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Module 9.

3 The Blueprint of Life


1. Evidence of evolution The theory of evolution states that characteristics favourable to the reproduction and survival of organisms in their environment will be selected for and over time, new species will appear to environmental changes. Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: - Changes in physical conditions in the environment - Changes in chemical conditions in the environment - Competition for resources Changes in physical conditions: These include natural conditions, such as temperature and the availability of water. Different individuals in a population show variation, which means some may better adapt to their environment than others. These individuals with favourable variations will stand a better chance of survival, as they are better adapted to their environment survival of the fittest. These betteradapted individuals are more likely to reproduce and pass on their favourable characteristics to their offspring. Over time, the population will lose all the poorly adapted individuals and the population will gradually become better adapted to its environment. Changes in chemical conditions: Chemicals that can affect the evolution of species include salts and elements, such as iron. For example, many parts of Australia have soils that have a high salinity. There are ranges of salt tolerant plants that have evolved to inhabit those areas. The animals that feed from these plants have also evolved to inhabit those areas. Competition for resources: This occurs within a species and between species. If a new species is introduced into an area then the competition may lead to different species using different resources. Most organisms produce more offspring than will survive to adulthood, therefore there will be a struggle for existence due to competition for resources. Those will more favourable characteristics are more likely to survive in the environment and out live those who are not. Survival of the fittest. If populations that live in the same area could specialise on slightly different resources or breed at different times, they would avoid direct competition. Describe, using specific examples, how the theory of evolution is supported by the following areas of study: Palaeontology The fossil record provides a time line of evolution of life engraved in the order in which the fossils appear in rock layers. Some parts of the fossil record show a gradual change in life forms over millions of years. Transitional fossil forms are those that have features that make them an intermediate form between major groups of organisms. One example is Archaeopteryx which is a fossil first thought to be a therapsid reptile. Its reptilian features include teeth and a reptilian-like skeleton. However, Archaeopteryx also had feathers and a wishbone sternum used to attach flight muscles. This provides evidence of an evolutionary pathway from dinosaurs to birds. Biogeography Biogeography is the study of the distribution of organisms all over the Earth. These distribution patters provide evidence that species have originated from common ancestors and when isolated, have become new species. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace both observed the distribution of species into different biogeographic regions and argued that animals in different

regions had come from ancestors in that region and had adapted over time to the conditions there. Comparative Embryology Embryos of many different species are very similar in the early stages of development. A comparison of embryos of vertebrates shows that all have gill slits, even though they do not remain later in life, except in fish. This indicates a fundamental step that is common to all vertebrates and supports the idea of a common ancestor. Comparative anatomy Anatomical structures on different organisms that have the same basic plan but perform different functions are called homologous structures. Homologous structures are shared by related species because they have been inherited in some way from a common ancestor. For example, the pentadactyl limb is a homologous structure found in amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Although these limbs perform different functions and have been modified to suit different environments, it suggests that these animals descended from ancestors with fivefingered pentadactyl limbs. Biochemistry Recent advances in technology have allowed comparison of organisms on a molecular basis rather than simply comparing structures. The study of amino acid sequences shows that more closely related species share more common sequences than do unrelated species. Closely related species have few differences in DNA. Explain how Darwin/Wallaces theory of evolution by natural selection and isolation accounts for divergent evolution and convergent evolution. The theory of evolution states that characteristics favourable to the reproduction and survival of organisms in their environment will be selected for and over time, new species will appear to environmental changes. Adaptive radiation refers to a variety of different species that evolve from an ancestral line as a result of migration and isolation. If groups of a population become isolated, they will most likely encounter different selecting pressures and eventually the population may change sufficiently until they become completely different species. Divergent evolution occurs when closely related species experience quite different selecting pressures and therefore vastly different characteristics are favourable. Convergent evolution occurs when two relatively unrelated species develop similar structures, physiology or behaviour in response to similar selective pressures form similar environments. Describe a first-hand investigation carried out to model natural selection. Aim: To stimulate the process of Natural Selection. Equipment: - Dice - 20 grey butterflies (paper cut-outs) - 20 white butterflies (paper cut-outs) Background: The butterflies represent a population with 2 colour forms. They are predated by a visually hunting bird which prefers to eat the grey ones. This experiment will simulate the progress of this population over 5 generations as the bird predates them. Method: 1. Take 12 grey butterflies and 12 white ones. 2. Shuffle them and randomly assign them in pairs. 3. Breeding phase: if the pair are both the same colour give them an offspring of the same

colour. If different, throw the dice and allocate a white for 1-3 and a grey for 4-6. 4. Predating phase: Throw the dice 12 times. Remove a grey butterfly every time 1-4 is thrown and a white every time 5-6 is thrown. 5. 24 butterflies should remain; count the numbers of each colour. 6. Then shuffle and allocate them into 12 pairs again and repeat the process 4 more times. Results: Generation 1 2 3 4 5 Grey 12 9 5 0 0 White 12 15 19 24 24

