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52:047 UO lab I

D. Distillation Column Design


Objective: To design a large scale continuous distillation column for ethanol-water separation based on plate efficiency results from batch experiments with distillation column prototype in lab. Design a column for a feed rate of 100,000 - 500,000 kg/day (pick a value, with the assistance of the TA) of 10 vol% ethanol-water mixture fed at its boiling point. The product composition is 85 vol% ethanol and the bottoms composition is 1 vol% ethanol. Report the actual number of stages required (based on stage efficiency), column height and diameter, reboiler load, condenser load, and condenser heat exchanger area. Scott Model 9079 distillation column including the feed reservoir, feed pump, reboiler, condenser, distillate receiver, reflux pump, feed and reflux immersion preheaters, thermocouples and rotameters; SRI 8610 gas chromatograph; stop watch; test tubes; ice bath. Consult the directions supplied by the manufacturer for detailed start-up and shutdown procedures, briefly outlined below: 1. Fill reboiler to 3/4 full with the desired ethanol-water feed (~ 10 vol%). 2. Begin heating. 3. Operate at total reflux until plate temperatures reach constant values. Record the temperatures. 4. Take liquid samples from each of the plates as well as feed and product. Cool the samples immediately to avoid any evaporation and consequent change in composition, and analyze by GC. The analysis should agree closely with the boiling points. 5. Next operate the column with partial reflux. To do this, collect product in a cooled container and measure the amount collected in a certain time interval. Adjust the reflux to maintain a constant level in the condensate receiver. 6. Measure the product composition and the total product formed as a function of time.

Design:

Apparatus:

Procedure:

7. Continue for an hour or until the level is too low in reboiler and the heater shuts off. 8. Refill the reboiler and repeat for a different L V ratio. You dont need to sample all trays, just the reboiler and the distillate. Report: The following topics may be included in the report: 1. Plot Murphree efficiency versus plate number for the case of total reflux. 2. Measure the overall efficiency of the column for each reflux ratio. 3. Calculate reboiler and distillate composition as a function of the amount of liquid in the reboiler, and compare with measured values. References: 1. McCabe, W. L., Smith, J. C. and Harriott, P., Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993, ch. 18. 2. Treybal, R. E., Mass Transfer Operations, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980. 3. Geankoplis, C. J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1993. 4. Wankat, P. C., Equilibrium Staged Separations, Elsevier, New York, 1988. 5. Operating Instructions and Student Experiment Manual, Scott Model 9079 Fractional Distillation System.