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OP-AMPS in SIGNAL PROCESSING

APPLICATIONS
Filters, Integrators, Differentiators,
and Instrumentation Amplifier
Sensors :
definition and principles
Sensors : taxonomies
Measurand
physical sensor
chemical sensor
biological sensor(cf : biosensor)
Invasiveness
invasive(contact) sensor
noninvasive(noncontact) sensor
Usage type
multiple-use(continuous monitoring) sensor
disposable sensor
Power requirement
passive sensor
active sensor
What is electronics engineering all
about?
Process
Sensors/ transducers
Filters
Amplifiers
Feedback
Actuators/transducers
New process
A/D converters
Computers
D/A converters
Physical
variables
Electrical
variables
V, I, t, f
Physical
variables
F, P, d, v, t, f
What is a Signal Processor?
It selects useful parts
of a signal
It cleans signal from
impurities
It compares signals
It converts signals into
forms that can be
easily recognized
The ECG wave in its raw form
Examples of
biomedical
signals
Examples of Signal Processors
Basic amplifiers already discussed
Instrumentation amplifier an improved
differential amplifier
Active filters
Integrators and differentiators
Extra Reading:
Precision rectifiers
Logarithmic amplifiers
Negative capacitance amplifiers
Signal Conditioning
Ideal operational amplifier
Inverting, non-inverting and instrument
amplifier
Integrator, differentiator
Filters
Examples of signal conditioning module
Ideal Operational Amplifier
Operational (OP) amplifier is a high-gain dc differential
amplifier. It is made of an integrated circuit chip. It has two
inputs, negative terminal v
1
and positive terminal v
2
and one
output v
0
. The effective input to the amplifier is the voltage
difference of the two inputs v
1
-v
2
.
Properties of Ideal OP Amplifier
Gain if infinity (A=).
V
0
= 0, when v
1
= v
2
Input impedance is infinity.
Output impedance is zero.
Bandwidth is infinitely wide and has no phase
shift.
Basic Rules for Ideal OP Amplifier
When the OP amplifier output is in its linear
range, the two input terminals are at the same
voltage.
No current flows into either input terminal of
the OP amp.
Inverting Amplifier
Non-inverting Amplifier
Instrument Amplifier
Active Filters
Low-pass
High-pass
Band-pass
Band-stop (notch)
All-pass (phase-shift)
Low-pass filter: circuit
i
f
Z
Z
G =

V
0

V
i
A
+
-
R
i

R
f

C
f

G
L
=R
f
/R
i
;
f
=R
f
C
f
; f
c
=1/2
f
Derive the equation for gain G
What are the important parameters?
) (
) (
0

j V
j V
G
i
=
i
f
f
f
f
R
R
C j
C j
R
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

1
( )
f
L
f i
f
i f f
f
j
G
j R
R
R C R j
R
+
=
+
=
+
=
1 1
1
1
Low-pass filter: characteristics
Gain/G
L
f/f
c
0.1 1 10 100
0.1
0.01
Slope =-1
1
-3/2
Phase f/f
c
-5/4
-
G
L
=R
f
/R
i
;
f
=R
f
C
f
; f
c
=1/2
f

V
0

V
i
A
+
-
R
i

C
f

Integrator ideal: circuit
i
f
i
f
i
R
C j
Z
Z
j V
j V
G

1
) (
) (
0
= = =
Virtual
Ground
i
i

+ =
t
iC i
f i
V dt V
C R
V
0
0
1
dt
dV
C
R
V
i
f
i
i 0
= =
Express V
0
in terms of V
i
Write expression for gain G
f f i
j C R j
1 1
= =
Where =R
i
C
f
Integrator ideal:
characteristics
G/G
L
f/f
c
0.1 1 10 100
0.1
0.01
0
10
100
Slope =-1
1
-3/2
Phase f/f
c
-5/4
-
Draw G/G
L
versus f/f
c
Draw phase versus f/f
c
f
f
G
c c
= = ==

1
= = 270 2 / 3
The integrator with bias currents
Through which component the bias current flows?
Gain/G
L
f/f
c
0.1 1 10 100
0.1
0.01
Slope =-1
Integrator - practical

V
0

V
i
A
+
-
R
i

R
f

C
f

f
L
f i
f
i
j
G
j R
R
j V
j V
G

+
=
+
= =
1 1
1
) (
) (
0
Without R
f
With R
f
R
f
provides route for DC bias currents
1 Phase f/f
c
-3/2
-5/4
-
Without R
f
Low-pass filter
Integ.
f
c f f f
f C R

