Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

LocalGovernme entDivision n,Governm mentofBa angladesh h Policy ySupportU Unit

First Draft

Sec condS Sector velopm rDev mentP Progr me ramm


forth heWater andSani tationSe ectorinB anglades sh

INC CEPTI IONR REPOR RT


23rdF February2 2009


Submittedby

DevC Consultan ntsLimite ed,Bangla adesh

Inassociationwith

BETSConsult S tingServicesLtd.B Banglades sh

Contents
1. Introduction.....................................................................................................................................6 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2. Backgroundofthestudy...........................................................................................................6 Objectivesofthestudy.............................................................................................................7 Scopeofthestudy....................................................................................................................8 Deliverables..............................................................................................................................8 Understandingonthescopeofflexibilityofthestudy............................................................9

Mobilization,StaffingandInteractionwithPSU............................................................................10 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Commencement.....................................................................................................................10 Staffing....................................................................................................................................10 ManagementandAdministration..........................................................................................10 OrganizationalArrangements.................................................................................................11 InteractionwithPSUandotheragencies...............................................................................11

3.ApproachandMethodology...............................................................................................................12 3.1 3.2 Approaches.............................................................................................................................12 Methodology..........................................................................................................................13 StakeholderMapping....................................................................................................13 Convergingtheviewsofsectorstakeholders................................................................14 ParticipationandConsultationProcess.........................................................................15 ConsultationMethodsandTools...................................................................................17 3.3 Phase1Activities....................................................................................................................18 SubjectsofSDPRevision................................................................................................18 PreparingshorttermSIP...............................................................................................19 AddendumonCHT ........................................................................................................20 . ReviewandupdateexistingSDP...................................................................................20 SWApdevelopment.......................................................................................................20 3.4 Phase2Activities....................................................................................................................24 IncorporationofSpecialElements.................................................................................24 StrategicDevelopmentApproaches..............................................................................24 ThirdNationalWorkshop..............................................................................................25

FinalizingtheSecondSDP..............................................................................................25 4 InitialWorks..................................................................................................................................26 4.1 PresentSituationandChallengesintheSector .....................................................................26 . RuralWaterSupply........................................................................................................26 Pourashavas...................................................................................................................26 Cities..............................................................................................................................27 Sanitation.......................................................................................................................27 RecentDevelopments...................................................................................................28 4.2 4.3 4.3 5. PreparationfortheInceptionWorkshop...............................................................................29 Stakeholderssurveytools.......................................................................................................29 Subjectsofrevision.................................................................................................................30

OutstandingIssues.........................................................................................................................33 5.1 5.2 5.3 Agreementonthesubjectsofrevision...................................................................................33 AdditionalStaffrequirement..................................................................................................33 Agreementontheconsultationprocess................................................................................33

5.4. WorkPlanandManningSchedule..........................................................................................34 6. AdditionalBudget..........................................................................................................................35

Annexes
AnnexA: AnnexB: AnnexC: AnnexD: AnnexE: AnnexF: AnnexG: AnnexH: TORofthestudy Consultantstaffmembers BackgroundnoteandscheduleoftheInceptionWorkshop Donorsurveyquestionnaire LGDdiscussionchecklist CHTdiscussionchecklist WorkPlan ManningSchedule A2A12 A13A15 A16A18 A19A24 A25 A26 A27A38 A29A30

ListofAcronyms

ADB ADP CHT DANIDA DfID DPHE GoB HDC LGD LGED LGI M&E MLGRD&C MOU MTBE NGO NGOForum O&M PEDP PSU SDP SDC SIMS SIP SWAp TOR UNDP UNICEF UP UZP WASA WB WSS ZP

AsianDevelopmentBank AnnualDevelopmentProgramme ChittagongHillTracts DanishInternationalDevelopmentAssistance DepartmentforInternationalDevelopment(UK) DepartmentofPublicHealthEngineering GovernmentofBangladesh HillDistrictCouncil LocalGovernmentDivision LocalGovernmentEngineeringDepartment LocalGovernmentInstitution MonitoringandEvaluation MinistryofLocalGovernment,RuralDevelopmentandCooperatives MemorandumofUnderstanding MidTermBudgetFramework NonGovernmentOrganisation NGOForumforDrinkingWaterSupplyandSanitation OperationandMaintenance PrimaryEducationDevelopmentProgramme ProgrammeSupportUnit SectorDevelopmentProgramme SwissAgencyforDevelopmentandCooperation SectorInformationManagementSystem SectorInvestmentPlan SectorWideApproach TermofReference UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme UnitedNationsChildrenFund UnionParishad UpazilaParishad WaterSupplyandSewerageAuthority WorldBank WaterSupplyandSanitation ZilaParishad

Summary
In2005thefirstSectorDevelopmentProgrammefortheWaterandSanitationSectorinBangladesh(SDP 2005)waspreparedandsubsequentlyapprovedbythegovernmentin2006.SDP2005provideda frameworkfordevelopmentintheWaterandSanitationsectorforaperiodof10years(20052015). ThetotalinvestmentrequirementforSDP2005wasratherhigh.Noadequatefinancialcommitmentswere receivedfromthegovernmentorfromtheexternalsupportagencies.SubsequenttotheSDP2005,there were some significant developments in the sectors. The projects or investment in the sector is now preferredtobeunderacommonframeworkoraSectorWideApproach(SWAp).Moreover,thecontextsof thecountry,especiallythatofthesectorhavechangedwithnewprioritiesandcommitments.Thereisalso astrongneedtoensurebroadparticipationofthestakeholdersinsuchanimportantnationalendeavor. Thus the government felt it necessary to review and revise the SDP 2005 and prepare a Second Sector DevelopmentProgramme(SecondSDP). DevConBETS, a Joint Venture of two consulting companies, won the contract for preparing the Second SDP.We(i.e.DevConBETS)startedtheassignmenton15January2009.Aprojectofficeisestablishedin Baridhara with all modern facilities; necessary staffs are mobilized. This Inception Report presents the objectives and scope of the study and the detailed approaches and methodology. The Report also gives someinitialfindings. Thestudyisdividedintotwophases.Phase1wouldmakeapreliminaryassessmenttofindthemainareas of revision and prepare a shortterm Sector Investment Plan (SIP). Phase2 would carry out detailed analysisand preparationoftheSecond SDP.Itwasdecidedinthecontractnegotiationmeetingthatthe InceptionReportwilldetailtheactivitiesforphase1.Attheendofphase1,theactivitiesofphase2willbe detailed. Stakeholder consultation is a corner stone of the study. In our approach and methodology we had elaboratedonhowwewilltakeforwardthisstudyinaparticipatoryway.DevelopingaSWApfortheWater and Sanitation sector is another corner stone. Details procedure for its development will be designed throughaparticipatoryprocessduringthecourseoftheassignment.However,anoutlineisdiscussedin thisReport. Wehavealsocarriedoutsomeotherinitialworkslikeliteraturereview,identifyingkeysectorissuesand challenges, preparation for the Inception Workshop and identifying draft subjects of revision. We have identifiedsomeoutstandingissues.Theseare: Agreementonthesubjectsofrevision Agreementontheproposedconsultationprocess Additionalconsultantstaffrequirement Decisionsontheabovewillhavebudgetimplications;anestimateofadditionalfundrequirementisalso given. The above issues are suggested to be reviewed and an early decision taken so the works can be carriedoutsmoothly.

