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International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR) ISSN 2249-6947 Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, 61-74 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, 61-74 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. BLENDED-LEARNING IN TVET FOR EMPOWERING
Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, 61-74 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. BLENDED-LEARNING IN TVET FOR EMPOWERING

BLENDED-LEARNING IN TVET FOR EMPOWERING ENGINEERING STUDENTS’ WITH TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: A CASE OF BANGLADESH

MD. ABU RAIHAN 1 & SEUNG LOCK, HAN 2 1 Assistant Professor, Department of TVE, Islamic University of Technology (IUT) Board Bazar, Gazipur, Bangladesh 2 Professor, Department of Education, Kongju National University (KNU) Chuncheong-nam-do, Gongjusi, South Korea

ABSTRACT

Basic Web-based technology skill gaps quickly become obvious and need to be addressed sensitively in the arena of TVET in Bangladesh. TVET learning should be alignment with industry expectations. Thus, the absent Web-based e- Learning environment can be mix with face-to-face learning in TVET to underpin the development of Bangladesh. The aims of the study suggest Blended-learning which is currently absent in TVET in Bangladesh. The objectives of the study were to identify the attitude of TVET teachers’ about Web-based e-Learning; to identify the TVET sources of information for teaching-learning, to determine the instructional media or aids used during class-teaching; and to determine the benefits of Blended-learning in TVET. Two questionnaires were used for data collection with attitude survey and interview of TVET teachers. 187 TVET teachers have given their opinions on the topic carried out by the study. The value of the study is now to integrate a new landscape in educational technology where physical and virtual environments are blended to support learning in TVET courses in Bangladesh.

KEYWORDS: Blended-Learning, TVET, Technological Innovations

INTRODUCTION

For purpose of this study, the term “Blended-learning” refers to course that combine face-to-face classroom instruction with Web-based e-Learning (online learning) to reduce classroom contact hours (reduce seat time) and especially to bridge the learning gaps between the developed and the developing countries like Bangladesh. The current teaching and learning environment is more complex than ever. Engaging TVET educators to take the lead in developing blended learning practices that are “fit for purpose” within an educational and workplace context is challenging. Appropriate blended learning tools that wrap around teaching, learning and assessment, yet span across diverse subjects, outcome levels (entry to undergraduate) and graduate capabilities and meet industry’s expectations around near or real world’ learning experiences is best developed through sustained practice (Weterman & Kelly, 2011). According to Weterman & Kelly (2011) the importance of a structured approach to building blended learning capabilities is real – pedagogical practices are evolving as are the changing needs of the workplace and the growing gap between the technology skills between the educator and the students. Technology is one of the tools of blended delivery for vocational educators and often their greatest challenge in terms of using it to add value to the learning environment.

The blending of computerized educational courses with expert input from professors to affect a paradigm shift from “sage on the stage” to “guide on the side” (Sonwalkar, 2005). Allison Rossett, professor of educational technology at San Diego State University, supports this “blended theory” approach. “Learning theories aren’t like religion,” says Rossett. “You don’t have to pick Catholic or Baptist or Muslim, and shun the others. The goal is to have the right theory for the right situation” (Zemke, 2002). Zemke states that the situation is dependent upon “the people you serve, the nature of the skills they must master and the context in which they are to perform.” Such a “situational” instructional design model fits

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well with the concept of blended learning. By applying learning theories of Keller, Gagné, Bloom, Merrill, Clark and Gery, five key ingredients emerge as important elements of a blended learning process: (i) Live events, (ii) Self-paced learning, (iii) Collaboration, (iv) Assessment, (v) Performance support materials (Carman, 2002).

Educational technologies have the potential to open the doors of the educational institutions to a wider audience, provide choices for non-traditional students, and extend services to populations that would otherwise not be able to attend the classes on campus (Wright, Marsh, & Miller, 2000, p. 107). The diversity of TVET learners has been increasing in higher education institutions, particularly in urban colleges and universities in Bangladesh. More nontraditional students enroll in both nondegree and degree programs for the sake of career advancement and self-aspiration. Nontraditional students are defined in several ways: (a) They have multiple roles (e.g., parent, employee) in addition to being students (Chartrand, 1990); (b) they have at least 1 year between high school and college (Dill & Henley, 1998); and (c) the age break between nontraditional and traditional students ranges from 22 to 28 depending on their majors and the urban-city of their residency. The blend instruction offer TVET learners an opportunity to learn ubiquitously without being limited to the constraints of time and distance. More and more adult learners in TVET are experiencing the great accessibility that computer technologies have brought. Many researchers (Kessell, 2000; Roberts, 2000; Maeoff, 2003) found that many adult learners are interested in gaining advanced degrees and certifications via distributed learning because of the flexibility that it offers.

