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MANAGING PEOPLE

Features of performance The process of performance


management management
l From the business plan, identify the requirements and
l Agreed framework of goals, standards and
competences required to carry it out.
competence requirements
l Draw up a performance agreement
l Performance management is a process
l Draw up a performance and development plan with the
l Shared understanding individual
l Approach to managing and developing l Manage performance continually throughout the year
people l Performance review

l Achievement

Issues in performance Planning, Monitoring and Control of


management Performance Management
l Achieving the business strategy Developing the scheme
l Fulfilling organizational responsibilities
l Enabling employees to manage their own Briefing
performance and development Training
l Management by agreement Quality control
l Role of the HR Function
l The importance of objectives
l The input, process, output, outcome model
Performance management as a process of
management

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230 11.236
UNIT 4
EVALUATING PERFORMANCE
LESSON 30: OF PEOPLE
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 8: PERFORMANCE
SYSTEMS: FEEDBACK APPROACHES MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Contents: An Introduction

MANAGING PEOPLE
Features and process of In most cases, this will be divided into one-year blocks, which
feedback approaches start and end with some form of annual appraisal and objec-
tive-setting meetings. During this year, managing people will
Problems with P.A system involve the following:
Modern Appraisal System • Planning: Setting objectives, targets and standards to help
360degree feedback system people plan their activity for the year.
Competency & Competency • Doing: Providing instructions and support to ensure that
Mapping objectives are achieved to the required standard.
• Reviewing: Monitoring, assessing and measuring
Integrating Competency performance to check whether objectives have been achieved
Mapping with 360 Degree and to decide rewards.
Feedback Before we move on to these specifics, however, this lesson will
Summary explore two broad issues that relate to both levels of the people
management process. These are your overall objectives, and
Exercises your on-going process.
Activity (5 minutes)Spend the allotted time now reflecting
now on how clear you are about your overall objective for each
An Introduction of the people you have to manage.
So are you ready for nearly ending course. Excited?? I hope you Overall Objectives
do not have the impression that since this is the last unit so it Like any management activity, people management needs to be
can be taken lightly!! As you might have noticed that this unit driven by clear and realistic objectives. You will be able to
has base from the all the previous units. This means it is the manage your people effectively if you have an objective for each
most important and all pervasive one. What do you say?? individual which defines where you want that person to be at
In this lesson we will be dealing with one most important the end of the year, an objective which is super ordinate to the
aspect of PMS, which is the appraisal systems, the various kind specific goals and targets that have been agreed. Here are some
of feedback systems which be used to follow the appraisal examples of overall objectives:
systems. But lets start with the nature of performance appraisal • Get Susan to take over the auditing work.
before we go into the nitty-gritty of the process. Let us see how • Get Jean ready for promotion next year.
different specialist define performance appraisal.
• Get Rachel to communicate effectively with users.
Definition.
• Make sure Peter is able to sell to big prospects on his own.
“Performance Appraisal is the process through which an
employee’s behaviour and accomplishments for a period are • Get Ron to face up to the fact hat he does not have the
measured and evaluated. It is a systematic way of judging the potential to become a manager.
relative worth or ability of an employee in performing his or her • Make sure Jack is taking more initiative to anticipate
task.” problems.
“Performance appraisal is a systematic method of obtaining, Objectives such as these become the driver, which shapes how
analyzing and recording information about a person.” you manage at the macro level, and the extent to which you
It is an instrument of employee development. Traditionally, it become involved at the micro level. Some managers have a clear
is used as a mechanism of controlling employees. With idea of their overall objectives for each of their people. Others
changes in orientation, performance appraisal can be an effective are less sure: they may have a rough idea of what they want to
instrument for helping people to grow & develop in achieve, but no clearly defined super ordinate objective which is
organisational setting. In the opinion of Rao, the starting point for the decisions they make about how to
manage each person.
(1) It can be used as an effective mechanism of continuing
education and learning from one another. The above given objectives can be further categorized into 3
level- activity, performance and career objectives. Such a differen-
(2) Theoretical research and developments in the social science
tiation can help in assessment mapping. Let us examine the 3
have accelerated the growth of sophistication in
levels as follows:
performance appraisal.

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11.236 231
1. Activity objective: states activities, which an individual qualitative objec-tives are used. But it is still possible to agree
MANAGING PEOPLE