Introduction
Backgroundofthestudy

1.1

In2005thefirstSectorDevelopmentProgrammefortheWaterandSanitationSectorinBangladesh (SDP 2005) was prepared. It was approved by the government in 2006. SDP 2005 provided a frameworkfordevelopmentintheWaterandSanitation(WSS)sectorforaperiodof10years(2005 2015). It outlined the sector targets of coverage and service levels, the roles of the sector partners including those of the government, nongovernment agencies, private sector and external support agencies,therequiredorganizationalreformsandtheinvestmentrequired. However, the sector targets and coverage for certain subsectors (e.g. urban sanitation) being very ambitious because of taking targets of high coverage against a low existing coverage, the total investment requirement for SDP 2005 was rather high. No adequate financial commitments were receivedfromthegovernmentaswellasfromtheexternalsupportagencies.SubsequenttotheSDP 2005, there were some significant developments in the sectors. After Paris Declaration in 2005, in which Bangladesh is a signatory, there are international and national efforts to harmonize the differentdevelopmentprojectsandalignthemwithgovernmentsplan.Theprojectsorinvestmentin the sector is preferred to be under a common framework or a Sector Wide Approach (SWAp). Moreover,thecontextsofthecountry,especiallythatofthesectorhavechangedwithnewpriorities and commitments. Many areas in the country like the Chittagong Hill Tracts have different socio economiccontextanddifferentsetsofproblemsforwhichspecialattentionisneeded.Thereisalsoa strongneedtoensureparticipationofthestakeholdersintensivelyinanationalendeavorlikeSDPso thatitisownedandeventuallycanbeeasilyimplemented. ThusthegovernmentfeltitnecessarytoreviewandrevisetheSDP2005andprepareaSecondSector DevelopmentPlanfortheWSSsector(SecondSDP);themainreasonsforpreparingtheSecondSDP are: Incorporategovernmentsnewcommitmentsandtargets IncorporateSWApintheWSSsector Ensureparticipationofallstakeholders PreparerealisticSectorInvestmentPlan(SIP) IncludethespecialdevelopmentneedsofChittagongHillTracts(CHT) UpdateandmakenecessaryadjustmentsinSDP2005tomeetthepresentandfuture challenges

The Water Supply and Sanitation Programme Support Unit (PSU) is established by the Local GovernmentDivision(LGD)tosupportLGDinpolicyimplementationandsectorcoordination.PSUhas takenuptheassignmentincloseconsultationwithothersectorstakeholdersforpreparingtheSecond SDP. A subcommittee of the National Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation has been formedtoguideandassisttheSecondSDPpreparationprocess.PSUisactingassecretariattothesub committee. We,i.e.,DevConBETS,aJointVentureoftwoconsultingcompanies,wonthecontractforReviewing andRevisionoftheSDPandisappointedbyPSU.Thisinceptionreportpresentstheobjectivesand scopeofthestudyandthedetailedapproachesandmethodology.Thereportalsogivessomeinitial worksdonebyusandidentifiessomeunderstandingissuesforreviewandapproval.

1.2

Objectivesofthestudy

TheoverallobjectiveofthestudyistoestablishanoperationalSDPincludingSIPownedandmanaged bytheGoBandagreedbythedonors,NGOsandotherstakeholdersthroughaneventualSectorWide Approach Specific Objectives: The specific objectives are divided into two phases. Phase1 would make a preliminary assessment to find the main areas of revision of SDP 2005 and prepare a shortterm SectorInvestmentPlan(SIP).Phase2wouldcarryoutdetailedanalysisandpreparationoftheSecond SDP.Thespecificobjectivesofthetwophases,asmentionedintheTOR,aregivenbelow. Phase1 1. PrepareanoperationalshorttermSectorInvestmentPlan(SIP)withfullstakeholders commitmenttobesharedwithallstakeholders; 2. ReviewandupdateoftheexistingSIPtopresentsituationincludinginvestmentsoutsidethe annualdevelopmentplan(ADP)ofGoB; 3. AssesstheissueofaseparateSDPfortheCHTormakecleardemarcationsfortheareainthe NationalSDPinlightoftherecentGoBCircularontheissueandmakerecommendationsfor neededdocumentstobepreparedduringPhase2onthissubject. 4. Makeconsultationswithallstakeholdersthroughdistributedpapers,meetingsandworkshops wherefindingsandscenarioswillbediscussed; 5. PreparefinaldraftoftherevisedshorttermSIPandaSDPAddendumontheCHTissuefor presentationandapprovalintheNationalForumforWaterSupplyandSanitationofthe items. 7

Phase2 1. AnalyzethepolicystatementsandstrategiesdescribedintheSDPandproposealternative scenarioswhererelevant,particularlyontheissuesidentifiedbytheSubcommittee; 2. PreparespecificstrategicdevelopmentapproachforLargeCityWaterSupplyandSewerage/ Sanitation,TownsWaterSupplyandSewerage/SanitationandRuralWaterSupplyand Sanitation 3. PreparetheSDPCHTdocumentsrecommendedinPhase1 4. ProvideguidanceandrecommendationstoGovernmentanddonorsonharmonization,aid managementmodalities,partnershipimplementationstrategies,informationshoring,and accesstogloballearning,etc. 5. PreparefinaldraftoftherevisedSDPincludinglongtermSIPforpresentationandapprovalin theNationalForumforWaterSupplyandSanitation

1.3

Scopeofthestudy

The scope of the study both for phase1 and phase2 is provided in the TOR. In phase1 the main activitiesarereviewingSDP2005,reviewingthesector,consultationwithstakeholders,identification of areas of revision, review the CHT status and prepare an addendum to SDP and preparation of a shorttermSIP. Inphase2 themainactivitiesarereviewingthepoliciesandstrategies,preparingstrategicplanand eventually formulate the second SDP. The detailed activities as suggested in the TOR is shown in AnnexA.

1.4

Deliverables

Themaindeliverablesandeventsofthisstudyare Deliverables 8 InceptionReportandInceptionWorkshop ShorttermSIPandAddendumonCHTissuetobeplacedto theNationalWSSForumforapproved DraftReviewandUpdatetobediscussedinaNational Workshop DraftSecondSDPtobediscussedinaNationalWorkshop SecondSDPtobeapprovedbytheNationalWSSForum PrintedcopiesofSecondSDPinEnglishandinBangla

Timeframe 1month 5month 7month 10month 11month 13month

1.5

Understandingonthescopeofflexibilityofthestudy

WeunderstandthattheareasofemphasisontheSecondSDPwilldependonthesectorreviewand onthestakeholderconsultation.ThisisrecognizedandspecificallymentionedintheTORofthestudy; forexample,thestaffcompositionandstafftimerequiredinthephase2isonlyindicative.Thisissue wasdiscussedduringthenegotiationmeetingwithPSUandtheyhadrespondedpositively. OurteammembershavecarriedoutapreliminaryreviewoftheSDP2005andthesectorstatus.We had extensive discussions with PSU on several occasions and received valuable guidance. Our suggestions on how best to carry out the study are given in the following sections for review and approval.

2.

Mobilization,StaffingandInteractionwithPSU
Commencement

2.1

DevConBETS signed the contract for the assignment on 24th December 2008. Earlier a contract negotiation meeting was held with the DevConBETS on 7 December 2008 where some important administrative decisions were taken. The minutes of the meeting was published and had become a partofthecontract. We started the assignment on 15th January 2009 with a kickoff meeting with Mr. Shariful Alam, ProjectDirectorofPSUandotherPSUmembersandDevConBETSconsultantteam.Dr.TanveerAhsan istheteamleaderoftheconsultantteam.

2.2

Staffing

Theconsultantstaffsaremobilized.AlistofthestaffmembersisgiveninAnnexB.Afteracceptance of this Inception Report and agreement on the subjects of revision, the present staffmix and responsibilitiesmayneedtobeadjusted.

2.3

ManagementandAdministration

Aprojectofficeisestablished.Theofficialaddressisasfollows. DevConBETSJV HouseNo.4,RoadNo.13 Baridhara,Dhaka1212 Tel:88028826558,8823228,8822113 Fax:88028826305 Email:devcon@devconbd.com(General);tanveer@devconbd.com(TeamLeader) The office has all necessary facilities like computers, highspeed internet connections, printing, copyingandsecretarialfacilities.Thereisalsoameetingroomwithmultimediafacilitiesforregular meetings,brainstormingandothergroupexercises. Twocarsareprovidedfortheconsultantteam.