Conclusion: In conclusion, a population can gradually die out due to only one factor. Analyse information from different sources to present a case study to show how an environmental change can lead to a change in species. The Australia landmass has become drier over time and this has lead to changes in the species of kangaroos that are present today. Approximately 25 million years ago, Australia was considerably wetter than today with large areas of rainforest. During this time, kangaroos were small and omnivorous, with unspecialised teeth, eating a variety of foods from the forest floor. Food was nutritious and abundant; there was no need for specialised grinding teeth. As Australia became more arid and grass became the dominant vegetation in some areas, environmental selective pressure resulted in larger kangaroos favouring teeth suitable for grass. These teeth, high-crested molars, efficiently grind low-nutrition grass into a more easily digestible paste. Slicing pre-molars are of little use and so became much reduced from the ancestral kangaroos. Perform a first-hand investigation or gather info to observe, analyse and compare the structure of a range of vertebrate forelimbs. - Comparison is attached to the back. Use available evidence to analyse how advances in technology have changed scientific thinking about evolutionary relationships. Until the 1950s, the relationships between organisms were worked out by similarities in anatomical features. At this time, it became possible to analyse protein sequence data and DNA sequence data. These were the first three-dimensional protein structures to be solved, and they yielded some key insights. Proteins, such as haemoglobin, could now be compared and similarities worked out based on biochemical similarity. As the ability to sequence the nucleotides making up DNA has improved, it also has become possible to use genes to reconstruct the evolutionary history of organisms. If the rate of change is approximated, it is possible to work out a molecular clock that estimates the time since two organisms shared a common ancestor. Today, many of the gaps in the paleontological record have been filled by the research of paleontologists. Hundreds of thousands of fossil organisms, found in well-dated rock sequences, represent successions of forms through time and manifest many evolutionary transitions. So many intermediate forms have been discovered between fish and amphibians, between amphibians and reptiles, between reptiles and mammals, and along the primate lines of descent that it often is difficult to identify categorically when the transition occurs from one to another particular species. The unifying principle of common descent that emerges from all the foregoing lines of evidence is being reinforced by the discoveries of modern biochemistry and molecular biology. Analyse information on the historical development of theories of evolution and use available

evidence to assess social and political influences on these developments. Historical developments: 1735 Linnaeus published the classification system but there was no idea of evolution. Late 1700s Erasmus Darwin described how one species could evolve into another and helped introduce the concept of adaptation. 1809 Lamark put forward the first theory of evolution, proposing that an organism develops features by use or disuse through a lifetime and these are inherited by offspring. Although ignored, his theories did pave the way for natural selection and contributed to the development of evolutionary thought. 1859 Darwin published the book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. In 1858, Darwin and Wallace jointly presented the theory of evolution by natural selection. It stated that individuals with favourable characteristics would survive and reproduce more successfully than others; hence the characteristics will become frequent in the population. At the time, Britain was a very powerful country and basically controlled the seas. They sent voyages of exploration all over the world and Darwin sailed on the Beagle as the ships naturalist. Without this opportunity, Darwin would not have made the observations which led him to his theory. Also during this period, the Biblical version of creation was accepted by the vast majority of people and reinforced by influential church authorities. Darwin knew his ideas would invite a powerful reaction and for this reason, he spent nearly 20 years building his case before he went public. 2. Gregor Mendels experiments Outline the experiments carried out by Gregor Mendel Mendel carried out experiments using garden peas. He made accurate counts and kept records of all offspring produced. Mendel chose garden peas because they were easy to grow, produced new generations quickly and had easily distinguishable characteristics. He was also able to strictly control the breeding patterns of his peas. - Mendel examined the following seven characteristics found in peas: Flower colour, purple or white Flower position, axial or terminal Seed colour, yellow or green Seed shape, round or wrinkled Pod shape, inflated or constricted Pod colour, green or yellow Stem height, tall or short. - Self-fertilisation was ensured by placing a bag over the flowers to make sure pollen from the stamens lands on the carpel of the same flower. Cross-fertilisation was ensured by cutting off stamens from a flower before pollen was produced, then dusting the carpel of the flower with pollen from another plant. To ensure reliability, Mendel used thousands of plants in each experiment.

