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THE

AMERICAN MANUAL;
CONTAINING

A BRIEF OUTLINE of THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OP POLITICAL POWER, AND THE LAWS OF NATIONS;

COMMENTARY ON THE CONSTITUTION


OF

THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA,


AND

A LUCID -EXPOSITION OF THE DTTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF VOTERS, JURORS, AND CIVIL MAGISTRATES
;

WITH
QUESTION'S, DEFINITIONS,

AND MARGINAL EXERCISES;

DESIGNED TO DEVELOPE AND STRENGTHEN THE MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL POWERS OF YOUTH, AND IMPART AN ACCURATE KNOWLEDGE OF THE NATURE AND NECESSITY OF POLITICAL WISDOM.

ADAPTED TO THE USE OF


SCHOOLS, ACADEMIES,

AND THE

PUBLIC:

JOSEPH BARTLETTOURLEIGH, A.M.


A Member
of the

Baltimore Bar, and

Prudent

of

Newton

University.

PHILADELPHIA:

GRIGG, ELLIOT
li

<fc

CO.

NORTH POURTi BTR1

1848.

TK2.2-.I

TVU

Entered, according to Act of Congress,

in the

year 1848, by

JOSEPH BARTLETT BURLEIGH,


in the clerk's office

of the District Court of the United Slates for

the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

STEREOTYPED BY
PRINTED BY
T.

J.

FKAN.
P.

K.

AND

G.

COI.MNS.
(2)

PREFACE.

This Volume
ledge of the

is

designed to promote a know-

nature

and necessity of

political

wisdom,

the paramount importance of the ConUnited States, and the momentous


responsibilities of Voters, Jurors,

stitution of the

duties

and

and

Civil Magistrates.

If

it

shall tend in the smallest


in

degree to incite an interest


our

the Philosophy of

own Language,

to foster a devotion to the


for

Union,

awaken a conscientiousness,a desire


among
fidelity to

excellence

the rising generation, and imthe social and

bue their minds with


political

institutions of the Republic, the object

of the author will be realized.

\l
(3)

PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.
The
publishers

commit

this

work
it

to the practical teach*

the United States, believing that

will greatly assist

them

in the

discharge of their important duties, and reflect the highest honor on their profession. The Author is a laborious practical teacher, of twenty years' experience he has travelled extensively in every
;

section of the Union, with a

view

to ascertain the true condition

wants of the schools of the country. He lias ftfeo made many and important improvements in the system of instruction, and we think nothing is hazarded in the assertion that QO&e understand the true character of the schools of the whole Union

and the

real

better, or are

more ardently and zealously devoted

to

the cause of

universal education.

be imperatively demanded. It has all who have carefully examined Many politicians from the leading parties of the country, and it. some of the ablest divines from the prevailing denominations of Christians in the Union, have given it their heartiest approval.

The work seems

to

the highest

commendation from

It is

intended, both

by us and

the Author, that

it

shall contain

no sentiment that will in the least militate againsl the views of any denomination of Christians, or that shall conflict with the political opinions of the patriotic citizens of any party in our land.

the

On every page are mind purer, and

inculcated principles that will tend to


the heart better.
;

make

The

spirit of

the entire

work is of the most patriotic character it advocates the rights and the privileges of the people. It sets forth in vivid light their duties, and the necessity of the universal dissemination of sound education, and the purest principles of patriotism and morality.

The proper use


guage.
cess,
It

of the marginal exercises cannot

fail to

give the
of lan-

pupil an accurate use of words and an extensive

command

render the Teacher's Profession delightful, because the plan, carried out, will always be attended with sucto

must tend

and enable him.

at the close of

each day,

to see that labor

========================

has not been spent

in vain.

CONTEXTS.
UB980N
Design of the
I.

tion required in

EducatorsOpposition
final

Work

.utition ol their

Mun.ii.V Advantage and


Use
-Marginal words
tried
ic.,

met bv them; their


not

Success

Equal

to be

Definitions,

given

Their Apph-

Simple Sentences 4 the Pupil Pages 9-11.


s

Proin

derived by all from the same Book Thoroughness necessary in Reading Error sometimes printed Some Books to ba shunnedRehectionsAppeal on behalf of proper Education-The American Consti-

tution Pages 19-21.

LESSON
Definitions and

II.

LESSON
the

VIII.

Svnonvms

not found

Our

Margin,

to he given by the

Scholar Pains

met

Muds
tin*

End

uruuse Thought and favesa ni a Class lo he secured of patting Questions to accomplish Tact necessary in the exnl. lined

Tea
geous
to the

ri

Reading most advanta11-12.

Scholar Pages N
to
III.

principles of Action formed in early Life from the Books studied in SchoolExtensive influence of Teachers on the Destiny ol Mankind Their Labors often inadequately rewardedPlan of rigid Moral and Intellectual Training to be earned out Enthusiasm tor Critical Study thereby excited Consequent Advantages to Society Pages 2124.

LESSON
Political Science
ssity of

IX.

he varied according to

distinct Articulation

and correct Pronuncia-

tion ine Instructor to commit Errors Purposely, in ordr r that the Scholars
.

may make

>

Anec

Paramount
Lessou Pages

Feature to be made a until well understood iris Rhetorician comprehend what he reads importance of the Reading
:i
.

12-14.

LESSON
An

IV.

Excelan important Study lencies of the National ConstitutionSome knowledge of the Rise and Progress of the Science of Government necessary lor all Far reaching chaOngin of Government Only reliable racter of the Mosaic History Moaccount of the Antediluvian World mentous Events only relatedPaternal Authority the source of GovernmentLongevity of trie AntediluviansConsequent early dense Absolute Sway Population of the World over Families formerly exercised by Fathers Blessings at present enjoyed by us Pages

oral or written Account of the Reading Lesson to he given by the Pupil from Memory improvement of the Learner

24-29.

LESSON
Difference

X.

Application of Words, and Ease and Rapidity of CompositionAt>f the Scholar thus riveted Habit of Precitfa Acc u racy and Immeasurable benefit sion thus acquired thereby accruing to all the Sons and Daughters of "the Laud Pages 14-15.

between Family Law and Law generally Imperfection of early Governments Prevalence of Licentiousness and DepravjtyWickedness destroyed by the Almighty through a Deluge-' Reflection?. Age ol the WorldWise Laws enjoyed by but a small Portion of its inhabitants Noah and his Sons

commanded

to replenish the Eartbr-A Por-

LESSON
Judgment of the Teacher
_.

V.

ginal Easterns*,

to be used in simsuppressing, or extending the Marand in illustrating sad vary[>esons Local Prejudices to be thus Plan will not suit every ed application of

the tion of Noah's Descendants, regardless of Almighty's commands, build the lower ol I utility Babel, to make themselves a Name

of their

Scheme A

Lesson for us
ol ol

son
its

of

LanguagesResolution

Primitive Stah

Result

Man's painful

and long-continued Erforts-

Marginal

Terms
Literary and Sri.-ntir.c '1 hen of Distinction in the varied Use of the same Word pointed out by them Pages 13-17.

LESSON XL
Early Governments not the result of DeliberaInfluence and Dominion acquired in tion re Times bv Men noted for Strength, Bravery, and Skill Nimrod founder of the Primeval Governments desEmpire first

LESSON" VI
Errors to be corrected by the Pu; Answers to be at first porn Attractiveness of the ns

Pn- Pages 17-19.


VII.

poticHerodotus' sccount ofthe lianking, Dejoces Early Crowns reumsenbed Dominions n\ Monarch*Kings consequently nuBrsl
1

,
|

end Japan

The

Pupil's own Ti. oughts to be elicited Attributes of the Mind to be exercised Exer-

Pages

bina, division of Egypt, examples now existing R iled dan-efrerded r of Rulers Inctaase- Rule, at irped and made, hereditary 34-10.
<

Similar
I

1*

T*T

LESSON

XII.

Ceremonies of Marriage, regulation of Property.and punishment of Crimea, among the Penal Laws at first instituted first. Laws Many Grime* punished extremely severe with Deadi by the Mosaic Code Its tenderness of the irrational Creation Is the Basis Publicity uecessary to of our own Laws authentic EngagementsWriting unknown

Observations
Pages 72-76.

Marque and Reprisal

Privateers Ti
XVIII.

on the tendency of

War

LESSON

Origin of the American Constitution K ecmpitulatiou Earl) formed by the People of America for n Defence and Protection Congn

transmitted to Posterity in oral Executive power needed The early Kuler Land assigned to a Magistrate and Pnest every FamilyProhibition to remove Landmarks Title to Lund gained by cultivation

Laws

Difli

..

and those of its Members generally-] United Government drawn up by


I
i

Modem Changes in old Kegulations Pages


4(M7.

LESSON
Laws
of

XIII.
in-

some Sort have always governed the

verse pervaded by LawAll protected and Condition of Society in restrained by it which human Restrictions would not be needed, impossible under present CircumstancesIncorrectness of a common AsserNon-existence of natural Lition shown berty Human Laws defective and inade-

whole human

Race Examples The

rejected not only by the Kins, but by all the Colonies Reasons and Cause Indignation roused by the passage of the S declaration oi Cong Adopts an Address to the Kins:, and Pi ution to ea< h House of Parliament Coogl 1771 Knst recommended by the People of Providence, Rhode Island-

ubsson

xix.

The "Revolutionary Government,


nental Congress" Pass< ttiou of Rights, October ll'h, 1774, and the I'. tion or Independence, J The uate nationality of the United dales from the tir^t. and the
'

quateThose of God pnrfecl m ail R< Even Americana are not fcoverned by Laws
-

All of their own making Demonstration Appeal Reflections are dependent

An

based upon both Various lomal Government G<

prioi

irks

Pages 47-57.

LESSON
Man

XIV.
Declaration -of
imhnlii

V
nniniil

created for Civil Society Causes Which bind Men togetherEach Individual should relinquish the claim of Maintaining and Redressing Personal Kighta and \\ rougs, to AuThe thorities delegated by the Community ablest Minds generally selected to establish Security ami Happiness afforded by Rules l. aw of Nations Christian Commonwealths Based upon ChristianityNot enforced by any Human Tribunal No Courts lor adjusting National disputes Moral obligations disregarded by ancient Empires ami Republics The fame of Koine tarnished by her PerSuperior Moral Character of Modern fidy JSations Additional Remarks Pages

Rights Its rnuiiiij romwnnj


E)

reception by 'he of H

ties Pages

\\r.
Declaration of Independent
102

LESSON

XXII.

Sketch of a Confederation uhm rankhn to "n.

<

tutional plan oi Union

'

until
all
In

Cle.S
1

of

'i.utedeiatioil.

hist

hey are sanctioned by one. Maryland, agn

LESSON XV.
Necessary Divisions of the law of Nations Law of Nations defined Positive or InterApplicanational Law explained at large Lach tion of the two Divisions contrasted Nation at liberty to legislate for itself, provided thai by so doing it does not injure anotherA Stale breaking the Law of Nations liable to attack from all the Rest National Passports National rights of Navigation Agents Ambassadors Paires tvi-ofcl.

LESSON
Envoys

XVI.

Plenipotentiaries Ministers Nature of the distinction between Ambassadors. Envoys, Plenipotentiaries, and Resident Ministers Charges d'Aflaires Consuls Their Business War Its Formalities and LawsDeclaration of The Tax-payer a belligerent as well as the Soldier Difference between Offensive and Defensive War Dangers arising from Military Ambition and RenownPages 66-72.

lie two Periods of the Continental gradually progressive Beginning; of tl tionahtv of the Colonies, and n*e of the General Government Tb< abroad as the " UniW d Mates" Pow< Congress inadequate Amended and e> Pecuniary ed from nine to turn ments of the Country on the return ol A Government of and from the ft Incompetency or the Ann wanted Confederation for managing National Alfiuri demons! rated to Madison, Hamilton, and Liy. Washington in Retirement bruoda H of the Country, and disappointed HopesFirst idea of a Revision of the Articles of Confederation started at Mount Vernon A Convention proposed by Held at Annapolis, with but five S presented Recommends another to met t m Constitution of the I'mted Phdadetphia Mares framed by this Last Remarks Pages
I
'

March. i781 Coi day under the m

1U2-1U9.

LESSON XVU.
Nature and Effect of a Blockade Truces and Armistices denned Consequences of a Declaration

5SON

XXIII.

of WarAn

Embargo Letters

of

Violation of the essential Principles of rational Liberty and English Common Law, the nnmediate Cause of the Declaration of Independence Proceedings of Congress pending

CONTENTS.
it" Committee of the Whole" explained in full Extracts from the Journals o: of 1778 Committee of five appointed to prepare the Declaration Bf agreement each draws up a Form independent ot the Others

VI

LESSON XXX HI.


Pines and Compensation of Members; and Powers of Congress generally Election Uuorum Adjournment Fay Exemption

v-

Jeffe

adop-'ed

Comra onaaimoasly True Ca


i

in

Revolution exhibited by the .:>n Ail the Excellencies of the EngA uur own Me Revoluin inn-it ->: our tion oo4 nitted to us the Critical ted by their Bravery nation of the S gnera of the Declaration nf them by Emissaries
i

from Arrest lal Privilege Free dom from being Questioned for Speech or -Revenue Bills to emanate Veto from the Lower Housi Dun. to be alike throughout the Country Con-

eroe Establish uniform Naturalization Can pass general Bankrupt Lawn la alone to com Money and fix SI indardThe Post -Office and Mad Sen.
vice Copy-lights and Pa'cn's Piracy Declaration and Conduct of War Navv (Government of I .and and Sea Forces Militia Paramounr Authority requisite for the treueral Government Pages 173-182.

of

Their great Merit Americans the present Day should be Friendly la itish brethren British Parliamentary
rowD
ra

in fav >r of American Revolutionary Liberty Exhortation Pa^es 10&-118L

LESSON XXXIV.
Prohibitions upon* the Powers of Congress and upon the States--Migration or Import ation Slave-trade Habeas Corpus Off Persons Bills of Attainder Ex Post Facto Laws No Dutv to be laid bo Exports of any Stati No Preference tu be given to Port-s of any Sta'e No Vessel from one State bound to enter, clear, or pay Duties in anorher No Money to be drawn, but in consequence of Appropriations made by Law Exhibit of the State of Public Finances to be published from time to time No Titles off Nobility to be granted Office-holders not allowed to acfrom Foreign Governcept Presents. &c ments Rights of and Restrictions on the States Nothing hut Continental Money Gold and Silver a legal Tender The States not to pass Bills of Attainder, Ex Post Facto

xxiv xxv xxvi & xxvn


-

,:i!

of

America-

Pages

118-11'2.
-

>N XXVIU.
intendment of the

of the United States of

Amenca

Commentary on

5S A* XXTX. Derivation the Constitution The Constituof the word " Constitution Fn-land and other Monarchies, depending up^n immemorial Consent of the

it

ze.

is

difficult

for the Majority of the

Ruled

Respect ifour own then:Derivation of the word " Preamble''

to an in this

Pist
f

Pnn

'he Preamble in elucklatii R Remarks u'ioo

The " more


Read and

:*

before they 'can rastaia

it

Comparatively
I

the Constitution

Laws, and Laws impairing Contracts Not to grant Titles of Mobility In extremity can wage Defensive War Executive Department Vice-President Remarks President Rule for finding t tie Name ^t any Congress Actual mode of electing Executive Magis-

tratesPages

182*

Bomber
Oatt
<

of

Men and
i

who have stitution Number of false


W(raeii
n by Officeer and Glory of our Teachers Pa^es 118-156.

LESSON XXXV.
Duties of the Presidential Flexors Contingency of an Election by the Mouse of Repreprovided Tor Way of Prom Qui of the Doctoral College President and v*we-Pteaident--Salariea Oaths of Office Denunciation-Warning Powers and Duties of the President la niai:der-m- r *hief of the whole Mditarv Can Reprieve and Pardon, but not io Has, io connection with of Impeachment the Senate, the Treaty-making Power, and

hold'try sustained

by

its

LESSON XXX.
Commentary on the Preamble continued Imgh Male and Female Eduport Gorernmenls Tb
i

Itshment ot J durance of Domestic ment* Pages 15G-160.

--The" enComniu<juillity"

See Removes
YXI.

OAo

nsultinc the Senate

An

from

--195.

Commentary on the Preamble concluded Pro'-RemarksI

KXvT
of the President,

continued Is

to give

Congreai information of the "State of the I'mori.'" and recommend Measures for the
180-167.

General ObsenraUone Pages

W'H.
Commentary on
Depa
:

|Has Power to convene Conrresi \nnual pfeesaeeSpecial Men


. i

lip'

1.

the Constitution

legislative

HI

ntatives

U>".
!
I

iVIitv tO Im-

any

aotl
i

.polar

Branch ha* the po

Impeachm*
haaty Action

par*

A
fontei

given by Judicial De'

law-

peachmen's

Skilful

O.urt for the tnal


dist
if

the Jod
I>
-

a the

Pages

109

Executive and

rs Duties

of

Vlll
the Judiciary Range of
its

CONTENTS.
Powers Judges
Its

their How appointed Duration of only Term on Imof Office Subject to removal Jurisdicpeachment Supreme Court

and Appellate, defined and describedTrial by Jury Pages 195-202.


tion, Original

Treason

Its

LESSON XXXVII. Nature Two Witnesses needed

to Convict of it Effects of Attainder limited to the Life of the Offender Horrible ancient English Common Law punishment of Trea-

LESSON XLII. Duties and Responsibilities of Jurors Preparatory Mental Discipline an essential thm? to a Juryman General Remarks Two kinds of Junes Grand Juries defined and explainedPreliminary Oaths of their Foremen and Members Extent of their JurisdictionOne Member appointed Secretary, hut DO re cords kept Bills of Indictment supplied by the Attornev-General Secret examination

of

Witnesses Pages 239-245.

sonIts punishment here


Privileges of Citizens

Public Fugitive

RecordsCriminals

and Slaves Formation and Admission of new


States

of the Territories Amendments to the Constitution provided Public Debt Supremacy of t lit* Constifor Religious Test O.ith of tution and Laws Ratification <>f the Constitution Office

Government

Remarks Pages
Commentary on

2<r2-208.

LESSON XX XVI II.


No Relithe Amendments gion to be established by Law Freedom of Speech and Liberty of the Press guaranteed Righi of Petition confirmed to the Peoph Militia (tight of the People Ul keep and bear Arms not to be infringedRemai Standing Armies and Military HabitsAddiIn tune of Peace Soltional observations diers are not to be quartered in any House without the Owner's Consent

LESSON XLI11. Subject continued Vigilance and Caution required Presentments Further Explanations and Remarks- Jury of Trials or Petit Jury The Oath Qualifications should be of an equally high order as those of Jury Definition Trial Public Kv be tiist given by the PlaintiffCr nation Challenged Questions decided apou by the B Sumwl ming up of Testimony by the Judgl terpreta'iou of the Law mined by the Jury Pages 245-252.

\[ IV.