10

2.4

OrganizationalArrangements

TheconsultantswillworkundertheadministrativeandmanagementcontroloftheProjectDirectorof PSU.FortechnicalmatterstheconsultantswillconsultwithPSUandalsowiththeSubcommitteeof the National WSS forum (subcommittee). PSU will act as the secretariat of the Subcommittee. An organizationalsetupofisshownbelow. LocalGovernment NationalForumfor Division WSS Consultants (DevConBETSJointVenture) TeamLeader ProjectDirector SubCommitteeofthe PSU NationalWSSForum Expertsfromother PSUTeam ConsultantTeam developmentpartners Members Members Figure1OrganizationalSetup

2.5

InteractionwithPSUandotheragencies

WeareinteractingwithPSUonaregularbasis,attwiceaweektoupdateontheprogressandseek advice.Theconsultantswillalsointeractwithgovernmentministriesandagencies,localgovernment institutes,donors,NGOs,etc.onmattersrelatedtotheproject.TheconsultantswillappraisePSUon theoutcomeofthoseinteractions.

11

3.

ApproachandMethodology

The basis of the proposed approach and methodology is those mentioned in our proposal for the consultancy contract and our initial assessment of the needs. The process of formulation of the Second SDP is dynamic; it would depend on factors like results of situation analysis, views of the government and other stakeholders and outstanding sector challenges. It is difficult to predict the exactscopeofworksandmethodology.Thusitwasdecidedinthecontractnegotiationmeetingthat the Inception Report will detail the activities for phase1. At the end of phase1, the activities of phase2willbedetailed. Thefollowingsectionsgiveoverallapproachestothestudy,adetaileddescriptionofthemethodology and the activities for phase1 and a general description of the methodology and the activities of phase2.

3.1

Approaches

Ourapproachestoachievethestudyobjectivesareasfollows. TheSDP2005asaStartingPoint:TheexistingSDP2005willbeourpointofdeparture.Wewillmake anintensivereview;ourpreliminaryreviewsuggeststhatmanyaspectswhichareworthconsidering and at the same time some aspects need updating. At the same time we will review relevant literature.Wehavegivenourinitialassessmentinthefollowingsections. Participatory Approach: Development is not an isolated process; rather it should take into account theconsiderationofthestakeholdersespeciallythepeopleforwhomitisintended.Webelieveitis criticaltoobtainviewsofallstakeholders,bothatcentralandatlocallevels.Oneofthedrawbacksin the process of preparing the SDP 2005 was the limited time available for consultation, which contributedtoitslessownershipbystakeholders.Theabsenceofadequatecommunicationafterits approvalwasanotherfactor.Wewillfollowaparticipatoryprocesswiththesectorstakeholdersand encouragetheirparticipationfromtheveryonsetofthepreparationprocess.Inourmethodologywe haveelaboratedtheparticularconsultationprocessandhowthisprocesswillhelptobuildconsensus amongthestakeholders. DrawingLessons:WewilldrawlessonsfromourownexperienceinNepalintransportsectorSWAp. We will obtain information on SWAp experiences from other developing countries like Kenya. Importantly,wewillcriticallyevaluatetherecentBangladeshexperiences,bothwhatworkedwelland what went wrong, especially with the Second Primary Education Development Program (PEDP II) or Education SWAp and the Health SWAp. The ongoing WSSPS II is a kind of subsector SWAp, its 12

experiencesinplanningandimplementationwillalsobehighlyvaluable.Inthemethodologywehave givenourfirstthoughtsonhowwewanttoincorporateSWApinWSSsector. FeedbackBasedApproach:Wewillrelayonfeedbacksfromourstakeholderstoobtaininsightswhich will enrich our works. During the course of the study we will have intensive discussion with the stakeholders;workshopswillbearrangedatstrategictimestodisseminateourfindingsaswellasto serveasasoundingboardforourideasandoutputs.Inaddition,severalothermeetingsandthematic workshopswillbearrangedtoanalyzeimportanttopics. Integrative Approach: Many interventions in the sector have resulted in number of projects with different approaches. Many institutions have undertaken tasks which sometimes have overlapping scopes. This has increased the complexity of implementing various developmental activities. We would therefore strive to follow an integrative approach as far as our engagement is concerned wherein we would involve all the stakeholders, distil their feedback and come up with coherent outputs. Capacity building of the communities and practice of good governance and other cross cuttingissueswillalsobeintegrated. Synergy Creation: For such large scale developments endeavor like the SDP it is imperative that synergiesaredevelopedbetweenvariousrelatedaspectslikesocialdevelopment,ruraldevelopment, health,urbanplanningandinfrastructureplanning.Oureffortswillbedirectedsothatthesesynergies areidentifiedandleveragedupon. Focus on Implementability: Any developmental activity which ignores the core aspect of Implementabilityisboundtobeunsuccessful.Wewillbringinthevastexpertisethatwehavegained overtheyearsinthedesignandimplementationofwaterandsanitationandothersectorprojects.

3.2

Methodology

StakeholderMapping OurinitialassessmentfindsthattherearefivemaingroupsofstakeholdersintheWSSsector: 1. Government(ministries,divisionsandagencies) 2. LocalGovernmentInstitutions 3. Donors 4. NGO/PrivateSector 5. CivilSocietyandacademicians 6. Users

13

OneremarkfrommanystakeholdersmadeonthepreparationofSDP2005wasthatnotenoughtime was available for proper consultation. Thus while preparing the revised version i.e. the Second SDP, extensive stakeholders participation for the planning process would be ensured. A stakeholder mappingexercisewasdoneinconsultationwiththePSUandsomestakeholdersareinitiallyidentified. Thesixstakeholdergroupsare: StakeholderGroupsinWSSsector Government: LocalGovernmentDivision(LGD),DPHE,LGED,CHTMinistry, PlanningCommission,MinistryofFinance,etc. LGIs: CHTRegionalandDistrictCouncils,UpazilaParishads,Union Parishads(UPs),MunicipalitiesandCityCorporations Donor: WorldBank,ADB,IBD,DanidaDFID,AusAID,Dutch,UNICEF, SDC,,etc. NGOs/Private BRAC,NGOForum,WaterAidBangladesh,PlanBangladesh, Sectors: Oxfam,etc/PrivateProducersofWaterandSanitation hardware,SmallScalePrivateServiceproviders,etc. CivilSociety Intellectuals,civilrightactivists,media,sectorprofessionals, /academicians etc. Users: Communities,individualhouseholds,etc Thesestakeholderswillbeconsultedatvariousstages.Theoutcomesoftheconsultationprocesswill betakenintoconsideration,andincorporatedintotheSecondSDP. Convergingtheviewsofsectorstakeholders At present different stakeholders have different views and approaches in the sector. They have different implementation modalities and do not operate under a common framework. As a result there is not much consensus among them and lack harmony in operations. One of the expected outcomes of the Second SDP preparation process is that it would help to build consensus and eventuallyincreasetheownershipoftheSDP. TheideaofConvergencebyConsultationisshownschematicallyinFigure2.Atthebeginningofthe consultationprocessthecommonareaofconsensusamongthesixmaingroupsofstakeholdersis small(Figure2a).WiththeparticipationofthestakeholdersintheSDPplanningprocessandthrough regular consultation and exchange of views it is expected that the stakeholders would come closer. Thecommonareawouldincrease(Figure2b)indicatingmoresenseofownership.