The changing student profile such as the increasing number of mature-age students, part-time students, postgraduate enrolment and international students means that today’s educators need to embrace flexible teaching strategies to better engage these groups of students (DEEWR, 2008). Thus, the integration of Web-based e-Learning is essential for TVET. “Web-based e-Learning or online learning can be defined as ‘hypermedia based instructional program, which utilizes the attributes and resources of the World Wide Web to create a meaningful learning environment where learning is fostered and supported” (Khan, 1997, p. 6). Online learning is delivered via the internet which enables educators to have instant updating, distribution, and sharing of information (Rosenberg, 2001). With the growing demand of the diverse student population in the arena of TVET, online learning has become popular as it provides the students with more flexible access to course contents and instructions at anytime and from anywhere with unlimited educational discourse (Centre for Technology in Learning, 2009; Garrison & Kanuka, 2004). The result of a meta-analysis on Web- based and classroom instruction studies from 1996 to 2005 suggests that online learning is more effective than classroom instruction for teaching declarative knowledge; however, the two mediums are equally effective when the same instructional methods were used (Sitzmann, Kraiger, Stewart, & Wisher, 2006). Notwithstanding the myriad of advantages of online learning, the conclusions of the meta-analysis of the literature concerning online learning from 1996 to 2006 does not demonstrate that online learning is superior as a medium (Centre for Technology in Learning 2009, p. xvii). Thus, popularities have increased for Blended-learning.

Blended-learning or Hybrid-learning has become increasing important in higher education as it has the advantages of both online and traditional instructions (Horton, 2000). Commonly, blended learning means those programmes that provide some combination of online and face-to-face learning (Owston, 2008; Singh 2003; Wall, Ahmed, & Smit, 2006). It has also been argued that learning outcomes will be enhanced when the rich dynamics of fast-paced communication technology are thoughtfully integrated with traditional classroom instruction (Garrison & Kanuka, 2004). In accommodating students’ different learning requirements, more and more higher education institutions are incorporating Web-sites in their programmes by providing study materials, having podcasts for students who chose to listen at their own convenience, using emails and discussion board for in-depth communication, as well as using the internet for assignment

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submission and return of feedback (Cornish, Reed, & Wilkinson, 2009; Johnstone, 2002; Mak, Sher, & Williams, 2010; Singh, 2003).

Vaughan (2007) define blended learning as “the thoughtful fusion of face-to-face and online learning experiences” (p. 5) emphasizing the need for reflection on traditional approaches and for redesigning learning and teaching in this new terrain. Littlejohn & Pegler (2007) also recommend a different approach that they term ‘Blended e-Learning’. This is a useful approach because it changes the focus in learning design by shifting the emphasis from simply considering the face-to-face and online environments to that of considering the design issues of (1) introducing e-Learning, and (2) the process of blending the online and face-to-face environments.

According to Charles, Hartman, & Moskal from University of Central Florida, USA (2004) blended learning should be viewed as a pedagogical approach that combines the effectiveness and socialization opportunities of the classroom with technology enhanced active learning possibilities of the online environment, rather than a ratio of delivery modalities. Blended learning should be approached not merely as a temporal construct, but rather as a fundamental redesign of the instructional model with (i) a shift from lecture to student-centered instruction in which students become active and interactive learners, (ii) increases in interaction between student-instructor, student-student, student-content, and student-outside resources, and (iii) integrated formative and summative assessment mechanisms for students and instructor.

Objectives of the Study

The purpose of the study is to ascertain the necessities of Blended-learning in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). Specially, the study sought to:

Identify the attitude of TVET teachers’ about Web-based e-Learning

Identify the TVET sources of information for teaching-learning

Determine the instructional media or aids used during class-teaching.

Determine the benefits of Blended-learning in TVET.

Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

What were the attitudes of TVET teachers’ regarding Web-based e-Learning?

What are the TVET teachers’ sources of information for teaching-learning?

What kind of instructional media used during class teaching?

What are the benefits of blended Web-based e-Learning with traditional learning?

LITERATURE REVIEW

Howard Rheingold (2002) is a pioneer in the internet and communications technologies. His current book explores how technology is changing face-to-face interactions. It suggests that networks of people can be empowered through technology to work smarter and faster.