Subject continued

Admonition Way of prow


b In
intricat
\

Common Law
ancient and

LESSON XW1X.
Houses of the People protected against unreasonable SearchesSpeedy trial guaranteed
accused of "i lint Life not to lie twice jeoparded Other Privileges Jury trial extended to dvil Ca*es Manner of examining Causes once tried, prescribed Piohllntion of excessive Bail ;nid lines, and unusual punishmi ni Rights enumerated do not affect those retained Reservation of Towers Prohibition additional upon the Powers of Present Remarks the Supreme Court Manner of electing the President and VicePresident shown by Article XII Reason {)( the Change Duration of the Constitution General Reflect ions Washington's Farewell Address Extract from Bryant Pages 216to tiiose

nal Privileges of the

between modern Jury treatment Crimiprosecutions Surest preventm

Accused

Further

Re-

mark!

J(50.

<

LESSON XLV.
Disclaimer Danger to le apprehended Nothing stationary General Observations

LESSON

XI. VI.

Duties and Responsible Term defined Iinprovemi tion of Society Extracts from others, on the Subje< panvins extracts from earlv English

Pages

96B-376L

225.

LESSON

XLVI1.
Pages

LESSON XL.
Duties and Responsibilities of Voters Popular Phrases rendered obsolete by the peculiar Character of our Institutions Subject considered at Length Reflections Pages 225-

General Observations and Reflections

276-282.

LESSONS
Concluding

Xl.VIII.

XUX.
301-3ia

Remarks Pages

282-200-301.

234.

LESSON ILL
Subject continued

Enlightenment necessary Ignorance in any Part detrimental to the Whole Apostrophe Rights of the Minority Party Virulence dangerous Admonition to VotersPages 234-239.

STATISTICAL TABLES Pages

APPENDIX Pages
45-48.

1-54.

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Pages

THE

AMERICAN MANUAL.
3

. r

cd

3
=

=n

W^

5 "

Q
3

DIRECTIONS, EXPLANATIONS,

AND SUGGESTIONS.
I.

LESSON
This
ers,
'

Work

is

designed for general read'

Book.
Primary.

and also

for a text-book in

Elementary
'

Schools and Academies.

The marginal Ex'

Lessons for
practice.

ercises are peculiar to the

Author's School'

Writer's.

5 books.
use and

It
'

is

easy, however, to

show

their

Exhibit.
Benefit.

advantage.
in
'

Before the

first letter

of some word

every

line is the figure 1,


is

Each.
Marks.
Termination.

which
the

'

denotes that the word


given, at the
'

defined, or
line.

synonym

end of the

10

The

pupil, in reading,
its

may

'omit the

marled

Not mention.
Give.

word, and in

place supply the definition or

synonym:

thus,

"work"

in

the

first 'line,

Row of words

may be omitted, and the sentence read


"This
15
ers,''

book

is

designed for 'general readin

Public.

and then proceed


the paragraph
is

a similar

'

man-

Peculiar

wj

ner,

till

finished

After this

'"onipleted.

iVBITItfl
Tlif
I

the Appendix.

To what
different

does their, in the 5th


w<rd

line, refer]

In

how minv
it

sentences

work

so that in every instance


is

shall

convey a

meaning

What

paragraph

()

10 DIRECTIONS, EXPLANATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS.


the 'pupils should analyze the paragraph,
Scholar*.
Specify.

and 'name
tences
it

all

the simple and

compound
in the
'

sen-

contains.

Each word

'

mar-

Side of the page.

20 gin
1

may
'

then be spelled, and the varied defi-

Numerous.

nitions,

synonyms,
the pupils

roots, derivations,

&c,
in

Words
ing.

of

si-

milar meanTold.
Plainest.

given

may

then apply them

composing the
either
'

'easiest simple sentences, and,

orally or in writing, form sentences


'

Verbally.
Include.

25 which
1

contain the marginal words, their


or
"

definitions
;"

synonyms
'

thus, "

bought
or

Explanations.

the book
sister,
' '

my

father, aunt, brother,


;"

Parent.
Peruses.

reads the volume


the

" the

librarian
;"

lent

me

volume

;"

"

my
;"

cousins, James,
'

Loaned.

30 John, Susan and Mary, read the work


" Caroline
in
1
'

Volume.
Possesses.

has the book

" Harriet reads

the

American 'Manual."
there
will

After a

little

Handy-book.
Training.

practice,

generally
'

be

great

interest taken in the exercises,

and surprising

Wonderful.

35

skill

'

elicited.

Brought

out.

The
hints:
classes,

preliminary remarks, in the first 8 lessons, are intended merely as For some educators will invariably exercise their own judgment

difference

and under peculiar circumstances, it may be advisable not to use the marginal exercises sometimes only spelling the drfirutwns the synonyms the between the definitions and the synonyms and generally, It would be well for ners, to take but one exercise in the margin at a lesson. the teacher to have some Unabridged Dictionary, and a work on English synonyms, to assist in the explanations and illustrations.

What
in

is

the

meaning of analyze,

in the 17th line

the 22d line,

mean?
Is
it

What
a

is

a simple sentence?
a

What does them, What is a com-

pound sentence?
about
is

good or

the subject

of the lessons you

bad plan to think, out of school, have recited in school ] What

meaning of orally, in the 24th line ? Illustrate the difference in meaning between definition and synonym. Is it pleasant or proWhat is the object of fitable to read what one does not understand ? going to school] What part of speech is or, in the 27th line? Does or ever have any other meaning, and is it ever used as a noun ? Is there more than one way to spell synonym ? hat authority is generally followed in this work ? What would be the difference if you substitute or
the the

for

and, in the 30th line

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.

11

LESSON
Each
dictionary, and
finitions or
:

II.

scholar should be 'supplied with a

Furnished.
hailed.

encouraged
not

to discover de-

found in the margin great pains should always be taken to 5 arouse thought and investigation on the
part
spell

synonyms

Words of similar meaning.

Care.
Excite.

of the

pupils;

they

may
in

'sometimes
'concert

Occasionally.

and define the words


of difficulties
or

in

Company.
Impediments
Instructor.

case

backwardness, the

'teacher

may
'aid

take the lead.

10

Much

may be

derived in securing the

Assistance.

attention of a class

by 'avoiding

the usual

Shunning.

plan of reading in rotation, selecting either


at

Method.
Chance.

random from

the class, or from those

paying the

least 'attention to the lesson, using

Heed.
Watchfulness.
Plainly.

15 due vigilance that each has suitable exercises.

The

questions should be 'distinctly

ASKED, WITHOUT

AFFORDING

THE

'SLIGHTEST
'AN-

Least.

KNOWLEDGE WHO WILL BE CALLED UPON TO


SWER.

Reply.

Then, after a suitable pause, the 'one


it

Person.
Given.

20

whom

may

be supposed has 'paid the least


It

attention should be 'selected.

should

al-

Chosen.
Kept.
Peculiar
Benefit.
skili

ways be

'borne in mind, that the usefulness

of the teacher depends

much upon

'tact

in

arousing the minds of the pupils to the

'uti-

25

lity

and
The

necessity
difficult

of understanding
in

the

Need.

Questions are eluod tied

the Appendix.

When there is any part noccssarv to study one's reading lesson ? Does it of a lesson von do not understand, what ought to he done? injure or benefit Be, to reason and think ahout what we have seen,
Is
it

heard, or rtodt

What
?

should he our
?

main

object in reading
is

does tOtk

refel in the

15th foe

From what

the

1st line derived

Can you mention some

of the

To what ? word scholar in the words derived from the

word school ?

12

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


whole of every
lesson.

The

'

learner

is
Properly.

more

benefited

by reading

'correctly

and

'understanding^ a single

paragraph, ana-

Intelligently.

lyzing the sentences, defining the words, va-

Changing.
Definitions

30 rying their 'meanings, tracing them to their


roots,

or

[following

out

their

derivatives,
in

Tracing.
Putting.

'throwing words

into

sentences

which
posi-

they show a 'variety of meanings


tion

the

Numl>er.
Precise.

of words,

and

the

nice

shades of

35 'thought the same word


'whole volume.
Illustrate

may

impart to the

Imagination.
Inattentive.

mind, than by the 'heedless perusal of a

An

entire.

the

their refer in the 30th line

the 37th line,

meaning of analyzing in the 28th line. To what does ? When you substitute entire for whole, in why should you change a to an J

LESSON
The marginal
in a
'plain

III.

exercises

should

be en-

Lessons.

larged, 'explained, and applied by the teacher

Illustrated.

and familiar way, varying acin italics

Clear.

cording to the 'proficiency of the pupils; the


5
'difficult

Attainment.

words and those

may

be

Hard.
Plain.

used

in exercising the learners in

distinct

'articulation

and correct pronunciation

imto the

Utterance.
Tuition.

portant parts of an education, which should

never be 'neglected.
10 in
this particular is

The

pupil's proficiency

Omitted.

mostly committed

care of the teacher,

who
in

should

generally
'pro-

Usually.
Articulate.

read a few sentences

each lesson and

nounce the
Illustrate the

'difficult

words
italics

for the scholars


Is

Hard.

meaning of

in the 5th line.

scholar, in the

13th

line,

used in the limited or extended sense?

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


to

13

imitate.

To vary

the exercise

and

se-

Copy.
Application.

15 cure their

attention, the instructor

may

add

or leave out words,


culation, pauses,
sis, vS:c.,

commit

errors in arti-

Perpetrate.

inflections, accent,

empha-

Modulations.
Constantly.

invariably requiring the pupils to


It

make

corrections.

may
well

be well to take

Amendments
Examples.

20 one of the above


leading subject
till

features
it

and make
understood.

it

is

Comprehended.
Expression. Excellence.

Rhetorician

in

Paris carried distinct articuperfection, that a

lation to such

word conto

veyed by a whisper could be 'understood

Heard.
Elevation.

25 the

height of seven

stories.

The

scholar

CANNOT RKAD WELL,

UXLESS HE UNDERSTANDS

Without.
Suitable.
Potent.

what he heads
training
in

and

inasmuch as 'proper
has
a

reading

more 'vigorous

influence over the moral and intellectual

Control.
Faculties.

30 powers than any other study, the reading


lesson should
lar,

be studied

more by

the schothe

Learned.
0;>ta;n.

and

receive

more

attention from
'

elementary teacher, than any other


of education.

branch

Part.

Knowledge.

To what does
in the :20th line
it
?

their refer in the 15th line?

mean

in the

What does one mean What P<iris 21st line?


Is

in the 20th line?


is

To what does it refer What does

there
ton,

more than one Paris?

there

meant in the 22d line? Is more than one London, Bos!

When you see either of the Washington, Philadelphia, or Pekin? Why an 1 houses do you know which i< meant let, how What is the most -illy built higher in cities than in the country? \< there more than one way to spell int part of an education? Illustrate the meaning of Rhetorician. instructor, in the 15th line? ditFerenee between moral and intellectual, in it is the Illustrate the meaning* of powers, in the 30th line. ine ?
r,r.<

always the same part of

i?

In

how many
in

trate

simple sentences can yon use the word Illusdifferent meaning in each instance? mr, ttrengt h, and authority. meanii -

14

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.

LESSON
may

IV.

The
give

teacher

'require

the pupils to the

ause

'an oral or

written

account of

A spoken.
Entire.

'whole reading lesson, and sometimes even


take
all

the books from the class, read the

Manuals.

'

lesson himself,

and require each one

to give,

Task.

either 'orally, or,

what

is

better, in writing,

By mouth.
Minute acn.uat.
Correct.

'detail

of the whole.

This plan improves

the pupil in writing, spelling, the 'proper use

and application of words, case and rapidity 10 in composition, and is one of the best methods for developing, strengthening, and elevating
all

Quicknew.

Way*.
L'ufolduvg.

the faculties of the

mind;

it

'fixes

Concentrates
lent] jr.

and strengthens the attention and admirably


trains the scholar
for

the

duties

of

after
're-

IVrparcs.

15

lite:

the daughter acquires the habit of

Commniu-

lating

with

she hears

the

accuracy and
son, a
solid

precision

what
Kirm.

foundation on
the

which
sibility

to stand

when he assumes

responai
a
Evitln.

of a

'citizen

takes

his

place

20 juryman,

to listen to,

and judge of testimony


fortunes, the

which

affects

the

happiness,

Property.
i'l-rmanency.

the lives of individuals, the 'stability and the


The
difficult

Qnas

l:i.

the meaning of ami what part of speech is it? What i- tilt difference in the meaning of developing, slrenztheniyig, and elevating, in the 11th line? Illustrate the moaning of faculties, in the What is the meaning of juryman, in the '20th line 12th line. How many persons compose a jury ? How many kinds ot juries are tfe What are the duties of a jury? May every voter serve on a jury Would the community or country he safe, if ignorant, inattentive, or wicked men served as jurors? What word is understood after
one, in the 5th lino, refer?
i>

To what

does

What

whole, in the 7th line,

to,

in the 20th line?

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


welfare of
society

15

and

both

sons

and

Benefit
Protectors.
Insensibly.

daughters, the future 'guardians of the re-

25 public,
ably

will

be imperceptibly, but inconceiv-

'eternally

more 'benefited both temporally and by the immense treasure, and the

Profited.

For

v.t.

noblest talent of the 'laud annually conse-

Country.
Kcliirion of
.

crated to the dissemination of Christianity

Christians.

30 by means of lectures and oral 'instruction from the pulpit.

Sacred Desk

What does im, placed before words, mean, as, imperceptibly^ in the What is the meaning of temporarily ? Illustrate the dif25th Uriel ference between temporarily and eternally. Do you think a wicked man is as happy as a good man in this life? Which would you rather be when yon come to die/ Must every person now living die 7 What do you think is the difference between the mind and the body f What guide enables us to attain botli temporal and eternal happiness/

LESSON
It 'ought,*
in

V.

however,

to

be borne constantly
the 'judgDiscrimination.

mind, that

much depends upon


in

ment of the teacher


5 marginal exercises

simplifying this fea-

[Uostratiits v.uu >le. y


i i

ture, as well as in 'suppressing or

extending the

Abridging.
Changiog;.
Ali.litv.

in illustrating
suit the

and

va-

rying the lessons so as to

capacity

of the pupils, and the wants of different


classes,
l<cal

VTftrioOs.

and

'especially in

overcoming
plan
in
is it

the

Ptatksularif

prejudices so

common

indifferent secthat

SeCtfooaL
Doited

10 tions

of the

Union.

would

secure unparalleled success


*

one

district,
to
1

Unequalled.

In substituting thou Id

f<r

Ought,

why

necessary

omit

to

before

What is the meaning 6Cfeature, in the 3d line difTor'-noe between tuppreiung and extending, in thr 1th line! Illustrate What ii the meaning of the meaning of prejudice*, in the '*th line. un placed before a word, as unparalleled, in the 11th line! or, untfitlimited, aaboonded, aaacco nn table, &c.
be borne?

What

i-

the

16

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


might, from 'ignorance, prejudice, or some other cause, prove a 'total failure, under the

^*^
complete.
Direction.

'management of the same teacher,

in

ari-

15 other part of the confederacy. Hence another advantage in the almost endless application

Union.

Employment
I.t^VIlS.

of the marginal
it

'exercises.

Some
ru-

may
tions

find

best to use

them only
'parts

for defini-

Solely.

of speech 20 diments of composition the correct pronungrammar roots or ciation tracing words
in

others for spelling

teaching the
to

pies.

Kimls.
iMstmct utlerai

'articulation

their

Originals.

following out their 'derivatives.


rive

Youth

deImmense.

'immeasurable
delight

benefit,
in

and generally
marginal

25 take much

using the

words in and essays.

'composing sentences, paragraphs,

Putting togwIIUT.

The

first

:*,

.">,

10, or 15

words
in

Treatise*.

may
30

be 'assigned for a written exercise


scientific or 'literary exercise.
in

geography, chronology, biography,

history,

ition.

any
words

The

Lrmlitiunal.

margin may be used in illustrating the importance of the position of


the

Place,

words, their nice shades of distinction

in va-

Exact.

rying the meaning of the same word, and

boa
l

35

in

exemplifying thai the connexion of words


sentences conveys to the mind their true

mon

in

impart.

'signification.

Meaning.

What wonl is understood after fome, in the 17th line? What ii the meaning of i?n placed before a word, as immeasurable, in the 24th line? or, immoral, imperfect, immovable, Sec. ? does not im have the same meaning before prove as improve, impart, &c? What

Why

is

between a sentence, a paragraph, an essay, and a the meaning of Grammar, Geography, Chronology, Biography, and History? Illustrate the difference between scientific and literary. Do you think there are any two words that have precisely the same meaning? What, then, do we mean when we say words are
the difference
treatise?

What

is

synonymous?

What

is

the nominative case to conveys, in the 36th line

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.

17

LESSON
The
phasis,

VI.
to
Occasionally.

pupils

may
It

sometimes be allowed

correct the errors

made

in

pause, tone, emfirst,

Mistakes.

&c

may

be well, at
to

to 'per-

Allow.
Propositions.

mit the easiest

answers

the

questions

5 there should, however, be constant progression,

Advancement.
Chance.
Mental.

and every 'opportunity improved

to in-

terest
elicit

and

incite the 'sentient faculties,

and

more than simple


answers.

affirmative or nega-

Mere.
Replies.

tive

This plan will effectually

10 secure the attention, and impart energy and

Mind.
Utterance.

accuracy of 'expression.
sons should
principles

The reading

les-

invariably be studied, and the

Always.
Feelings.
Requisite.

and emotions of the author com-

prehended.

The plan

it

may

be 'expedient

15 to adopt should be mildly but 'perseveringly


followed, so that every

Steadily.

word

shall

be 'com-

Understood.
Attend.

prehended,
the

and improvement 'accompany


of every sentence.
'inspire the class

enunciation

This

Utterance.

system will soon

with en-

Animate.
Variations.

20 thusiasm and
and

delight, the 'modulations of the


will be generally 'cor-

voire and emphasis


rect,

Accurate.

their tasks

performed with ease


the most 'important

Execute!
Arrnr

and propriety.
Another, and by
The
Illustrate the
difficult

far

Momentous.

Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

meaning of

j/ausr. tone,

and emphasis,
Illustrate

What does
re
1

^-c.

mean

after

empkatiif
.

in the 2cl line the difference be-

prnnrression

and advniircment
!

in the 5th line.