14

Common Area

Common Area

(a)Presentsituation (b)Expectedsituationaftersectorconsultation

Figure2 Schematicdiagramsshowingthestatusofconsensusorthecommonareasamongthemain stakeholdergroups:(a)presentsituationand(b)expectedsituationaftertheconsultation process. ParticipationandConsultationProcess The process for participation and consultation will be participatory and feedback oriented. A set of participatory methods and tools will be used to carry out the consultation process. Before finalizing theconsultationprocessactionplan,thequestions ofhowmanyeventsandwithwhomandwhere the consultation would take place need to be clarified. These questions are crucial, specifically for consultationwiththestakeholdersatlocallevels. Consultationwillbedoneattwolevels Field Headquarters FieldLevelConsultation: Thecountrywouldbedividedintofourgeographicalregionssothatthemajordifferentcharacteristics ofthecountryarereflected.Theregionsare: 1. Hillyareas(particularlytheCHTdistricts) 2. FloodplainandHaorareas 3. Coastalbeltdistricts 4. LowWaterTable/droughtproneareas Fromtheseregionsthestakeholderswouldberandomly/purposivelyselected.Fromeachofthefour geographical regions one Upazila Parishad (UZP) will be selected. The selected UZP will then be requested to organize a Regional Workshop with the Union Parishads (UPs), local private operators/service providers and other line departments. Consultants will facilitate the UPZ in 15

organizingtheworkshop.Similarly,selectedPourashavasandtheCityCorporationswillbeintervened inthesameregion.TheparticipantsoftheseLGIs(e.g.bothmaleandfemalemembers)willrepresent local communities as well as they will ensure equitable representation of men and women of the communitiesconcerned.Table1showsthedifferentregions,representativedistricts,stakeholdersto beconsultedandmethodandtoolstobeused. Table1:Stakeholdersconsultationindifferentregions
Regions Representative districts CHTdistricts Stakeholders tobe consulted UZP1 UPs8to10 PS3to5 HDC1 Pourashava1 UZP1 UPs8to10 PS3to5 Pourashava2 Methods Tools

Hilly

Floodplain/Haor

Jamalpur, Sunamganj, Brahmanbaria, etc.

RegionalWorkshop SmallGroup Discussion Interviewing RegionalWorkshop SmallGroup Discussion Interviewing RegionalWorkshop SmallGroup Discussion Interviewing RegionalWorkshop SmallGroup Discussion Interviewing

Workshopprogramme outline; Discussion checklist/guideline; Questionnaire; Workshopprogramme outline; Discussion checklist/guideline; Questionnaire; Workshopprogramme outline; Discussion checklist/guideline; Questionnaire; Workshopprogramme outline; Discussion checklist/guideline; Questionnaire;

Coastalbelt

Barisal, Noakhali, Khulna,etc.

UZP1 UPs8to10 PS3to5 Pourashava2

Lowwater table/drought

Rajshahi,Bogra, UZP1 Pabna,etc. UPs8to10 PS3to5 Pourashava3

Note:UZPUpazilaParishad;UPUnionParishad;PSPrivateSector,HDCHillDistrictCouncil.

From the plain district regions two old district Pourashavas, two new district Pourashavas and two smallPourashavaswillbeselectedforsmallgroupdiscussions.OnePourashavaofCHTdistrictHQwill beselectedforthepurpose. TheRegionalCouncilofthehilldistrictsandtwoCityCorporationsofDhakaandChittagongalongwith oneCityCorporationofthefour(e.g.Khulna,Rajshahi,SylhetandBarisal)otherswillbeconsultedat thelaterpartoftheprocess.

16

HeadquarterslevelConsultation Dhakabased other important stakeholders such as government ministries, donors, etc will be consulting with. Through this process, about 1520 donor agencies, government ministries and departments(i.e.LGD,DPHEandLGED),57nationalandinternationalNGOsandsomeotherprivate sectoragencieswillbeinterviewed.Asetofquestionnaire/checklistwillbeused.Ifrequired,number ofsmallgroupdiscussionswillbeconductedwithNGOsandprivatesector. Three National Workshops will be organized for national level stakeholders including government agenciesanddonors.ThefirstoneistheInceptionWorkshop.Itwillbediscussthemethodologiesand initialfindingsandobtainfeedbackontheSDPpreparationprocess.Thesecondworkshopwillbefor sharingtheworkprogressesanddraftoutputsoftheassignment.Thethirdandfinalworkshopwillbe forpresentingthedraftfinalreport. Thematicworkshops Somethematictopicsareimportantbecauseofthetechnicalorstrategicimplicationsbutthetopics arelessdiscussedwithinthesectorprofessionals.Thematicworkshopsonspecifictopicsareproposed tobeorganized.Presentationswillbemadebymembersofconsultantteamandguestlecturerswho arerenownedinthosethemes. Weproposetoorganizetheseventhematicworkshopsonthetopics. 1. WaystointroduceSWApinWSSsector 2. Sanitationforlargecities 3. PrivateSectorModelsforPourashavawatersupply 4. RuralWaterSupply:Reachingthehardtoreachpeopleandplaces 5. Sustainablesolutionsforarsenicmitigation 6. Diversity,challengesandsolutionsforCHT 7. Improvedhygieneandsanitationpractices The exchange of knowledge and views through such events would assist in selection of appropriate technological options, institutional arrangements and identify the requirements of reforms or policy changes.Moreover,thiswillbuildconsensusbeamongthesectorprofessionalwhichissoimportant toimplementtheSDP. ConsultationMethodsandTools Followingarethekeymethodsthatwillbeappliedforconsultingthestakeholdersatvariouslevelsof thelocalgovernment,donorsandprivatesectors: RegionalWorkshop:Oneregionalworkshopwillbeorganizedineachgeographicalregion(atselected Upazila level) with the representation of local government, private sector service providers and governmentlinedepartments.Participantsoftheworkshopswillbefacilitatedbytheconsultantsto shareandexchangetheirviewsonthecurrentandfutureSDPs.Moreimportantly,theywillbeurged 17

clearlyexpresstheirexpectationsandsuggestionsonthefuturedevelopmentofthesector.Different programme schedule will be developed. Both Dhaka and Chittagong City Corporations shall have separateprogrammes.Theirviewsandcommentswillbetakeninseparateworkshops. SmallGroupDiscussion:ThismethodwillbeappliedwhileconsultingwiththePourashavasandCity Corporations. The responsible persons and departments of the entities will be intervened in small groups.Achecklist(tobedeveloped)willbeusedtoguidethediscussionssessions. Key Informant Interview: The key persons of the major stakeholders such as CHT Regional Council, small and secondary town Pourashavas, Upazila Parishad and UP Chairman and specially the donor representativeswillbeinterviewedindividually.Separatesetsofsemistructuredquestionnairewillbe usedforinterviewingthedonors,governmentcounterparts,LGIsatdifferenttiersandNGOswillbe developed.

3.3

Phase1Activities

TheTORsuggeststhreegroupsorstreamsofactivitiesduringphase1 i) determiningthesubjectsofSDPrevision, ii) preparingshorttermSIPand iii) assessingandpreparingaddendumonCHT However,consideringnecessitiesofcarryingoutsomeactivitiesearlier(e.g.SWApstrategy)andalso the heavy work load and the possibility of time constrains in phase2, we suggest to bring forward someactivitiesofphase2inphase1.Theseactivitiesstreamsare iv) ReviewandupdateexistingSDP v) SWApstrategydevelopment Not all, but some selected activities of the above activity streams (or groups) will be carried out in phase1andtheotherswillbedoneinphase2.Thedetailsaregivenintheworkplan(Section5). SubjectsofSDPRevision IntheSubjectsofSDPrevisionactivitystreamtheexistingSDPwillbereviewedanddraftsubjectsof SDPrevisionprepared.Thesubjectsareexpectedtoinclude:i)newlydevelopedii)notcoveredearlier orwithiii)lackofconsensus. Wehavealreadypreparedadraftlistofsubjects(discussedinnextchapter)andhadinitialdiscussion withPSU.OncetheSubcommitteeapprovesthedraftsubjectswewillfocusourstudyaccordingly.

