Section six of The Wheel Instructions for Use and Study Guide.

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Metric Prole

P 19 34 17

50 G

S 39 J 15

24

40

Imperial 21 minutes. Lets review this problem using The Wheel. If a diver exits the water at 1:30 p.m. after a dive to 63 feet for 34 minutes, he will be in pressure group P. He reenters the water at 2:20 p.m. This means his surface interval is 50 minutes. In 50 minutes a diver in pressure group P changes to pressure group G. If he then returns to 55 feet for 24 minutes, he will then be in pressure group R. To make the nal dive to 50 feet for 40 minutes (using 40 minutes as the NDL), the diver will be in pressure group M. Therefore, we nd that a diver in pressure group R will enter pressure group M in 21 minutes. So the soonest the diver could reenter the water between the second and third dives is 21 minutes. To be conservative, you could use pressure group L (instead of M) for the nal dive to 50 feet for 40 minutes. By using L as the pressure group, you would need to remain on the surface 26 minutes in between the second and third dives. Why 26 minutes? A diver in pressure group R will enter pressure group L in 26 minutes. More information and practice question can be found in Section Six of The Wheel Instructions for Use and Study Guide. Imperial Prole

P 63 34 55

50 G

21 M 50

Y 3

24

40

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5. A diver exits the water at 10:40 a.m. after a dive to 28 metres/95 feet for 20 minutes. He reenters the water at 12:20 p.m. for a dive to 19 metres/65 feet for 27 minutes. How soon could the diver reenter the water for a dive to 17 metres/55 feet for 30 minutes? Metric 37 minutes. Lets review the problem. Using The Wheel, a dive to 28 metres for 20 minutes yields a pressure group of M. Exiting at 10:40 p.m. and entering again at 12:20 gives the diver a surface interval of 1 hour and 40 minutes (1:40). A diver in pressure group M changes to pressure group B in 1:40. A diver in pressure group B after a dive to 19 metres for 27 minutes will exit in pressure group Q. To enter the water for the nal dive to 17 metres for 30 minutes, the diver must be in a pressure group no greater than I. Therefore, a Q diver becomes an I diver in 37 minutes. If you did not get that answer you should review the procedure for nding minimum surface intervals. More information and practice questions can be found in Section Six of The Wheel Instructions for Use and Study Guide. Metric Prole

M 1 3 28 20 19

40 B

Q 17

37 I

W 3

27

30

Imperial 22 minutes. Lets review the problem. Using The Wheel, a dive to 95 feet for 20 minutes yields a pressure group of N. Exiting at 10:40 p.m. and entering again at 12:20 gives the diver a surface interval of 1 hour and 40 minutes (1:40). A diver in pressure group N changes to pressure group B in 1:40. A diver in pressure group B after a dive to 65 feet for 27 minutes will exit in pressure group Q. To enter the water for the nal dive to 55 feet for 30 minutes, the diver must be in a pressure group no greater than L. Therefore, a Q diver becomes an L diver in 22 minutes. If you did not get that answer you should review the procedure for nding minimum surface intervals. More information and practice questions can be found in Section Six of The Wheel Instructions for Use and Study Guide.

5-23

Imperial Prole

N 3 95 20

Objective 5.7

1 65

40 B

Q 3

22 L 55

X 3 30

27

State the recommendations for ying after diving and demonstrate its use.

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

1. (b) A diver exits the water at 10:00 a.m. after a dive to 60 feet/18 metres for 50 minutes. He has made no previous dives. What is the soonest this diver should board a commercial airliner for his ight home? 10:00 p.m. In this case the diver has made no previous dives. Therefore, he should wait a minimum of 12 hours before ying. However, remember that whenever possible it is suggested that you wait for an extended time beyond 12 hours before ying. 2. (b) A diver has been on a diving vacation for a week, during which he made in excess of twenty dives. He exits the water at 12:00 noon. What is the soonest this diver should board a commercial airliner for his ight home? After 6:00 a.m. the next day, the longer the wait the better. In this scenario the diver has been diving for several days. Therefore, according to the recommendations he should wait for a minimum of 18 hours before ying. 3. (b) Upon surfacing a diver realizes he has dived the following prole: 29 metres/95 feet for 23 minutes. What is the soonest this diver should board a commercial airliner for his ight home? more than 18 hours after exiting the water. If possible, the diver should wait longer after a dive requiring decompression or if a decompression stop has been missed before ying or driving to altitude.