2
1
; = =
Charge amplifier
v
o
Electrode
The piezoelectric sensor generates charge, which is transferred to
the capacitor, C, by the charge amplifier. Feedback resistor R
causes the capacitor voltage to decay to zero
Charge amplifier: circuit

V
0

I
sC
FET
+
-
R
f

C
f

I
sR
dt Kdx i dt dq
s s
/ / = =
Piezoelectric
sensor
I
s
Virtual
Ground
I
sC
=I
sR
=0

= = =
t
f f
C
KX
dt
dt
Kdx
C
V V
0
0
1
Step response of a charge amplifier
x
i
Deflection
v
o
v
o max
v
o max
/e
Time
Time
The charge amplifier
responds to a step input
with an output that
decays to zero with a
time constant =R
f
C
f
High-pass filter: circuit

V
0

V
i
A
+
-
R
i

R
f

C
i

i
f
i
Z
Z
j V
j V
G = =
) (
) (
0

G
H
=-R
f
/R
i
;
i
=R
i
C
i
; f
c
=1/2
i
Derive the equation for gain G
What are the important parameters?
i
H i
i
i
i
f
j
G j
j
j
R
R

+
=
+
=
1 1
i i
i f
i
i
f
C R j
C R j
C j
R
R
G

+
=
+
=
1
1
High-pass filter: characteristics
Gain/G
H
f/f
c
0.1 1 10 100
0.1
0.01
Slope =+1
1
-
Phase f/f
c
-3/4
-/2
Draw G/G
H
versus f/f
c
Draw phase versus f/f
c
Differentiator - ideal

V
0

V
i
A
+
-
R
f

C
i

I
I
dt
dV
C R V
dt
dV
C i
i
i f
i
i
=
=
0

j C R j G
C j
R
Z
Z
j V
j V
G
i f
i
f
i
f
i
= =
= = =
1
) (
) (
0
Slope =+1
f
c
=1/2
Phase shift = - 90
o
Gain
f/f
c
0.1 1 10 100
0.1
0.01
1
10
100
Express V
0
in terms of V
i
Write expression for gain G
Differentiator - practical

V
0

V
i
A
+
-
R
f

C
i

C
f

f
f
f
i
f f
i f
i
f
f
f
f
i
f
i
j
j
C
C
C R j
C R j
C j
C j
R
C j
R
Z
Z
j V
j V
G

+
=
+
=
+
= = =
1 1
1
1
1
) (
) (
0
In an ideal differentiator, the high
frequency response is limited by the
open-loop gain of the op-amp yielding
a very noisy output voltage.

f
=R
f
C
f
; f
c
=1/2
f
C
f
is used to limit the hf gain,
hence the hf noise.
The gain at hf: G
H
=- C
i
/C
f
Differentiator characteristics
Slope =+1
1
-
Phase f/f
c
-3/4
-/2
Gain/G
H
f/f
c
0.1 1 10 100
0.1
0.01
10
Without C
f
With C
f
With C
f
Differentiator
High-pass filter
Measurement of integrator and
differentiator characteristics

V
0

V
i
A
+
-
1k5
15 k
10 nF
Integrator
Form your lab team and assign
duties.
Go to the lab bench.
Built the circuit given:
integrator for team 1 and
differentiator for team 2
Connect the power supply.
Connect the CRO
Do the experiment according to
the procedures in the sheet - 6.
Switch off the PS and signal
generator
Return your seat

V
0

V
i
A
+
-
15 k
0.1F
10 nF
Differentiator
Band-pass filter: circuit
V
0

V
i
A
+
-
R
i

R
f

C
f

C
i

( )( )
) 1 )( 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (
1 1
1
1
) (
) (
0
f i
i MB
f i
i
i
f
i i f f
f i
i
i
f
f
f
f
i
f
i
j j
j G
j j
j
R
R
G
C R j C R j
R C j
C j
R
R
C j
C j
R
Z
Z
j V
j V
G





+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
Mid-band gain =G
MB
=- R
f
/R
i
Time-constants:
I
=R
i
C
i
;
f
=R
f
C
f
Critical frequencies: f
L
=1/2
I
; f
H
=1/2
f
Band-pass filter: characteristics
Gain/G
H
f/f
c
0.1
1 10 100
0.1
0.01
Slope =-1 Slope =+1
Band-pass filter (non-inverting)
Frequency response of bpf
BPF with bias compensation
Comparators: Basic Rules
V
0
=A(V
2
-V
1
)
V
0
= 0 if V
1
= V
2
V
0
= +V
SAT
if V
1
< V
2
V
0
= -V
SAT
if V
1
> V
2
No current flows into either
input terminals of the op-
amp.

