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1. Dehydration adversely affects sports performance. How little loss of body fluids is necessary to see a ~10% decline in performance? (a) (b) (c) (d) 3% 10% 15% 30%

2. Which technique/measurement would be your LAST choice for accurately assessing intramuscular TG use during exercise in normally sedentary individuals? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) whole-body (RER) minus plasma (tracer) oxidation pre and post muscle biopsy sampling magnetic resonance spectroscopy ALL of the above are excellent choices NONE of the above are excellent choices

3. In terms of the resting metabolic rate, which of the following statements is false? a) it represents the largest contributor to total daily energy expenditure b) mitochondria uncoupling is the largest component of RMR c) liver and skeletal muscle tissues are the largest anatomical contributors d) all of the above were false

4. Which of the following is not an anaerobic source of energy a) ATP b) phosphocreatine c)creatine d) glycogen e) all of the above are anaerobic sources

5. Which two factors regarding sports drinks affect gastic emptying the most a) volume, amount of glucose b) temperature, carbonation c) volume, temperature d) amount of glucose, carbonation

6.Regarding the doubly labelled water technique, which of the following is false a) it is best used for prolonged conditions (days to week) b) it is used to first estimate VCO2 c) the elimination of (labelled) 18O should be greater then the elimination of 2H d) none of the above are false

7. Which of the following is likely to be the most important in terms of regulating hepatic glucose production? (a) (b) (c) (d) Direct innervations of the liver Increase in catecholamines Feedforward mechanism from the CNS Increase in glucagon to insulin ratio

8. List 4 specific examples/cases in which the underwater weighing technique might result in an erroneous assessment of body composition and give a brief indication of why (4 marks). 1Osteoporosisthey have less than 7% mineral 2Increased muscularitythey have more than 19% protein 3Ethnic differenceshigher bone density in African Americans...greater than 7% mineral 4Technical: air entrapmentdead air space affecting the weight (mass) of displaced water

9. Consider the following scenarios of enzymatic regulationa one or two word answer for each part will suffice (2 marks total) (a) In terms of glycogen phosphorylase, on which form does most of the allosteric regulation exist? The a or the b form? The b form (b) Most of the allosteric regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex appears to be at the level of PDH kinase. Does the activation of PDH kinase result in PDH becoming more or less active? Less active 10. Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) in contracting skeletal muscle does not appear to be regulated as would be predicted. List two examples of this (4 marks)

Lipolysis/HSL is inhibited by (1) Calcium and (2) AMPK (**Note: insulin would not be accepted here as its anti-lipolytic only at rest and were talking about contracting muscle in this example)

11. What is AMP activated protein kinase? How does it affect glucose and fatty acid metabolism.

AMPK Glucose FA Phosphorylates and decreases ACC, increases MCD activity Results in decrease in malonyl CoA, therefore increase FA oxidation Stimulates GLUT4 translocation to muscle membrane Results in increased glucose uptake into the cell Responds to decrease in cellular E charge Stimulators: increase in AMP/ATP, Cr/PCr ratio Therefore should stimulate E (ATP) providing pathways

12. What are the benefits of adding CHO to sports drinks taken during and after varios types and intensities of exercise? What is the ideal percent of CHO and why?

Benefits during exercise Glucose improves taste, facilitiates drinking Improves absorption of Na in the guy (glucose and Na transport are coupled) Results in slower decline in blood glucose Decreases/spares M glycogen use Results in improved performance (intense, repeated bouts, also long duration)

Recovery Increase rate of M/liver glycogen resynthesis Optimal %

6-8% (<10!) results in a similar absorption rate to water, and pulls fluid with CHO into the blood rather than away >10% delays absorption

13. Discuss the role of liver gluconeogensis in maintaining blood glucose concentrations, being sure to discuss the enzymes involved and their regulation. Also, indicate the relative contributions of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to the total liver glucose output at rest, during exercise and during recovery from exercise. 10 marks