would like to do till the end of the year. firm standards of performance which define the conditions
Example: get Susan to take up auditing work: Make sure Peter under which a job can be said to have been well done, and there
is able to sell to big prospects on his own. have been many developments in recent years in, for example,
measurement of service quality and customer satisfaction.
2. Performance Objective: states the improvements that you
want to see at the end of the year. (2) Feedback
Measurement is followed by feedback, so that people can
Example: Make sure Jack is taking more initiative to anticipate
monitor their performance and, as necessary, take corrective
problems; Get Rachel to communicate effectively with users
action. As much feedback as possible should be self-generated.
3. Career: states steps needed to develop a person’s career The philosophy of performance management emphasizes the
appropriately by the end of the year. importance of employees planning how they are going to
Example: Get Ron to face up to the fact hat he does not have achieve their objectives, and then obtaining feedback data
the potential to become a manager; Get Jean ready for promo- themselves. The rapid development of management informa-
tion next year. tion systems in recent years has increased the capacity to provide
Exercise: quantitative and timely feedback. This applies in all areas.
Interview a manager. Ask him about their performance (3) Reinforcement
management of people under him. Give a few minutes and ask Positive reinforcement is provided when behavior which leads
him to reflect on how clear he is about the overall objective for to improved performance is recognized. The object is to
each of the people he manages. recognize specific performance improvements as soon as
When engaging in such an activity, you should all keep in mind possible after the event. This is why performance management
that your objective should be: should be regarded as a continuing process. Recognition, and
therefore reinforcement, takes place whenever appro-priate
• Realistic,
throughout the year. It is not deferred to an annual perfor-
• Honest, and mance appraisal session.
• Balanced. Similarly, if someone makes a mistake, or fails to deliver the
At ICL, managers use three types of objectives. agreed standard of performance, this should be discussed
1. Objectives which contribute to the achievement of the immediately so that learning can take place and improvement
business objectives - key result areas plans can be agreed. There should be no surprises in a perfor-
mance appraisal meeting. If anything has gone wrong it should
2. Objectives which contribute to an improvement in the
be pointed out at the time so that immediate corrective action
performance of the individual- performance standards
can be taken.
3. Objectives, which contribute to the development of the
(4) Contingency management
individual -performance development.
The concept of ‘contingency management’ refers to the belief
Now most important in performance management come the that every behavior has a consequence. When someone knows
identification of the processes that are required to achieve the that desirable consequences are contingent upon good perfor-
targeted objectives. Process here means the frequency and the mance, they are more likely to improve. This is in line with the
nature of the contact you have with each individual. valency-instrumentality-expectancy theory formulated by
Objectives can be agreed following discussions between Vroom (1964). The philosophy of performance management is
managers and the individuals or teams responsible to them. largely based on this theory. The agreement or contract between
Teams may have joint objectives, and individuals who work managers and individuals spells out expectations of what is to
together can agree common or overlapping objectives. Some be achieved, and the sort of behavior required to achieve it.
organizations are now developing systems for internal custom- Till now we have set overall objective for each person that are to
ers to set objectives for internal suppliers of services. be manage. Planning of the ongoing process is done to
Objectives provide the base for four key areas of performance structure contact with each of the person. This process is a
manage-ment philosophy: measurement; feedback; positive series of meetings through the year, varying in frequency,
reinforcement; and contingency management. formality and function. The process involves the proactive
(1) Measurement management of your working relationship with each person; it
Measurement requires the collection of performance data to includes the proactive management of the appraisal system so
establish a starting point or base line. To improve performance that you are using as a tool to meet your needs and objectives.
you must know what current performance is. The overall objectives you have set for the people you are to
It is often said that anything, which can be managed, can be manage will lead to GOALS, to determine their activity for the
measured. But there is an element of truth in the adage that, in coming year. The people management process in the company
some jobs, what is meaningful is not measurable and what is in question can decide to include this goal setting process,
measurable is not meaningful. guiding the performance management process in turn.
Measurement is obviously easier when financial, sales or Preparation and planning of the appraisal involves 5 stages.
production targets can be set. Subjectivity clearly increases when Theses are as follows:

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232 11.236
1. Preparingtheagend-awhat you want to discuss in the 6. Graphic Rating