18

PreparingshorttermSIP TheactivitygroupofShorttermSIPwillstartwithreviewoftheexistingSIP.Wehadalreadystarted with a stakeholder mapping exercise and preparing tools for surveying the sector financiers. Questionnaireforthedonorsarepreparedandcirculated.Furtherdescriptionoftheworksdoneso far is given in next chapter. Eventually a draft short term SIP will be prepared based on the stakeholderssurvey. ThetimeframefortheSIPisinitiallythoughttobe35years.Wewillconsultwithstakeholders,PSU andsubcommitteeontheexacttimeframe. Wewillconsidergovernmentsourcesaswell.Thefollowingdocumentswillbeconsulted. theMidTermBudgetFramework(MTBF)oftheLGD thegovernmentagencies(e.g.DPHEandLGED)3yearrollingbudget PlanningCommissions5YearPlans ThedraftSIPwillbeforthreesubsectors:i)largecities(metropolitancities),ii)smallcitiesandtowns (Pourashavas)andiii)ruralareas.ThisdraftSIP,alongwithsomekeyfindings,willbediscussedina NationalStakeholdersWorkshop.Suggestionsfromtheworkshopwillbeconsideredandafinaldraft shorttermSIPwillbeprepared.DuringthisprocesstheconsultantswilldiscusswithcloselyPSUand theSubCommittee.PSU/SubCommitteewillplacethefinaldrafttotheNationalForumforapproval. ItisexpectedthatanMOUwillbesignedwiththesectordevelopmentpartnersregardingfinancing andmilestonesforrecommendedsectorreforms. However,therearesomeareasregardingthepreparationofshorttermSIPwhichmayberevisited: We feel that the timeframe of preparing the short SIP (one month from acceptance of Inception Report) is rather limited. Many activities like consultation with donors and governmentministriesistimetakingandoftenbeyondthecontroloftheconsultants. TheshortSIP,conceptually,asapartofthelongtermSIPwhichwouldbepreparedinphase2 based on some strategic consideration and sector consultation. We are analyzing this issue andwillcomeupwithsuggestiononhowbestthiscanbedoneinphase1. The TOR mentions that the donors will sign a MOU with the government confirming their financing to the sector. Donors agreement with the government is guided by the administrativeproceduresofthedonorcountryoragencies.Moreover,whatmightencourage the donors to commit funds is a realistic development plan with reform agenda. In other words,thisSDP.Assuch,beforeSDPcomingtoashapeitwouldbedifficultforthedonorsto commitfunds,especiallyifwearetalkingofincreasedleveloffunding. WewilldiscusstheaboveissueswithPSUandsubcommittee,ifneeded,andcomeupwithafeasible timeframetocompleteshortSIP.WeexpecttocompletethedraftSIPwithinthephase1. 19

AddendumonCHT WewillreviewtheexistingCHTsituation,ourconsiderationswillinclude itsdifferentlocalgovernmentstructure differentsocioeconomiccondition differentculture,valuesandlanguage governmentanddonorshavemanystandaloneprojectsforCHT needfordifferentwaterandsanitationtechnologies(often)thaninplainland TogiveespecialattentiontotheCHTsituationbecauseofitsuniquenesswewillarrangeaRegional Stakeholders Workshop in CHT. The participants would be the local government agencies, local governments(regionalcouncil,districtcouncil,headman,etc.),NGOsanddonors(particularlyUNDP). We will also meet, individually and in group, with local stakeholders. Details of our consultation processaregivenearlier(seeTable1).AfterwardswewillprepareadraftAddendumonCHT. We will consult the draft Addendum with LGD and the MOCHT in the context of the Government CircularandthefindingsoftheCHTreview.OntheirrecommendationwewillpreparedraftfinalCHT Addendum.PSU/SubcommitteewillplacetheAddendumtotheNationalForumforapproval.Wewill supportbypreparingnecessarybriefingpapersandpresentations. ReviewandupdateexistingSDP The existing SDP will be reviewed with particular attention to the subjects agreed by the Sub committee.Thereviewwillinclude i) technical ii) environmental,socioeconomical iii) institutionaland iv) financialmatters. TherecentdevelopmentinthesectorwillbeconsideredfortheirinfluenceintheSDP.Wewillalso reviewtheexistingWSSprogrammeandprojectswiththeobjectivetoupdatethestatusofthesector. Asthegovernmentagencies(DPHEandLGED)andWASAsupdatetheirdatabasesafterthecloseof thefinancialyeari.e.June,weplantodothefinalupdatingafterJuly2009. Therelatedpoliciesandstrategieswillbereviewed.Wehadcarriedoutaninitialassessmentofthe policies and identified some gaps to address the sector challenges. We will prepare a check list to carefullyreviewthepolicies.Eventuallywewilldiscusswiththestakeholderssuggestwaystoresolve them. 20

SWApdevelopment Definition:DevelopingaSWAp(SectorWideApproach)fortheWaterandSanitationsectorisoneof thekeyobjectivesoftheSecondSDP.Inthiscontextthefollowingissuesarequitepertinent: WhatdowemeanbySWAp? WhatshouldbethemaincomponentsofaSWAp? HowtointroduceSWApintheWSSsectorofBangladesh? DetailsprocedurefordevelopmentofaSWApwillbedesignedthroughaparticipatoryprocessduring thecourseoftheassignment.However,anoutlineisdiscussedbelow. WhatisSWAp? "SectorWideApproach(SWAp)isamethodofworkingthatbringstogethergovernments, donorsandotherstakeholderswithinanysector.Itischaracterizedbyasetofoperating principlesratherthanaspecificpackageofpoliciesoractivities.Theapproachinvolves movementovertimeundergovernmentleadershiptowards: 1. broadeningpolicydialogue; 2. developingasinglesectorpolicy(thataddressesprivateandpublicsectorissues); 3. acommonrealisticexpenditureprogram; 4. commonmonitoringarrangements;and 5. morecoordinatedproceduresforfundingandprocurement. (WorldHealthOrganization,WorldHealthReport2000) TheConcept:SAWpisonlyanapproachastohowtothink(planfordevelopmentinthesector)and act(implementtheplan)inandcoordinatedway.ThegeneralconceptofSWApincludes: Movingfromprojecttoprogrammes Relyingongovernmentsystemsforplanningandimplementationbutagradualprocess Movingfromscatteredpolices,strategiesandplans(orprojects)toanoverallframework, agreeduponbye.g.ThePartnershipPrinciples The Framework: The focus of SWAp is effective policy process and governance, the lead role of government,recognizingtheroleofprivatesectorandcivilsociety.Itfacilitateseffectiveutilizationof donoraidthroughcoordinationharmonizationandalignment.AcomprehensiveframeworkofaSWAp containsapolicyframework,aplanningframeworkandafundingframework.Themainelementsofa SWApframeworkareshownintheboxbelow. 21

Introdu ucingSWApinWSSsect torofBangl ladesh:Thep proposedSW WApsinWSSs sectorshouldbuild


on experiences of the Health s sector SWAp and primar education sector SWA in Bangla p ry Ap adesh. e g ctor SWAp in Nepal will also be brought in. Thematic n Devcons experience of working in road sec worksho opsonwitht thesectorpro ofessionalwil llberequired d.Sincetheprocessofdev velopingtheS SWAp isconsid deredverycr rucial,wehav veproposedt toincludeaSWApspecialistintoourte eam. Ourteamhasalread dydonesome eanalysisoft theWSSsecto orastoandh howtodevelopaSWAp.B Below we have identified some key issues and actio s ons, which w be further analyzed in consultation with will r n olderstodeve eloptheconc ceptofourSW WAp: stakeho mentofthen needandcapa acity Assessm Ananalysisa andassessme entofthecurrentsituation n. Prioritization noftherequ uiredactions accordingtotheuserdemand,easeo ofimplement tation etc. institutional capacity of the WSS sector (taking into accoun the nt An assessment of the i mandate,manpower,imp plementation ncapacity,res sourcesetc). Since respon nsibility of im mplementatio will directly be with go on overnment d departments/ local / governmentbodiesasses sstheexiting gandprojectedcapacityo oftheconcer rnedentities vis vistherespo onsibilitythey yareexpectedtoundertak ke. Anassessme entofthecap pacityintheN NGOandpriva atesector. Areviewoft theexitingregulatoryregime. Anassessme entofthepos ssibleavailabilityoflocalr resourcestakingintoaccountprojected dGDP growth,tren ndofallocatio onoflocalres sourceinWSS Ssectoretc.