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Mendel worked with true-breeding plants: self-fertilised plants, which produced all offspring identical to the parents. Mendel first cross-fertilised two true-breeding plants for one characteristic, for example tall plants were crossed with short plants (Mendel called these plants a P1 parent generation). The offspring produced are called F1 (1st filial) generation. The F1 generation was then self-fertilised or cross-fertilised to produce a second generation, F2. Results: Each of the seven traits that Mendel studied had a dominant and a recessive factor. When two true-breeding plants were crossed, only the dominant factor appeared in the first generation. The recessive factor appeared in the second generation in a 3:1 (dominant: recessive) relationship. Describe the aspects of the experimental techniques used by Mendel that led to his success Mendel was successful because he: - Used peas, which were easily grown and produced successive generations - Rapidly selected easily observable characteristics - Strictly controlled the fertilisation process used mathematics rigorously to analyse his results - Used large numbers of plants - Studied traits that had two easily identified factors. Describe outcomes of monohybrid crosses involving simple dominance using Mendels experiments Distinguish between the terms allele and gene, using examples Monohybrid crosses involve one factor only, for example a cross involving a homozygous (true breeding) tall plant crossed with a homozygous (true breeding) short plant. This produces a first generation where all of the plants are tall. Alleles: one or more alternative forms of a gene found at the same place on a chromosome. For example, alleles on a homologous pair of chromosomes may contain information for skin pigment, one could specify normal pigment, and the other could specify no pigment. Genes: a section of DNA on a chromosome which codes for one polypeptide sequence. A gene is a part of a chromosome. Genes determine the inherited characteristics of an individual. Each inherited characteristic is controlled by at least 2 genes.

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Thus, Mendel was able to explain his observed ratios, i.e.: F1 - all tall F2 - 3 tall: 1 short

Distinguish between homozygofus and heterozygous genotypes in monohybrid crosses Genotype is the type and arrangement of genes. If genes in the alleles are the same they are called homozygous genotypes (e.g. TT or tt). A pure-breeding organism is homozygous for that characteristic and will breed true for that character. If genes in the allele are different they are called heterozygous genotypes. A non-pure breeding or hybrid organism (Tt) is heterozygous). Explain the relationship between dominant and recessive alleles and phenotype using examples Phenotype is the visible apparent of the genetic factor. For each characteristic there are at least 2 factors (genes) controlling the phenotype of an organism. Dominant genes will be expressed as the phenotype in the heterozygous condition or if they are homozygous dominant. For example, if tallness (T) is dominant and shortness (t) is recessive, then an organism with the genotype TT or Tt will be tall. Recessive genes will be expressed as the phenotype only when the organism is homozygous recessive. For example, the genotype tt will be expressed as short. Outline the reasons why the importance of Mendels work was not recognised until some time after it was published Mendel began his work in 1858 and published the results of his experiments in 1866, but his work lay undiscovered until 1900 when others performed similar experiments. It was only then that the importance of his work was realized. It is unclear why such original work went unnoticed, perhaps: - Mendel was not a recognized, high profile member of the scientific community - He presented his paper to only a few people at an insignificant, local, scientific meeting - Other scientists did not understand the work or its significance. Construct pedigrees to trace the inheritance of selected characteristics and discuss their current use A pedigree is a family tree showing a line of descent. It can be used to trace the occurrence of inherited traits in parents and offspring through a number of generations. They are currently used to follow a characteristic through several generations to discover the particular inheritance pattern of certain genetic disease such as muscular dystrophy and to predict the possibility of producing offspring with that genetic disease. Muscular dystrophy is a recessive, sex-linked disorder and hence, the use of pedigrees in genetic counselling can be very useful in predicting the genotype of the child, especially if they are male. By convention, circles represent females and squares, males. A line between a square and a circle represents a union and a line down indicates offspring from the union. Filled in symbols represent individuals displaying the phenotype being studied. Example: (Q24 HSC2005): Nicks wife Maria has a history of red-green colour-blindness in her family. Jack, their two-year old son, may be red-green colour blind. Marias brothers, Vincent and Paul are colour blind but her brother, James, is not. Marias mother Anne is a carrier of red-green colour blindness. Her father, John is unaffected. Construct a family pedigree to show the inheritance of this sex-linked genetic disorder.