V
0
V
1
V
2
A
+
-
Simple comparator (inverting)

V
0
V
ref
A
+
-
R
1
R
2
V
i
V
-
Output stays at +V
SAT
if V
-
<0
V
-
=(V
i
*R
2
+V
ref
*R
1
)/(R
1
+R
2
)
Output goes to -V
SAT
if V
-
>0

+10V

-10V

V
0
Time

-V
ref
*R
1
/(R
1
+R
2
)

V
i
*R
2
/(R
1
+R
2
)


V
0
V
i
10V

10V

-10V

-10V
-V
ref
*R
1
/R
2
-
V
SAT
V
SA
T
Comparator with hysteresis

V
0
V
ref
A
+
-
R
1
R
2
V
i
V
-
R
3
R
4
V
+
V
-
=(V
i
*R
2
+V
ref
*R
1
)/(R
1
+R
2
)
V
+
=V
0
*R
3
/(R
3
+R
4
)
Output stays at +V
SAT
if V
-
<V
+
Output goes to -V
SAT
if V
-
>V
+
Characteristics
V
0
V
ref
A
+
-
R
1
R
2
V
i
V
-
R
3
R
4
V
+

V
0
V
i
10V

10V

-10V

-10V

V
L
+V
SAT
-V
SAT
V
H
V
hys
V
H
=-V
ref
*R
1
/R
2
V
SAT
*R
3
/(R
3
+R
4
)
V
L
=-V
ref
*R
1
/R
2
+V
SAT
*R
3
/(R
3
+R
4
)

+10V

-10V

V
0
Time

-V
ref
*R
1
/(R
1
+R
2
)

V
i
*R
2
/(R
1
+R
2
)

V
H
V
L
V
hys
Op-Amps in Reality
Fabricated using integrated-
circuit technologies
Inside an op-amp:
1) Transistors
2) Parasitic capacitors
3) Internal resistors
Op-amp chip configuration that we will use:
Quad-channel (i.e. 4-in-1)
14 pins in the op-amp chip
Instrumentation Amplifier
Overall Circuit Structure
Overall differential gain is given by:
R
4
R
3
v
o
R
3
R
4
R
2
v
a
R
2
R
1
v
b
V
S+
V
S+
V
S+
1
2
2
1
R
R
G + =

3
4
R
R
G =

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
3
4
1
2
2
1
R
R
R
R
G G G
D
Difference
Amplifier
I nput
Conditioner
V
S
V
S
V
S
In-Amp: Input Conditioner
Note that i
R1
= i
R2a
= i
R2b
. Then the diff. output
voltage is given by:
The diff. input voltage is equal to:
The differential gain is thus equal to:
R
2
v
a
R
2
R
1
v
b
V
S+
V
S+
v
a
'
v
b
'
i
R1
i
R2a
( )
2 1 1
2 ' ' R R i v v
R a b
+ =
i
R2b
1
2
2
1
' '
R
R
v v
v v
G
a b
a b
D
+ =

=
1 1
R i v v
R a b
=
V
S
V
S
In-Amp: Input Conditioner
This input conditioner does not amplify
common-mode signals!
Brief proof of principle:
Since v
b
v
a
= i
R1
R
1
:
The output voltages are thus
equal to:
0
1
= = =
R cm b a
i v v v
cm b a
v v v = = ' '
R
2
v
a
R
2
R
1
v
b
V
S+
V
S+
v
a
'
v
b
'
i
R1
i
R2a
i
R2b
V
S
V
S
In-Amp: Difference Amplifier
1) From voltage divider principles:
2) Note that i
R1a
= i
R2a
. Thus:
R
2
R
1
v
b
v
o
v
a
R
1
R
2
V
S+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
2 1
2
R R
R
v v
b
i
R1a
i
R2a
1 2
R
v v
R
v v
a o

=


1 1 2 2
1 1
R
v
v
R R R
v
a o

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

V
S
In-Amp: Difference Amplifier
3) Note that v

= v
+
. So from the voltage divider
expression:
4) Substituting the above into the
output voltage expression, we get:
R
2
R
1
v
b
v
o
v
a
R
1
R
2
V
S+
i
R1a
i
R2a
1
2
1
2
) (
R
R
v v
v
G v v
R
R
v
a b
o
d a b o
=

= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

2 1
2
R R
R
v v
b
1 1 2
2
1 2
1 2
2
R
v
v
R R
R
R R
R R
R
v
a
b
o

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
V
S