What

is

sentient

fro,n, in the 7th line

Why

would

it

in the plare of inrjfe, in the 7th line ? Can you name Aced before words, :-. /i-pirr. in the 19th line 7 tome oth^r words in whiHi in ha- the <amr meaning? Illustrate the difference between modulation and emphasis, in the 20th line.

not be as well to use What is the meaning of

~2

18

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


Correct.

25 duty devolving upon Educators, is the proper 'discipline of the moral powers; the neglect of
this

Training.

fundamental principle, scientiousness, is the most 'prolific source of


'con-

the want of

M
Fruitful.

of

justice.

social evil

and

political

corruption.

The

Depravity.
Ingrafted.

30 Creator has 'implanted in every human being a 'sense of right and wrong and a leading
:

Feel

115.

'feature of this

work

is

to

arouse and
It is

call into

tic.

active exercise this 'faculty.

of the utmost

vment
Imr>onancp.

moment, that the young rely not uynn others, 35 but become themselves the principal agents
;

their

minds

may come

into

intense action

Unremitted.
Infinitely.

and be vastly benefited b.y it: there is not the slightest danger of 'monotony or overexertion. In youth the 'senses are keenly 40 awake
neither
to right

and wrong, and impressions


indelible; but in maturity

Influences.
Mient.

arc certain and

human

law, nor even the instructions

Adm<
Ability.

of the pulpit have the


patriotic, 'religious, or

power of making
wise
citizens.

The
!

Illustrate the meaning of moral powers, in the 20th line. What pression " i>is/rurtions of (he pulpit ," in the 4 2d line.

The
is

ex-

a ineton-

o?nyl

What is the most important part of Illustrate its meaning. What is the purest source of all morality? Shall one's education? we be more useful while living, and happier when we come if we follow this unerring lair? If all did by others, as, in similar
ti

circumstances, they would like to be done by, what do you suppose would be the result? If one commits a crime, can he, under any circumstances, escape punishment? Is there any power that watches over us, knows and holds us responsible, not only for every wrong thing we say and do, but for every evil thought? Is it, then, a good or a bad plan for us to reflect upon what we say, do, and think? When we have done wrong, what ought ice to do? Is there any one living but sometimes does wrong? What is the difference, then, between the good and the bad? What unerring st andard will enable us to attain the utmost usefulness and enjoyment while living the happiest death, and secure to our souls eternal felicity ?

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


45 clergyman meets vice
in its full
it

19

growth and
in

wickedness.

power, but the teacher, taking

embryo,

An n rmed
J

may
old die
?

easily prevent

its

existence.
?

Hod*.
the

Do we know when we

>hall die
all

Do

young as well as the

How

do you think

ought

to live?

LESSON
In

VII.
Propound
Aim.
views.
Idea.

asking questions, the teacher should


elicit

constantly endeavor to
thoughts, as,
is

the pupil's

What

do you think?

own What

y>ur

opinion of the action, person, or


?

5 Subject under consideration


[s
it

Is

it

our duty?

Matter.

right

or

wrong

Or any other 'way


and bring
into

Manner.
Engage.
Vigorous.
Vigilance.

that will

interest the pupils,

active exercise
also
the

not only the


reflection,

memory, but
comparison,

attention,
all

10 judgment, and
It will,

the attributes of the mind.

Discrimination.

at first, require

some

'exertion

on the

Pains.

part of educators to carry out the above


hints
ally

Those who
train the

young.

and suggestions; they

may

occasion-

Intimations.

15 superficially more

meet with opposition for not teaching umtm**. for deviating from the Imperfectly.

usages of predecessors,
jections
;

and other

'futile

ob-

Trifling.

but, after

awhile,
is

when

the result

a short time

of their instruction

'manifest,

they will

Mass*.
Commendation.

generally
v

receive

unlimited

'praise,

with
"'*
first

ThedinV'*
II

en

.-

i\

,:

sentences are there in the


in the .0th line.

ten lines

Il-

lustrate the

How many sentences


ml meaning?
Illus-

yoa

name

in which, tubjed will


in

ha\
h line.
!

What
Can you

i-

the

meaning
the

'.

the r.'th line


STOI

illustrate

un with any other

20

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


Wealth.
Sanction.

20 what is worth more than 'gold, or even honor and fame among men, the 'approbation
of their

own

conscience.

Moral sense.
Scrupulously
Learners.
Profit.

Educators cannot too 'carefully impress upon the 'young that all do not derive equal 25 'benefit from the same book that the usefulness of reading 'depends not so much on

Relies.

the

number of books

read, as

upon

their

Variety.

'judicious selection,

and the thoroughness with

Proper.

which they are read and understood.


30 over, that which
said,
is

printed, like

Morewhat is
'

Furthermore

That which.
Occasionally

may
if

'sometimes

be

untrue.

Many
to

books should be 'shunned as the deadly upas,


even
'one

had an abundance of time

rson.

read them.

From

the perusal of 'immoral


in

35 books, thousands,

the

morning of

life,

Prime.

with the brightest earthly prospects before

Advantages.

them, have been insidiously allured to


trievable ruin.

'irreNumberless.
Perhaps.
Begoili.

And among

the innumerable

school-books of our country, there

may

}<s-

40

sibly be

danger that some

may

fascinate

and please the young, while they engender


indolent habits, 'create only a taste for light
Form.

reading, and enervate the mind.


this

Let, then,
Captiv
i

volume, though
title

it

presents no fascinating
the

45 and alluring
those

young lady and young gentleman, receive due attention from


to

Nnnie.
CoiiHileration.

icho are responsible for their

proper

Suitable.

is

What is the meaning of " more than gold;' in the 20th line f What the meaning of all, in the 24th line? To what does they refer, in the 29th line? What is the meaning of deadly upas, in the 32,1 line
!

What
of

is

the

meaning of

them, in the 34th line


?

What

is

the

meaning

those, in

the 47th line

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


instruction.

21
in

Let

it

be 'remembered, that
all that

it

Borne
M;ikes.

mind.

contains the principles of

renders

50

perty
rights
the

life

desirable,

and home

sacred.

Equality of
safety of pro-

Holy. Security.
Liberty.

the trial

by jury

the

political

nation

and

freedom
the

greatness of inestimable privileges

the

Invaluable.

of the Christian, are 'entirely dependent on

Wholly.
Dissemination.
Civil.

55 the general
ral

'diffusion

and inculcation of moand the correct

and

political

science,

understanding of the 'reasons and the true


principles of our

Causes.

national 'compact; these

Union.

are indispensable in 'sustaining our republi-

Upholding.

60 can

institutions,

and

'requisite in

order to

Necessary.
Spotless.

transmit in 'unsullied purity the noblest of all

human
tion.

productions, the American Constitu-

Works.

What
it

country do you suppose has the best government?

Who

is

advantages that the United States have over all other governments. What is meant by What is meant by AmeriRepublican Institutions, in the 59th line? Why do you think it important can Constitution, in the 62d line? that the Constitution of the United States should be understood by What do you think would be the consequence if the Constituall?
that sustains our

government

Illustrate the

What insures to a nation prosperity, haption should be destroyed? What do you think the greatest pririlegee any piness and power! What is it that guaranties our religious freecitizen can enjoy?

dom?

LESSON
It
is in

VIII.

early

'life

that

we form

principles

Existenre.
Usually.

of action that 'generally govern

all

our sub-

sequent career; the Reading Bonks studied


at school

tim,

contribute greatly to mould the

habits of thought, and

make

indelible im-

22

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


pressions on the

mind

they either 'weaken


'intellectual

Enervate.

or strengthen
'character.

the

moral and

Mental.
Reputation.

The

teachers, in their profes-

sion, 'exercise a

more extensive and powerdestiny of mankind,

WiclJ.
Lot.

10

ful

influence over the


all
;

than

the other learned professions 'com-

United.

bined

and, though their

'

labors

may not,
'lot

in

Exertion*.
Properly.
Fate.

the present age, be 'duly appreciated and

rewarded

though
and

it

may
toil

be the

of the

15 most 'meritorious
privations,

to

obscurely

amid
their

Deserving.
Expire.
;<um:.

to 'die in

poverty

yet

'reward

is

not of earth, but in heaven

they
t<

are the 'instructors of mankind, and have a


loftier,

Teaohera.
Obligation.

a holier 'duty to perforin than


trifle

20 ther gold, or
like exercises;

away

the

invaluable

Precious.
I'ninttllecluul

time of their pupils in monotonous parrotthey have to derelopa and

Unlbld.

strengthen

all

the 'faculties of the immortal


'plan of rigid

MiieuU
Sjrtti in.

mind.

Let the

moral and

in-

25

tellectual training be carried out


tors,

by 'educa-

who
instruct.

and the school-room


books and

will 'never

become

At no time.
Dread.

a place of 'aversion, causing a permanent


dislike for
intellectual

enjoyment,
Wish.
Learning.

but a 'desire will be incited in mental culture

30

for

the

sake of 'knowledge.

The young
zeal

will be inspired with

'commendable
'critical

and

Praiseworthy

enthusiasm,

for

the

niceties

and

Accurate
Idiom.

beauties of our
The

own

'language, and, after a


in the

difficult

Queatiom are elucidated

Appendix.

To what does
in the 12th line?
in the

they, in the

What does

14th line, denote?

Who is meant by their, between rewarded and though, Does the dash always have the same mean6th line, refer?
the dash,

ing?

PRELIMINARY REMARKS TO EDUCATORS.


suitable

23

knowledge
is

of their

'vernacular
'covet

Native.

35 tongue

obtained, they will

pure

i**"**u r
Eastern.

refreshment
literature,

from European and


zest for totally

Oriental
will be

and a

knowledge
to

Thin*.

acquired,

unknown

those

who

sun*.
unimportant
ATocation.
Extent.

use books of a light and trifling character

40 the teacher's calling


attractive

will, indeed,

be ardu-

ous, but in the highest degree delightful and

the

youthful mind will be im'thirst for

Youns.
Desire.

bued with an unquenchable


ledge.

know-

The

'time will then soon

come when

period.
juryman.
sign.

45 every voter and 'juror can read and write,

Freeman will eventually be stamped on the brow of every American citizen.


and the
intellectual

'insignia

of

ultimately.
inhabitant.

What do you suppose the author means by European literature? WoulJ not the expression Greek and Latin languages have conveyed What do you suppose he means by Oriental his meaning as well Would not oriental languages have conveyed his meaning literature? as well in this case, inasmuch as the oriental languages are not T \V hat is the expression "pure divided into ancient and modern? Illustrate the meaning of the author Can you refreshment' called ? Which ose some sentences, and use any expression figuratively ?
? ?

think the best plan, to read understanding^ a little, or to read What influence do you suppose inattentively through many books? inattentive habits, formed at school, will be likely to exert over us in Can you name, in this lesson, a simple sentence, a compouwl after life ?
i

sentence,

and a paragraph. What is the meaning of the last two How many white persons, over 21 years nces in this lesson? of age. in the United States, could neither read nor write, according Was the enumeration of the census probably to the census of 1840? much smaller than the real number? What is probably now ihe number of white persons over 21 years of age that can neither read Can you give any reasons why write, in the United States ? and every juryman, in our country should both read r,
If property, life, the stability and perunderstandingly and write petuity of our republican institutions, and the C8J1M of Christianity. ud on the general diffusion of Learning and morality, what ought each one of us to do? Do we live under a Christian government?
?

24

UTILITY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE.

LESSON
f

IX.*
is

(^1.)

Political 'Science

an exceedingly
justly

Kuowledge.
Useful.

interesting

and

'

important study, and

and 'claims the attention, both of the young and strengthens the expands it the old
of
;

Demands.
Enlarges.

m ind

increases our knowledge of 'nature enables us to judge of the actions of


'

human

Adds

to

Chan.pis*.

men, and understand the system of government 'under which we live. ( &) No American citizen can creditably perform the duties 10 incumbent on him, without a knowledge of The Constithe nature of political power.
tution of the United States
is

Ofl

to.

Honorably.
Arqurunt-

Authonty.
Intricate.

the

most 'compolicy

plex yet perfect

system of

human

Hon
Good

rnment.
quali-

ever established, and combines alike the 15 cellencies of all the 'illustrious States of ancient and

ties.

Famous.
Eras.

modern

times.

(3.)

It is,

therefore,

'necessary for every citizen to


The
difficult Q.u^tinn

know

s<>me-

are eln< idate/1 in the Appendix.

( 1.)

1.

What
'2.

is

the
in

meaning of "both of the young and of


conjunction usually follows both?
both
is

the old," in

the 3d line?

What

give an
4.

example

which

substituted

for

nounl
the

yon 6. What people the happiest and most powerful at the present time ? do yon think is the only guarantee of the perpetuity of liberty and 7. Can you name some of the the happiness of communities? which led to the settlement oi" this country? S. What do you think has contributed to make the people of the United States so prosperous and happy ? ( 3.) 9. Why is the study of political science interesting
<

When yon substitute acquaintance for knowledge, in why do yon change a to an/ 5. In what country do

( 2.) LOth line, think the

* Lesson IX. is the besrinnins; of the main subject of this work. To meet the convenience of different Teachers, who must necessarily have classes of varied attainments, th< generally divided into 10 or 12 sections, each of which usually contains from 8 to 12 hi.. will be borne in mind, that these sections are merely arbitrary divisions, and no? panu According to this arrangement, Teachers may. with the utmost ease, van- the lessons they wish For some classes, one section maybe enough tor a task others may to assign. The answers t<. the <j sections, or it may be. even a whole lesson, for a single exercise. are often not found in the Lesson, and are intended to stimulate (tie pupils to industrious halnts out of school to d/'velope thorowjhhj (he mental find moral powers to train properly the young ioi the momentous duties and reffjionszbdities that aicait them in flu future.
;
.

+ T*aehers

will perceive that each lecti'in of queitiorm is intended to correspond to its

numbered tection

in the

context.

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
thing of the 'origin and progress of political
science,
its
Rise.

25

nature and 'necessity

to under-

Need.
Incidents.

20 stand the causes and 'circumstances which

have 'contributed
pires
;

to found States

and

Em-

Helped.
Attained.

the

means by which they 'acquired


and grandeur
is 'a

honor and 'renown; the reasons of their


real happiness
;

Fame.
Splendor.
Destruction.

and the true


'ruin.

25 causes of their degeneracy and


(4.)

Government
It

science of the most


'

One.
Acquired.
Unite*.

exalted character, and can only be

learned

by

study.

'combines reason, morality,

and wisdom, and 'approximates to the attri30 butes of Divine power. In 'treating, therelore,

Approaches.
Discoursing.

of the Constitution of the 'United States,


citizens,
it

Confederacy,
Obligations.

and the duties of


to

seems proper

commence with

the 'origin

and progress

Beginning.
Political

of 'government.
( 5.)

power.

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
Class.

35

It

is

the nature of each 'order of created

beings to take 'pleasure in

one another's
'forest,

Enjoyment.
Wilderness.

company:
and

the

beasts of

the

and

10. Why is it necessary for every one to know useful to all ? 11. What is the differsomething of the nature of political power? 12. Can you name some ence between ancient and modern times? 13. Illustrate the difference of the most famous nations of antiquity ? between ruin, in the 25th line, and destruction. (4.) 14. Can you
15. How the meaning of government, in the 26th line? simple sentences can you name in each of which government 16. Why is the science of governshall have a different meaning ? ment a subject of much importance? 17. In what country is it neces18. sary for every one to understand the principles of government? Why do you suppose it is more necessary for people to be enlightened 10. Ought all under a republican than under a despotic government? 20. Why do you supthe people in every country to be educated ? pose, in treating of the Constitution of the United States, it is p roper What do to begin with the origin and progress of government ?

illustrate

many

26

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
the birds of the air, herd and
'

flock together;

Collect.
Ability.

but the 'power


'

is

given to the

human race
.

40 alone, to look through the vista of past and to derive 'wisdom from the future time Creator of all, and enjoy the 'inestimable

see.

Knowledge
invaluable
KeasuiiabbJacob.
Story.
Origin.

blessings of 'rational government.

(6.)

The

history of the people of Israel


'

is

the only one

45 that carries on a continued 'narration from the 'beginning of the world without any
'interruption,

and even with

this,

there are

I>isturb:mce

occasionally chronological 'difficulties; yet


these are of minor importance,

Impediments
Contrasted.

compared
other na-

50 with the universal obscurity and uncertainty

MyW -ry.
Histories.

which pertain
tions.

to the 'annals

of

all

(7.)

The Mosaic

'history, contained
is

Aooount.

in the first

seven chapters of 'Genesis,

the

The first hook


ol

Ibt liiblc
.'.ion.

only reliable 'account of the world before 55 the 'deluge. Moses has related only those

Flood.

'momentous events which it for man to know; all minor


vou
is

was necessary
"details,

Weighty.
nations

which

(5.) 21. the difference between a and one? 22. What do you think II all, in the 4 2d line? 23. Can you name any the nature of each order of created beings? that take pi beings, besides the birds and the beasts, created 24. Can you name some of the advanl each other's company? 2.) created beings 1 the human race has over all other orders of is used instead of you assign any reason why forest, in the 37th line, forests in the world, and the forests, inasmuch as there are many ( 0.) 26. What is the meaning author is speaking in general terms ? called Israel the 44th line ? 27. Can you tell why Jacob was of one, in 45th line, In how many simple sentences can you use story, in the
think
is

What

the

meaning of

28.

shall in each case convey a different moaning understood after this, in the 47th line ? 30. What is the meaning of chronological, in the 48th line? 31. What does these refer eventful life (7.) 32. Give an account of the to, in the 49th line? 34. IX 33. Can you give an account of the flood ? of Moses. 35. How suppose they had any printed books in the time of Moses? do you suppose this account of Moses was originally recorded
so that the
29.

word

What

is

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.

27
gratiPleasing.

would be exceedingly
60 however,
led to
'

interesting

and

fying to us, have been omitted. (8.)


infer

We are,

Neglected.

from

this history, that

Conclude.
Fatherly.

the origin of

government arose from pateris

nal authority, and


creation.

nearly coeval with the

Of equal
Told.
Ex.sted.

age.

We

are

informed that the


;

first

man
1

'

lived

030 years

that his children

and

65 their descendants generally attained a similar


longevity.
life

Offspring.

( 9.)

This great length of human


filled
it

Length of life

would,

in

a few centuries, have


;

the

Hundreds of
years.

earth with a dense population

and
all

would

Thick.
Regard.
Ancestor.

certainly have been natural for

to 'reve-

70 rence the authority of their


tor,

who probably
inspiration,

common 'progeni'received much knowledge

Obtained.

by

and retained a greater amount


reasonable to 'sup-

Divine influence.

of 'virtue and
poraries.

wisdom than any of his cotemit is

Moral goodness.