5-24

Objective 5.8

Using The Wheel, demonstrate how to calculate a multilevel dive.

Correct: Condent Guess Incorrect: Simple Mistake Lack of Knowledge

1. (d) During a multilevel dive, a diver spends 10 minutes at a depth of 34 metres/120 feet. If he then wishes to ascend to 26 metres/85 feet, what would be his remaining no-decompression time during the shallow portion of the dive? The dive cannot be made as planned as it is outside the allowable parameters for a multilevel exposure. Notice that the 34-metre/120-foot curve originates from the yellow box marked 24/80. This means that the shallower portion of a multilevel dive from 34 metres/120 feet must be to a depth of 24 metres/80 feet or less. Therefore, ascending to only 26 metres/85 feet is not allowed. Metric Prole

Must be 24 metres or less

26 34 G 10

Imperial Prole

Must be 80 feet or less

85 120 G 10

5-25

2. (b) A diver is planning a multilevel dive. He wishes to stay at 34 metres/120 feet for 10 minutes, then ascend to 24 metres/80 feet for 10 minutes. What will his pressure group be upon exiting the water? Group O. After 10 minutes at 34 meters/120 feet the divers ending pressure group is G. Ascending to 24 metres/80 feet in pressure group G for an additional 10 minutes has the diver exiting in pressure group O. Metric Prole

24 34 G 10

0 10

Imperial Prole

80 0 10 120 G 10

5-26

3. (d) A diver is planning a multilevel dive. He wishes to stay at 34 metres/120 feet for 5 minutes, then ascend to 24 metres/ 80 feet for 22 minutes. What will his pressure group be upon exiting the water? The dive cannot be made as planned as it is outside the allowable parameters for a multilevel exposure. Lets review the problem. After a dive to 34 metres/120 feet for 5 minutes the divers ending pressure group (EPG) is B. If he then ascends to 24 metres/80 feet his new NDL for that depth is 20 minutes. Remember, on shallower portions of a multilevel dive the bottom time is limited by the ML mark on the curve. The diver cannot go to the full NDL mark at the end of the curve. In this case, 22 minutes would exceed the ML mark. Metric Prole

24 22 34 B 5

Beyond multilevel (ML) limit - cannot make dive as planned.

Imperial Prole

80 22 120 B 5

Beyond multilevel (ML) limit - cannot make dive as planned.

5-27

4. (b) During his safety stop, a diver determines he has dived the following prole: 28 metres/90 feet for 15 minutes, ascending to 18 metres/60 feet for an additional 23 minutes. What action should he take as a result? Remain at the safety stop for 8 minutes; upon surfacing do not dive for 6 hours. In this case, the diver has exceeded the ML mark on the second portion of the dive (although by less than 5 minutes). Therefore, emergency decompression is required. As he has elected to make a safety stop before ascending, all that is necessary is to remain at 5 metres/15 feet for 8 minutes rather than the normal 3 minutes. This is an excellent illustration why divers should always make a safety stop, and double check their decompression status while at the stop. Metric Prole

18 23 28 J 15

Imperial Prole

60 23 90 I 15

5-28

Section Analysis

From the answer key, identify any items marked "correct-guess" or "incorrect-lack of knowledge." These items represent important points of information or concepts you still might not fully understand. Check below any objectives that contained items with a "correct-guess" or "incorrect-lack of knowledge" response. Completing this section is an important step in determining your understanding of the RDP as it relates to recreational diving. Condent Correct Responses Guess Total

Lack of Knowledge

Total

Objectives To Be Reviewed:

5.1 5.5 5.2 5.6 5.3 5.7 5.4 5.8

5-29

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