Solution: Solve problems involving monohybrid crosses using Punnet squares or other appropriate techniques. John (XNY) Anne (XNXn) (Q26, Success One Biology) Mendel used pea plants in his experiments. Peas unaffected red or male can have white flowers. He demonstrated that the gene for red flowers is dominant to the gene for white male affected flowers. Using diagrams, explain how Mendel was able to demonstrate this. the F1 generation plants were hybrid red plants. In the following Punnett square, R=red and N=normal r=white. This hybrid Rr demonstratesn that red is dominant. Nick Maria Vincent(X Y) Paul (XnY) James (XNY) n=colour-blind F1 r r R Rr Rr Jack R Rr Rr
Key

female unaffected Solution: Mendel crossed red homozygous plants with white homozygous female affected that plants and show

Describe an example of hybridisation within a species and explain the purpose of this hybridisation Hybridisation means crossing two different species, sub-species or varieties. The mule is an example of a hybrid as it is a cross between the horse or pony and the domestic donkey. More specifically, the word mule refers to the cross of a male donkey on a female horse. The purpose of this hybridisation is to create an animal with hybrid vigour, in other words an organism with characteristics of both a horse and a donkey, which will make it more resilient and stronger than either of its parents. Mules can grow taller than both parents; they are stronger than horses and are much longer lived with much longer working lives. They rarely become ill or lame or suffer wounds, can withstand extremes of temperature, can live on frugal rations, have tremendous stamina and resilience and are exceptionally sure-footed. 3. Chromosomal Structure The discovery of the structure of chromosomes aided the understanding of the mechanisms of inheritance. Chromosomes were first identified as coloured components of a cell that became visible during cell division. It became clear that the behaviour of chromosomes during cell division and fertilisation matched the behaviour of factors as described by Mendel. Outline the roles of Sutton and Boveri in identifying the importance of chromosomes Two scientists are credited with the discovery of the role of chromosomes in 1902. They were the German scientist Theodore Boveri and the American microbiologist Walter Sutton. Boveri worked on sea urchins and showed that their chromosomes were not all the same and that a complete set was required for the normal development of an organism. He demonstrated the link between chromosomes and heredity. Sutton worked on grasshoppers and showed that their chromosomes were distinct entities. He said even though they duplicate and divide they remain as a distinct structure. He associated the behaviour of chromosomes with Mendel's work on the inheritance of factors and concluded that chromosomes were the carriers of hereditary units. Together their work became known as the Sutton-Boveri chromosome hypothesis or the theory of inheritance which stated that units of inheritance occur in pairs..

Describe the chemical nature of chromosomes and genes

Chromosomes consist of 40% DNA and 60% protein (histone). Genes are made up of short lengths of a chromosome, so a gene is really a short length of DNA. Model of Meiosis- attached to the back The structure of a DNA molecule: The DNA molecule is a double helix a twisted, double stranded structure. Each strand of the helix consists of four different nucleotides made up of deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate molecule and a nitrogen base. The helix is like a twisted ladder. The backbones of the structure, or the sides of the ladder, consist of the deoxyribose sugar and phosphate molecules. The bases form the rungs between the sides of deoxyribose sugar and phosphate molecules and are complementary (only pair with their matching base). Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine.

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Explain the relationship between the structure and behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis and the inheritance of genes Meiosis is cell division that produces sex cells. Chromosomes are made of DNA. Genes are coded within the DNA on the chromosomes. During division each chromosome (which therefore includes the genes) makes a complete copy of itself. The new chromosome is attached to the original chromosome by a centromere. In the initial division of meiosis the homologous chromosomes line up in matching pairs and one of each pair of homologous chromosomes moves into a new cell. Next the duplicated chromosomes separate to single strands resulting in four sex cells that are haploid, (ie contain half the chromosome number of the original cell). The genes are located on the chromosomes. They are duplicated during the first stage of meiosis and are then randomly assorted depending on which chromosomes from each pair enters which new haploid cell during the first and second division Explain the role of gamete formation and sexual reproduction in variability of offspring Gamete formation results in the halving of the chromosome number (diploid to haploid) and sexual reproduction results in combining gametes (haploid to diploid) to produce a new diploid organism. The processes involved in forming this new organism result in variability of the offspring. Gametes are formed during the process of meiosis. In meiosis there are two stages that lead to variability. These are: - random segregation of individual chromosomes with treir associated genes ie, different new combinations of the original maternal and paternal chromosomes and - the process of crossing over where the maternal and paternal chromosomes of each pair