While not specifically aimed at higher education, the book clearly recognizes the power of learning throughout networks of people. It recommends strategies be empowered to help unleash this new creative power.

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One study conducted by Yam & Rossini (2011) on the title “Online Learning and Blended Learning: Which is more effective?”, the study findings reveals that blended learning is more effective as students have the advantages of both face-to-face learning and the online environment. Research conducted at the University of Newcastle found that the respondents did not find online discussion to be useful for their learning (Mak, Sher, & Williams 2010).

Cameron (2003) conducted the research on “The effectiveness of simulation in a hybrid and online networking course.” This research compared students’ performance on simulation-based courses and static graphic representational teaching of the same course content in an online learning environment. Results indicate that interactive learning tools, such as simulation, have the potential to increase student motivation and learning in an online environment. Another study has conducted by Cottrell & Robinson (2003). Authors of this research were interested in the possibility of using blended approaches to reduce faculty time, re-focus student time and using blended learning as a way to admit more students to a given academic program. Students reported preferring the blended learning approach and classroom time was reduced.

Cox, Carr, & Hall (2004) have evaluated the use of synchronous communication in two blended courses with educational effectiveness of online chats, considering the roles of course design, group dynamics and facilitation style. Results found that these three factors strongly influenced the successful use of this medium and student participation. Another study by Dowling, Godfrey, & Gyles (2003) investigated the association between the learning outcomes of students and two teaching modules: traditional face-to-face and hybrid flexible delivery. Results indicated that the hybrid flexible delivery model is more positively associated with students’ final marks and improved learning outcomes.

One research conducted by Dziuban, Hartman, & Moskal, (2004); this research describes the benefits of combined face-to-face instruction and online learning, including the potential to increase learning outcomes, lowering attrition rates, and high satisfaction among the majority of faculty and students. Another research conducted by Garrison & Kanuta, (2004); the research paper offers a framework which explores how integrating online learning into traditional college classrooms could be transformative for universities. Blended learning represents an opportunity to support deep learning.

O’Toole & Absalom, (2003) took a study on “The impact of blended learning on student outcomes: Is there room on the horse for two?”. The purpose of this study was to learn whether the provision of course materials on the Internet had a positive effect on student achievement of course outcomes. The authors found that those students who attended lecture and read Web materials performed better on the quiz than did those students who only attended lecture or only used the Web. Riffell & Sibley (2004) had an research to know “Can hybrid course formats increase attendance in undergraduate environmental science courses?”.

This article examines the effect of a hybrid course format (Part online, part face-to-face) on student attendance. A traditional lecture course was compared to a hybrid introductory college science course. Results indicated that completion rates of online homework were significantly greater than attendance rates to lectures. Also, this difference increased with higher class rank. Therefore, it is postulated that hybrid courses may increase student attendance, particularly for upperclassmen.

Twigg (2003) conducted one study on “Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning”. The aim of this study is to describe the potential benefits of using technology to improve the quality of student learning and reduce the costs of instruction. Thirty institutions received grants to help them redesign instruction using technology. On average, the institutions reduced costs by 40%. Additional outcomes included increased course-completion rates, improved retention, better student attitudes towards the subject matter, and increased student satisfaction with the mode of instruction.

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Robison (2004) investigated the experiences of ten faculty members in designing and teaching blended learning courses at Brigham Young University. The results revealed that participating faculty members perceived three major benefits of the blended learning experience: (i) the more effective use of classroom time; (ii) increased flexibility in meeting time constraints of both the students and the teacher; and (iii) a greater ability to meet the needs of individual students.

Korkmaz & Karaku (2009) investigated the impact of a blended learning model on student attitudes to a geography course and their critical thinking dispositions and skills for experimental pattern (n = 28) and control (n = 29) groups at Kirsehir high school. The experimental group experienced hybrid learning through a geography Web page, whereas a traditional learning model was used for the control group. The blended learning model contributed more to student attitudes on the course and to critical dispositions and levels compared to the traditional learning model, and there was a positive correlation between student attitudes to the course and their critical thinking dispositions and levels.

METHODOLOGY

The Aim of the Study is to investigate whether Blended-learning can contribute TVET students and teachers in terms of technological innovations. The problem statement is thus: “does Blended-learning favorably affect the students involved in TVET or not?” The research design has adopted for the study was sample survey research. “A sample survey research design is the type of research design that a group of people is studied by collecting and analyzing data from such a group of people who are considered to be the representative of the entire people” (Olaitan, Ali, Eyoh, & Sowande, 2000).