Moreover,

Conceive.

75 pose, that the one

who

Excellent

stood 'preeminent in

above
others.

experience and years would be 'sovereign of


those in his vicinity.
'rulers
( 10.)

Ruler.

The

duties of

Neighborhood.

and of parents are


'allied
;

in

many

respects

Governors.

nearly
36.

both are bound by the holiest

Connected.

Why do you suppose we have not a more detailed account of the world before the flood? (8.) 37. Whence do you suppose government originated? 38. Assign all the reasons you can for this conclusion ? 40. What can you say of his 39. Who was the first man ? extraordinary career. ( 9.) 41. What does all mean, in the 69th line ? 42. Can you name some of the different parts of speech in the margin? 43. * Which of the marginal exercises affords you the greatest facility in composing simple sentences? 44. Who do you suppose is meant by ancestor, in the 70th f line? 45. How do you suppose his attainments in virtue and wisdom compared with his cotemr In what respects are the duties of riders and of poraries ? ( 1") parents similar ? 47. Who do you suppose, among rulers, merits most
\
>.

Intended to exercise the discriminating powers.


line in the

t The

margin

is

always used as gvnonymous with the one

in the context.

28
80
ties to

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
promote the happiness of those 'comEntrusted.
Care.
Desirable.

mitted to their 'charge

both are
ruler

entitled to

respect and obedience; and the most 'enviable


is

and exalted

title

any

can acquire
'

Receive.

" the father of his 'country."

( 11-)

For-

Native land.
Unlimited.
Right.

85 merly, fathers exercised an 'absolute sway


over their families and considered
to 'deprive
it
'

lawful
this

even their children of


still

life;

and

QMpMMB
I'sajre.
l*r edomi-

'custom
tribes,

is

sanctioned by

many savage
and most

and

'prevails in the oldest


in the

nates.

90 populous 'empire ful ought we to

world.*

How thankliberty
Arbitrary
rule.

be,

who

are alike 'exempt

from 'despotism and unrestrained


'republican government, and the

and enjoy the 'inestimable blessings of a


heavenly

Trirelesv

live.

95

'influence of the Christian religion.

Power.

48. Who, among all the innumerable hosts the gratitude of mankind ? that have ever lived, do you suppose deserves most our gratitude and veneration? 49. What is enviable, in the 82d line, derived from, and 50. Can you name any is it generally used in a good or a bad sense? word that may convey one meaning in one sentence, and directly its 51. What is the difference between the meaning opposite in another?

of acquire and receive, in the 83d line? ( 11.) 52. Name, in tin son, a simple sentence 53. A compound sentence 54. A paragraph. 55. Can you name any revolting custom that formerly prevailed, and is sanctioned by the unenlightened at the present day? 56. Name some of the peculiarities, advantages, and blessings resulting from 57. What is the oldest and most populous empire in the Christianity. world ? 58. How many times larger, in population, is China than the United States? 59. What nation do you suppose is the most powerful? 60. In which do you suppose the people the happiest? 61. Can you name any peculiarities in the natural productions, works of art, language, literature, &c, of China ? 62. How do you suppose the power of the Emperor of China compares with that of the President of the United States? 63. In which country would you rather live? 64. Why? 65. What invaluable privilege and unfailing source of happiness have the people of our country that the Chinese do not enjoy ?

* A prominent feature of this work is to excite investigation, thought, reflection, and reason Teachers and Parents should, therefore, afford all possible facilities m encouraging the youn? to read out of school, and give extended narrations of all the knowledge thus indusinuusly obtained
;


ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.

29

LESSON
( 1.)

X.
Regions inhabited by Chrislia

Between the laws in 'Christendom, however, and the 'regulations of a family,


there
latter

are several 'material differences; the


are of a

Very important.

more

'limited character

Restricted.

when

children arrive at age, they are as free

Twenty-one
years.

as their parents

but citizens are 'always un'

At

all tunes.

der the control of the


( 2.)

laws of their country.


often do
'inflict

Regulations.

Governments may and


exercise

Impose.

'capital

punishment, but no parent

is

ever

10 allowed to

this 'prerogative

the

Peculiar authority.

law speaks with authority, and 'commands


the parent admonishes, entreats or advises
the child, in his 'turn,

Orders.

Persuades.
Vicissitude.

may become

a parent

but

it

does not 'consequently follow that

Accordingly.

15 the parent

may
first

exercise the 'functions of

Powers.
Polity.

government.
( 3.)

The

'governments, like the

Systems of

first

polity.
Collections of leading truth* relating to any
subject.

arts
fect.

and sciences, were exceedingly imper-

The

'patriarchs often ruled with desto

Ancient fathers
of

manl

20 potic sway, yet they were not able

impart
those

Power.
Felicity.

harmony and happiness even among

who were

'affiliated to
The
difficult

them by the tendcrest


in the

Bound.

Questions are elucidated

Appendix.

(1.) 1. In what sense was Christendom formerly used ? 2. What are 3. of the differences between national and family government? Wherein consist*! the propriety of assigning a fixed age as minority? 5. What is the design ( 2.) 4. What is meant by capital punishmeyit ? of punishment ? 0. Is there any other way of inducing a compliance with rectitude ? 7. What is the proper treatment of incorrigible offenders ? ($3.) 8. Why were the earliest systems of government 10. defective? 9. Has experience the effect to improve polity? Can you tell the condition of the first laws, arts, and sciences, and namp some of the improvements that have been made in each? 11. What is pndeiStOOd by despotic power? 12. In what grade of

30
ties;

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
'discord
first

and murder entered the family

Contention.

of the

ruler of the

human

'race.

( 4.)

Family
Discipline.

25

Want of proper order and 'government among


the families of

mankind increased

till

'

licen-

Unrestrained
liberty.

tiousness and depravity prevailed to so great

Destitution of boliness

an extent, that from the vast 'multitudes of


the earth only eight 'righteous persons

Population.
Pious.

were

30
1

to

be found 'worthy of preservation,

when

DeserringRetribution.

the 'vengeance of heaven


frenzied disorders of men,

was

kindled at the

and the Almighty,


deter-

Maddening.
Greatest.
Sy.lrm
of treated war id*.

who

governs with the 'utmost harmony and


the

regularity

boundless 'universe,

35 mined

to 'destroy the

whole dense populaan 'universal deluge.

Extirpate.

tion of the earth with


( 5.)

Overwhelming.

Hence

it

appears that an 'abiding sense

Permanent
Power
of
ill

knowthing*

of the 'omniscience and 'omnipresencef of

ing

at once.

God, and personal accountability to him for all 40 that each one 'does, says, and even thinks, is
necessary to secure undying grandeur
;

3 rreaeDC* la evrry plarr at the aarae time.

Performs.

and

Immortal

society can despotic power be exercised ? ( 4.) 13. Under what circumstances are licentiousness and depravity most likely to prevail ? 14. Do you think of any appalling desolation that the Almighty sent upon the earth, on account of the lawless spirit and wickedness of its
15. Why does the author use boundless before universe, in inhabitants ? 16. Can you give some idea of the extent of the unithe 34th line? verse? 17. Which is the easiest to define, the extent of the universe, the commencement of time, or the duration of eternity? 18. What
19. How does human life and all should these things teach us? earthly happiness compare with the duration and joys of eternity? 20. Had the earth probably become very populous before the flood ? 21. What cause could have accumulated so numerous a population in the comparative infancy of the earth? ( 5.) * When you substitute permanent for abiding, in the 37th line, why do you alter an to a? 22. How are you pleased with the study in which you are now engaged ? 23. Do you consider it important? 24. Who do you think will be the legislators and governors in our country 40, 50, 60 or 70 years hence? 25. Should you ever be a legislator, a judge, or a governor, what is it ne-

fThe

figures 2,

3, 4, etc.,

before words, refer to words similarly

marked

in the margin.

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
this

31
Unchangeable.

'immutable truth should


ruled

be

indelibly

'engraven alike on the hearts of rulers and


the

Impressed.

by
their

this

sense, the

former can

Governed.
Reach.

45 alone

'attain

the pinnacle of earthly

fame

and have

names 'transmitted in grateful remembrance to 'posterity from it both the former and the latter can alone 'secure

Handed
down.
Succeeding
generations.

Make

certain

temporal comfort and 'everlasting happiness.

Eternal.

50

(^ B.)

The world has been

'created nearly

Made.
Method.
Races.

six

thousand years, yet, for want of 'order


'tribes,

and suitable government, individuals,

and 'nations have been


est

to

each other the great-

Communities
Punishment.

scourge; and even at the present day, of


race that
in the

55 the estimated nine hundred millionsof the hu-

Computed.
Family.
Regulations.
Control.

man

now

inhabit the globe,


'

how

enjoyment of wise laws and salutary government


few are
( 7.)

Immediately after the


his sons

flood, the

'Lord

Supreme Being.

60 blessed Noah and

and 'commanded

Ordered.
Signified.

them
rate

to " replenish

the earth,"

which

'de-

noted that they should be divided into 'sepanations,


in

Distinct.

under 'various governments,


different countries,
till

Several.

and dwell

every

Dissimilar.

cessary for you constantly to

what would be your


infallible tribunal will

future fate

remember? among

20.

Should you forget

posterity

and

this,

before

what
I

\fter
28.

we

die,

you have to appear and answer for your conduct where must we all appear and for what purpose?

What effect should this consideration produce on youth ? 29. What on men? (0.) 30. What is the reputed age of the earth? 32. How is that population politi31. What its present population?
cally

divided
?

33.

What
this

has been the nature of their respective

intercourse

intercourse resemble that between the respective States of the American confederacy? (7.) 35. Illustrate 36. sepathe diiToroncr' between denoted and signified, in the 61st line 37. various and several, in the 03d rate and dutinrt, in the Odd line
34.

Does

line

3m. different

and

dissimilar, in

thfl

1th line

39.

What was

the

32

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT,
inhabited

65 part of the earth was 'reinhabited. Upwards of one hundred years after the 'flood,
the descendants of

Inundation.

mand,

'doubtless,

of Nimrod,
settled

Noah, under the 'com"journeyed


on a plain
in the

Control.

Without
doubt.
their habitations.

from the east,

and

70 land of Shinar." (8.) They rapidly increased in number, but, 'regardless of the

Augmented.
I

tful.

commands
to

of the Almighty, they determined

K< -.solved.

have but one government

to 'remain

one

Continue.

nation

and 'formed a plan "


to

to build a city,

lVvi>ed
Loft jr fortress

75 and a 'tower whose top would reach unto


heaven."

Thus, among other 'purposes, the


guide the inhathey had wan-

Use*
Sn.
Strayed.
giu-st.

tower would be a 'beacon


bitants

back

to the city

when

dered to a great distance

in 'search

of the

80 necessaries of

life;

it

would be a centre of

Requisite*.
I>ivided.

union, and they

nited and 'scattered abroad


exact

would thereby not be disuupon the face of

Dispersed.

number of years after the Hood, when the people commenced building the Tower of Babel, and why do yen suppose the term "upwards of 100 years'' should be used in the 65th line Ian you tell where it is recorded that the Lord blessed Noah and bis sons? 41. Can you tell who Nimrod was, and why do you suppose it without
I

doubt that the hordes that "journeyed from the


rod's

command?

42.

As Noah was
he

can you assign


43.

why

were under Nimwhat r< had not the command instead of Nim
'a>t"

living at this time,

leads us to infer that the hordes that 'journeyed from the east and settled on a plain in Shinar"' did not include all the inhabitants of the earth ? 41. Can you tell where the land of Shinar ( 8.) 45. What is the difference between disunited and divided, in the 81stline? 40. Why do you suppose the people did not intend the tower as a place of refuge in case of another flood? 47. What do you suppose were some of the objects of the tower ? 48. What name was given to the tower? 49. What was the meaning of the name? 50. What do you suppose were some of the reasons why the people wished to have but one government? 51. did the Lord countenance this plan of having one grand ruler of all mankind ? 52. What effect has increasing the territory and population of a country on the power of rulers? 53. Does the ?norc power rulers possess generally!

What

How

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
the

33
Habitable
globe.

whole earth.

(9.) It appears,

moreover,

that they

sought their

own

glory, and wished

Renown.

85

to

obtain 'adoration and fame

among
all
is

posthat
Extraordinary.

terity.

Yet

it

is

'remarkable that of

ambitious 'host not a single


tioned by

name

men-

Multitude.
Writer.

any

'

historian.

We

may

here

derive a most instructive


all

Obtain.
Pride.
Irrationality.

90 lesson on the 'vanity of

earthly fame, and

weakness and

'

folly

of

man when

not guided

by the 'unerring precepts of heaven. ( 10.) The whole race at that time spoke the same
language
:

Infallible.

Entire.

Jehovah, who gave


this

to

man speech,
'tribes,

The

Lord.

95 by a miracle dissolved

powerful bond

WonderHordes.
Separating.

of union, scattered the different


thus,

and

by dividing the languages, divided the


;

governments

'accordingly, since then, every

Therefore.
Dialect.

nation has had a


ioo

language and government

'peculiar to

itself.

Thus

it

appears that the

Appropriate.
Offspring.

'descendants of Noah, after the confusion of

languages, 'occupied a position similar to


that of the
first

Held.
Ancestors.

'parents of

mankind

and

nearly two thousand years after the 'world

Earth.

increase or decrease their regard for the rights of their subjects and (9.) 54. In how many simple sentences their morals and piety? can you use the word host, in the 87th line, so that in each case it 55. Can you use it so that in one shall convey a different meaning? sentence it shall convey a meaning directly the opposite of what it 56. Can you name any Republic that lias a Christian does in the other? government? 57. Can you mention any powerful nation that once
58. adopted a republican government, and rejected Christianity 9 What has been the fate of every nation that has not been governed oy Christian laws? ( 10). 59. Do you know whether learned men thought the term confusion of language! might bear another edi60. What reasons can you assign that seem to prove betion? yond doubt that the opinjon generally receive 18 COtreOt J 61. What auhe exact number of years, according to the moat thorities aftei the creation, that the oonfuston of languages occur ted
1
1

34
105

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.

had been created, we


to nearly
its

find society 'resolved

Reduced.
First.

'primitive state,

and governpost-diluvians
fea-

ment

in its infancy.

(11.)

The

Persons
flood.

liv-

had, however, 'retained

some important
and
sufferings,
'rules

Kept.

tures of the Divine 'statutes, and, after centu-

Laws.
Tests.

no ries of 'experience,
find

trials,

we
and

mankind governed by those

Maxims.
First exist-

precepts which derive their origin from sentiments of 'equity and justice, engraven on
the

ence.
Rectitude.
L'nseen.

human

heart by the 'invisible hand of

us
62.

Providence.

Divine guidance.

What

natural

monuments go

to

prove, independent of revelation,

that the

Lord intended that there should be many governments?

( 11.) 63.

Do

nents, islands, &c.,

the natural divisions of the earth into separate contiseem to indicate that the Almighty intended one

sway? 64. What reasons can ymi assiga why be well to have a republican president govern the whole 65. What has heretofore been the fate of republics that have on. Is our own republic the most attempted universal dominion powerful that has ever existed? 67. What do you suppose contributes most to the happiness of man?
nation to have absolute
it

would world?

not

LESSON
(
J.).

XI.
first

It appears evident, that the


result

go-

Systems of
polity.

vernments were not the


tions.

of 'deliberaCustoms.
Support. Parliaments.
Usages.

The

'usages of the patriarchs, estabthe


'sanction of legislative
first

lished without

5 assemblies, gradually became the

laws
'cus-

among mankind:

consequently, these
all

toms were the origin of


The
difficult

the

'political

National.

Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

( 1.)

1.

What do you
2.

think

ought

to

be

the

object

of every

government?
from
legislative

Mention some of the advantages likely to result deliberation. 3. Under what government* do you

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
regulations that

35
Degraded.

have either depressed or

'ameliorated the condition of the

human race

Made

better.

10

in all

succeeding ages.

(2.) In the differafter the con-

Following.
Organized.
Separation.

ent societies that

were formed

fusion of tongues, and the 'dispersion of " the

people," at the building of the


bel,

Tower

of 'Ba-

Confusion-

were persons noted


and
bravery.

for 'physical power,

Superior
strength.

15

skill,

Those who enjoyed

Courage.
Advantages.
Benefit.

these

blessings soon acquired public confi-

dence and admiration.


their services,

Hence

the

'utility

of

and the favorable 'opinion of


to acquire 'doall

Sentiment.

men, enabled them gradually

Supreme authority.

20 minion.
prove

( 3.)

The

'records of

nations

Authentic memorials.
Superiority.
Benefits.

that the first rulers


to

owed

their 'ascendso-

ancy

the services they

had rendered

ciety, or to military

prowess.
first

j\imrod was

Valor.
Establisher.
Reliable.

the founder of the

empire of which

we
in-

25 aave any authentic account; and

we

are

brmed by
people

the 'sacred historian that he

was

Divine.

a mighty hunter, and are led to 'infer that the

Conclude.

were often with him,

that they 'gra-

By

degrees.
to.

dually put themselves 'under his authority,

Subject

30 and,

in 'process

of time, he conquered na-

Progressive course.
Established.

tions,

increased his power, and

founded the
most happiness?

think a majority of the people enjoys the

2)

4.

Do you suppose
,)?

there

were any distinguished personages

at

the

5. Who of the Tower of Babel? do you suppose of Babel-builders acquired dominion ? 6. Do you think of any endowments that are requisite for every ruler to possess in rendering service to the community ? 7. What is of the utmost consequence thnt "day everyone possess this inestimable blessall should pos>' ing ? (^0 ' What sort of men have generally been the first rulers of Who wa* the founder of the fir<t empire of which we have any authentic booouoiI 11. Who inform* u* what this man was, and what he became? 12. Illustrate the meaning of Sacred His-

36
came
35
'fact,

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
Babylonian, or Assyrian 'empire, for he bea " 'mighty one in the earth."
is
Powerful.
Extraordinary.*

(4.) It

a 'remarkable, but irrefutable

that the first

human governments were


yet

Truth.
Absolute."

of a 'despotic
1

character;

they were

baneful in their operation, and signally failed


in securing either the order, 'harmony, pros-

Ruinous. Concord.

perity, or 'tranquillity of individuals

peace
Lasting.

40 between

tribes

and

nations, or the 'perma-

nent power and 'magnificence of empires.

Grandeur.
Destructive.
Licentious.

The
the

'deleterious

influences

of

the

arbi-

trary will and 'unbridled passions of rulers,


'usurpation of

human

rights

by petty
all

Unlawful
seizing.

45 chiefs and mighty 'monarchs, affected


classes,

Sovereign*
Pollution

and universal 'contamination and


( 5.)