22

An assessment of possible funding from the multi lateral and bilateral donors. (taking into accountthecurrentandprojectedglobaleconomicdownturn)

Policyissuestobesettledfirst: ShouldtheprogramcoverthewholeWSSsector? Should it cover WASAs, solid waste management, drainage system? (explain to the governmentwhataretheimplicationofeachdecision). What will happen to the existing projects? Should they converge into the new program or continueforsometimeinparallel?Shouldthemanpower(projectpersonnel)oftheexisting projectsbetransferredtothenewprogram/revenue? Whichdepartmentshouldbetheleadorganization?LGDorDPHEoranyWASA?(Therecould bemorethanonecentreunderanumbrellaprogram). IsthegovernmentreadytomaketheorganizationalreformsrequiredforaSWAp? Isthegovernmentreadytorevisethetariffstructure,ifdeemedessential? Unlike a project a program is implemented directly by the mainstream personnel of the concerned government organizations. Filling in existing vacancies would be essential for creating/maintaining the capacity of the concerned agencies for implementing the SWAp. Governmentmustbeawareofthisandmustcommittofillinexitingvacanciesand/orcreate newsustainablepositions. Since LGRD is an MTBF Ministry, the proposed SWAp should be closely linked with MTBF. Clarify this with the ministry and make sure that the proposed program will be in harmony withthethreeyearrollingplansofLGRD. Should there be one donor or several donors? If several donors should there be a single financialsystemormultiplefinancialsystemoftheprogram? Identificationofinterventions Prioritized and identify possible areas of intervention under the program in line with the desireofthegovernment. Setrealistictimelineallowingnecessaryloan/grantprocessingtimeforthegovernment. Arrangedialoguewithpossibledevelopmentpartners. There is no need to start implementing everything at a time. Consider a phased approach takingintoaccountthecapacityofthesector. Risks and its Mitigation: SWAp is a new way of thinking and acting which is easier to understand, manage and monitor. However, in the short term it is difficult and involves significant preparatory costs.Theremightbesomeresistancefrombothinsideandoutsidegovernment.Thusthereisneed to tackle internal and external threats which may evolve because of vested interest or ignorance. Duringourstudywewouldidentifytransitionalrisksandmaycomeupwithatransitionalprocess.We wouldfollowaprocedureofclarifyingthemeaningandimplicationsofaSWApinWSSsectorthrough intensiveconsultationwiththestakeholderssothatimplementbecomessmoothandeffective.

23

3.4

Phase2Activities

As decided in the contract negotiation meeting phase1 activities will be described in detail in the InceptionReport.Phase2activitieswillbedetailedattheendofphase1.Assuchonlyanoutlineof thephase2activitiesispresentedinthisInceptionReport. Phase2activitieswillstartwiththebackdropthattheareasofrevisionoftheSDPhavebeenagreed uponandadetailedTORforphase2isapproved.Themaintaskswouldbefinalizingthereviewand updating and developing the SWAp that was started in phase1. Other major activities are briefly describedbelow. IncorporationofSpecialElements Some special elements will be analysed for their incorporation in the SDP. The TOR suggests to include: Strategiesforcoordination,costsharinganddisasterresponse Watersafety,waterquality,itssurveillance,healthandhygiene,etc. Technologyoptionsforwaterandsanitation Procedureforsectorplanning,monitoringofimplementation,O&Mandimpactmonitoring Communityparticipation,IECandcrosscuttingissues Respectiveconsultantsfromourteamwilltakeleadroleinaddressingtheseelements.Thedetailed TORfortheaboveareaswillbedeterminedduringPhase1.Wewillgotofieldtripsinsomeselected areas to obtain firsthand knowledge. Such areas will be determined during the assignment. Experiencesandlessonsareexpectedtobeofimmenseuse. Wewillarrangeanumberofthematicworkshopswithsectorprofessional,thetopicsoftheworkshop willcoversomeoftheaboveelements,andothernewtopicswillalsobedealtwith. StrategicDevelopmentApproaches The TOR mentions preparing strategic development approaches for three subsectors. We envisage there might be another subsector i.e. CHT, because of its uniqueness. So we would develop the strategicapproachesforfoursubsectorsasshownbelow
Large Cities (e.g. Metropolitan cities)

Strategic Development Approach for WSS Sector

Pourashavas Rural areas

CHT (Possibly, depending on Forum)

24

Detailofthesewillbedoneduringphase2.Thestrategicdevelopmentapproachforeachsubsector and the review/updates will be presented in a Second National Workshop. The participants will be fromthemajorstakeholdersincludingNGOsandprivatesector.Theinformationandconceptswould bethoroughlydiscussedanditisexpectedthatthosewouldberefinedbytheinsightsandexperiences oftheparticipants.Thecommentsreceivedfromtheworkshopwillberecordedandanalysed. Based on the works on the reviews, SWAp development, analysis of special elements and the commentsreceivedfromtheSecondNationalWorkshop,draftSecondSDPincludingthelongtermSIP willbeprepared.Wewilltakecarethatallrelevantelementsofconsultationsareconsidered. ThirdNationalWorkshop BynowtheSecondSDPwouldbecomingtoaconcreteshape.Thedraftversionwillbediscussedina Third National Workshop. We will explain the changes in the draft and how or how far we have incorporatedtheviewofthestakeholders.Wewillalsoexplainhowbestitwouldservetheobjectives oftheSDPintheprevailingconditions.WeexpectthatthatthedraftrevisedSDPwillbeendorsedin theworkshopwithsomeminorcomments. ThefinaldraftversionSDPwillbepreparedincorporatingthecommentsoftheworkshopandwillbe placedtotheNationalForumforWSS.Wewillpreparenecessarybriefingpaperandpresentation. FinalizingtheSecondSDP AnycommentsmadebytheForumwillbeincorporatedinthefinalversion.OncetheSDPisapproved bytheNationalForumwewillarrangeforitsprintinginEnglish.ABanglatranslationwillbeprepared andcopiesinBanglawillalsobeprinted.WewillalsoprepareanSDPoverviewforpostinginwebsite. FurtherdetailsoftheprintproductswillbediscussedandagreedwithPSU.

25

InitialWorks

OurteamhasstartedreviewingtheexistingSDP2005andotherliteratures.Onaregularbasisweare exchanging our views with PSU and receiving their guidance. Some initial works are completed and mentionedbelow.

4.1

PresentSituationandChallengesintheSector

Wearereviewingdocumentsrelevanttoourstudy.Belowisabriefdescriptionofourinitialfindingon the present situation. Some significant challenges are presented in the boxes below. We are continuing with this research and will update this part of the report with new finding and developments. RuralWaterSupply Favorablegroundwatersourcesencouragedinstallationofhandpumptubewells,mostly(8085%)by theusersthemselves.Majorityofthecountryisinshallowtubewellareas,thereareabout1tubewell forevery20personscomparedtothenationalpolicystandardof1tubewellfor50persons.However, thehighcoveragefiguredoesnotnecessarilyreflecttherealpictureofthecountry.Tillnow,therehas not been much progress in mitigating the arsenic problem. Some hydrogeological factors (e.g. arsenic, salinity and low groundwater levels), deeprooted poverty or other factors prevent market forcesfromreachingallusers.Theprogressinreachingthepoorhasbeenlessencouraging.
Critical Issues Rural water supply About 29% of shallow tubewells and 4% deep tubewells are found to be contaminated with bacteria. The main reasons are improper sanitary protection of tubewell surroundings, poor operations and maintenance and improper handling of stored water in house. Preventative measures like Water Safety Plans (WSP) is essential to deliver safe water. Baseline survey conducted by UPI in 2005 revealed that 79% tubewells are in running order. The number of private wells is 9 times higher than community ones. Community wells grossly cover 43% of the hardcore poor; the coverage varies from region to region.