Area of Study: The study has carried in Government technical and vocational education and training institutions in Bangladesh. 45 TVET institutions were there. Some of the TVET institutions have multimedia and PowerPoint equipment but not used those in the class teaching. Despite the fact that most of the institutions are sited where they have access of electricity and internet facilities.

Population and Sample: The population for this study was made teachers’ of TVET in Bangladesh. 187 teachers from TVET institutions were participated by providing the information about their class teaching. The teachers were expressed their opinions and needs about Web-based e-Learning in TVET by predict the benefit of Blended-learning.

Method of Data Collection: The researcher has used two questionnaires for data collection. The instruments were administered by the researcher. The first questionnaire was for the attitude survey of the TVET teachers about Web- based e-Learning. Out of the 187 questionnaires given out, 187 copies were returned that is 100% return rate. The other questionnaire was three parts in three sections. It contained 15 questions altogether. The questions were to identify the TVET sources of information for teaching-learning; to determine the instructional medium used during class-teaching; and to determine the benefits of Web-based e-Learning in TVET. The respondents that filled the questionnaire (by interview) were TVET teachers, since they are directly involved in the teaching of technical trades and subjects.

Validation of the Instrument: Two experts (from USA) and one expert (from South Korea) in Kongju National University were involved to prepare the instrument. Their suggestions were used for drafting the final copy of the questionnaires.

Method of Data Analysis: The collected data were analyzed in line with the research questions using frequency count and percentage. The study has shown the value (in percentages, weighted average) in quantitative ways. Also used the ‘Likert-Scale’ by five categories such as 5(Excellent) = EX, 4(Good) = GD, 3(Average) = AV, 2(Poor) = PR and 1(Very Poor) = VP. The Weighted Average (WA) has computed for each item of the questionnaire using the following

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formula (Gay, Airasian, & Peter, 2003). Interpretation of Weighted Average values were 5WA>4.5 ‘Excellent’ (5); 4.5

WA >3.5 ‘Good’ (4); 3.5WA >2.5 ‘Average’ (3); 2.5WA >1.5 ‘Poor’ (2) 1.5 WA >0 ‘Very Poor’ (1).

WA =

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

N

1

+

2

N

2

+

3

N

3

+

4

N

4

+

5

N

5

 

N

1

+

N

2

+

N

3

+

N

4

+

N

5

Table 1: Teachers’ Attitude about Web-Based E-Learning in TVET Institutions

(No of Respondent the TVET Teachers, N=187)

Observed

Observation List

EX

GD

AV

PR

VP

WA

Activities

(5)

(4)

(3)

(2)

(1)

 

Attitude towards

           

Web-based e-

Learning

100

53.48%

50

26.74%

30

16.04%

7

3.74%

-

4.29

(good)

Motivation about web-based e-Learning

120

40

20

7

-

4.46

64.17%

21.39%

10.70%

3.74%

(good)

Knowledge & skill about e-Learning

7

11

99

50

20

2.65

Teachers

3.74%

5.88%

52.95%

26.74%

10.70%

(avg)

Abilities to use Internet

99

71

17

-

-

4.44

52.95%

37.98%

9.09%

(good)

Use of Modem for teaching

 

120

40

20

7

3.46

-

64.17%

21.39%

10.70%

3.74%

(avg)

Use of SMART phone for e-Learning

7

10

50

100

20

2.19

3.74%

5.35%

26.74%

53.48%

10.70%

(poor)

Results: Most of the TVET teachers’ have good attitude and motivation towards Web-based e-Learning and they

have also good abilities to use Internet. The average number of teachers uses modem for Classroom teaching now-a-days.

The knowledge and skill about Web-based e-Learning was average-type and e-Learning through SMART phone was poor.

average-type and e-Learning through SMART phone was poor. Figure 1: TVET Sources of Information for Teaching-Learning

Figure 1: TVET Sources of Information for Teaching-Learning

Results: It was essential to get the information about the sources of teaching-learning in TVET. The uses of Radio

& Television in teaching-learning was 0%, Library books 15% (N=28), Internet 10% (N=19), News Paper 3% (N=6), and

Personal collections 72% (N=134).