may exchange segments of genes making new combinations of genes on the chromosomes. In sexual reproduction each female or male cell produces 4 sex cells from the process of meiosis. Each of these sex cells is haploid and has a random assortment of genes from the parent. The genes are separated and the sex cells have a random assortment of dominant and recessive genes. More variability is introduced depending on which sex cells are successful in fertilisation. The resulting embryo has a completely different set of genes from either of the parents. Linked genes: If genes for different characteristics are found on the same chromosome, they are called linked genes. Linked genes are usually inherited together. Crossing over: swapping of chromatid parts of homologous chromosomes in early meiosis. Genetic material is transferred between the chromosomes which creates a new chromosome with new genetic material that is different to the original. Describe the inheritance of sex-linked genes, and alleles that exhibit co-dominance and explain why these do not produce simple Mendelian ratios Mendel was fortunate in his choice of factors as they all showed dominant/recessive characteristics. However, sex-linked genes and genes that are co-dominant do not display the phenotype ratios predicted by Mendel's laws. Sex-linked inheritance results from genes carried on either the male or female chromosomes, usually on the female sex (X) chromosome. Codominance occurs when the effects of both alleles appear together in the heterozygous offspring, i.e. there are 3 factors present. An example of sex-linked inheritance is red-green colour blindness in humans. The gene is carried on the X chromosome and there is no corresponding gene on the Y chromosome. Therefore males need only one allele for colour blindness on the X chromosome while females require two. Describe the work of Morgan that led to the understanding of sex linkage In 1910, Thomas Morgan worked on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to answer questions about variations in inherited characteristics. He looked at crosses between red-eyed and whiteeyed files and found that simple Mendelian crosses could not account for the results. His second hypothesis explains sex-linked inheritance. He said that the gene for white-eye is actually part of the X chromosome. Explain the relationship between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the resulting phenotypes in examples of co-dominance E.g. In Shorthorn cattle, if a red-haired animal is crossed with a white-haired animal they produce roan offspring. Genotypes Homozygous RR Homozygous WW Heterozygous RW Resulting Phenotype Red coat White coat Roan the offspring have both red and white hairs

Outline ways in which the environment may affect the expression of a gene in an individual Factors in the environment, such as the availability of water, nutrients and sunlight, the type of soil, the presence of poisonous s substances and competition from other organisms will determine how well the genes of an organism are able to be expressed. Solve problems involving co-dominance and sex linkage In cats there are 2 alleles for tail length. One codes for long tails, the other codes for no tail. They are co-dominant. A tail-less cat breads with a short tail cat. What is the expected phenotype

ratio? Solution: L N N LN LN N NN NN Let LL=long tail NN=no tail LN=short tail Phenotype: 50:50 Short: no tail

Perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate the effect of environment on phenotype Aim: To investigate the effect of the environment on the phenotype of an organism. Hypothesis: The greater the amount of light available to the seedlings, the taller they will grow and the brighter their colour will be. Hypothesis explained: Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis to occur. The more the plants can photosynthesise, the more glucose will be produced which can be manufactured to make plant proteins needed to make new cells. All of the seedlings have the same genotype so in an ideal environment, they should all grow to the same height and look almost identical. However, the change in environment will affect the phenotype of the seedlings because their ability to make new cells will be affected. The height and colour of the seedlings will be determined greatly by the status of the environment, i.e. the amount of sunlight, water and nutrients that they are receiving. Independent variable: light (availability) Dependant variable: effect on the growth and colour of the seedlings. Variables to be controlled: Volume of water Type and quantity of cotton wool Number of seeds Length of time Apparatus: Direct sunlight

2 strips of flat cotton wool Rectangular plastic tray Seedlings The other three plastic trays were placed in: 1. Under an artificial lamp 2. Under a cardboard box 3. Under a garden bench Other materials needed: - Water - Measuring jug

Cardboard box Lamp Ruler

Method: 1. 40 mung bean seedlings were taken along with strips of flat cotton wool and 4 of the same plastic trays. 2. Each tray was lined with a strip of flat cotton wool and 10 seedlings placed on top. Another strip of flat cotton wool was then placed over the top of this, covering the seeds. All the strips of cotton wool were the same type, width and length. 3. 250 mL of water was then poured evenly over the cotton wool in each tray. 4. One tray was placed in direct sunlight, one covered by a cardboard box, one under a lamp and one under a garden bench outside. 5. Every second day each tray was filled with 50 mL of water for up to 6 days. 6. On the 6th day, the height and colour of the seedlings were observed. Results: Position of seedling Direct sunlight Height (mm) of each seedling 17 10 12 15 10 13 6 9 7 6 11 15 11 5 16 12 14 12 9 12 20 9 17 37 28 14 35 33 16 5 35 30 45 2 32 35 46 28 37 25 Average (mm) 10.5 Most common colour Purple stem, light green bud Conclusion: In conclusion, the environment (the factor of light) affected the phenotype of each of the seedlings. The group with the most favourable environment, those with the most access to light, had phenotypes that were tall and brightly coloured. However, those seedlings with poor environmental conditions had poor phenotypes of colour. They were tall but weak because of their lack of favourable environmental conditions. Evaluation: The experiment was accurate and valid because all of the variables were controlled. It was reliable because the experiment was tested for 10 seedlings in each environment and averages of both