'depravity prevailed.
is

Herodotus,

who

Wickediess.

styled the father of 'profane history, inShakm


off.

forms us that the Medes, after having rejected


tory.

for despotic,

( 4.) 13. *In substituting extraordinary for remarkable, and (bsolute why do you change a to an? 11. What was the charicter of

18. Do you suppose people 19. Do jou supgenerally look to their rulers for examples to imitate? 20. If rulers pose evil rulers tend to make good people wicked? usurp, or steal, or rob, or get intoxicated, what are their subjects likely to do? 21. What would be the tendency of righteous rulers on a vicious or 16. tribes

the

first

human laws?
and

15.

natioiis

What was
17.

their result in relation to indviduals

and empires?

corrupt people?

22.

Do you suppose people would be

likely to

become

23. Do you think wicked or corrupt, if they always had pious rulers? any one can commit a crime and escape punishment? 21. Is it urise or 25. Is it the mark of a great or a little mind foolish, then, to do wrong ? to do wrong? 26. Can you mention any authority from the Bible that has reference to this subject? 27. Who do you think are the happiest in this life, those that do wrong, or those that strive to do right ? 28. Who do you think stand the best chance of being happy in the life to come, those that are indolent and vicious, or those that are industrious

and

the father

be good ? 30. Who is styled ( 5.) 29. What is history? 31. What is profane history? 32. Can of profane history? you give any account of the nature and power of the Assyrian or
strive to

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
50

37
Tyranny of
ttie

were some time without any form of government, and anarchy prevailed and subjected them to the most 'horthe'. tstyrian yoke,

Assyrians

Intestine
broils.

rible

excesses

and

disorders.

It

was

at

Tumults.
Determined.

length

resolved by them, that, in order to


direful calamities, they

55 avoid their
elect a king:

would
'unani-

Woeful.
Complete.

and Dejoces, a
skill,

man
was

of 'con-

summate prudence and


mously
( 6.)

Without
sent.

dis-

'elected.

Selected.

In the 'primitive ages

crowns were
'selected

Pristine.

60 often

elective,

and those were

who

Chosen.
Distributing.

were
in

either capable of 'dispensing justice

to their subjects, or of

'commanding them
of the
In
first

Directing.
Territories.

time of war.

The dominions
its

monarchs were of small


65 early ages, every city had

extent.

the

Limit.

king.

'Sacred

Holy.
Secular.
Primitive.
Qualities.

and 'profane historians alike bear testimony


to the

narrow bounds of ancient kingdoms,


'traits

and the valor and even excellent


their
rulers.

of

Joshua

defeated

thirty-one
that in his

Overthrew.
Confessed.

70 kings; and Adonibezek

owned

Babylonian empire? 33. What do you suppose contributed to the overthrow of tin- Assyrian empire? 34. What was the character of the government of the Medefl after they had shaken off the tyranny of the Assyrians 35. Why do you suppose their government did
?

not continue a

(6.) 30. From die primitive ages derive their power to govern?

democracy?
their

sometimes derived
ougli-

power

did sovereigns in 37. If sovereigns to govern from the Lord, what name
38.

whom

able

gove
ia

Can you name any remarkLord did not approve of kingly What do you suppose was the earliest kind of goWhat was \he first kind of human government 41. 1J. What were the second hind of human government 1 43. Do you suppose modern requisites in a king the most learned and virtuous people in tin- nations they
jivernment?
ipture to prove that the
.

46.

Were monarchies formerly extensive ?

46.

What

tllil opinion reasons can you


I |

38

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.

wars he had destroyed "'three score and ten kings." ( 7.) Egypt was 'originally divided
into several states.

Seventy.
Primarily.

The

different 'provinces

Dominions.
Region*.

that

compose the present 'empires of China

75 and Japan,formed anciently as many distinct A few families assembled in 'sovereignties.


one neighborhood composed
of
all

Of

old.

Dominions.
Vas>als.

the subjects

many

of the

first

'monarchs.

Africa, a

Kings.
Portion.

'part of Asia,

and the Indian


present
us

tribes of

our

80

own

'continent,

with

samples

Hemisphere.
Particulars.

similar in

many

'respects to the primitive

'monarchies.
( 8.)

Kingdoms.

But the 'ambition of monarchs


their

the

Inordinate
-

desire to 'transmit to

posterity their

Hand down.
Keimwn.
Influenced.

85 power and
perty,

their 'fame, as well as their pro-

among

other causes 'induced them to

usurp the rights delegated to

man by

his

assign for this opinion? (7.) 47. What was formerly the political condition of Egypt? 48. What other sources prove that monarchic were not originally extensive? 49. Do you suppose crowns are still elective? 50. What is your reason for this opinion ? 51. What countries, at the present day, are in some respects similar to the primitive
52. What remarkable fact, independent of revelation, proves the existence of God, and of our souls after our bodies turn to dust? (8.) 53. What is the principle which induces us to desire to transmit our possessions to our particular heirs? 54. What is your opinion about the justice and propriety of the law of inheritance? 55. Why do you suppose the law of inheritance ought not to apply to power and office, as well as to property? 56. Wherever it has so applied, what has been the uniform result? 57. Do you suppose human nature is the same now that it always has been? 58. What are your reasons for this opinion? 59. Do you suppose there is no danger that the rulers of a republic will ever abuse authority entrusted to them? 60. What are your reasons for this opinion? 61. If a farmer hires a man to work, or a merchant employs a clerk, or a mechanic an apprentice, and the employed, in either case, abuse the trust confided to him, what is usually done? 62. Who are the employed, the rulers or the people? 63. What ought to be done, when rulers abuse the trust confided to them ? 64. Why do you suppose a

monarchies?

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT.
creator
as the
;

39
Consequently
Authority.
Subjects.

accordingly

all

history shows, that

power of

the ruler has been increased

90 the rights of the ruled have been disregarded.


(9.)

Hence, the mightiest empires of the


the

Most powerful.

earth,

Babylonian^

the

Assyrian,

the

World.
Empires.

Egyptian, and the Chinese 'monarchies, and


those of later
ages, as they

increased in

Times.
Area.
Brilliant.

95 territory and population, became hereditary;


but the highest
ted by

dazzling

power ever

pos-

any monarch, the renown of the


armies that have ever been led to
slaughter, have exhibited alike

Potentate.

mightiest

Hosts,

the field of
ioo

Butchery.
Stupidity.

the insensibility, the degradation, the hopea

misery of the 'mass of the subjects, and


fatuity, the

Body.
Imbecility.

the

wretchedness of their

rulers.

Without the

light of

Divine 'revelation, what

Communication.

stronger proof need be adduced to demon105

Evidence.

strate to all the absolute 'necessity of inte-

tout.

grity and piety, than


ient

the

total

ruin of

all

Duty to God.
Old.

empires and republics, whose sur-

passing power and magnificence would be

Grandeur.
Falsehood.

deemed a fable bling monuments

were
still

it

not that their crum-

attest that they existed.

people that can neither real nor write cannot tell when authority is What effect has absolute power always produced r 67. What rendered the Babylonian, subject* 1 jpe with other nations? 68. How .an empires, &c, unable to sacrificed to gratify the vanity miny lire! few men clothed with authority? 09. How much or ambition of What incalculable good do you suppose might be aci

r-

;i

eomj

the talent,

and the
i-

lives that

have

beeti

war

71

Do yon suppose
-
\i,

it
'.

hai

pleasing to the Almighty and contentio men ?


-

ived.

."

will

coriif

when wars

40

PRIMITIVE LAWS.

LESSON
( 1.)

XII.
Statutes.
Institution.

Among

the earliest 'laws instituted,

was, undoubtedly, the establishment of the


'regulations concerning property

ishment of crimes
5 riage.

the pun the ceremonies of marfirst

Rules.

Matrimony.

These usages, which experience has


to

proved
of

be indispensable to the ^well-being


'form

Happiness.
S r.^trin.

of mankind, were coeval with the

human government.

( 2.)

We

'find, in

Learn.
Punishing.
Rigorous.

the early ages, that the

penal laws were

10 extremely 'severe.

By

the code of Moses,


sal>-

'blasphemy, idolatry, profanation of the


bath, 'witchcraft,

wanl

J<

DC* tObovah.

and many other crimes,

Sorcery.
Eminently worthy of Dole.

were

punished with death.


'

able, that

Yet it is remarkthe laws of Moses were exceed-

T-anaeendcnUy.

15 ingly tender of all the irrational creation, and


that these

same laws have

'received the apall

probation of the wise and good of

suc-

Following.

ceeding ages

they
difficult

are the

basis of the
in the

Foundation.

The

Question* are elucidated

Appendix.

some of the earliest laws instituted. 2. Have pe ( 3. What are your ever deviated from these usages ? r this opinion ? 4. Do you suppose these usages were designed or sanctioned by the Creator? 5. What are your reasons for this opinion? 6. Can vou name a few instances where men in the most exalted human stal possessing unlimited power, have been signally abased for deviating from these primitive laws? 7. Were the primitive laws lenient? 8. What are your reasons for this opinion ? ( 2.) 9. What is the meaning of sabbath, in the 11th line ? 10. When was ihe sabbath first obserr a day of rest? 11. Do you think it a good or a bad plan to loiter away one's time on the sabbath? 12, Assign your reasons for this opinion. 13. Can you name any nation that has attained either durable happiness or power, that profaned the sabbath ? 14. How do our laws compare with those of the primitive ages? 15. What reasons can you assign why ours may with safety be more lenient? 16. How do the laws of Moses compare with all other laws ? 17. Where are the laws
1.)
1.

Name

PRIMITIVE LAWS.
laws of our country, and have

41
remained
Continued.
Scrutiny.
.\

10 unaltered, stood the


of nations
years.

test

of the most pro-

found erilirism. and received the "veneration


for

mm. u] version.

( S.)

upwards of three thousand In every age, the more 'im-

iRcfflBfence.

Weightj.

portant

business of society, such as pursales,

A flairs.
Judicial decisions.

85 chases,
the

marriages, sentences of judges,


of citizens,

claims

&c, have had a


in

Titles.

certain

degree

of 'notoriety,

order to

Publicity.

ure their execution


rtain

and

'validity.

Hence

Justness.

forms

have been established for

Prescribed

modes.
Contracts.

30 drawing deeds, certain persons authorized


ive

them, and public places appro-

Apartments.
Prosperity.

priated to preserve

them;

for the 'welfare

of society depends upon the 'sacredness of


the
.').'>

Inviolableness.

engagements of
In

its

members.
'ages,

Mutual promises.

( J.)

the primitive

the

art of
all

Eras.

writing

was

not 'practised; consequently

Exercised.
Bargains.

ntracts and deeds


l

were verbal

vet

it

was

similarity to those of Moopinion? 20. Why do you were so perfect? (3.) 21. Illustrate f Moses 22. What does the meaning of im before port ant, in the 23d line. 23. What is 'y, in the 24tli line? ling words, denote
.

Have our laws any


ri

for

this

-o ty, called

24.

Why

are they so called

25.

the

meaning of
_

the affix

ty. in

notoriety, in the 27th line?


27.
in

26.

What is What
do you

of
is

ty, in

validity, in the 28tli line?

Why

<se

the line
28.

always named
as

used?

Does

ty affixed to

which the prefixes and affixes are word.- always have the same meaning 1
3".

prefix?

Why

is

it

not a prefix in the

tyrant?
32. In
validity.
/'

31.

how many

28th.
rent

and affixes used ? simple sentence- can you use the words notoriety, tug, sarrrdntss, engagement^ and deeds, in the 27th, Tilth lines, so that in each ca>e they shall I, and
jirifi.rrs

With what words are

mean:

From what
(
'.

is

sarredness derived,
it>

ill

thing peculiar in
(
,

is your reason for this opinion of con. placed befor

I.)

'illy,

meaning 1 35. 36. What is the meaning in the 36th line, and con-

42

PRIMITIVE LAWS.
necessary to have them 'acknowledged and authenticated; hence, all 'proceedings in
Publicly re-

40 'transferring property were held

in

public,

oiiveying.

and before

'witnesses.

was

'adopted in dispensing justice


;

The same method among


cities

Deponents. Chosen.
Citizen*.

the 'people

and the gates of

were
( 5.)

usually 'resorted to for these purposes.

Repaired.
Original.
Pp.lVs.xl.,11.

45 Though the 'primitive inhabitants were not skilled in the 'art of writing, yet they had
adopted several expedients to supply its place
the most
rational plan

Devices.

was

to

'compose their

Form.

laws, histories,

&c,
first

in 'verse,

and sing them

50 thus were the


'found, in
tracts,

'laws of states and emIt

BUMtaa
Il.iinlnl

pires 'transmitted to posterity.


all

has been

ages, that

it is

not enough that

placed before w other syllables used in 40. Illustrate the meaning of con with some other the same way. words. 41. What is meant by deeds, in the 37th line? 42. What were verbal deeds? 43. How are deeds and contracts at the present day authenticated? 44. What is the difference between n ne45. What do you understand b cessary, in the 38th line? cities, in the 43d line? 46. Why do you suppose we have n cities in the United States? 47. Can you name any modern that have gates? (5.) 48. What conjunction follows though, in the 45th line? 49. Why does this conjunction usually follow though, and what is it called? 50. What is the meaning of in before habil in the 45th line? 51. Why does not in have the same meanii fore human, as inhuman? 52. As the ancients had not the art of writing, how did they record sentiments and events? 53. Can name any specimens of history transmitted in verse? 54. Wl are the functions of modern government essentially different from those of the ancients? 55. To what does its refer, in the 17th line 56. What is the meaning of com, before pose, in the 48th line? 57. What is the difference between verse and poetry, in the 49th line? 58. What is the meaning of trans, before mitted, in the 51st line? 59.
37th line?
is
it

37.

*What

is

con called

when

38. *

Why

so called?

39.

*Name some

>

Illustrate its meaning with some other words. 60. Why do you suppose the primitive inhabitants were not skilled in the art of writing?
*

The Teacher

will bear in mind, that these questions, with all others of an intricate charac-

ter, are to

be omitted

when

the pupils are not advanced.

PRIMITIVE LAWS.
laws exist;
it

43
for
Essential.

is
:

'requisite

to

provide

and as the early patriarchs f>5 'presided over* their families, and settled the
their execution

Performance
Superintended.

'disputes

that

naturally arose
first

among

their

r.mtrovrr-

children, so the
justice
in
It

monarchs
the

'distributed
'subjects.
'rulers

Al lot ted.
Inferiors.

person

among
that

their

(6.)

appears

earliest

Governors.

60 exercised the station of both 'magistrate and


priest.

Judge.

We

are informed that Moses, 'op'affairs,

Overburdened.
Business.

pressed with the multiplicity of


a certain
justice

chose

number of wise men


the people
;

to 'dispense

Administer.

among
all

these judges 'de-

Settled.

Go cided

matters of small importance; but

Weight.
Liable.

their de< dstonfi

were

'subject to the "supervi-

sion

and reversion of Moses.


justice

The adminisge-

^Review.
Equity.
Spiritual directors.

tration of

was.

in the early ages,

gMy given
70
all

to the

priests,

who

determined

'disputes,

and

inflicted

such punishment

Contests.

ssary.
.)

Thought.

Probably the

earliest,

and certainly

Likely.
Relating.

the most important regulation in reference

e
is

difference

writer mentioned in authentic history! between a magistrate and a priest?


61st line?
65.

(6\) 62,
63.

What

meaning of in before formed^ in the other words, the meaning of in v.


the
in

64. Illustrate
is

What

the

meaning

of

mear and ill

66. What meaning doei im, in. 70th line! have when prefixed to verbal 67. Illustrate their v What meaning doea tm, m, ig, tr, as, </is, have when placed before adjectives 1 69. Are there any exi

t}i

Illustrate
offices

their
'

meaning by examples.

71.

72. Do yon luppose one man did the earliest rulera fill 73. Doea it require more than npetent to fill bo many fficei 7 1. Who were generally erudition and ta'ent to fill any of tliem ice? appointed, in the primitive ag<
?
i

The trher will perceive that the defi nit i<: tkmm given in the margin, in which raw

rN.iresome-

44
to

PRIMITIVE LAWS.
property,

was

'assigning

and securing

Allotting.

75

to

each family a certain portion of land

Piece.

The

this

for

was the first step towards 'civilization, among all savages lands are common;

utate of being refined in

manners from
primitive grot

new, and improved in arts and learning.

they have no 'boundaries, no land-marks;

Lmnts.
Support.
Condition.

every one seeks his 'subsistence where he

80

may

see

fit

but in the civilized 'state

it

is

necessary to 'distinguish land, and


the 'benefit of his labor; so that he

adopt

Separate.
Individual.
Profit.

such rules as will secure to each 'member

who

sows may have a reasonable 'expectation of


85 reaping and enjoying the
profits of his skill
all

Prospect.

Reward.

and 'industry.
'profits

The

rights of

oUght

to
Warranted.
Proceeds.

be 'guarantied, so that no one can seize the


of another's labor.
( 8.)

Laws were

early 'established, not only to regulate the

90 division of

'land,

but also to guard against

^tote.

and prevent 'usurpation.

With

a view to

Occupation wiihuut n^'ht


Covetous.
rocally.

curb the grasping desires of 'avaricious and


tyrannizing oppressors, and to protect 'mutually the rights of
all,

we

'find that the ear-

Learn.

95

liest

laws 'required every person

to fix the

Demanded.
Property.

boundaries of his 'possessions by land-marks.

( 7.) 75. What was probably the first and ?nost import ant regulation 70. What is the meaning ui' step, in the 76th in reference to property'?

have the same meaning before father, meaning9 of step in sentences. 79. How are lands held among all lavages? 80. How do savages ob81. What regulations are observed among all tain their support? 82. Why do you suppose it necessary to have civilized nations? such rules? (8.) 83. Why were other laws established besides those that regulate the division of land ? 84. Do you suppose reason or revelation sanctions the ownership of a ivhole state by one, or two. three, 85. Assign some reasons why it would not be well four, or five men ? for a few men to own all the land in a whole nation? 86. What did 87. What were all exthe ancient laws require all persons to do?
line?
77.

Why

does not

step

78. Illustrate

some of

the different

PRIMITIVE LAWS.

45
In direct

100

Moses expressly forbids the Israelites from removing the ancient boundaries o( lands; and in the days of Job, those who removed these marks were ranked among the worst
oi

terms.
Limits.

Displaced.

Classed. Secular.

mankind.

Profane history informs us of

the importance attached to this

most
it

'salu-

AdvantagoUllS.

tary regulation.

'Homer speaks of
antiquity.

as a

The
Age.

father of

poets.

custom of the highest

Virgil re-

fers

it

to the

age of Jupiter, which 'appears

Seems.

with him to
(9.)

mean

the 'beginning of time.


first

Commencement.

