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Comparison of EEMUA 159 to API Standards

Mark A. Baker, P.E. National Petroleum Management Associations Petro 2012 May 28 31, 2012 Washington D.C.

EEMUA 159
Users Guide to the Inspection, Maintenance and Repair of Aboveground Vertical Cylindrical Steel Storage Tanks
Edition: 3rd Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association / Jan-2003 / Amendments Feb-2004

API Standard 653


Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction Fourth Edition April 2009 Addendum 1, August 2010 Addendum 2, January 2012

API Standard 653


This document addresses: Tanks built to API 650 and its predecessor API 12C. Minimum requirements for maintaining the integrity This standard employs the principles of API 650 Owner/operators may apply this standard to any tank constructed to a tank specification.
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EEMUA 159
This Standard addresses:

Establishment of essential inspection requirements for tanks. Minimize problems and extend useful life. Gives guidance on design features, common problems experienced during operation and on repair methods. This addresses tanks built in accordance with British Standards Where appropriate it refers to and makes use of international standards and codes such as those from API. This publication is intended as a general inspection, maintenance and repair guide applicable tanks

Inspector Qualifications

API 653
Authorized inspector
Must have experience and pass a written examination Recertification is required every 6 years

Owner/Operator Inspectors
Must have knowledge tanks and local operating conditions

EEMUA 159
No certification process for tank inspectors Inspectors should be experienced
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Inspection Requirements
Routine API

External Inspections

653: 159:

Required to be conducted on a Monthly Basis


EEMUA

Required to be conducted on every 3 Months

Inspection Requirements
Formal External Inspections
API

653: Required to be conducted the lesser of 5 years or the quarter corrosion rate life of the shell.

Inspection Requirements
Formal External Inspections EEMUA 159: Ranges from 1 year to 15 year intervals. Factors include climate and type of product.. 5 years crude oil, and refined products with no internal liner 8 years finished products with internal liner 10 years for Jet A with internal liner

Table B.3-1

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Inspection Requirements
Formal Internal Inspections API 653: Based on the bottom corrosion rate not to exceed 20 years Risk based inspection can be used See API 580, Risk-Based Inspection. MRT is:
0.100 for with no RPB or thick film liner 0.050 when RPB or Thick film liner is present

MRT = (Minimum of RTbc or RTip) Or (StPr + UPr)


where:

MRT = minimum remaining thickness at the end of interval Or. Or = in-service interval of operation (years to next internal inspection) RTbc = minimum remaining thickness from bottom side corrosion after repairs, RTip = minimum remaining thickness from internal corrosion after repairs, StPr = maximum rate of corrosion not repaired on the top side. UPr = maximum rate of corrosion on the bottom side.
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Inspection Requirements
Formal Internal Inspections EEMUA 159: Based on Table B.3 Ranges from 3 years to 20 year intervals. Factors include climate and type of product. 8 years crude oil 16 years finished products with internal liner 10 years finished products with no liner Allows for use of probabilistic preventive maintenance detailed explanation and guidelines are given. MRT at next inspection 2.5 mm or 1.5 mm

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Inspection Requirements
Formal Internal Inspections EEMUA 159:

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Bottom Extension
API

653 requires a minimum thickness of 0.100 inches at 3/8 inch from the shell-tobottom weld. 159 requires a minimum of 2.5 mm (0.098 in) at 9.5 mm (0.374 in) from the shell-to-bottom weld the same requirements for each document.
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EEMUA

Approximately

Inspection Requirements
Inspections Checklists Both API 653 and EEMUA 159 use the same checklists

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Foundation Settlement
Differential

Settlement

API 653 requires a total of D/10 survey locations with a minimum of 8. Tolerances are given as
( LxYx) S ExH ) (
Where: S = maximum permissible deflection inft L = arc length between measurements points in ft YS = yield strength in lbf/in2 E = Youngs modulus in lbf/in2 H = tank height in ft

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Foundation Settlement
Differential

Settlement

EEMUA requires a total of D/10 survey locations with a minimum of 8 with the distance not exceeding 10 m. Tolerances are given as:

100 mm (3.94 inches) between any two points at 10 m intervals

Alternatively

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Foundation Settlement
Differential

Settlement

Fixed roof tanks without an internal floating cover

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Foundation Settlement

Differential Settlement Floating roof tanks and large fixed roof tanks equipped with internal floating covers of diameters exceeding 40 m