Under a garden bench

11.7

Purple stem, Light green bud

Under cardboard box

21.4

White/yellow

Under lamp

31.5

Light green bud, dark green leaves

height and colour were obtained. It probably could have been more reliable if the experiment was repeated further times. The experiment could have been improved by using a more accurate method of measurement for the seeds as the stems were often twisted and it was difficult to obtain an accurate measurement using a ruler. A better picture of the growth of the seedlings could have been obtained if the seedlings were left for a longer period of time to grow. The volume of water given to each group of seedlings was also a problem as for each different environment, different volumes of water would have been necessary but this was kept constant to insure validity. 4. The structure of DNA Describe the process of DNA replication and explain its significance: 1. An enzyme unwinds the DNA double helix. 2. The DNA unzips forming 2 single strands. 3. Nucleotides are added to the single strands, which results in 2 molecules of DNA from one. These 2 double-stranded molecules are the chromatids. The significance of this process is the genetic information is passed on from generation to generation. During sexual reproduction, the genetic code is copied and then half of the genetic information passes into each of the sex cells (ovum or sperm). When fertilisation occurs the new organism has half the genetic material from each parent. The DNA in a cell contains the genetic information to make an entire organism. When a cell divides it takes with it an exact copy of the genetic code of that organism.

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Outline the process by which DNA controls the production of polypeptides:

Polypeptide synthesis involves a type of nucleic acid, called RNA (ribonucleic acid). RNA is the intermediary between DNA and polypeptide synthesis and is a single strand of nucleotide bases, containing a ribose sugar and the nitrogen base, thymine, is replaced by uracil which bonds with adenine. There are two types of RNA that are involved in polypeptide synthesis, messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). In the nucleus, the double stranded DNA molecules unzip and the DNA code is transcribed into the single stranded mRNA molecule. The mRNA moves out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome. In the cytoplasm, the mRNA is translated into amino acids. At the ribosome, the messenger RNA lines up forming a template. A group of three bases, called a codon, codes for a specific amino acid. There are codes that start and stop the chain formation. AUG is the starting point for translation. tRNA has an anticodon (a non-amino acid forming codon) on one end and an amino acid on the other. A polypeptide is formed as each amino acid is added from tRNA to a chain

following the sequence on the mRNA. A model for polypeptide synthesis: - attached to the back Explain the relationship between proteins and polypeptides: A protein is made up of one or more polypeptides. A polypeptide is made up of a chain of many amino acids. Explain how mutations in DNA may lead to the generation of new alleles: Any change in the base sequence in DNA results in changes to the polypeptides that are produced and is a source of new alleles. To produce changes in alleles, the mutation must occur in the sex cells of the organism, which are then passed on to the next generation.

Discuss evidence for the mutagenic nature of radiation: A mutagen is a natural or human-made agent (physical or chemical), which can alter the structure or sequence of DNA. Mutagens can be carcinogens (cancer causing) or teratogens (birth defects causing). Radiation occurs when high-energy radiation from a radioactive material or from X-rays is absorbed by the atoms in water molecules surrounding the DNA. This energy is transferred to the electrons which then fly away from the atom. Left behind is a free radical, which is a highly dangerous and highly reactive molecule that attacks the DNA molecule and alters it in many ways. Radiation can also cause double strand breaks in the DNA molecule, which the cell's repair mechanisms cannot put right. X-rays can cause DNA and protein damage which may result in organelle failure, block cell division, or cause cell death. Radiation was the first mutagenic agent known. Its effects on genes were first noticed in the 1920's.When X-rays were first discovered; they were thought to be harmless and were a great novelty. Most of the first generation of scientists who worked with radiation died of cancer. Famous examples are Marie Curie and her daughter who both died of leukaemia. The genetic effects of radiation were reported in 1927 in Drosophila by Muller and in 1928 in plants (barley) by Stadler; both showed that the frequency of induced mutations is a function of Xray dose. Their experiments revealed that there was a linear relationship between X-ray dose and induced mutation level, that there was no threshold or "safe" dose of radiation and that all doses are significant, and finally, that "split dose" experiments showed that the genetic effects of radiation are cumulative. Hans Muller received the Nobel Prize in 1927 for showing that genes had the ability to mutate when exposed to X-rays. Beadle and Tatum used X-rays to produce mutations in bread mould in the formulation of their one gene one polypeptide hypothesis. The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki also increased the evidence for mutations caused by radiation. There was a tenfold increase in cancer deaths directly after the bombs were dropped. Explain how an understanding of the source of variation in organisms has provided support for Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection: One of the foundation pillars for the theory of evolution is the variation that occurs among individual members of a species. The basis of this variation is the genetic makeup of the individuals in a species. Variations in the genetic pool occur due to recombination of genes in sexual reproduction, crossing over and mutations. Individuals possessing DNA-controlled features that help them survive will live longer and these genes favouring survival are more likely to be passed on.