MANAGING PEOPLE
most effective order. This method is also known as point rating system. In such
2. Identifying outcomes-the change that you want to see in scales, categories are provided with boxes with an un-inter-
a person’s performance. rupted line placed just below the category notions on which he
indicates his rating by means of a check mark. On some graphic
3. Diagnosing performance problems- identifying the
scale only the extreme and midpoint categories are indicated by
causes of underperformance.
means of category description.
4. Planning solutions- the strategies and the solutions for
achieving your desired outcomes. 7. Checklist Method
This is the adaptation of a method developed by Thurstone for
5. Creating the appropriate climate- the climate you need
measuring attitudes. The statements in the form of a check-list
to establish in order to achieve your desired outcomes.
can be used by supervisors in evaluating the personnel working
This planning process help to structure the time one gives to under them. These procedures furnish the rater with a check-list
planning appraisals so that they are used efficiently and produc- of pre-scaled descriptions of behaviour.
tively. The most important part of appraisal system are the
feedback- how the performance is measured and communicated 8. Cost Accounting Method
to the employees. This method evaluates performance from the monetary returns
the employee yields to his organization. A relationship is
Feedback Approaches established between the cost involved in keeping the person,
Some important and frequently used performance appraisal and the benefit the organization derives from him.
methods are discussed as under:
Activity:
1. Confidential Credit Rating (CCR) Discuss merits and demerits of the various feedback ap-
This is the traditional way of appraising employee method. The proaches. Which one do you find is used most in organisations.
term CCR has come from China. The true meaning of the term
The Problems with Appraisals
is to take the person in to confidence and then write the
confidential report. In India meaning of CCR is wrongly The problem with most appraisal systems is that by their very
interpreted. A confidential report by the immediate supervisor nature they tend to collect all the functions of people manage-
is still a major determinant of the subordinate’s performance. ment into one key activity: the appraisal interview. This creates
In some organisations CCR is also known as ACR. three kinds of difficulty for the manager:
• Overload: Most appraisals suffer because the manager is
2. Ranking Method
under pressure to gather and record an enormous amount
In this method the rater picks out the individual he considers
of sophisticated information in a short space of time.
best, the one he considers next best and so on, ranks them in
order on the basis of their work. The advantage of this system • Conflict: Some of the required functions conflict with
is simplicity and naturalness. It is useful when the number of each other. The need to make decisions about pay can
employees is small. overshadow all other functions, for example, especially in
the mind of the appraisers, who may often be unwilling to
3. Paired Comparison discuss any other issue openly until they know how you are
In this system every individual in the group is compared with going to rank, rate, grade or scale them ( or until they have
every other in the group. Usually only one trait, the overall persuaded you that your decision is wrong).
ability to perform the job is considered.
• Rigidity: The formality of the system makes the
4. Person to Person Rating interaction between manager and subordinate rigid and
Person to person rating scale is prepared by selecting 10-20 unnatural. The need to fulfill the system’s requirements
individuals of varying ability and then, ranking them in the means that the manager can lose sight of the needs and
ability under consideration. In this method, a human scale is feelings of the individual being appraised. Several mangers,
created as for example, for evaluating ‘leadership’, the person for example, have complained to me about having to go
who has demonstrated the highest degree of leadership through the motions of discussing career development
occupies the first rank in the human scale and others based on with people who have no desire to develop their career
their demonstrated leadership abilities arranged in a descending whatsoever.
order. In this method the rater simply looks over the individu-
It is because of these three difficulties that most people,
als selected as standards and checks the one nearest in the ability
mangers and appraises alike, do not like appraisals. In some of
to the person being rated.
the companies I have worked with, people have dreaded them.
5. Forced Choice In others, they have been dismissed as a complete waste of
The forced choice rating form contains a series of items or time. At best they are seen as a necessary evade that hinders
statements which usually describe degree of proficiency. The rather than helps the real business of managing people. I have
rater chooses among the members of each group in terms of never yet come across an appraisal system that has been
how well he believes the statements the individuals being rated. universally liked, welcomed and admired by managers.
This method attempts to make performance evaluation more
objective.

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Activity: abilities and enhancing potential leading to healthy develop-
MANAGING PEOPLE

Check with your parents how they are appraised? Does it have ment of human resources.
any influence on their performance and satisfaction level?
Modern Appraisal System
Appraisals will always be difficult because one of their functions In many organisations, the objective of performance appraisal
is to make decisions about pay and rewards. These decisions are has shifted from an evaluation of employees to the identifica-
confronting: they force you to evaluate people, compare them, tion of their potential and development. In the traditional
make distinctions, decide that some people are more valuable approach, PA system essentially gives importance to perfor-
than others and tell the others that they are less valuable. But mance review and performance counselling.
you can make appraisal time more bearable by seeing the
Modern PA is a structured formal interaction between a
appraisal as a tool for helping you to achieve your objectives,
subordinate and supervisor that usually take the form of a
rather than an obligation imposed on you by the personnel
periodic interview in which work performance of the subordi-
department. You need to incorporate it into your process for
nate is discussed and feedback is given to him. Many
managing people, rather than see it as an interruption of that
companies have shifted from Annual Confidential Rating/
process.
Confidential Credit way of target setting allowing employees to
One way of doing this is to decide how many functions are to express their views if Performance Review &Development
be carried out at appraisal time. This will vary form Company, sessions.
depending on their administrative processes, but it is often the
Research Activity: What is potential? How can you differenti-
case that many of the functions that you assume have to be
ate it from performance? Is there a different way to appraise
done at the appraisal can be done at other times in the year. For
potential than performance? discuss the importance of
example, you could discuss career development with your
potential appraisal in class.
people whenever you like, formally or informally or you could
have regular meetings to review performance throughout the Gauri Shankar suggests that the starting point of developing an
year, so that the appraisal becomes a convenient mechanism for effective appraisal system is to link the corporate goals/
summarizing what has been discussed. objectives with that of each individual through a clear and
cascading process, which can be achieved through four steps,
It may be that all that you actually have to do at the appraisal
itself is submit your recommendations about pay, or fill in the • Outline corporate objectives,
documentation to satisfy the personnel department. The other • Outline the functional objectives,
functions can be carried out as part of your on-gong process or • Establish job clarity, and
people management. Use Exercise to consider the appraisal • Establish job goals.
system in your organization.
Keeping this in mind, objectives, therefore, need to conform to
Exercise: a set of principles which in themselves provide clarity on who
If a company operates a formal appraisal system, spends a few needs to do what, to whom and by when. This requires wetting
minutes now reflecting on the various functions that the system SMART (Stretching, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic and Time
is intended to achieve. bound) goals.
Second, consider how many of those functions actually have to Self-appraisals can be used more meaningfully and objectively if
be completed at the appraisal itself; could they be carried out at feedback is taken from trusted associate(s)/peer(s) who know
another times in the year? the job of the appraisee. Secondly, feedback from trusted direct
Result or target oriented appraisal systems (In the opinion of reports are very useful provided they possess high degree of
Ganguli) have the advantage of offering a feedback to the both self-confidence and judgement. Thirdly, feedback from
appraisee. The feedback helps to keep the appraisee alert and one’s superior becomes meaningful when the rate approaches
aware of the gains and shortfalls. It may also serve as an the superior for seeking guidance and wants to improve. This
effective means for ensuring motivation and commitment. In should be done informally so that no psychological barriers
this system, the appraisee gets an opportunity for self appraisal. subsist between the superior and the subordinate. In this way
In spite of best selection and placement procedure in an the mechanics of self-appraisal increases the care, value and
organisation it is observed that some perform well and some validity with which such appraisals are conducted. Formal ways
do not. of assessing oneself sometimes become very biased.
Performance Appraisal (PA) and Counselling constitute a Activity (6 minutes)
major element in management and development of human Have you ever done a self- appraisal? Sit back and form a group
resources. People who have a strong desire for professional of around 4-5 friends of yours, get a self- appraisal done and
achievement need a particular type of feedback and counselling assess the results. What do you find??
well when the feedback is ambiguous or when it comes to them 360-Degree Feedback System
in a formalised, annual, or semi-annual review. They need General Electric first started this system in the year 1992. The
feedback that is frequent and clearly administered. Very few idea behind 360-degree feedback system is to identify areas for
organisations in the corporate sector realise that PA is a correc- both the individual and organisational improvement. This
tive device and act as an essential tool for improving employee system can be diagrammatically presented as follows:

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234 11.236
Definition The main pitfall of this system is that it is time consuming and

MANAGING PEOPLE
“The 360 degree feedback process involves collecting perceptions has lengthy procedures.
about a person’s behaviour and the impact of that behaviour
Application of 360-degree Feedback
from the person’s boss or bosses, direct reports, colleagues,
fellow”’ members in the project team, internal and external Personal Development of Employees
customers and suppliers. “-Lepsinger, 1997 • Improving perception of the individual about oneself by
360-degree feedback is a full circle, multi-source and multi-rater understanding how others perceive him/her;
system of obtaining information from peers, subordinates. and • Helping an individual manage one’s performance better
internal and external customers, about the employees perfor- and
mance. 360 degree assessment is based on the assessment of an • Facilitating learning process for the employee.
individual’s management styles, competencies and behaviour by
colleagues horizontally and vertically by involving his boss, Team Development
peers and direct reports in the organisation. This is supple- • Increase in inter-personal communication among team
mented wit 11 self-rating and customer ratings. members; and

Supervisors • Improved customer service as customer feedback is


included in the 360 degree feedback.
People Management
• Personnel selection and employee coaching;
Peers Self Customers
• General personnel decisions-promotions, pay increases,
probationary status or termination;
• Training and Development-employee training,
management development, and organisational
Subordinates development;
When participant registers for 360-degree feedback programme, • Planning for development centres, identification of
he is required to give a minimum list of 10, and preferably development needs like the potential for leadership,
about 15 assessors from his seniors, colleagues and external development and honing of competencies, career plann-ing
customers. He is sent a self–assessment form along with some and development.
assessments for each assessor. The instruments contain Competency and Competency Mapping
guidelines explaining the system of 360-degree feedback and
assuring anonymity of the assessment responses (Rao). Definitions
Companies using this system are General Electric, AT&T, • What is a Competency?
Digital Equipment Corporation, Nabisco, Warner, Lambert, Competency is defined as a behaviors that describes excellent
American Express, Godrej Soaps, WIPRO, CGL, Thermax and performance in a particular work context ( e.g. job , role or
many companies have joined the bandwagon. group of jobs, function, or whole organisation ). In other
words, competency means actual application of knowledge.
Why Organisations need 360 Degree Feedback? Skill, and motives/attitude/temperament in carrying out
One of the major considerations for organisations which ha\’e assigned tasks. A manager may be knowledgeable and skilled
gone for 360 degree feedback, has been strategic integration and but he hardly applies his/her knowledge and skill on assigned
alignment of performance management with business goals in tasks, the said manager cannot be rated as a competent person.
the increasingly competitive environment. It has helped them
create a mechanism for integrating inputs, creating an appropri- • Competency Mapping?
ate work culture, and under-bidding The Company’s leadership Competency mapping is a process of identify key competencies
assessment and development programme. Although it would for an organisation and/ or a job and incorporate those
be desirable to have a 360-degree feedback system in the entire competencies through the various process (i.e. job evaluation,
organisation, the experience in India shows that it has so far training, recruitment, career and succession planning ) of the
been largely introduced at the top and in a few cases at the organisation.
middle levels in progressive companies. Competencies form the basis of an individual’s consistent
In addition, there are numerous advantages of this system over thinking and behaviour in a variety of situations. For clearer
the other traditional methods of PA such as it understand-ing it would be helpful to define and classify them
as follows:
• Increases the focus on customer service,
• Motives: These are the needs, which direct, an individual’s
• Supports team initiative,
behaviour towards or away from a goal and act as a driver.
• Creates a high involved workforces, Affiliation, power and achievement motivation directing an
• Avoids discrimination and individual’s behaviour can be cited as an example of
• Assesses developmental needs motives.