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with Technological Innovations: A Case of Bangladesh 67 Figure 2: Instructional Medias or Aids Used during

Figure 2: Instructional Medias or Aids Used during Class-Teaching in TVET

Results: It was indispensable to get the information about the instructional Medias or aids used during class- teaching in TVET. The research revealed e-Books 0%, PowerPoint 7% (N=13), OHP 20% (N=37), Radio & Television 2% (N=4), and Chalk & Talk methodologies used by 71% (N=133) teachers in TVET, Bangladesh.

used by 71% (N=133) teachers in TVET, Bangladesh. Figure 3: The Benefits of Blended-Learning in TVET

Figure 3: The Benefits of Blended-Learning in TVET

The study has grouped TVET benefits based on the nature of results carried out from the TVET institutions of Bangladesh. Two main categories have identified: teacher (teaching) benefits and student (learning) benefits for Blended- learning. The Blended-learning is complementary methodologies would be applied in traditional classrooms situations to enhance overall teaching-learning. Both the categories has analyzed on three levels:

The micro level (the benefit of individual teachers and students); it revealed that 55% teachers opinion about career development, 34% opinions on employment opportunities, and 11% opinions on time saving; the case of students benefits revealed that 51% opinions on reducing the dropout rate, 31% on enhancing motivation, and 18% opinions on acquiring authentic learning. The meso-level (benefits of TVET readiness or entrepreneurs) revealed that the teachers benefits over the skill standard manipulations (70%) and prepare productive employees (30%); the benefits of the students in terms of creating knowledge-based society (65%) and improving the socio-economic condition (35%). The macro-level (benefit for the country) revealed that to acquire global knowledge (77%), inventiveness (15%), and novelty and liveliness in teaching (8%); the benefits of the students are the capacity building with skill development (60%), reduction of unemployment (30%), and enhance literacy (10%).

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DISCUSSIONS

Md. Abu Raihan & Seung Lock, Han

Rural population (% of total population) in Bangladesh is 71.90% in 2010 (World Bank report, 2012). There have 3,116 + technical and vocational education and training (TVET) institutions in Bangladesh (Education Sector in Bangladesh, 2012). Most of the TVET institutions are located in the rural areas. The rural and urban has enormous information gaps in terms of teaching-learning in Bangladesh. Being developing County the emerging problems are capacity building, unemployment, and illiteracy. Those problems can be reduced by bridged the gap of learning between developed and developing country with some Blended-leanings environments. The country is developing as she has the lack of coordination and collaboration with developed countries in terms of teaching-learning. Thus, to acquire global knowledge is essential. Though, TVET aims are to develop the skill by appropriate training. However, the situations of capacity build of the TVET resources (Human resources) up to now are not international standard. Thus, needs to develop the technical skills with Blended-learning by providing interactive and repetitive practices. The TVET standards of teachings should be come from the needs of the international global market. Thus, Blended-learning will provide the knowledge about the skill standard needs for teaching. Moreover, it may essential for making the knowledge-based society with the real assets of students and also to develop the career of the teachers and to reduce the dropout rates by connecting the rural urban school with World Wide Web.

It is of great importance to build a Blended-learning model for the students of TVET in Bangladesh in terms of their all-round development at school against the background of information technology and fierce competitiveness in the field of higher education both home and abroad by integrating Web-based education with traditional education, and combining the “teaching-based teaching” with the “learning-based teaching”.

The study revealed that, recently, in TVET, the traditional classroom teaching is taught by the teachers giving their students information in order to provide them with knowledge by personal collections of learning materials by using Chalk & Talk mythologies. While, Blended-learning theory is widely accepted in the field of teaching, traditional teaching- based teaching is an irreplaceable approach through a variety of shortcomings exist (Xu Yushu, 2009).

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions The use of Web-based e-Learning has not been fully integrated into the TVET educational system. The Web- based e-Learning is complicated and difficult to understand for all the TVET peoples but it has advantageous impact on science and technology teaching. This impact is even more important in implementing the TVET programmes which take into consideration the demands of the industries, as well as the socio-economic needs of the learners.

The ICTs are expanding day by days in the country which is the encouraging mode for Blended-learning. Taiwo (2007) highlighted the benefits of ICT to technical teachers and students as follows: (i) Increases the performance of students as interaction, takes place; (ii) Provides instructional opportunities where real material is not available; (iii) Increases mastery of skills by teachers and students; (iv) Improves students problem solving skills; (v) Increases the preparation of students for careers in technical education; (vi) It increases emphasis on individualized instruction; and (vii) It increases interest in teaching.