'Agriculture
'lands;

gave

rise to pro-

Husbandry.
Real estate.
Proprietor.

perty

in

but

this

property must

chamze
ing the

after the death of the 'owner,

and

it

reasonable to suppose that after cultivatland for years,


it,

Rational.

men would become


to 'trans-

Ground.
Convey.
Possession.
Purest.

ugly attached to

and desire

mit
the

its

enjoyment

to those

bound

to

them by

holies! ties.

Furthermore, the peace of

us

so<

;uired that

some 'permanent regu-

Durable.
Settled.

lation should be 'established in reference to

If

88. How are lands measured? v prohibited from doing? 89. landmarks are removed, have people of the present age any means

90. What nation first used surveying/ of knowinp where they stood ? Vhnt charartcr separates land marks, in the 96th line? 92. Should fhnrartcr in composing letters, or in any other writii you W do you think it important to notice the differeni pauses ing? in the books we read? 91. Will you elucidate the and meaning of the use of the hyphen by a few examples 95. What marks are meant in the 1 00th line? 96. Do you know what the sting Homer and his writing! ? opinion of many lea Virgil? ($9.) 98. What tir-t gave rise to property in p suppose men would naturally desire to land? 1'"). What do you suppose transmit their property to their posterity 1"1. Why do you suppose has produced many inventions and ZosM ? reference to the peace of society require persons 1 L02. What \- tin- difference between property r

,,

the

meanings of peace and

tranquillity, in the 11 1th line?

103.

What

46

PRIMITIVE LAWS.
the property of deceased persons.
sity,

'Neces'in-

Nee,].

which

is

said to be the " mother of

Discoveries.

ventions" as well as of laws, 'required some


120

Demanded.
Patrimonies.
Wills.

permanent regulations
ritances,
vises.

in

reference to

'

inhe'de-

and also the power of making


in

Hence, 'property

lands

was

the

Ownership.
ClaimsConstitute.

origin of 'rights and jurisprudence,

which

'compose the most important part of the


125

whole

civil

'code.

( 10.)

Civil laws, like

Book of lam's
Defective.

governments, were
jurisprudence
lar

at first

very

'

imperfect

was

not formed into any regu-

The

science of right.

system

till

after the 'lapse of centuries.


OtaMfetoA
I

No
130

one ruler or lawgiver, 'unaided by Diall

vine 'inspiration, could foresee

events:

illusion.

unlooked-for occurrences gave occasion for


the 'establishment of most of the laws that

Incidents.

Enactment.
Regulate.

now
123

'govern civilized society.

Old regula-

tions have consequently been either 'extended,

Enlarged.

reformed, or 'repealed,

in

proportion to the

Revoked.
<

'ingenuity and industry of

man

in

extending

ncss.

'commerce

discovering
'

the natural wealth

Trade.

of the earth the 'multiplicity of inventions

the wonderful
is

improvements

in the arts

Program

the meaning of civil code, in the 125th line? 104. What is the difference between necessity and need 105. inventions and dit 107. inheritances and patrimonies 106. permanent and fixed LOS vises and wills 110. rights and claims f09. property and ownership 111. compose and constitute 11 '2. code and book of laics, on the 117th, 118th, 120th, 121st, I22d, 123d, 1:21th, and i25th linos respectively! ( 10.) 113. What is the meaning of un prefixed to aided, in the 129th line? 114. What meaning has un prefixed to words? 115. What were civil laws at first? 110. Can any ruler or body of legislators, however wise, foresee all events ? 117. What gave rise to most of the laws in force among civilized nations 1 IS. What lias happened to old regulations? 119. What has caused this great difference between many of the ancient and modem laws? 120. Who is meant by the

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
140

47
Diffusion.

sciences

letters

and,

above

all,

the 'pro-

mulgation of the 'ameliorating doctrines of


the
'

Improving.

Saviour of mankind.
mankind
122.

.Redeemer.

Saviour of
.

tM$

121. Where do we in the 142J line? What do you suppose would be the result if

find his
all lived

according

to the doctrine

taught by Jksus

Christ?

LESSON
( 1).

XIII.
Infallible.

We see by reference to the 'unerring


'Civilized societies

page of history, that laws of some 'kind


have 'always governed the whole human
race.

Sort.

Ever.
Cultivated.
Intricate.

have their exten-

5 sivc and

complicated systems of jurispru*Sc?ni~barb(irous states yield to the

dence.

Half savage.
Orders.

'commands of a king, or some other despotic ruler and even savages obey their chief, 'endure the rules which the 'customs of their
;

Abide by.

10 tribes 'prescribe, or obey the obvious and


indisputable laws of 'right and the voice of
nature,

Ordain.
Justice.

which 'alarm

the soul with excrujustice


is

Frightens.

ciating 'remorse
(
1.)
1.

whenever

disre-

Agony.

in the l<t lino?

fallible?

part of
in ty

What do you suppose is meant by infallible pnejo of history, 2. What is the dilh'renre between unerring and in3. What is the meaning of societies, in tho 4th line? 4. What 0. What number? speech is it? 6. What do nouns ending

always denote ! 7. How do they always form their plural? 8. i- the meaning of states, in the 6th line ? 9. Do you know what moaning semi has beforo harharems, in the 6th line? 10. Do you supit alwaya lias this meaning 1 11. What it your reason for this opinion ? 12. Illustrate the moaning of semi with some other words. 13. What is tho meaning of pre before scribe, in the 10th line? 14. Does it always have the same power when used as a prtflxt 15. Illustrate its meaning with some other words. ( 2.) 16. Do you mpI

their reasons,

Mies.

r a simple An inasmuch as ytj or nsniaj be

iodiflerentij

veil to require given vritbool either tboqghl or

48
garded.

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
( 2.)

Law
is

'pervades the universe


its

Is

diffused

throughFree.

15 no created being
ing care

'exempt from

protect-

nor

can any one ever 'deviate


possessing the greatest
is

Turn

aside.

from

its

'salutary influence with impunity.


'societies

Wholesome.
Communities
Restrained
within.

Even
20 tain

in

blessings,

each individual
in

'restricted to cer-

'limitations
'

his

intercourse

with

Bounds.
Clothed.
Violated.

others,

and invested with rights which exall,

tend alike to

and which cannot be


the

'in-

fringed without 'endangering

security
is

Putting in hazard.
Citizen.

and happiness of every 'member, who


25
'integral part of the
( 3.) If

an

community.
suffi-

Component.
Adequate.
Desire.

each and everyone possessed

cient knowledge, and a 'disposition to

do what
due

was

'strictly just

to give to all their

Rigorously.

to take only

what was

'lawful

then, indeed,
restricall

Proper.
W.int.

30 there would be no 'need of human


tions.

But the history of


that, cither

man

in

'ages

Times.
Infirmity.

proves

from ignorance, the weak-

ness of his judgment, or from his natural inpose there

Propensity.

17. What is the is anyplace where there is not law? meaning of being, in the 1 5th line? IS. Why would not beings bfl a better word than being, in the 15th line, inasmuch as nothing is exempted? 19. If the wisest and best men are required to observe cer-

unreasonable that scholars should scrupulously regard 20. Which do you suppose most benefits the pupils, ? the school with perfect order, or the school without any order? 21. Do you think each one at school should strive to aid the teacher in preserving perfect order ? ( 3.) 22. Do you suppose there might be any condition in which human lair would not be necessary? 23. What does all history prove? 24. What is necessary for man's quiet and happiness? 25. What does reason and revelation alike prove? 2b'.
tain rules,
is it

the rules of school

What
ously

ods

the 27th, 28th, 29th, 30th. 3 1st, and "Ud lines respectively? 27. cfo you suppose man is used in the 31st line, as it is evident the author meant the whole human race? (4.) 28.
infirynity, in

iveaknessnm]

due and right need and want history and accountWhy

is

the difference

between

disposed

and

inclined

strictly

and

rigorI

peri-

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
clination to evil, he has been 'prone to

49
go
Disposed.

35 astray, and that laws are


his 'tranquillity

'

indispensable to

Necessary.

and happiness; and, moreintended

Quiet

over, reason and revelation alike attest that

Bear witness
Designed.
Creator.
Spiritual beings.

man was
'

created for society, and


to be subject to that

'

by the Deity

law and
of

40 order which the created

intelligences
is

heaven 'obey, and that there


as natural liberty.
'asserted, that

no such thing

Comply with.
Original.

(4.) It has often been

man gave up
it

certain natural

AirUmed.
Privileges.
Plain.

rights

when he became a member


;

of civil

45 society, but

appears 'evident that such

was
to

not the case

no one ever had the right


all

Fact.

do as he 'chose, for
if

were born with


liberty,

Liked.

equal rights; and

one had natural


entitled to
it.

Claims.

then

all

were equally
'

'Suppose

Admit.

50

all

have natural

liberty,

then our property,

Freedom.
Mercy.
Desirous.

yea, our lives, are at the disposal of

any

person

who

is

either able or 'willing to take

them from

us.

In our country, every 'inis

Breach.
Tranagrewioa.

fringement of the law

a 'violation alike of

55 public and natural

liberty, for

'God created
is

Jehovah.

man
'state.

subject to law, and that

his natural

Amenable.
Condition.

What

lias often

been asserted
for this

some of your reasons

tonnes can you use case, in 32. Is the assertion that "all men shall convey a different meaning? were created equal" literally true? 33. What are your reasons for 34. If some are born deformed or with sickly constitin-* opinion? tution*, and others are born perfect and robust, what is the meaning r r ;. What reaof " all tcere born with fyual rights," in the 47th lino? 36. What erTect do you sons prove that no one has natural liberty? suppose it would have in this country if every one violated the laws
).

29. Is such the case ? ? 30. What are opinion ? 31. In how many simple senthe 4Gth line, so that in each instance it

that

appeared unjust?

37.

What do you suppose

||

the natural state

50
( 5.)

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
The laws
of one's 'country

may

not 'protect the natural rights

may or of man
;

State.

Guard.
The worldly
estate.

60 according to 'circumstances or the peculiarities

of the individual's
is

condition

but

Mode
ing.

of be-

the

law of God

a perpetual

security

Protection.

against 'oppression, and no liberty has ever


existed or can 'exist

Tyranny.

where

the laws of

God

Have

being.

65 are not obeyed; for take away the 'sacred


law, and the
stronger,

Divine.
Liable.

weaker are subject to the and the 'stronger may, in their turn,
subject
(6.)
It

More powerful.

become
weaker.
of our

to

'combinations

of

the

Coalitions.
K innrkfd.

may, moreover, be obfor let us

70 served that

liberty does not 'consist in laws

Depend

on.

own 'making;
in
'

examine

the

r'nuiiiru,'.

laws of our country, and


of them were

we

shall find

most
exist-

luMnqr,

force before
it is

we had
this

Opt ration.
Plain.

ence

furthermore,

'evident that a larga

75 majority of

'people,

even of

country,

Citizen*.

are never 'governed by laws of their

own

Ruled.

making, though the statutes


during their

may

be 'enacted

Made.

own

lives.

EuMfeoa

of man? ( 5.) 38. What is the meaning of the expression, "one's 39. May the laws of one's country operate country" in the 58th line? unequally? 40. What laws always operate justly 41. Wbal would be the condition of society if the principles of the sacred law were banished? 42. Do you suppose any nation ever enjoyed true liberty that had not received the aid of Divine revelation ? 43. D. you suppose we often enjoy many blessings which are the result of Christianity without being conscious of the true source from when they flow? (6\) 44. Do you suppose liberty consists in laws of our own making? 45. What are your reasons for this opinion? 46. How long do you suppose most of the laws of this country have been in force? 47. Why are not a majority of the people in this country governed by laws of their own making, even when the laws are made during
?

their lives? 48. What is the difference between people and citizgoverned and ruled statutes and laws enacted and made, in the 75th. 76th, and 77th lines respectively? 49. What words do you consider

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
7.)

51

The

is

of the United States


wh -::

80 consists, (1S4^.)

in

round number
the

members; 31
the

in

senate and

116

in

Upper I

house of representatives

for transacting business.

make a quorum Hence it Appears


majority
senate:
a
in

Lower

Is evident.

that a

bill

may

pass both houses by a majo:

Law.
Lecai
ber.

85

rity of
in

one vote
'house

58 would be a
16
in

Dum-

the

and

the

HallofrepresentaliTes.

contingency

might

therefore

happen

Fortuiloof erent.
Prerail
in.

which a

bill

would pass both houses by


it

re-

ceiving 74 votes, and the

sanction of the

Approval.

90 President would make


quently, every person
in

law

conse-

MM*
:

the

whole

union

:r.:rr

might be governed by a law made by 75 men; and 217 senators and representatives
might be 'opposed
to
'

Vttptktmm

the

law made by 75 rAmrHi

95 men, which

would

govern

upwards of

Rule.

twenty millions of people.

On

the

other

the

synonyms, and what definitions, in section 6 ? ( 7.) 50. Why is term round numbers used in the 80th line? 51. In the line, it is asserted that the fall number is 291 members, can you
tell

how many
with
the

there are in the senate,

and how many there are

in

52. the bouse of representatives ? three millions of inhabitants, send


State,

Can the largest State, with nearly more senators than the smallest

than one hundred thousand inhabitants? 53. If you States and the whole number of members in 54. Congress, can you not tell how many representatives there are ? How many make a quorum in the house ? 55. How many in the 57. How 56. How many may pass a law in the house? senate? many in the senate ? 5S. How is it that, in the 85th line, it is said ay be a majority, when there are 116 necessary to make a quoif only one-half of 116 why would not 58 be a tie, and rum, an J 59. Could there possibly be a contingency in which not a majority ? 75 men might make a law that would govern upwards of twenty If such is the power of law-makers, what 6 millions of people? ought to be the character of all men elected to legislative bodies? people do you suppose the most likely to discern and elect men of pure principles and patriotic character, an intelligent or an
less

know

number of


52
hand, a
bill

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
of the 'utmost importance

may

Highest.
Prohibited.

unanimously pass both houses and be 'vetoed

100

by the President it must then be returned say the to the house in which it 'originated
;

Sent back.

house of representatives
'unanimously
;

who

Had

origin.

'pass

it

again

Sanction.
Without
a dia-

it

then goes to the senate,

who
ele're-

enting to ice.

happen

to

have but a bare quorum


'

nineteen
and

Legal number to transact buarocM

votes are given in


105

favor of the
it

bill

Support.
Obtain.
Plurality.

ven against

it

consequently

does not

ceive a 'majority of two-thirds of the senate

and
bill

is

defeated: hence
'vital

it

appears that a

Bendered

null.

of

importance might be defeated

Essential.

by

either the 'arbitrary will

the
any

vanity

Despotic.

no the imbecility

or
has

the
it

mistaken 'views of

Opinions.

one man,

who

in his

power during
bill

his

The

prerogative.

continuance

in 'office to forbid
is

from

Authority.

becoming a law, though he


less

'sustained

by

Upheld.
Delegates.
Tbe
national #

than three-eighths of the 'members of

us 'congress, and opposed

by

the

unanimous
'final

voice of the nation, and that the

vote

Ultimate.

of eleven senators
the 'views of

may

be in 'opposition to
thirty-one

Contradiction

two hundred and

Sentiment*.
Legislatire counsellors.

representatives and forty-nine 'senators; and


120

'moreover, that these eleven senators

may

Further.

people ? 62. What may prevent a bill from becoming a law has unanimously passed both houses of congress? 63. What is the meaning of the word vetoed, in the 98th line? 64. When a bill is vetoed, to which house must it be returned? 65. May a bill, under any circumstances, become a law though the President veto (forbid) it? 66. Name some circumstances in which a contingency might happen to defeat a bill of vital importance ? 67. Can Delaware, with a population of 78,085* inhabitants, send as many senators to congress as the State of New York, with a population of 2,428,921* inhabitants? 68. Why is the term original collective conilliterate

aAer

it

According to the census of

1&40,

New York

has at the present time nearly

3,000,000.

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
be from the six 'smallest States
in the

53
Union,
Least populous.

whose
be
tor
i*S

original collective constituency

would

Body of constituents.

less

than one-half that of a single sena-

Legislator.

from the largest State

hence the 'hopes


may
be tem-

Expectations

of upwards of twenty millions


porarily

For a time.
Destroyed.
Unfit.

blasted by, it may be, even a good man, though an unsuitable President.
( 8.)

Again, suppose a

'bill

passes unaniBranches.
Approval.

mously both 'houses of congress, receives


130

the sanction of the President,

and becomes
less

a law

yet the original constituents of the

Though.
Framers.
Inhabitants.

'makers of the law would probably be

than one-tenth of the 'people that would be

governed by the same


135

and

it

is

undoubt-

Ruled.

edly true, that

all

the important laws passed A fact.


for

by congress, whether

good or
less

for 'evil,

Woe.
Approbation.

have received the 'sanction of


these voters have, on
l

than two

hundred votes, and that the 'constituents of

Employers.

an average, been a

A mean

pro-

portion.

ho minority of the
to

'

legal voters of the country, LawfuL


Electors.

say nothing of those of their 'constituents


entirely opposed to the action of

who were
their

Adverse.
Deputies.

representatives.

Thus

the laws that

govern upwards of twenty millions of people,


stituency

More

than.

used in the 122d line?


S.

way in which U. 70. Do important


of
COl

60. What is the difference in the senators and representatives are elected? ( 8.) bills generally receive the unanimous concurrence

72. Do 71. What are your reasons for this opinion ? -nppose congress could pass an evil law? 73. What are your 74. What kind of men do you think ought Dfl for this opinion? 75. Do you suppose those arc generally elected as legislators? thp best legislators who give the people the most to eat and drink on election days ? 76. What men in former republics adopted this pracM there is any danger that men may become candidates for congress with any other object in view than the purest

5*

54
Ho even in this

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
country, have been directly
Land.

'framed by about one-twentieth of the population


;

Made.

it

is,
'

indeed, 'an axiom that no one


liberty

self-evi-

has perfect

verned by laws of their


150

are

all

'dependent

own 'making we 'dependent on our parents


on our fellow
citi-

no people

dent truth.

can be go-

Freedom.
Constituting.
Unable to exiat by ojiicIvb.
98vttfect
to tbc
of.

and friends
zens

dependent
x

power

dependent

on our cotemporaries

deForefathers.

pendent on our 'ancestors

dependent on the
Hea'

'goodness, and protecting care of our


155

Benevolence.
Complexities

venly Father.

( 9.)