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• Self-Concept: This is a person’s attitude toward self/ self- selected on the basis of the performance criteria. If the size
MANAGING PEOPLE

perception/self-image exhibited in the form of self- of the population is large, the sample size of the total
confidence or an inferiority complex. population could be level’ cent of the total population.
• Traits: These allude to the physical characteristics and However, if the population size is small, a higher
enduring attributes of an individual leading to consistent percentage will be desirable. The sample size should be
responses to stimulus/situations. reasonably large to allow the statistical treatment of data.
• Knowledge: This refers to the information a person • Step III: The third step is to collect data about the nature
possesses about specific areas. Knowledge comprises many of competencies, which could be done through surveys,
factors like memory, numerical ability, linguistic ability, and expert panels and behavioural event interviews (BEIs).
ability about special relations, among other things, and is, Although the survey method is a quick method of data
therefore, a complex competency. Through measurement collection, it misses out hidden competencies that may be
of knowledge it can be predicted what a person can do unique to the job as the data are based on the questions
rather than what he/she will do. asked.
• Skill: This is the application of an ability or ability to Expert panels or focus groups comprise line managers, HR
perform a specific mental or physical task, e.g. rational and specialists, customers and outstanding jobholders. The panel or
logical thinking, analysis and synthesis, among others. focus group usually arrives at the competencies required to do a
job in an outstanding way through brainstorming. The
limitation of this method is that the panel usually does not
arrive at a full range of competencies and its accuracy level is
about 50 per cent as compared to the BEI.
Set up new product COMPETENCY: User
introduction project an understanding of market
pricing Remember Your Lesson on Assessment Centers??
dynamics to develop pricing
models
The best way to identify a competency/competencies is
Understanding
market price dynamics
through a behavioural event interview (BEl), which is a form of
SKILLS
structured interview focused on the individual and his compe-
KNOWLEDGE
tencies rather than on the task. Through this method, data is
COMPETENCIES collected on sample - behaviour leading to success in a role or
COMPETENCY: Meets
all commitments in a timely behaviour during events of frustration when a person failed to
manner
achieve what he wanted. The use of BEl requires expertise,
MOTIVIES / which focuses on thoughts, feelings, behaviour and outcomes
ATTITUDE /
TEMPERAMENT
to identify the patterns of intentional behaviour leading to star
Achievement - wants performance. A comparison of the two extreme groups-star
to do excellent job
performers and average performers-throws up the data on how
COMPETENCY: Positions the two groups differ on performance criteria in a particular job/
a new product introduction so that is
clearly differentiated in the market role in a particular organisation.
• Step IV: Data collection is followed by analysis for building
a competency model. The analysis involves a thematic
How to Identify a Competency analysis of the interview content and a statistical analysis of
The identification of competencies and the subsequent the differences between the average performers and star
develop-ment of a competency model constitute a specialized performers. The analysis may finally be presented in the
task. If an organisation is aware of its competency requirements form of a competency dictionary with behaviour
for various level jobs, it can straightaway adopt the assessment descriptions as per the requirement of an Organisation.
centre approach, otherwise running an assessment centre
• Step V: administering the questionnaires to a large number
without a knowledge of the requisite. Competencies will be like
of jobholders comprising average and star performers can
an exercise without a definite goal.
validate the competency model developed through the
The following steps will be helpful in the identification of steps mentioned above. However, where the number of
competencies. jobholders is small, the data gathered for selection or
• Step I: The first and foremost step in identifying a appraisal can be utilized for validation or updating of the
competency or a set of competencies is to clearly establish model (Marshall).
the performance criteria. It would be desirable to have a For instance, you are required to map competencies of HR. The
group of specialists who are in agreement on the criteria for resultant charting will look as follows.
judging superior perfor-mance for a job/role.
• Step II: After having identified the criteria, the next stage is
to select samples of average performers and outstanding
performers. The idea is to have two contrasting groups

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MANAGING PEOPLE
COMPETENCIES - HR - LEADERSHIP CLUSTER HUMAN RESOURCES COMPETENCY MIX
Benchmar
k
position Specialist Manager Director
( sample )