Describe the concept of punctuated equilibrium and how it differs from the gradual process proposed by Darwin: Darwin proposed that evolutionary change occurred gradually over a long period of time. Punctuated equilibrium states that most species adapt until they reach a stable stage and are in a state of equilibrium with their environment. This state may last millions of years but may be punctuated by rapid evolutionary change (over thousands of years). This helps to partly explain why the fossil record is incomplete where there appears to be mass extinctions of organisms followed by the appearance of a new species. Analyse information from secondary sources to outline the evidence that led to Beadle and Tatums one gene one protein hypothesis and to explain why this was altered to the one gene one polypeptide hypothesis: a) The evidence: using bread mould, they found that specific types of B vitamins were manufactured and so they produced several varieties that each had a change to one of its genes responsible for different enzyme production. As a result, some of the different moulds were no longer able to manufacture specific B vitamins that they had previously produced. From this it was concluded that each gene had resulted in a specific B vitamin group, hence the hypothesis one gene one protein. b) This hypothesis was later changed to one gene one polypeptide because genes code for many proteins that are not enzymes and many proteins are made up of more than one polypeptide, which are the products of separate genes. Each gene codes for a polypeptide. Construct a flow chart to show that changes in DNA sequences can result in changes in cell activity: Changes in the DNA sequence (mutations) occur when: - One base is replaced by another, causing a change in the code for the amino acid - There is an insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides in the coding region of a gene. A mutation of this sort changes all the amino acids downstream and is very likely to create a non-functional product since it may differ greatly from the normal protein. If this happens the whole sequence of amino acids will change. - An amino acid substitution occurs. base substitutions in a protein coding region may mutate an amino acid codon to a termination codon or vice versa. - The structure is changed and protein synthesis is affected. - The chromosome is broken and rearranged

Explain a modern example of natural selection: The poison DDT was initially used with great success to control insect pests. It virtually eliminated

crop-damaging insects, increased food production and was also extremely successful in destroying populations of malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Now many insects are resistant to DDT. Among the original mosquito population, there must have been a few individuals who by chance were resistant to DDT even before they had ever had contact with it. These few survived and reproduced to pass on their immunity to the following generations. One of the main reasons why natural selection could be so easily observed among mosquitoes was that they reproduce very quickly. New generations of mosquitoes can be produced in a matter of days. Example(Q43 SuccessOne Biology): The development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and insecticide resistance in insects has been cited as a modern example of natural selection in action. a) Explain why we have been able to observe these examples of natural selection in such a short time. b) Draw a diagram to show the steps involved in ONE of these examples of natural selection. Solution: a) Bacteria and insects have short life cycles. b)

Insecticide applied

Most insects die Survivors reproduce

All offspring are resistant Insect susceptible to insecticide Insect resistant to insecticide

Analyse the relative importance of the work of James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins in determining the structure of DNA and the impact of the quality of collaboration and communication on their scientific research: Scientific discoveries are rarely the work of individuals, but tend to be teams who share and collaborate their findings in order to efficiently make a discovery. The discovery of DNA structure is a good example of effective communication and collaboration in scientific research. Watson and Crick suggested the double helix structure of DNA with two phosphate-sugar strands winding around the outside of nitrogenous bases with the pairs of A-T and C-G. This was very significant and helped these scientists to create the model of DNA, which is so important to biological evolution. However, they could not have done it without the contribution of Rosaline Franklin and Maurice Wilkins. It was Franklin who took the X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA and Wilkins who showed these photographs the Watson and Crick. These helped Watson and