Web-based e-Learning mechanism is a powerful tools and ways for pedagogical practices as well as hands on practices which provide interest-centered environments to increase innovativeness and creativity of teacher and students in TVET. Thus, the Blended-learning approach can be used in TVET institutions in Bangladesh to produce better educated people. An optimized Web-based facility in TVET is required to support the curriculum which is well-matched with global

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economy and its successful integration in the teaching-learning situation leads to produce potential graduates as well as skilled workforce which can lift the nation’s success.

The importance of a structured approach to building blended learning capabilities is real – pedagogical practices are evolving as are the changing needs of the workplace and the growing gap between the technology skills between the educator and the students. Technology is one of the tools of blended delivery for vocational educators and often their greatest challenge in terms of using it to add value to the learning environment (Weterman & Kelly, 2011).

Recommendations

Based on the above literature review, it is hypothesized that Blended-learning is more effective than pure online learning due to better support through having the benefit of both face-to-face contact and the online environment. Maximizing success in Blended-learning initiative requires a planned and well-supported approach that includes a theory- based instructional model, high-quality faculty development, course development assistance, learner support, and ongoing formative and summative assessment. Blended courses are highly likely to require a computer, projector, and Internet access in the classroom used for the face-to-face class meetings.

As the number of Blended courses increases, the demand for multimedia-equipped classrooms may exceed the supply. Well-planned and well-organized instructor training programs have been identified as a prerequisite for success in an online setting (Wolf, 2006). To this end, some researchers proposed different, yet supplementary, approaches and focuses. Gibbons & Wentworth (2001) recommended that instructor training programs be delivered online to put instructors in the position of online learners to foster a better understanding of online learners’ needs and challenges. It is advisable that training programs foster online facilitation skills such as providing feedback and encouragement to students as well as managing disruptive students (Hitch & Hirsch, 2001). Based on the literature reviews findings the researchers suggest the following factors for TVET in Bangladesh:

Blended learning models should be developed that respond to local, community or organizational needs rather than using a generic approach (Sharpe, Benfield, Robert, & Francis, 2006). However, Mason & Rennie (2006) advocate putting the learners’ needs first, ahead of the context or the biases of the teacher in making such choices.

It is important that the institutional building blocks are in place including organisational readiness, sufficient technical resources, motivated faculty, good communication and feedback channels with students (Tabor,

2007).

Blended learning should be introduced as a scholarly and transformative redesign process within the institution, that rebuilds the course rather than simply adding on technology (Sharpe, Benfield, Robert, & Francis, 2006: Littlejohn & Pegler, 2007; Garrison & Vaughan, 2008).

The importance of, and need for, continuing professional development for teachers with sufficient time for development should be acknowledged (Vaughan, 2007).

The impact on teachers’ workloads must be taken into account. Littlejohn & Pegler (2006) identify the costliness in terms of both institutional and teacher investment and suggest the creation of shareable and reusable digital resources in an effort to ensure that blended learning is sustainable.

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Students’ learning maturity and readiness for blending learning with its demands for independent learning must be considered (Tabor, 2007).

Student expectations, especially their ideas that fewer face-to-face classes mean less work and the need to develop more responsibility for their learning and time management skills must be taken into account (Vaughan, 2007; Tabor, 2007).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

A great many people contributed, directly and indirectly, to this research. The authors would like to take this opportunity to thank them all, particularly those most immediately involved. Particular thanks go to TVET institutions from where the research data have collected. Finally, very special thanks go to the instructors (teachers’) of TVET institutions in Bangladesh.

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Blended-Learning in TVET for Empowering Engineering Students’ with Technological Innovations: A Case of Bangladesh

AUTHOR’S DETAILS

Innovations: A Case of Bangladesh AUTHOR’S DETAILS 73 Md. Abu Raihan, Ph.D. (Educational Technology of TVET)

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Md. Abu Raihan, Ph.D. (Educational Technology of TVET) from South Korea. He is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Technical and Vocational Education (TVE), Islamic University of Technology (IUT), A Subsidiary Organ of OIC, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh. His areas of interest are Web-based e-Learning design, ICT in education, Constructivism, and research in TVET.

ICT in education, Constructivism, and research in TVET. Seung Lock, Han, Ph.D. (Educational Technology) from South

Seung Lock, Han, Ph.D. (Educational Technology) from South Korea. He is a Professor in the Department of Education, Kongju National University (KNU), GongJu-Si, 314-701, South Korea. His areas of interest are Web-based e- Learning design, Constructivism & Instructional Scaffolding, and research in TVET.