BUSINESS STRATEGY /
VISION 60
ORIENTED Leadership

Mix of Competencies Demonstrated


Management
50

LEADERSHIP
40
CONTINUOUS COMPETENCIES CUSTOMER
IMPROVEMENT SERVICE 30

20

TEAM /
10
NEGOTIATION /
RELATIONSHIP INFLUENCE
BUILDING 0

Functional Management Leadership

Competency modeling cannot be a one-time affair as compe-


tency requirements change in consonance with a change in
requirements on jobs. Even the motivational aspects and
COMPETENCIES - HR – MANAGEMENT resultant behaviour may change with time.
The competency model has considerable value and can be
utilized for various purposes like selection, performance
MANAGING CONSULTING appraisal, succession planning, training and human resource
WITH
RESPECT development where the selector can identify differentiator
competencies among average performers and star performers.
Competency modeling can also help in personal and team
MANAGEMENT PLANNING /
EXECUTION COMPETENCIES PRIORITY development and in the improvement of productivity. Can you
IMPLEMENTATION SETTING
tell how??
Frequently Asked Questions - Competency Mapping: A sample
COMMUNICATION
ANALYTICAL SKILLS /
DECISION MAKING
• Question
My company is undertaking a Job Evaluation exercise, along
MANAGING
DEVELOPING
with competency mapping. Competency mapping is an area,
PEOPLE which has been least, explored in India. I would like relevant
information on Competency mapping, along with references so
as to develop my skills.
• Answer
Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competen-
cies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those
COMPETENCIES - HR - FUNCTIONAL competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job
evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization. To ensure
INFORMATION STAFFING
we are both on the same page, we would define a competency as
MANAGMENT COMPENSATION
a behavior (i.e. communication, leadership) rather than a skill or
ability.The steps involved in competency mapping with an end
result of job evaluation include the following:
CARRER
PLANNING &
MANAGEMENT BENEFITS 1) Conduct a job analysis by asking incumbents to complete a
COMPETENCIES
DEVELOPMENT
position information questionnaire (PIQ). This can be pro-
vided for incumbents to complete, or you can conduct
one-on-one interviews using the PIQ as a guide. A sample PIQ
EMPLOYEE
EDUCATION & RELATIONS that we use when conducting this step with our clients was
TRANNING
LABOUR
provided to this client. The primary goal is to gather from
RELATIONS incumbents what they feel are the key behaviors necessary to
perform their respective jobs.

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2) Using the results of the job analysis, you are ready to develop exercise and should be handled by only those professionals
MANAGING PEOPLE

a competency based job description. A sample of a competency who are trained in it. Initially, the help of a consultant may be
based job description generated from the PIQ was provided to sought who can train some managerial staff in this technique.
this client. This was developed after carefully analyzing the input Once adopted successfully, the approach yields a number of
from the represented group of incumbents and converting it to benefits to both the organisation and the individual. .
standard competencies. Once the competencies are mapped a follow up skill audit is a
3) With a competency based job description, you are on your must, which can be carried out for assessing, measuring and
way to begin mapping the competencies throughout your recording the com-petencies of an individual or a group
human resources processes. The competencies of the respective required for various job
job description become your factors for assessment on the Benefits of Competency – based Assessment at Organisation
performance evaluation. Using competencies will help guide you level
to perform more objective evaluations based on displayed or
• It helps an organisation in assessing the employees against
not displayed behaviors.
the industry/company-recognized standards.
4) Taking the competency mapping one step further, you can
• It can reduce training cost considerably as learning and
use the results of your evaluation to identify in what competen-
development take place on the job and only areas needing
cies individuals need additional development or training. This
development are considered for focus.
will help you focus your training needs on the goals of the
position and company and help your employees develop • Assessment data generated through this method can be
toward the ultimate success of the organization.To help you used for promotion to critical roles, succession planning,
with the implementation of these steps and attached tools, we filling up of vacancies and for forming teams with
would recommend you consider reading the following materi- complementary skills.
als. Additional Resources:The Art and Science of Competency • It is very effective in identifying development needs and
Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations by human resource development.
Richard Lepsinger, Anntoinette D. LuciaBuilding Robust • It can help in re-organisation and assessment of receptivity
Competencies: Linking Human Resource Systems to Organiza- to organisational changes.
tional Strategies by Paul C. GreenHuman Resources Champion
• Through development of employees’ knowledge and
by David Ulrich
skills, the assessment/development centre approach can
In competency-based assessment, an individual’s knowledge, improve organisational productivity and the bottom line.
skills, attitudes and values are assessed on the basis of their
demonstration in the assessment centre. Competencies, which Benefits of Competency-based Assessment at
are assessed during the assessment centre, will obviously relate Individual Level
to the competency requirement of the job. • The individual can undertake self-assessment at one’s own
A review of the assessment centre approach used by various convenience.
Indian as well as multinational companies reveals that the latter • The knowledge and skills of .the individual come to light.
differ in both rigor and approach. The difference is largely • The individual learns on the job, at one’s own pace.
related to the objectives for which this approach is being used. • The time required for self-development taken by it is
The objectives may be anyone of the following comparatively much less than that taken by any other
• Strategic alignment of competencies with business growth; method of self-development.
• Selection for job or culture fit; • It can suggest suitable moves for plateaued managers.
• Career planning or succession planning; Integrating Competency Mapping with 360 Degree Feedback
• Training and development; and There are a number of ways in which this exercise can be taken
• Individual and organization growth up.
To start with the identification of competencies for various job
Approaches to Competency Rating
positions can be done with the help of 360 degree feedback in
A number of approaches can be adopted in order co develop
which the employee, his supervisor, subordinates and peers can
competency profiles for jobs and for assessing an employee’s
help identify competencies which differentiate star performers
competencies against it.
from average performers.
1. Absolute Rating Scales
Another way of integrating the two approaches is through the
2. Paired Comparison Ratings involvement of the participant’s superior, subordinates and
3. Forced Distribution Rating Scale. All these scales have been peers in a simulated exercise to assess competencies like team
discussed in other lessons in the same course, or in other work, leadership and communication during the assessment
courses as well. So need not go in detail. centre.
Benefits of Competency Mapping In a development centre the 360-degree method can be helpful
We should as management student always keep in mind that in providing feedback to the participant on his areas of
competency-mapping is a time-consuming and a serious improvement in a non-threatening manner. Some

