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LEARNING
ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLISH


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2162 18.12.2012.

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2013
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811.111:72(075.8)
81.2-923
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= Learning Architecture in English : /
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ISBN 978-5-222-21040-6
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ISBN 978-5-222-21040-6

811.111:72(075.8)
81.2-923
. ., 2013
: , 2013

- www.phoenixbooks.ru

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12 - (Units), (Appendix) (Supplementary
Reading), , (Tapescripts)
- (English-Russian Vocabulary). , , : (Sections) Vocabulary and Word Study, Grammar, Reading
and Speaking, Listening and Speaking Writing, , .
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Vocabulary and Word Study


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Grammar - , , . ,
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Reading and Speaking A, B C,
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Listening and Speaking
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Writing , ,
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1 Supplementary Reading ( Architectural Record
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2 Tapescri pts . Listening and Speaking,


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Unit 1. Understanding Architecture

UNDERSTANDING
ARCHITECTURE
SECTION 1

VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY


1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text What
Is Architecture? and translate the given sentences.
1. architect [a:kitekt] n ,
architecture [a:kitekCq] n ,
ancient [einS(q)nt] architecture
baroque [bqrOk] architecture
Byzantine [b(a)izxntain] architecture
Greek architecture
landscape architecture
Renaissance [rineisns] architecture
rococo [rqkqukqu] architecture
Roman architecture
Romanesque [ rqumqnesk] architecture

vernacular [vqnxkjulq] architecture ()

Who was the architect of St Pauls Cathedral? This building is


a fine example of traditional architecture.
2. structure [strAkCq] n , ,
building structure ,
superstructure [sju:pq strAkCq] n ;

; ;
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skyscraper [skai skrei pq] n ,

The Parthenon was a magnificent marble structure. In general,


building structures consist of different structural elements. A tall
tower forms the superstructure of the building. Some people feel
uncomfortable in the city with its huge skyscrapers.
3. concrete [kONkri:t] n adj ;
reinforced concrete [ ri:infO:stkONkri:t]

How to repair concrete structures depends on the type of structure


and the nature of the damage. Reinforced concrete is one of the
most widely used modern building materials.
4. urban [q:bqn] adj ,
urban design
Urban design blends architecture, landscape architecture, and
city planning together to make urban areas functional and attractive.
5. construct [kqnstrAkt] v ,
construction [kqnstrAkSn] n ,
The French constructed a series of fortresses along the coast.
There are two new hotels under construction.
6. shadow [Sxdqu] n
Skilled architects, like skilled photographers, appreciate the
interplay between light and shadows.
7. utility [jutilqti] n (pl.) ;
; ()
The introduction of urban utilities improved life in the city.
8. environment [invai(q)rqnmqnt] n , ;
environmental adj ,
Villas are an attempt to create a prototype housing to replace
the chaotic architecture which is harmful to the environment of the
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Unit 1. Understanding Architecture

suburbs. In architecture, environmental harmony was known to


the Chinese, the Indians, the Greeks, and others.
9. apply [qplai] v ,
application [ xplikeiSn] n ,

Scientific discoveries are often applied to industrial processes.


The application of new scientific discoveries to industrial processes
usually makes jobs easier to do.
10. landmark [lxndma:k] n
Travel the world and see some of its most beautiful landmarks.
11. column [kOlqm] n
taper [tei pq] v ,
bend v ,
This column tapers at the bottom. The way the column bends
depends on the technical capabilities.
12. post n , , , ,
buckle [bAk(q)l] v
; ,
The posts had to be set in concrete. The way in which a column
buckles is affected by how rigidly it is connected to other members
at the top and the bottom.
13. beam [bi:m] n , , ,
sag [sxg] v , , ,
collapse [kqlxps] v ,
This beam may bend excessively and sag but not collapse.
14. castle [ka:s(q)l] n
temple [temp(q)l] n
cathedral [kqTi:drql] n ,
The museum is accommodated in a rebuilt medieval castle.
We visited the Doric temple in the charming old town. This is a
magnificent Gothic cathedral standing high above the sea.
15. arch [a:C] n , ,
An arch requires all of its elements to hold it together.
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16. vault [vO:lt] n v ;