Pourashavas Out of 308 Pourashavas 120 have piped water supply, the remaining Pourashavas are covered by mostlyhandpumptubewells.Intownswithpipedwatersupplyonlythecentralpartiscoveredbythe pipednetwork.Thepipedwatersupplysystemisinefficientitsuppliesonly2to12hoursperday. ThemanagementandO&Marepoorlowbillingandcollectionefficiencies. 26

Critical Issues Pourashava WS

Absence of demand management: Level of consumption is not a function of price but on


costs.

Inadequate cost recovery: Low tariff and low collection results in covering only part of the O&M Political influence: Majorities of the defaulters are the influential people and public offices; being Insufficient service provision: small number of service connections, frustrating economies of
scale principles afraid of losing popularity many pourashava leaders are reluctant to enforce payment

availability of supply.

Lack of autonomy: Pourashavas lack authority even to take operating decisions.

Cities OutofthesixmetropolitancitiesDhakaandChittagongareunderWASAs.ThecoverageofDhakaand Chittagong is about 57%. Recently Khulna is in the process of being covered under a WASA. In remaining cities the City Corporation are responsible. Dhaka WASA does maintain a positive cash balance and is able to generate some investment funds, but Chittagong WASA only covers its operatingexpenses.Unaccountedforwaterstandscurrentlyat50%inDhakaand30%inChittagong.
Critical Issues large cities The ground water source in Dhaka is declining at a critical rate. New surface water sources (requiring high investment and operating costs) are now required. Chittagong is also facing water source problem. Although WASAs have higher autonomy than Pourashava, they need further decision making powers. The operating efficiencies need to be drastically improved. For example the number of employees is high (17 per 1000 connections as compared to a desired target of 8). Huge unaccounted for water (UfW) as well as non revenue water (NRW). About 35% of the urban population of the six metropolitan cities lives in slums (Slums in Urban Bangladesh: Mapping and Census 2005). Most of them are deprived of water supply (and sanitation). A study carried out by Dhaka WASA in 2007 shows that in slums present water supply coverage is 69% and sanitation is 48% only.

Sanitation The national baseline survey carried out in 2003 showed national coverage of 33% with hygienic latrines (rural 29%, pourashava 53% and cities 70%) and another 25% with hygienic latrines. The remaining 58% population practice open defecation. These statistics shows massive threat to public healthandenvironment.ToimprovethissituationtheGovernmentofBangladeshhassetthenational target of achieving one hundred percent sanitation coverage by 2010 and made strategies with financialearmarking(i.e.20%ADPallocationtoLGIforsanitation).Sincethentherearetremendous progresscomparedtothestagnantgrowth(about1%peryearinthe80sand90s.In2007thenational sanitationcoverageis84%(rural84%,pourashavas87%andcities84%).Theannualgrowthratewas

27

rural22%,pourashava9%andcities6%.Theurbansanitationcoverageinlargecitiesareless60%in Chittagongand82%inDhakaWASAsareas.
Critical Issues sanitation Challenges still remaining are to address are that (i) hardcore poor especially those who do not have enough land for latrine construction, (ii) some unwilling people difficult to motivate for latrine use, (iii) technically difficult places like flood prone areas and hilly areas where water is scarce and (iv) providing sanitation facilities in public places. Sludge emptying or relocation of pits is a serious issue concerning sustained use of latrines. Sustainability, both in terms of latrine use and good hygiene practice, is a vital concern. Analysis of the growth trends of sanitation coverage of city corporations (with are high density areas), particularly that of Dhaka show that they will not be able to achieve 100 % coverage by the year 2010 if they continue making progress at this rate. Thus, different approaches are needed in high-density urban areas which are lagging at this moment. With more people living in urban areas in future, increasing the population density the environmental situation will further degrade, especially in the urban slums.

RecentDevelopments The recent development in the sector will be considered for their influence in the SDP. Some new developmentinthesectorissummarizedintheboxbelow.
What is new related to the sector? Introduction of Mid Term Budget Framework (similar to MTEF); by FY 2008-09 twelve ministries of GOB including LGD is preparing MTBF for a 3-year time frame Commencement of SWAp in the education sub-sector - PEDP II with indication of early success Initiation of quasi SWAp type in LGD i.e. the Danida supported WSSPS II Recent increased influx of aid in urban areas ADB and World Bank in DPHE and LGED Dutch coming back in the sector BRACs WASH project Increased GOB financing to small towns with emphasis on environmental and social issues new piped water supply schemes for upazila headquarters Innovative approaches HYSAWA Project LG based decentralized project, LGSP, etc. Attention to urban slums Dhaka WASAs Low-Income Community WSS project, Unicefs project, etc. Many NGOs aligning towards LGI (NGO-F, DASCOH, WaterAid) GOB directive on CHT and increased aid flow to CHT (e.g. UNDP) Recent screening for climate change for WSS reveals that many installations are at high risk. Creation of Multi Donor Fund for Climate Change. GOB already allocated Taka 30 crore for Climate Change and donors are committing substantial amounts.

28

4.2

PreparationfortheInceptionWorkshop

ThefirstmajoreventinthisstudywillbetheInceptionWorkshop.Itisscheduledon4March2009in the auditorium of LGED. In order to ensure participation of the sector partners the workshop is organizedattheonsetofthestudy. The workshop will discuss the highlights of the present SDP, the areas of revision and update and importantlythemethodologyoftheassignment.Themainobjectivesoftheworkshopare: Introducetheassignmenttothestakeholdersandhighlightitsimportanceinthenational developmentagenda ToinvolvethemajorstakeholdersintheSDPrevisionprocess Todiscussandvalidatethemethodologyoftheassignment ObtainfeedbacksspecificallyonwhotomaketherevisedSDPmoreoperational Toinformsomeinitialfindingsoftheassignmentliketheviewsofstakeholdersinsector finance WeexpectedthattheHonorableMinisterfortheMinistryofLocalGovernment,RuralDevelopment& Cooperatives(LGRD&C),Mr.SyedAshrafulIslam,MPwillattendasthechiefguest.HonorableState MinisterforLGRD&C,Mr.JahangirKabirNanak,MPwouldbethespecialguest.Mr.ShaikhKhurshid Alam, Secretary, Local Government Division would also be a special guest. Mr. Md. Lukman Hakim Talukder, Joint Secretary (Water Supply), Local Government Division would chair the occasion. Dignitarieslikeambassadorsandheadofmultimaterialagenciesisexpectedtogracetheoccasion. We have contract an event management company, Expressions Limited, to manage this important event.Allnecessarybackgroundandpreparationworksbeingcarriedout. AbackgroundnoteontheInceptionWorkshopandtheworkshopscheduleisgivenAnnexC.

4.3

Stakeholderssurveytools

IntheMethodologySection(section3.6)wehavedescribedtheimportancestakeholderconsultation, hadidentifiedthemajorstakeholdergroupsanddiscussedhowwewhattocarryouttheconsultation process. We will carry out systematic survey of the views, their programmes and funding status. For this we havepreparedthefollowingsurveytools 29

StakeholdersGroup Donors

StakeholderConsultationTools Tools

Remarks

LocalGovernmentDivision

CHTMinistry

Questionnaire Writtenresponseanddiscussion (Finalversion,seeAnnexD) withtheheadofthesection responsibleforWSS Checklist Discussionwithhighlevel (draft,seeAnnexE) officials,SecretaryandtheJoint Secretary Checklist Discussionwithhighlevel (draft,seeAnnexF) officials,SecretaryandtheJoint Secretary

ThequestionnairesfordonorsarealreadycirculatedbytheProjectDirector,PSUandwearefollowing upwiththedonors.