If

such are the

intri-

cacies and the imminent dangers of 'dele-

Deputed.

gated pow er
r

in the purest 'republic

on which
is it

Commonwealth.

the sun ever shone,


that
160

how

'indispensable

Necessary.
Essential.

all

should understand the 'fundamental


political

'principles of

science

that every

Elements.
Improve.
Suffered.

citizen should 'profit

by the sufferings which


for nearly six thou-

mankind have 'endured


sand
years
that

the
to

ambition
obtain
the

of each
'

Ardent desire
ment.

should be
165

aroused

imper-

ishable wealth of the

mind, to 'understand

Comprehend
Sustain.

and 'support the Constitution of the United


States,

and transmit

in

'unsullied

bright-

Pure.

ness the 'character of the


(10.)

American name
receive
'impres-

Good
ties.

quali-

That

all

should

Indelible.

patriotism? 78. What is a self-evident truth? 79. ought each one, then, to perform the trusts committed to his charge? ( 9.) 80. In whose hands is power originally vested? 81. What is understood by delegated or deputed power? 82. Is deputize a correct English

How

word
84.

83.

When power

is

deputed, has

it

irrevocably

left its

grantor?

some of the sufferings which mankind have so long endured ? 85. What is meant by the " wealth of the mind,'' in the 165th line? 86. Why may the American name be considered bright? 87. What is meant by political science? 88. What is the difference between an art and a science? ( 10.) 89. What are republics or comare

What

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
no sive lessons from the fate of former 'republics,

55
Commonwculths.

which,

in their

day, though far more

Time.
Overwhelmed.

powerful than ours, have either been 'crushed

by military despotism, or rent


'intestine broils
its

asunder by

Apart.

so that not onlv the arrogant


'no'literati

Pomes' ic.
Peers.

and preposterous predictions of kings and


bles, but those

of all the

of Europe, proto

Learned men

nouncing 'anarchy and despotism

be the

Want of rule.
Destiny.
Increasing.

future fate of the United States, shall be defeated,


i*>

and the rapidly 'augmenting number

of our 'adult population,


millions,

now

probably

five

Grown

up.

who can

neither read 'understand-

Knowingly.
Lessened.
Eradicated.
Exertions.

Bgiy nor write


ished,

intelligibly,

checked, 'dimin-

and

finally 'extinguished

by the

well-

directed
i-6

efforts

of every American citizen.


to

(11.) Ought not each then

weigh proinestimable
union,

Consider.
Propriety.

perly the

expediency of disseminating in
of

every part of the republic the


blessings
letters,

Invaluable.

'fraternal

and

Brotherly.
Feeling.

Christian
190

sentiment, that our country


'

may
of

be, in all

coming

time, the hallowed ark that


liberties

Sacred.

preserved

in safety the 'rational


it

Reasonable.

mankind, when
of

became

the sole depository

Lodgment.
Refuge.

human

rights,

and the 'asylum of the op-

monwealths?

90.

What

republics, in their day, exerted apparently

a more extensive influence, and were comparatively more powerful 91. Why should we loam lessons from these than the United States? republics? 92. Why should those lessons be indelibly impressed ? A'hat is the probable reason that monarchs and noblemen denounce our government? 94. Name some of the causes which may 95. Are crowned heads justly alarm the friends of our government. 96. Are the interested in promoting disunion in the United State*? 97. What literati interested in the perpetuity of our institutions? should be our conduct towards those who dilnr from us in opinion?
98.

What were some

of the cau.-es which produced the

fall

of former

56

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
pressed and trodden-down of
'the

old world.

Europe.
Facts.

195

In

view of

all

these

impending 'circum-

stances and 'denunciations,

may

it

not be

Public menaces.

well for us to use the utmost 'caution and

Prudence.

unceasing 'vigilance

in

regard to the perpe( 12.)

Watchfulness.

tuity of our 'unequalled institutions.


200

Unrivalled.

Let us justly 'compare the fame of our


philosophers, 'legislators, heroes, and their
influence on 'cotemporaries, with those that
flourished in the 'palmiest days of

Estimate.

Law-makers.
l the

Persona exiting nine time

Greece

Most prosperous.

and
205

Rome

should

not the most

'

indefati-

Unwearied.
Carry.

gable exertions be used to 'convey


ledge to every home, that one united
lectual 'phalanx

knowintel-

Mental.

may

be presented to assert

Array of

men

the rights of

mankind

to

'demonstrate to

the 'monarchies of the world, that while


210

we

Kingdoms.
ftenowncd.
Copy.

praise our
'imitate

'

illustrious ancestors in
in actions,

words we
their envi-

them

and that

able names, and the glory they


living will not be 'tarnished

won

while

Fame.
Stained.

by

the degene-

racy of their
215

'posterity

but that republican

Descendants.
Instil.

institutions,

while they 'inculcate

human
im-

equality and a reverence for the 'approxi-

Approaching

mating
republics?

'perfection

of

human

statutes,

Supreme excellence.

( 11.) 99.

and trodden down?

unequalled? ( 12.) phers? 102. Legislators? 103. Heroes, of antiquity? 104. Whence is the word pahniest derived? 105. Why is it applicable to the subject? 106. What is the nature of the indefatigable exertions we should use? 107. What is meant by a phalanx ? 108. What is the

How are the inhabitants of Europe oppressed Why may our institutions be considered 101. Who were some of the principal philoso100.

strongest

bulwark of American

liberty?

109.

What

is

the general

tendency of republican institutions? 110. Are republics favorable to literature? 111. What should we endeavor to show the monarchies of the world? 112. Which do you think the best way to honor our

NATCRE OF LIBERTY.
part additional veneration for the
the Divine

57
Adoration.

wisdom of
the
ten-

law

instil

an implicit obedience

Compliance
with.

to

the decrees of

heaven

secure
in

Kindest. Just claims.

derest regard for the rights of every


being.
illustrious

human

Creature.

ancestors, to

praise
to

them

words

or imitate

them

in ac-

tions

113.

What ought
?

be the character and tendency of our

republican institutions

LESSON XIV.
(^ 1.)

It has been

'shown that

man was
wide
dis-

Indicated.

created for civil society


parity
in

that the

Orderly.
State.

the

'condition of the race

the
to the

general 'propensity to exercise

power

Inclination.

5 'disadvantage and injury of the ignorant or


the

Detriment.

weak

cesses

of the
all,

the necessity of 'curbing the exvicious and the 'base


the rights

Checking.
Vile.

to

secure to
tial to

and

'privileges essen-

Claims.
Fruition.

the pursuit

and 'enjoyment of happi'dispositions, or similar

10 ness

the love for societythe 'communion


like

Fellowship.
Inclinations.

with those of
conditions,

and the

'desire for

knowledge,

Wish.
f'on'inually.

form some of the reasons which 'perpetually


bind

men
it

together.
'requisite

(2.) In

all civil

socie-

Communities
Essential.

15

ties,

is

that

each

individual
in-

should 'relinquish the claim of asserting


dividual
(
1.)
1.

Quit.

rights,

and

redressing

personal

Repairing.

the 3d line?

What is the What do

ence between
prefixes signify

difference between disparity and inequality, in 2. What M ibe diilertheir prefixes denote? What <h> tli**ir ignorant and illitrratf. in \ho Ml llO
I

H ow would
ttkt
\

it

tflect

the

tease,

if

ibe

eommi
dirt"*r-

were omitted

after all in

tb

58
'wrongs
;

NATURE OF LIBERTY.
every one must take the general
Injuries.

will of the

community
resort to

for a 'guide,
'

and

re-

Rule.
Violence.
In place.

20 nounce

all

individual
it

force, for

each receives 'instead of


of the 'commonwealth.
to consult 'exclusively

the

protection

None are allowed their own happiness,

Solely.

without regard to the peace and order of

Regrular discipline.
L'ruted.

25 the society with which they are connected.

Men

with

the

best 'intentions

often err;
Hastino*.
Hinder.
Deductions.
Proper.

'precipitancy, or the

want of knowledge or talent, may prevent them from coming to correct 'conclusions concerning what is
( 3.)

30

'just.

Civil society
;

is

intended to 'remove

Displace.

these 'difficulties

the ablest minds are gene-

Impediments
riiusrn.

rally 'selected to establish

such rules as

may
re-

best

promote the general good, and


all

it is

Nt KM v-ary.

35 quisite that

subject themselves to the legal

Lawful.
Administer,
t.ute.

authority appointed to 'enforce these regulations.

Christian communities

administer

in the highest possible 'degree to

man's prethey have

MatMra.
ronstant.

sent

and 'perpetual happiness


to enforce

40 the 'immunity

laws that best pro-

mote

the general welfare

maintain

error
Entire.

'perfect

ence between relinquish and quit, in the lGth line? 5. What is it requisite for every one to do in civil society? 6. What may pr< even good men from coming to just conclusions? 7. To what does it refer, in the 21st line? 8. What is the meaning of noyxe, in the 22d

between administer and contrido their prefixes ad and con denote? 10. In how many simple sentences can you write degree, in the 38th line, so that in each case it shall convey a different meaning? 11.
line?
bute, in

( 3.) 9. What the 37th line?

What

is

the difference

What
Jine?

What do

is

the difference

they refer, in

between perpetual and constant, in the 39th and con denote? 12. To what does the 39th line? 13. What is the character of laws entheir prefixes per

LAW OF
private conduct without
ot

NATIONS.

59
Submission.
Infringing.

'subordination without oppression


'

regulate
to pre-

invading the right

individual opinions,

and binding

Dictated.

45 scribed 'modes of worship.


( 4.)

Forms.

LAW

OF NATIONS.
Immunities.
Prescribes.

The Law
varied

of Nations designates the 'rights


in all their
it

and ordains the duties of nations


relations with
plain system of rules 'emanating

each other;

is

Dealings.

from the

Proceeding.
Control.

50 principles of justice, which 'govern and regulate the allairs


tions.

of

men

in their 'social rela-

Companionable.

On no
rier

subject have writers 'differed


this;

Varied.
Notwithstanding

more than on
55
lished

yet none

is

more simple
It
is

of comprehension.

'estabis

Erected.

on the basis of Christianity, and


'enlightened and Christian

Foundation.
Acknowledged.

'recognized, understood

and observed only

among
ties.

communi-

Intelligent.

(5.) Its

binding power
;

is
'

entirely of a

Authority.
Essential.

ral

and religious nature

its

fundamental

60 principles are contained

in the text "

Do

ye

Embraced.
Like.

unto others as ye would that others, in 'similar

circumstances, should

do unto you,"

Situations.

and enjoins benevolence, kindness and charity

Commands.
The human
race.

among

all

'mankind.
to

There

is

no hu-

65 man tribunal
national law.
tain

enforce an observance of
in this respect, 'sus-

Seat ef juatioe.

Nations,

Bear.
Attitude.

a similar position toward each other


individual

that
if all

the halls of justice

members of society would were 'abolished


:

Single.
r*-vt

roved.

f by Christian communities? 14. What vrai 1.) ( sen the law of nations and mfcrnational
}'

the

pr<-:
\

national
("
.">

L5.

What

i-

the vali<l

bans of the law of nation-

\CK

What

relation

60
70
( 6.)

LAW OF

NATIONS.
for the 'adjustsettlement
Quarrels.
Injunea.
Criterion.

There are no courts


a judge of

ment of national 'misunderstandings.


nation
is
its

Each
Hence,
reason

its

own

'wrongs, and

decides

own

'standard of justice.

when a
75 and the

'controversy arises between nations,


'parties disregard the voice of

Dispute.
Litigants.

and the established usages of the Christian


world, they have no other 'resort than that

Customs.

Expedient
War. Famous.
taptot,
lU-in-voleno<\

of 'arms.

( 7.)

It

appears that the most

'renowned and powerful empires and repub-

80

lies

of antiquity paid no 'regard to the moral

national obligations of justice and 'humanity.

Athens, that

fruitful

mother of philosophers

Prolific

and statesmen, who instructed the world in the arts and 'sciences, encouraged her navy
85
in 'piracy,

Taught
Systematic
I!:l'Ii

and put

to

death or sold into per-

sea rob-

In ry

petual slavery, not only the prisoners taken


in

war, but also the

women and

children of

Females.
Vanquished.
VuilIlN J

the 'conquered country.


(8.)

Rome,
is

the

boasted mistress of the

90 world,

celebrated alike for her tyrannical

Imperious.
Perfidious.

triumphs, her treacherous treaties, and her


continual violations of justice.
nal

disgrace of the

To the eterRoman name is it re-

Registered.

do nations sustain toward each other ? ( 6.) 17. Repeat the substance of section sixth. 18. What is the difference between controversy and dispute, in the 74th line? 19. Disregard and slight, in the 75th line? 20. Usages and ettstortts, in the 76th line? ( 7.) 21. Give a synopsis of section seventh. 22. What Es the difference between renoittied and fatuous, in the 79th line? 23. Regard and respect, in the 80th line? 24. Fruitful and prolific, in the 8 2d line? 25. Instructed and taught, in the 83d line? 36. Conquered and vanquished, in the 88th line? (8.) 27. Of what does section eighth treat ? 28. What is the distinction between celebrated and illustrious, in the 90th line? 29. Treacherous and perfidious, in the 91st line? 30. Recorded and registered, in the 93d

' j

LAW OF
95 that whoever
only in

NATIONS.

61
Commended.
Moved.

corded, in her most 'approved legal code,


'passed from one country to
( 9.)

another became immediately a slave.


It
is

Bondman.
Recent.

modern times
them,

that

nations
like the

'assuming a moral character have,


individuals
ioo

Taking.

'composing

considered

Forming.
Unchangeable.

themselves bound by the 'immutable principles

of justice.

In a state of 'peace
in

all

Tranquillity.

the nations in
'relation to

Christendom stand

an 'equal

Uniform.
Connection.
Consideration.

each other, and are

entitled to

claim equal regard for their national rights,

and require reciprocal obligations


faith,

in

good

Mutual.
Particular.
Diversified.
Establishments.

whatever
or

may

be their 'relative size or


their poli-

p.\ver,

however varied may be


'institutions. in the

tical

and religious

It is

a funda-

mental principle

no are on a perfect equality


dent.
( 10.)

law of nations, that all and entirely indepenthe sole 'privi-

Doctrine.

Complete.

Every nation has


its

Advantage.
Domestic.
Dictate to.

lege of regulating
political

internal policy,

and no

ii5

power has a right to 'jyrescribe for another a mode of government or 'form of religion. The Law of Nations, which 'equally dispenses its rights and requires the fulfilment of its obligations, has for its 'objects the peace, the happiness, the 'honor and the unfading glory of mankind.

Ceremony.
Equably.
Immunities.
Ends.
Dignity.

Humanity.

Give a detailed account of section ninth. 32. What between modem and recent, in the '.Tth line? 33. Peace and tranquillity, in the 101st line? 34. Equal and uniform, in the I02d Line? 35. Power and strength, in the 107th line? ( 10.) 36. Repeat the substance of section tenth. 'M What is the difference l>e11th 3*. Mode, in the n prescribe and dictate, in the 113th line? and the word method 1 39. Form and ceremony, in the 111th line? 41. Object* and ends, in Equally and equably, in the 115th tine the 117th line? 42. Honor and dignity, in the 1 Mh line?
line
is
* ( 9.) 31. the difference
.

62

LAW OF

NATIONS.
XV.

LESSON
(^ 1.)

The Law of
parts, 'viz.
:

'Nations

may be divided

Commonwealth*

into

two

the Necessary

Law

of

Namely.
Absolute.
Precepts.
Prescribes.

Nations, and the 'Positive

Law

of Nations,

or International

Law.

Those

'principles of

5 justice which reason 'dictates and revelation


enjoins,

may

be 'considered the Necessary

Regarded

as.

Law
-

of Nations, 'for these principles, indis-

mpM
Intercourse.

pensable to international 'commerce, are of


'universal application,

and are sanctioned by


historical 'pre-

General.

10 the ablest

jurists,

numerous

Examples.
Customs.
Nation.

cedents, and the long-established 'usages of

Christian governments; no 'power can, by

any portion of the 'necessary law of nations any more 15 than 'single individuals can, by their private acts, 'alter the laws by which the States
its

separate

laws,

invalidate

Requisite.
Sr;.;.r;i!

Change.
Dwell.
Kxj.hnt.

wherein they
'Positive,

'

live are

governed.

( 2.)

The

treaties

Law, consists of or 'compacts between two or more


or International
'Treaties are of va-

20 sovereigns or nations.
rious

Negotiations

kinds:

as,

treaties

of 'peace

of

Amity.
Union.

'alliance, offensive

and defensive

lating 'commercial intercourse

'disputed boundaries

any matter of national


When
treaties are

for regufor settling

Trado.
Contested.

25

'interest,

policy or honor.
The
difficult

Concern.

Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

Of what does section first treat? 2. What is the difference between principles and precepts, in the 4th line? 3. Sanctioned and countenanced, in the 9th line? 4. Alter and change, in the 10th line? 6. What is the (2.) 5. Of what does section second treat? difference between sovereigns and monarchs, in the 20th line? 7. Disputed and contested, in the 24th line? 8. Display and exhibit, in the
( 1.)
1.

LAW OF
ries

NATIONS.
full

63
Ambassadors
power.
of

made, ministers, usually called plenipotentia-

chosen, one, two,


for

three, or
at

and

each nation, meeting

more, by some place


in the

Appointed.
(\mvcr.in?.

mutually agreed upon, and generally

Reciprocally.
Exhibit.

30 territory of some neutral state

often
to

'display

much

ingenuity in
as

making
each

the preliminary

Acuteness.
Obtain.
Conditions.

arrangements,
the best

strives

'secure

possible

'terms for his respective

country.

Nation.

35

( 3.)

After

the

plenipotentiaries

have

Diplomates.

come
their

to 'an

understanding, they write out


is

stipulation.

agreement, which
live nations

then sent to their

Covenant.

or sovereigns

if its 'arti-

Terms.
At once.
Lands.
Support.
Null.

cles

are confirmed, they

immediately beto those countries

ne an international

law

but

if

either

power

refuses to 'sanction the


is

acts of

its

ministers, the treaty


in
statu

'inoperative

and things remain

quo.

In the

As before.
Approbation.
Necessary.

United States, the concurrence of the Preient

and two-thirds of the senate

is

're-

quisite for the adoption

and

'ratification

of

Confirmation

The Necessary Law of Nations may apply to the whole human family; whereas international law is more 'circuma treaty.
ribed
in
its

Compact.
Rule.
Restricts]
Limit.

extent,

and binds only the


It is

contracting nations.

(4.)

'an

acknous

recognized

Iged principle that, having a right to 'adopt

Select.

10. ($3.) 0. Give a detailed account of section third. the difference in the meanings of agreement and covenant, in \->. Cir11. Sanction and support, in the 41st line? 7th line? no is the name cumtrribed and in the 40th line?

ine*
i*

What

of a certain kind of treaty


leav-

^n

you

tell

the
Q

condition in which

it

(V)
15.