vaulting n ,
The European architects of the Middle Ages protected the vaults
with wooden roofs. The cathedral has the longest unbroken stretch
of gothic stone vaulting in the world.
17. curve [kq:v] n ;
The two upper curves of the arch were concave.
18. meet the requirements (needs)
(, )
To become a licensed architect, you will need to meet the
educational requirements established in your country.
19. take into account ,
Modern architecture takes into account many factors specific to
the country.
20. order [O:dq] n v ; ; ;
obtain an order [qbtein]
in order to ,
A classical order is one of the ancient styles of classical
architecture. Your order is nearly ready. The house is in good
order. They ordered some new finishing materials. The engineer,
the architect and the designer should collaborate closely in order to
obtain a result.
2. Read and translate the following international words. Look
up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the
part of speech.
Aesthetically adv, object n, mani pulation n, correct v adj,
technology n, factor n, design n v, functional adj, modern adj,
visual adj, human adj, concept n, vacuum n, contrast n, combination n, guild n, monumental adj, individual n adj, public adj,
massive adj, comfort n, form n v, management n, civilization n,
political adj, cultural adj, history n, start n v, budget n.

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Unit 1. Understanding Architecture

3. Match the pairs of synonyms from A and B and translate


them.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
city-like
bend
building
trace
sharpen
ecological
superstructure
use
dome
monument

B
a. skyscraper
b. taper
c. application
d. landmark
e. shadow
f. structure
g. vault
h. curve
i. environmental
j. urban

4. Match the verb on the left with a suitable item on the right.
Use each item once only.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

meet
apply
create
take
provide
construct
do
sag
become
obtain

a. a building
b. urban design
c. an order
d. an architect
e. the requirements
f. environment
g. reinforced concrete
h. utilities
i. into account
j. a beam

5. Make the following sentences complete by translating the


words and phrases in brackets.
1. The systematic use of () started with the Ancient
Romans. 2. Because many () took centuries to build and
decorate, they constitute a major artistic investment for the city
in which they stand. 3. Architects must be licensed ( ,
) practice. 4. The widespread use of () in many
Roman structures has ensured that many survive to the present day.
5. The museum created electronic reconstructions of ruined

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masterpieces of ( ). 6. Steel (
) often undergo modifications to accommodate new
uses. 7. Once the beam has ( ), it will (). 8. The building knowledge in ( ) is often transported by local traditions. 9. Of the three () found in Greece, Doric () are the simplest.
10. () have been built throughout the ages and many new
ones open their doors every year.
6. Read and translate the following word combinations which
come from the texts of the Unit. Mind the use of nouns as
attributes in preposition. Look up your dictionary if necessary.
An art form, an end design, a battle field, landscape architecture,
energy efficiency, environmentally friendly construction materials,
curve swelling, stone circles, clay bricks, stone buildings, concrete
structures, town planning, a brick platform.
7. Study the ways some nouns are formed from verbs. Form the
nouns from the following verbs. Some of the missing words are
from the texts of the Unit. Read and translate them into Russian.
Use your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation.
a) -er/-or (the suffixes are used for a person who does an activity
and for things which do a particular job):
Example: build builder
Use, design, hunt, farm, manage, compute, direct, survey,
contract, elevate, found, educate, distribute, work, translate,
write.
b) -ment (the suffix is used for an act or result of something):
Example: achieve achievement
Manage, environ, develop, arrange, establish, improve,
agree, adjust, accomplish, advertise, employ, replace, require,
involve.
c) -ion/-ation/-ition/-sion/-tion (the suffixes are used for an act,
state, or result of something):
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Unit 1. Understanding Architecture

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Example: construct construction


Define, mani pulate, civilize, locate, combine, recognize,
limit, relate, examine, apply, ornament, educate, renovate,
decide.