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organisations like SmithKline Beecham first adopted the the performance of a manager was rated “below average”,

MANAGING PEOPLE
assessment centre approach for competency profiling and later counseling was done to help him/her to overcome the
moved to the 360-feedback method. In India, organisations are shortcoming. There was, however, no practice of communicat-
hesitant to adopt the 360-degree feedback method for appraisal ing the appraisal, whether positive or negative, to the employee.
but are using it for developmental purposes, thereby moving A review of the appraisals carried over a period of three years
from 360-degree feedback to development centre and then to revealed that immediate superiors hand a tendency to play safe
the assessment centre approach. and usually overrated their employees. Therefore these apprais-
In a nutshell, since these two approaches are complementary, als were not reflecting true worth of the employees. Besides, no
instead of adopting them on stand-alone basis, the information was available about job knowledge,
organisation can thus reap better returns by combining the two. innovativeness, or the training and development needs of the
But this would require an ‘appropriate’ culture in the employees. The management was also in the dark about the
organisation. potential of the employees to assume higher responsibilities.
Consequently, difficulties were being experienced in preparing
Summary of the lesson:
succession plans.
• Performance Appraisal is the process through which an
Realizing the need to do something to tide over these difficul-
employee’s behaviour and accomplishments for a period
ties, the General Manager (Personnel & Administration )
are measured and evaluated. It is a systematic way of
decided to revise the appraisal form. In the new form, apprais-
judging the relative worth or ability of an employee in
ers were to record their assessment mainly on two areas –
performing his or her task.
knowledge and skills. The area of knowledge covered knowl-
• Before implementing any performance appraisal system, its edge of product, knowledge of job, knowledge of operations,
reliability and validity should be in place. and knowledge covered knowledge of product, knowledge of
• Appraisals should be conducted in such a way that it either job, knowledge of operations, and knowledge of the business
maintain or enhance the selfesteem of employees. environment. The area of skills covered communication skills,
• The objective of performance appraisal has shifted from an inter-personal relational skills, readership skills, and skill sin
evaluation of employees to the identification of their training and developing subordinates. Beside3s, information
potential and development. was also obtained about analytical ability, training and develop-
• Developing an effective appraisal system can be achieved ment needs of employees, and potential for advancement in
through four steps, which are Outline corporate objectives, their careers. Performance was to be evaluated by ticking one of
Outline the functional objectives, Establish job clarity, and the four grading – A, B, C and D – where ‘A’ stood for “out-
Establish job goals. standing” performance, ‘B’ stood for “Above average”
performance, ‘C’ stood for “Fair” performance, and D’ was
• Competencies are the underlying characteristics of an “Inadequate” performance. The appraiser had to substantiate
individual, viz. knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, self- the ratings by citing specific instances of the employee’s
concepts, traits and motives that have a causal relationship performance. Information about analytical ability, training and
with effective and/or superior performance in a job development needs, and potential for advancement was
situation. Because of their underlying characteristic, these obtained through open – ended responses on the appraisal
are considerably deep and constitute a lasting dimension of form.
an individual’s personality. These have predictive value and
provide the basis for predicting an individual’s behaviour. A quick survey made of the appraisals in the new form showed
that the problem had become acute. There were contradictions
• 360degree feedback system helps in create a mechanism for in the appraisals in the different columns in the same form.
integrating inputs, creating an appropriate work culture, Appraisers were finding it difficult to cite specific instances in the
and under-bidding. appraisal form, although they had started maintaining an
Exercises: ‘incident dairy’. They also feared that they would become
unpopular among their subordinates if they became too critical
A Case Study
in their assessment. They also had a feeling that the new form
A large public limited corporation dealing in manufacture and
was introduced without much consideration and without their
distribution of consumer goods followed an appraisal form in
involvement, and appraisals had become much more difficult to
which the immediate superior evaluated the manager’s perfor-
make now than when the earlier form was used.
mance on the various attributes such as appearance, personality,
initiative, judgement, resourcefulness, character, loyalty, integrity, Questions
leadership quality, communication skills etc. The appraiser 1. What went wrong with the new appraisal form?
recorded the evaluation by ticking the most appropriate box
2. How should the corporation have gone about introducing
below the evaluative word, viz., “outstanding”, “above average”
the new form to make it more acceptable?
, “average”, “below average”, which were given
More Exercises:
Performance Appraisal
Against each characteristic being evaluated. The next higher 1. What is performance appraisal? What are its basic
authority reviewed the appraisal by the immediate superior. If objectives?