4.3

Subjectsofrevision

WepresentedourinitialassessmentofthesectorinSection4.1.Wewillcarryoutfurtherreviewand analysis.AsmentionedintheTORidentifyingthesubjectsofSDPreviewandrevisionisacriticaltask. Atthisstageofthestudy,andbasedonourassessmentmadesofar,weareproposingsomesubjects of review. We had presented and discussed these subjects with a team consisting of the Project Director, PSU other PSU members, Mr. Shams Uddin Ahmed, Deputy Secretary (WS), LGD and Mr. Shamsul Gafur Mahmud, Assistant Chief Engineer, DPHE, Mr. Waliul Islam, PD, HYSAWA Project, on twooccasions.Theirvaluablecommentsareincorporated.Table2showsthedraftsubjectsofreview andrevision:itisdividedinto generalsubjects, specificsubjectsand specificsubjectsbutnotincludednTOR. Afurtherrefinementofthesubjectsofrevisionwillbemadeattheendofphase2. Table2DraftSubjectsofReviewandRevision

KeySubjects

Revision Review (addition) (Modify existing)

ShortDescription

GENERALSUBJECTS 1. PolicyFramework

Reviewandupdate,ifrequired RisksandAssumptionsofSDP

30

KeySubjects

Revision Review (addition) (Modify existing)

ShortDescription

2. UpdateSDP2005 data 3. Strategic DevelopmentPlan forRural, Pourashavasand LargeCities(a4th onemaybeforCHT) 4. CapacityBuilding andTransitionPlan 5. SectorInvestment Plan

Reviewandupdate,ifrequired Reviewandupdate,ifrequired

Reviewandupdate,ifrequired Reviewandupdate,ifrequired EvaluatepossiblecontributionsfromGOB,private sector,NGOsandindividuals Assessinstitutionalcapacitiesofgovernment agenciestohandletheinvestments,PrepareaCMP DefinetheSector,AssumptionsandRiskanalysis Donorharmonizationandalignment;roleofNGOs Policies,implementationmodalities;different technologychoices;differentcommunity participationandinstitutionalarrangements;CHT ministry Inlinewiththegovernmentmandate FurtherincorporatingWSPintothesectoractivities Specificactionplanforarsenicmitigation;strategy

SPECIFICSUBJECTS 6. SWAp 7. ChittagongHill Tracts

8. Objectivesand targetsofSDP 9. WaterSafety Framework 10. ArsenicProblem 11. Technologychoices andtechnology mixes 12. Emergingtechnical problems 13. Urbansanitation 14. Underserved population

Forshort,mediumandlongterm;differenttypesof technologiesaccordingtotechnicalrequirement, levelofserviceandaffordability Groundwaterlevellowering,surfacewater,water qualityissues Appropriatetechnologies;alternativeto conventionalsewer,addressingurbanpoor Lowincomecommunities,hardcorepoorand geographicallydifficulttoreachpeople;water scareareasDAP,(saline,excessiveironorwhereis nofeasiblewatersource) 31

KeySubjects

Revision Review (addition) (Modify existing)

ShortDescription

15. Genderandcross cuttingissues 16. Workingmodalities withUpazilaandZila Parishad 17. ProcessFramework forPreparationof WSSProjects

18. Investment packages

Policies,institutionallinkagesandcapacitybuilding regardinggenderandcrosscuttingissues WorkingmodalitieswithUZandUP;rolesand divisionofworksbetweengovt.andlocal government TheFrameworkwilloutlinethemainprocessthat allprojectsinthesectorshouldfollow.Thiswill ensurethatallnewprojectsarewithaagreed commonframeworkoftheSDP;Thecomponentsof theframeworkwillincludeparticipationand consultationprocess,financing,technologychoices guidelines,environmentalissues,socialassessment, implementationmodalitiesandrolesfordifferent stakeholders,monitoringandevaluation,etc. Dividingthetotalinvestmentintoanumberof investmentpackagesintheformofprogrammeor projectswhichdonorsorgovernmentmaypickto finance;thiswillmaketheSDPanoperational EconomicreviewandaligningSDPtomacro economicaspectslikegrowthrate,education, industrialization,globalization,etc;investment efficiencies;politicaleconomyanditsimpactonthe sector Mitigationandadaptationmeasures Disastermanagement Roleofprivatesectorandwaystoincrease participation;modalitiesofprivatesector participationandrolesofotherpartnerslikegovt., LGIandNGOs;legalissues

SPECIFICSUBJECTSBUTNOTINCLUDEDINTOR 19. Economicreview

20. ClimateChange 21. PrivateSector Participation

32

5.

OutstandingIssues

Wehaveidentifiedsomeissuesthatneedreviewanddecisions.Thesearementionedbelow.

5.1

Agreementonthesubjectsofrevision

In Section 4 (Table2) we have suggested draft subjects of revision. PSU had made some suggestion and the subjects are adjusted accordingly. TOR of our study mentions that these subjects would be reviewed by the subcommittee. We would request for an early approval of the subjects. This will enable us to focus our course of actions and adjust the mix and timing of the inputs of individual consultants.

5.2

AdditionalStaffrequirement

The subjects of revision show that the study needs to concentrate on several areas. However, the consultant positions that we have proposed and is in our contract (the positions and expertise requiredareaccordingtotheTOR)doesnothavealltheexpertise,experienceortimeallocationsto carryouttasksforthosesubjects.Thussomeadditionalconsultantstaffsarerequiredifwewantto addressthesubjects,especiallytheonesnotincludedintheTOR. InthefollowingTableweproposereviewandapprovaloftheadditionalconsultantstaffs(positions andtimeframe). Requirementofadditionalconsultantstaff
Position 1. Economist 2. SAWpExpert 3. CHTExpert 4. ClimateChangeExpert 5. PPPExpert Total Staffmonth inPhase1 2 1 2 1 6 Staffmonth inPhase2 4 3 4 2 3 16 TotalStaff month 6 4 6 3 3 22

WeareawarethatsomedonoragencieslikeDfIDmayprovidesomestaffs/consultantstosupportthis study.Obtainingsupportfromthoseagencieswouldtakesometime,perhapsmorethanamonth.As addressing the subjects is needed right now, we request to allow us to add new consultants in our contract.TheCVsoftheproposedconsultantswillbesubmittedforPSUsapproval.

5.3

Agreementontheconsultationprocess

33

Proper stakeholder consultation is one of the fundamentals for preparing the Second SDP. We had assessedtherequirementandproposedaconsultationprocesswhichincludesorganizingworkshops indifferentregionsandinDhaka.DetailsaregiveninSection3.6. Werequesttokindlyreviewandapprovetheconsultationprocess,especiallytheworkshopsbecause thosehavebudgetimplications(mentionedbelow)

5.4. WorkPlanandManningSchedule
TheworkplanisgiveninAnnexGandthemanningscheduleinAnnexG

34

6.

AdditionalBudget

Therequirementofadditionalconsultantstaffandworkshopsfortheconsultantprocessisdescribed inSection5.2andSection5.3,respectively.Theadditionalbudgetrequirementsareshownbelow. Costsforadditionalconsultantstaff Items Quantity Rate(Taka) Amount(Taka) 6 Economist 180,000 1,080,000 4 SAWpExpert 120,000 480,000 6 CHTExpert 120,000 720,000 3 120,000 360,000 ClimateChangeExpert 3 PPPExpert 120,000 360,000 22 3,000,000 Total Costsforconsultativeworkshops Items Quantity Rate(Taka) Amount(Taka) 4 RegionalWorkshop 50,000 200,000 7 ThematicWorkshop 50,000 350,000 10 550,000 Total TORmentionsoforganizingthreenationalworkshopsforwhichabudgetofTaka600,000isfixedin thecontract.ThefirstInceptionWorkshopinalessexpensivevenueisestimatedtocostaboutTaka 600,000. The other two workshops with more participants would cost higher. The cost of the three nationalworkshopsisestimatedbelow. Costsfornationalworkshops Items Quantity Rate(Taka) Amount(Taka) 1 InceptionWorkshop 600,000 600,000 1 SecondNationalWorkshop 800,000 800,000 1 ThirdNationalWorkshop 800,000 800,000 3 2,200,000 Total TheestimatedtotalcostoftheconsultativeworkshopsandnationalworkshopsisTaka2,750,000.We suggesttoconsidertakingtheworkshopbudgetofoutofourcontractandbebornedirectlybyPSU.

35

Оценить