SECTION 2

GRAMMAR
8. Arrange these words in the right order. Use a capital letter to
begin each sentence. Mark each rewritten sentence S V O M P T
to show Subject, Verb, Object, Manner (How?), Place (Where?),
Time (When?).
Example:
well, Michael, English, speaks. (S) Michael (V) speaks
(O) English (M) well.
1. use, for many, architects, computers, different purposes.
2. an old, mathematics, science, is. 3. from the university,
will, an architect, he, be, after graduation. 4. the knowledge
of, today, is, very, English, important. 5. begin, at 9 oclock,
in the morning, the lectures. 6. tomorrow, will, in London, be,
she. 7. every, year, leave, schools, millions of, secondary,
children. 8. the term, attend, during, and, lectures, seminars,
students. 9. a cottage, in the suburbs, constructed, of Moscow,
they. 10. statistical, in their work, use, the researchers, methods.
9. Read and translate the following complex sentences with
different types of subordinate clauses. Use your dictionary if
necessary.
1. As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be
formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became
a craft. 2. Architecture is defined by those who know about
architecture. 3. The view that architects only design architecture
is changing as the publics view of what is architecture is affected by
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362

...................................................................... 3
UNIT 1. UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE ........................... 7
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study ................................... 7


2. Grammar ............................................................ 13
3. Reading and speaking ......................................... 15
4. Listening and speaking ....................................... 23
5. Writing ............................................................... 24

UNIT 2. CAREER IN ARCHITECTURE .................................... 29


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study .................................


2. Grammar ............................................................
3. Reading and speaking .........................................
4. Listening and speaking .......................................
5. Writing ...............................................................

29
35
37
45
47

UNIT 3. GREEK ARCHITECTURE ........................................... 49


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study .................................


2. Grammar ............................................................
3. Reading and speaking .........................................
4. Listening and speaking .......................................
5. Writing ...............................................................

49
55
58
66
67

UNIT 4. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE .......................................... 70


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study .................................


2. Grammar ............................................................
3. Reading and speaking .........................................
4. Listening and speaking .......................................
5. Writing ...............................................................

70
76
78
86
88

UNIT 5. EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE


ARCHITECTURE ..................................................................... 90

Section 1. Vocabulary and word study ................................. 90


Section 2. Grammar ............................................................ 95
Section 3. Reading and speaking ....................................... 100

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Section 4. Listening and speaking ..................................... 108


Section 5. Writing ............................................................. 109

UNIT 6. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE ........................... 111


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study ...............................


2. Grammar ..........................................................
3. Reading and speaking .......................................
4. Listening and speaking .....................................
5. Writing .............................................................

111
118
122
130
131

UNIT 7. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE ....................................... 134


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study ...............................


2. Grammar ..........................................................
3. Reading and speaking .......................................
4. Listening and speaking .....................................
5. Writing .............................................................

134
139
144
151
152

UNIT 8. RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE ............................ 156


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study ...............................


2. Grammar ..........................................................
3. Reading and speaking .......................................
4. Listening and speaking .....................................
5. Writing .............................................................

156
162
165
173
175

UNIT 9. NEOCLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE .......................... 177


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study ...............................


2. Grammar ..........................................................
3. Reading and speaking .......................................
4. Listening and speaking .....................................
5. Writing .............................................................

177
182
186
194
195

UNIT 10. RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE .................................... 198


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study ...............................


2. Grammar ..........................................................
3. Reading and speaking .......................................
4. Listening and speaking .....................................
5. Writing .............................................................

198
203
206
215
216

UNIT 11. MODERN ARCHITECTURE ..................................... 221


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study ...............................


2. Grammar ..........................................................
3. Reading and speaking .......................................
4. Listening and speaking .....................................
5. Writing .............................................................

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226
230
238
240

364

UNIT 12. TOWN PLANNING ................................................ 243


Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

1. Vocabulary and word study ...............................


2. Grammar ..........................................................
3. Reading and speaking .......................................
4. Listening and speaking .....................................
5. Writing .............................................................

243
249
253
262
263

.................................................................... 266

Appendix 1. Supplementary Reading .................................. 266


Appendix 2. Tapescri pts ..................................................... 307

ENGLISH-RUSSIAN VOCABULARY ..................................... 326


BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................... 360

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LEARNING ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLISH

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