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2. “Performance appraisal is a waste of time”. Do you agree developed? Develop objectives to chart out objectives for the
MANAGING PEOPLE

with this statement? Give reasons for your views. same (MBO).
3. What are the basic issues that need to be resolved before 14. You are a senior as per semesters you have cleared. Would
introducing a performance appraisal system in an you like to be evaluated by your juniors? Why and why
organisation? not? What if a 360-degree system was introduced in your
4. Discuss in detail the performance appraisal process. institute?
5. Differentiate between absolute rating methods and relative 15. What are the implications when you find that a person has
rating methods and state the merits and demerits of each given you negative appraisal? Introspect. Can these be
one of the methods in these groups. considered as risk in appraising? Develop insight on how
to avoid biases from the same.
6. What are the common errors in performance appraisal?
What step will you take to make the appraisal more
effective?
7. Explain the characteristics of an effective performance
appraisal system.
8. How will you ensure that performance appraisal can be
legally defensible?
Performance Management Systems
9. What effect does performance appraisal have on
productivity and quality of work life?
10. What are BARS? Discuss. Behaviorally anchored rating
scales.
(a) Are of no help in reducing rating errors.
Feedback Approaches
(b) Are developed by line managers alone.
(c) Specify definite, observable, and measurable job behaviors.
(d) Contain general descriptions of traits displayed by
employees.
(e) Are developed after classifying employees into different
groups depending on their performance.
11. Can MBO be used for performance management? If yes,
then Management by objective as Performance appraisal
methods.
(a) Is highly effective in an environment where management
has little trust in its employees.
(b) Can be easily implemented in any organisation.
(c) Is built on the assumption that individuals can be
responsible, can exercise self – direction, and do not require
external controls and threats of punishment to motivate
them to work towards their objectives.
(d) Involves setting of objectives unilaterally by the boss.
(e) Permits full freedom to employees to determine objectives.
12. An effective performance appraisal system is characterized
by: -
(a) Subjectivity, confidentiality, and complexity.
(b) Relevance, reliability, sensitivity, acceptability and practicality.
(c) Rigid observance of prescribed instructions.
(d) Dynamism, leading to frequent changes in the system at
short notice.
(e) Similarity of treatment given to good performers and bad
performers.
13. Divide yourself into groups; develop a list of
competencies required for a management trainee.
Develop a competency map for the same. What do you
see? Are you ready for the competencies

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MANAGING PEOPLE
Overall Objectives
Performance Appraisal
l Activity Objective
“Performance Appraisal is the process l Performance Objective
through which an employee's behaviour and l Career Objective
accomplishments for a period are measured
and evaluated. It is a systematic way of
judging the relative worth or ability of an
employee in performing his or her task.”

managing people Parameter for Objective


l Planning lØ Realistic,
l Doing lØ Honest, and
l Reviewing lØ Balanced.

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MANAGING PEOPLE

four key areas of performance


Feedback Approaches
management philosophy
• Measurement 1. Confidential Credit Rating (CCR)
• feedback 2. Ranking Method
3. Paired Comparison
• positive reinforcement and
4. Person to Person rating
• contingency management
5. Forced Choice
6. Graphic Rating
7. Checklist Method
8. Cost Accounting Method

Preparation and planning of the


Problems with Appraisals
appraisal
l Preparing the agenda • Overload
l Identifyingoutcomes • Conflict

l Diagnosing performance problems • Rigidity

l Planning solutions
l Creating the appropriate climate

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MANAGING PEOPLE
360-Degree Feedback
Modern Appraisal System
System
ü Outline corporate objectives, l Advantages: l Application:
• Increases the focus on l Personal
ü Outline the functional objectives, customer service,
Development
ü Establish job clarity, and • Supports team initiative,
l Team Development
Creates a high involved
ü Establish job goals. •
workforces, l People Management
SMART (Stretching, Measurable, • Avoids discrimination and
Agreed, Realistic and Time bound) • Assesses developmental
needs
goals.

360-Degree Feedback System


Performance Management Systems

“360-degree feedback is a full circle,


multi-source and multi-rater system of
obtaining information from peers,
subordinates. and internal and external
customers, about the employees
Competency Mapping
performance. ”

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Competency Mapping Issues in Competency Mapping


“Competency mapping is a process of l How to Identify a Competency
identify key competencies for an l Approaches to Competency Rating
organisation and/ or a job and incorporate l Benefits of Competency Mapping
those competencies through the various
process (i.e. job evaluation, training, at Organisation level
recruitment, career and succession planning at Individual level
) of the organisation.” Integrating Competency Mapping with 360
Degree Feedback

Competency

“Competency means actual application of


knowledge, skill, and
motives/attitude/temperament in carrying
out assigned tasks.”

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