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1. Objectives Standards CSA A23.2-2A Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregate CSA A23.

A23.2-6A Relative Density and Absorption of Fine Aggregate Purpose To determine the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates. To determine the specific gravity (or relative density) of fine aggregate.

2. Theoretical Background Aggregates are granular material used with a cementing medium to form concrete, as foundation material, as drainage layer, road base. Aggregates need to be strong, free of undesirable impurities and chemically stable. Aggregates are used because they reduce cost and have a greater volume stability than paste. The shape and texture of aggregates are important when they are used in the making of concrete because they have an impact on the strength and workability of the concrete. Aggregates can be grouped into two groups: Fine aggregate (Fine sand, crushed stones with a size smaller or equal to 4.75mm); Coarse aggregates (gravel, crushed stones with a size greater than 4.75mm but usually 1040mm). The specific gravity is important for the mix

3. Materials and equipment The materials used in this lab are : Sand 20-mm crushed limestone aggregate

The equipment used in this lab are : Scales Small sieves Sieve shaker Pycnometer or other suitable container into which the fine aggregate sample can be introduced

4. Experimental Procedure The samples required for the sieve analysis of the coarse and fine aggregate were weighted out. The fine aggregates were put in the specific sieve shaker and were left there for 5 minutes . After the particles in each sieve were weighted. The coarse aggregates were placed in the specific sieve shaker and again were left there for 5 minutes. After the particles in each sieve were weighted. 5. Analysis of Data

Sieve Number 4 8 16 30 50 100

Mass (g)

Percent Retained 0.70 11.88 17.27 48.10 17.76 1.70

Percent Passed 99.30 88.12 82.73 51.90 82.24 98.30

3.5 59.5 86.5 241 89 8.5

Cumulative Percent Retained 0.7 12.57 29.84 77.94 95.71 97.41

Fine Aggreggate
120 Percent passing 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sieve size (mm) lower limit Upper Limit Fine Aggregate

Sieve Number 3/4 1/2 3/8 4 8

Mass(g)

580 3040 1060 460 20

Percent Retained (%) 11.09 58.11 20.26 8.79 0.38

Percent Passed (%) 88.91 41.89 79.74 91.21 99.62

Cumulative Percent Retained (%) 11.09 69.20 89.46 98.25 98.64

Coarse Aggregate
120.00 100.00 Percent Passing 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 -20.00 0 10 20 30 Sieve Size(mm) Coarse Aggregate Upper Limit Lower limmit

The fineness modulus of the sand for the fine aggregate is Fineness Modulus = The fineness modulus of the sand for the coarse aggregate is Fineness Modulus = =3.67

The bulk specific gravity for the sand is

The apparent specific gravity

The actual moisture content of the sand is MC(%)=

6. Discussion For both the fine and coarse aggregates when the sieve size is small they do not do not satisfy the gradation specifications, but when the sieve size increases they do satisfy thee gradation specifications. A source of error might be related to the fact that when moving the particles from the sieve to the pot on the scale , particles might be lost , or the pot used might not be completely free of previous particles.