(11000 xYSxL2 ) S 2( ExH )


Where: S = maximum permissible deflection in mm L = arc length between measurements points in meters YS = yield strength in MPa E = Youngs modulus in MPa H = tank height in meters

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Foundation Settlement
Planar

Settlement

API 653 does not address planar tilt tolerance EEMUA 159 permits a maximum out-ofverticality should not exceed h/100

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Settlement
API

653 Edge Settlement

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Settlement
EEMUA

159 Edge Settlement

Maximum permissible edge settlement to 125 mm (4.92 in)over 750 mm (29.5 in) If it is exceeded then the tank should be releveled

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Settlement
API 653 Bottom Depressions
Maximum permissible bottom settlement or Bulges is given by:

BB = 0.37R
Where: BB = maximum height of bulge or depth of local depression, in R = radius of inscribed circle in bulged area or local depression, in ft

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Settlement
EEMUA

159 Bottom Depressions

Depressions are acceptable provided

The aspect ratio of height to width of the ripple is not greater than 75:500 (mm:mm) i.e. 0.15 (3:20) They do not form a severe crease over any of their length

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Settlement
Center-to-Edge

Settlement (Sagging) API 653 Does not directly address the overall center-to-edge settlement EEMUA 159 The maximum settlement is given as

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Shell Thickness
API

653

t min =

( H DG . ) SE

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Shell Thickness
EEMUA 159 The procedure for evaluation of tmin is essentially the same as API 653.
t min
EEMUA

D = (W ( H ) + P) . SE

adds a term for internal pressure which is not considered in API 653.

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Shell Thickness
API 653 allows for the authorized inspector to determine the number and location of UT measurements during an inspection EEMUA 159 requires a grid system for obtaining UT measurements

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Roof Thickness
API 653
Min of 0.090 in. in any 100 in2 area Structure corrosion is to be evaluated

EEMUA 159
Min of 2 mm in a 500 mm by 500 mm area (0.079 in. in 387.5 in2 area) Structure corrosion is limited to 25% before replacement is required.

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Brittle Fracture
API 653 Assessment per Section 5 of API 653 EEMUA 159 No specific guidance for brittle fracture considerations

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Repairs
API 653 Comprehensive repair section for the tank shell and bottom including nondestructive examination Section 8 Design Considerations for Reconstructed Tanks Section 9 Tank Repair and Alteration Section 10 Dismantling and Reconstruction Section 12 Examination and Testing

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Repairs
EEMUA 159
The document provides minimal guidance to the user. The document refers the user to international standards Appendix C has some examples for welding sequence and tank jacking

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Hydrostatic Testing
API 653
Comprehensive section detailing when a hydrostatic test is required Provides calculation for maximum fill level Provides rules for foundation settlement surveys when settlement is anticipated.
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Hydrostatic Testing
EEMUA 159 Provides a detailed filling sequence Water quality requirements Provides a reprint from API 653 as well as discusses the BS 2654 requirements Discusses survey requirements

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Filling Sequence

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EEMUA 159 Hydrostatic Test Flow Chart

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Additional Requirements EEMUA 159


Details not in API 653:
Tank painting Cathodic protection Corrosion mechanisms Product characteristics Risk based inspection Tank jacking Detailed foundation design Tank relocation
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Other information
Much of the information presented in EEMUA 159 is present in other API standards:
Tank painting Cathodic protection - API 652 - API 651 - API 570 - API 570 - API 580 - API SCAST
studying this issue for inclusion in API 653

Corrosion mechanisms Product characteristics Risk based inspection Tank jacking Foundation design Tank relocation

- API 650 - API 653

(Appendix B) (reconstruction)

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Collaboration
No

official collaboration between the two standards is underway Chairman of the EEMUA 159 committee has attended API SCAST meetings members of the SCAST committee have attended EEMUA 159 meetings

The

Some

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Conclusions
API 653 and EEMUA 159 are both good documents API 653 provides a procedure to demonstrate that the tank inspector posses a minimum body of knowledge and experience In general, API 653 is more conservative than EEMUA 159 EEMUA 159 contains information which fills in topics not covered in API 653

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Thank you

Mark A. Baker, P.E. Baker Consulting Group, Inc. mark.baker@bakercgi.com www.bakercgi.com