Crick to work out the distance between bonds and the size of atoms. They could then construct a 3D model of DNA. This proves how collaboration and communication was the key top the development on the DNA model. 5. Current Reproductive Technologies Identify how the following current reproductive techniques may alter the genetic composition of a population: - artificial inseminations - artificial pollination - cloning Artificial Insemination Artificial insemination is basically the injection of male semen into a female and is used because it can be easily transported over large distances and can be used to inseminate many females. Also more offspring can be produced than by normal mating as it increase the chance that the sperm will fertilise the selected female. It involves collecting sperm from a female and inserting it into the vagina of a female. The sperm then swims to the egg, which is fertilised. How it may alter the genetic composition of a population: In humans, the access to sperm banks means that females can choose males on the basis of desirable characteristics, hence increasing the proportion of certain genes in a population. In livestock, males are picked based on favourable characteristics, which could decrease the gene pool and implying that large populations of genetically similar livestock can be affected by a sudden environmental change. Artificial Pollination Artificial pollination is a method of fertilising plants with the pollen from other plants containing desirable characteristics. It is done by hand where the pollen from the male anther is brushed onto the female stigma. The pollinated flower is then covered to prevent pollination from other flowers. How it may alter the genetic composition of a population: AP has the ability to create new hybrid species and to decrease the gene pool by creating a large population of plants with the same set of desirable characteristics. Cloning Cloning is a method of producing genetically identical organisms. Cloning of plants is used to produce identical plants for crops and gardens. Animal cloning is used to improve animal breeds by providing genetic copies of animals with the desire features more rapidly than by natural breeding techniques. How it may alter the genetic composition of a population: Cloning can produce organisms with characteristics never seen before. Cloning produces populations of organisms that are identical to each other. This is advantageous because the organisms characteristics can be precisely controlled and new organisms can be made quickly. However, if all the species are identical, then the population is less likely to survive sudden environmental changes. Describe the Methodology used in Cloning Dolly was the first successful organism to be cloned using nuclear transfer technology. In nuclear transfer technology, the nucleus from the mammary gland is removed and transferred to an enucleated egg cell. The egg is then implanted into a female where it grows and develops into a healthy offspring with the same genetic makeup as the parent. Outline the process used to produce transgenic species and include examples of this process and reasons for its use

Transgenic species are organisms which have had genetic material from a different species transferred into their genes. In Australia, transgenic sheep have been created to promote the production of superior wool in sheep. Recombinant DNA technology is one method used to create a transgenic organism: The gene from an egg of on organism is removed and injected directly into the egg of another. The gene then becomes part of the eggs DNA and the egg develops into an organism that has all the genes from the injected organism within its cell nuclei. Transgenic species are being developed to increase the resistance of plants and animals to diseases, pests and extreme environmental conditions, for medicines and vaccines and to study human diseases; to improve the productivity of crops and pastures and animals; to increase the efficiency of food processing to improve the quality of food and to develop new products. Examples of the use of transgenic species: - Transgenic tomatoes have been developed to have a longer shelf life in the supermarkets - Scientists have genetically altered alfalfa so that it produces higher cysteine levels and hence sheep grazing on it produce more wool. - Australia has now begun to import transgenic Soya beans, which have been genetically engineered to be resistant to the herbicide Roundup so that when it is sprayed to kill weeds, the Soya bean crop is not harmed. Use available evidence to debate the ethical issues arising from the development and use of transgenic species Ethical issues: - Can disrupt the rate of gene transfer between organisms and the way genes are transferred, hence disrupting evolutionary relationships - Genetically engineered organisms may cause new strains of diseases or encourage the development of strains resistant to drugs - Crops that are genetically engineered to be resistant to pesticides may result in higher concentrations of pesticides being used on them, but these stronger pesticides can have environmental concerns. - Health risks associated with eating genetically modified foods or taking genetically engineered drugs. There is growing concern that products should be clearly labelled if it is transgenic. - Ethical and moral issues about creating transgenic animals. - Return of eugenics Discuss the potential impact of the use of reproductive technologies and genetic engineering on the genetic diversity of species, using a named plant and animal example that have been genetically altered Genetic engineering and reproductive technologies such as cloning have the potential to increase the genetic diversity of a species as biotechnology has provided a way for genes to be moved from one species to another to produce new combinations. However, it can also decrease genetic diversity as the selection of desired genes such as in cloning creates new genetic combinations, which can reduce the original genetic material of the organisms. This may even eventually lead to losing the genes altogether. Insect-resistant (Bt) cotton has been rapidly adopted since its introduction in 1996. Farmers around the worldboth large and smallholdersbenefit from this technology through increased productivity, convenience, and time savings. The vast majority of farmers using Bt cotton globally are smallholder farmers. The economic, environmental, and social benefits derived from adoption of this important tool have very positive implications for the farmers, their surrounding communities, and the future of agriculture. This is also evident in animal species such as fish. Genetically modified fish such as salmon are now being used in aquaculture and these fish are designed for rapid growth and attract female fish easier because of their increased size. If these fish are released into wild populations, these genetically engineered genes may be transferred into these other populations and the transgenic fish could potentially wipe out other fish populations.

Transgenic animals present greater problems with lower success rates so far. One important use is seen to be the preservation of numbers of endangered species. The first cloned endangered mammal was a guar (an endangered wild ox from SE Asia), but unfortunately it did not survive. It is hoped that reproductive technologies such as cloning and sperm and embryo banks can be used to preserve stocks of threatened species.