It-

Gf what

drx-s section fourth

treat'

What

is

the

diflerencc

acknowledged and rccog-

64

LAW OF
dient,

NATIONS.
it

such 'form of government as

deems expeat
'pleasure,

System.
Abrogate.

every nation
its

may

alter,

or even abo-

55

lish,

internal

regulations

W.U.
Variations.

provided the 'changes do not


'effect

in the least

any of its obligations to other governments, and that the claims of individual
creditors are not thereby 'weakened.

Impair.
Private.

No

Invalidated

60 division of

territory, 'coalescence
in

with other

Tnion.
Injure.

powers, or change
pair any of
its

government, can imit

rights or 'discharge

from
that

Free.
Liabilities.

any of
(5.)

its

just

engagements.

community or 'kingdom
to

Kerilm.

65 should resort
its

any subterfuge
that should

to

shake off

Kv:iM..n

'obligations
its

or

make war

menu

upon

'unoffending neighbors without as'just

InonVndinp.

serting

any

cause for the same, and apPurpose.


I,.se

parently for the 'sake of plunder and a desire

70 of conquest, would

'forfeit alike its

claim to

the protection of the

Law

of Nations, and

Defence.

the 'regard of the civilized world;

would
Im;r

be treated as a 'common enemy, and the


act of 'appropriating the spoils thus obtained
[iialinf.

75 would be called national robbery.

Every
Confederacy.
Abandonment

government would be bound


ful

to join a league

to force the 'relinquishment of such unlaw-

possessions.

(6.)

It

is

generally 'ac'use
its

Allowed.

knowledged that every nation may


nized, in

Employ.

the 51st line? 16. Abolish and abrogate, in the 54th line? and union, in the GOth line? 18. Impair and injure, in the 61st line? ( 5.) 19. Of what does section fifth treat? 20. What is the difference between subterfuge and evasion, in the 65th line ? 21.
17. Coalescence

the 69th line?

22. Sake and purpose, in ? Robbery and depredation, in the 75th line? (6.) 24. Give a synopsis of section sixth. 25. What is the difference be23.

Unoffending and inoffending, in the 67th line

LAW OF
80

NATIONS.

65
Judgment.
Any.

own

'discretion in

other treaties

making commercial and that 'one government mav


all

surrender to another a part or


ritory,
o\

of

its ter-

Cede.
Conditioned.

provided that in so doing the rights no other power are either molested or

Commonwealth

85 'endangered.
to

Every country, has a


its

right

Jeoparded.
Engross.
Choice.

monopolize

own

internal

and colonial
at 'option

trade,

and can exclude or admit


'nation.

any or every other


( 7.)
It is

Count ry.
Granted.

generally 'conceded that every

BO nation has an exclusive right to rivers flowing through


its

The
Arms

sole.

territory

to all

inland bays

of the sea.

and
the

navigable waters whatsoever

and

Watrrs

to

affording free pasoage to

adjoining sea-coast for the distance of

Contiguous.

three miles from shore.

'Custom has ren-

Usage.
Ships.

95 dered
the

it

necessary for 'vessels sailing beyond


of their

jurisdiction

own

country to

Limits.

be provided with passports.


port,
i

(8.)

pass-

Furnished.
Authoritative

is

an

official

certificate,

bearing the

of the government 'under


;

whose

flag

Beneath.
Leave.
Harbors.

joo

the vessel sails

it

gives permission to pass


ports or countries, and

from and
to

to certain

navigate 'prescribed seas without molesta^


It

Determinate.

(ion.

should contain a 'minute description

Circumstantial.

of the vessel, her 'master, crew, loading,


.

&c.

Cnptain.

use

and employ,
choice, in

in the

79th line?

26. Discretion

and judgment,
28.

in the SOtli line? tion

27. Surrender

and

eerie,

in

the 82d line?

Op-

and

section seventh.

the B7th line? (7.) 29. Repeat the substance of 30. What is the difference between adjoining and
1

line?

31.

Between custom and


in

Mtoge, in

the

v It and

ships,

the 95th linel

33.

Provided and

furnished, in the 97th Linel ( 8.) 34. Of what does lection eighth 35. What is the difference between under and beneath^ in the treat? leave, in the 100th line 37. Porte end 36. Perm 99th lino? 38. Mmutr end nnumstantitil, in the 103d harbors, in the 10 1st line?
l

6*


66
105

LAW OF
and request
all

NATIONS.
Am*raNe.

powers to permit her to 'pursue the prescribed voyage without 'interruption; and although the vessel
'friendly

Disturbance.

may

'be

the property of a single

merchant,
or 'crew
insult,

Belong
Sailors.

to.

yet any injury done

the

vessel
'

no would be considered a national

and

Affront.

one requiring
'the

full

'reparation, according to

Amendment.
International law.

laws of nations*

(9.)

The
that

'mutual welfare of nations re-

Recip?

quires

they

should

have 'accredited
of each
wit:

Authorized.
Personate.

us agents to 'represent them at the national


courts,
other.

or legislative

'assemblies

Convocations
Officials.

These

officers

have usually been


to

divided into the following classes,


1st
120

Namely.
Rank.
lntcniunrms

class,

or highest 'order, Ambassadors

and 'Papal Legates, 2d class, Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers plenipotentiary.


3d
class, Ministers 'resident,

Of

fill'

accredited to
nations,

sovereigns
class,
125

or 'independent
(V Affaires,

1th

Free.

'Charges

accredited to the
( 10.)

minister of foreign

'affairs.

An am- BaMW
K ipc

bassador
'rank
;

is

a foreign 'minister of the highest


in the

taliTfc

he acts

place of the sovereign


'is

IVcrre.

or government
titled to all the
130

that

employs him, and


'

en-

Has a

claim.

respect and

immunities that

Privileges.

the ruler of the country he 'represents would

Personates.
Individually.

be
line?

if

'personally present.

An ambassador

39. Friendly

and

prosecute, in the 106th line

amicable, in the 105th line? 40. Pursue and 41. Insult and affront, in the 110th line? ?

( 9.) 42.

Of what does section ninth treat? 43. What is the difference between mutual and reciprocal, in the 113th line? 44. What is the difference in the meanings of class, order and rank, in the 119th 46. What line? ( 10.) 45. Give a detailed account of section tenth.

LAW OF
is

NATIONS.

67
Responsible.
Courts.

not

answerable, even for the most atro-

cious crimes, to the judicial tribunals of the

country
i3o

to

which he

is

sent.

For

flagrant
to

i'uormous.

offences he

may. however, be
witli

sent

his

Crimes.

own government,
bassadors
ablest

demand

that he

Requirement

should receive adequate punishment

Am-

Commensurate.

are

usually

selected

from the

Commonly.
Statesmen.
Capital.

'politicians

of their respective counis

uo tries

their residence

at the 'seat of govern-

ment of the power with which they 'negotiate,

Treat.

(k 11.)

In times of peace,

it is

usual

Seasons.

f>r

each Christian 'nation

to be represented

Country.
Court.
Obligations.

at the
145

national legislature of every foreign

government, and the duties of an ambassador consist


in transacting all public business

Negotiating.
Benefit

to the best possible

'advantage for his

own

of.

government
the designs
ut

in

penetrating into the secrets,

Fat homing.

and the policy alike of the go-

Schemes.
Sojourns.

vernment
meet

in

which he
is

'resides,

and

that of

every nation whose 'representatives he


;

may

Envoys.
Continual.
Dishonesty.
Officers.

hence there

'constant danger of

'immorality and crime


national functionaries.
155

among
It is

the highest

a mournful fact,

that foreign

courts have been

more

cele-

Noted.

brated for intrigue and corruption than for


'purity of

plots.

morals and patriotic deeds.


has oftener

tional gratitude

Nabeen awarded to

Chasteness.

Thanks.
Individuals.

private 'citizens than to public functionaries.


is

the difference

47.
48.

between demand and requirement, in the 136th line? Between adequate and commensurate, in the L37tb lino? (11.)

Give a synopsis of section eleventh. 49. What \i the difference between timet and seasons, in tho 14 2d line? 50. Between grandeur and magnificence, in the 15Sth line?

68

LAW OF

NATIONS.

LESSON
( 1.)

XVI.
Appointed.

envoy is a person 'deputed by a sovereign or government to 'negotiate a treaty, or to 'transact any other business
with a foreign nation.
5 applied to
a
public
for
is

An

Make.
Manage.

The 'word
'minister

is

usually

Tenn.
Agent.

sent

on

an

'emergency, or

particular

purpose.

plenipotentiary

a person 'clothed with


Authority.

full

'power to act for his sovereign or gov-

ernment, 'usually to negotiate a treaty at the


10 close of a war.

Commonly.
Deputies.
Pistant.

The

representatives of the
foreign

government of
duties

the United States at

courts are usually 'styled ministers, and their

nominated
of.

'instructions given

depend entirely on the 'nature of the them by the executive


( 2.)

Sort

Atlvirc.

15 'cabinet at Washington.

The

business

poiwdL
Amrr;.
pulilir.

of the foreign ministers of the United States


is

generally to keep their government 'cor-

itely.

rectly informed of the 'proceedings of foreign


'courts

u-tions

to see that their

countrymen are not


in

AdmmistraP.sturbed.

20 'molested within the realms


reside,

which they
the

and

to 'countenance all enlightened

Encourage.

proceedings

that

tend

to

'ameliorate

'condition of the

human

race.

The

distinc-

Si'u ition.
F.etwixt.

tion 'between ambassadors, envoys, plenipo-

25

tentiaries,

and resident ministers,


The
difficult

'relates

Applies.

Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

2. What is the dif( 1.) 1. Repeat the substance of section first. ference between icord and term, in the 4th line ? 3. Between emergency and exigency, in the 6th line? (2.) 4. Give a synopsis of section second. 5. What is the difference between correctly and accurately, in the 17th line ? 6. Between encourage and countenance, in the 21st line ?

LAW OF
chiefly to
quette,

NATIONS.
and
'eti-

69
iVreinony.
Requisite.

diplomatic precedence
to

and not

and

privileges.

their 'essential powers Governments generally re-

I'levouahves.

serve to themselves the right to 'ratify or

Confirm.
Reject.

30 dissent from treaties concluded by their public

ministers.
( 3.)

Agents.
Stands.

charge d'affaires 'ranks lowest


of foreign ministers,

in

the

class

and

is

Order.

usually a person intrusted with public 'busi-

Concerns.
In lieu.

35 ness

in

a foreign country in the place of an


'degree.

ambassador or other minister of high

R;mk.
Factor.

consul

is

a commercial 'agent, appointed


to

by the government of a country


in foreign

'reside

Dwell.
Maritime towns.

dominions, usually in 'seaports.


entitled to the 'immunities

40 Consuls are not


special

Exemptions.
Neither.
Shelter.

of public ministers, 'nor are they under the


'protection of the

law of nations.
'annulled at

The power of a consul may be


'pleasure

Cancelled.
Option.
Lives.

by the ruler of the country where


whereas the power of a foreign

45 he

'resides,

minister can be 'annulled only

by the govern(4.) Consuls

Abrogated.
Supplies the place of.
Bear.
OfliriaJly.

ment which he

'represents.

must carry with them a

certificate of their

appointment, and must be 'publicly rccog-

50 nized and 'receive from the government

in

Get.

whose dominions they 'propose to reside, a


written declaration, called an exequatur, 'authorizing

Intend.

Empowering
Attend
to.

them

to 'perform their specified du-

8. What is the difference (3.) 7. Of what floes section third treat? between business and concerns, in tho 34th line? 0. Between mzent and factor, in the 37th line? (S l) 10. Repeal the substance oi rnmj and hear, in 11. What i- the diffe tion fourth. the 4Sth line? 12. Between empowering and mtihorizingi in the 52d

70
ties.

LAW OF
The
to the

NATIONS.
is

'business of consuls

to attend

Occupation.
Mercantile.

55

'commercial rights and privileges of

their 'country
'stipulated

and

its

citizens.

Unless

it is

Government.
Covenanted.

by

treaty, the refusal to receive a

consul

is

considered no breach of 'etiquette


;

Decorum.
Declining.

between nations

but the 'refusal to receive


'hostility.

60 a foreign minister denotes


( 5.)

Enmity.
Evil.

War,

the greatest 'scourge that has

ever

'afflicted

the

human
'

race, has,

among
laws.

Troubled.

civilized nations,
It is

its

formalities
it

and

its

Ceremonies.
Preface.

customary

to 'precede

by a demand

65 for redress of

grievances.

When

every

Wtaiffc
Procure.
Kctln
ss.

means has been resorted to in vain to obtain when peace is more dangerous and 'justice

'deplorable

than

war

itself

then

nations

Lamentable.
Publish.

usually

'set

forth their grievances,

accompa-

70 nied with a declaration of war, and proceed


to 'hostilities.

and
curry on.

In monarchies, the right to


is

War.
Proclaim.
Authority.

'declare
reign.

war
war

usually vested

in

the sove-

In the United States, the 'power to


is

declare

confided to the national

/r-

Congress.

75 gislaturc.
x

( 6.)

When war is once


man
to

declared,

Commenced.

each and every


tries is

in the belligerent

coun-

a party

the acts of his

own

gov-

rned in

ernment; and a war 'between the govern-

ments of two 'nations

is

war between

all

Countries.

80 the individuals
'

living in their respective do'officers

Persons.
Functionaries.

minions.

The

of government are

considered 'merely as the representatives of

Only.

line? 14. What is (5.) 13. "Repeat the substance of section fifth. the difference between obtain and procure, in the 66th line? 15. Between declare and proclaim, in the 7 2d line? ( 6.) 16. Of what does section sixth treat? 17. What is the difference between evident and

LAW OF
the people.
It is

NATIONS.

71
Manifest.

evident that every citizen


sustain war, inas-

indirectly contributes to

Support.
Vast.

85 much as

it requires 'enormous sums of moand can be waged only by the general ney,

Prosecuted.

'consent o( the citizens of each country in

Concurrence
Warrior.

paving taxes.
direct,

The

'soldier is therefore the


'belli-

and the tax-payer the indirect

Combatant.
Sharers.
Glory.

90gerent; both participants, though perhaps in an unequal degree, in whatever of 'honor


or of infamy
'

may

be attached to the com-

Shame.
Object pursued.

mon

'cause.

(?.)

When
is

one nation 'invades the


an
'offensive

ter-

Hoatilely enters.

95 ritory of another, under any pretence whatever,


it

Pretext.

called

war on

the

Aggressive.

part of the invading nation, and a 'defensive War of resistance.

war on
'Offensive
ioo

the

part

of the

nation

'invaded.

Attacked.
Invading.
Potent. Proves.

wars are generally waged by the most powerful nations and nothing more
;

clearly

demonstrates

the

absurdity

and
the

'injustice of

wars than the

fact that

by them

Wickedness.
Despots,
Misery-

chiefly tyrants sustain their

power

fill

world with 'wretchedness, and enslave manio5

kind.

The most 'unhallowed armies


a

that
it

Wicked.
Ravaged.
V..ritV rated.

ever 'desolated the earth and converted


into

human

slaughter-house,

have

'cla-

mored most about the justice of their cause. The most idolized generals, those who have
no

Party.

Adored.

commanded

the mightiest armies

and boasted

Vaunted.

manifett, in the
line?
(^ 7.)

L9,

18. Between enormous and 83d line? Give a bvim lion seventh.
;

vast, in the

85th
the

20

What
!

is

difference

yon

between / le renowne
I

'

woftpet, in the
:

1th line
1

21.

Can
22.

l:

to

be republicans,
!

the world and

the liberties of the people

72

LAW OF
most of their republican
the
first to

NATIONS.
have been
Motives.
Dreaa of
kloff*.

'principles,

snatch the 'imperial purple, and

'usurp the unalienable rights of

man.
liberties to those
to

Steal.

Why

ought not people to entrust their most about their patriotism and devotion

who

vaunt
?

republican principles

LESSON
( 1.)

XVII.
is

A Blockade

the 'surrounding of a

EocompoMlng.

place with hostile troops or 'ships in such a ?pak

manner

as to prevent 'escape

and hinder

A departure.
Military tore*.

supplies of provisions

and ammunition from


to

5 entering, with a view

'compel a surrender
at-

Force.

by hunger and 'want, without regular


tacks.

Need.
Allowed.
Succour.

No
any

neutral

nation

is

'permitted to

afford

'relief

whatever

to the inhabitants
all

of a place blockaded, and

'supplies in a
relief

Commodities
Conveyance.
Forfeiture.

10 state of 'transmission for


liable to 'confiscation.

such

are

mere declaration
'binding

of a blockade

is

not

considered

Obligatory.
Non-combatant

upon

'neutrals

unless the place be actually

'surrounded by troops and ships in such a

Encircled.

15 manner as to render an entrance hazardous.


It is

Dangerous.
Informed.
Investment.
Cessation.

also requisite that neutrals be apprised


( 2.)

of the 'blockade.

Truce

is

a tem-

porary 'suspension of arms, by the mutual

agreement of the

'belligerent parties, for ne;

Hostile.

20 gotiating peace or any other 'purpose


( 1.)
1.

at

Cause.

What

is

the difference
2.

ing, in the 1st line?

Why
3.

between surrounding and encompasswould not apprized answer as well as

apprised, in the 16th line?


in section first?
4.

How many
section

simple sentences are there


first

Of what does

treat?

( 2.)

5.

What

LAW OF

NATIONS.

73

the expiration of a truce, hostilities

may

be

Close.

'renewed without a new declaration of war.

Revived.
Uinittd.
Stops.

Truces are either


tial

partial or general.

A par-

truce 'suspends hostilities only between

25 'certain places, as between a town and the

Specified.
Investing:.

army
-

besieging
to
all

it

but

a general

truce

nds

the territories

and dominions

Includes.
Hostile.

of the

belligerent nations.

An

Armistice

has a more limited meaning, being applied

Restricted.

30

to

short

truce,

and

solely to

military

Brief.

affairs.
( 3.)

Matters.

declaration of

war

is

a total pro-

Proclamation
Communication.

hibition of all

commercial intercourse and


all

dealings between

the citizens of the hos-

Traffic.

35

tile

powers; and

all

contracts

made with

the

Bargains.

subjects of a national 'enemy are null


void.
It is

and

Foe.
Subject.

unlawful for a

'citizen

of one of

the

'

belligerent countries to insure the pro-

Contending.

perty, or even to remit

money
( 4.)

to a citizen

Transmit.

40 of the other 'country.


is

An embargo

Land.
An
injunction.

a prohibition upon shipping not to leave

port.

This

'restraint

can be imposed only

Restriction.

by

the 'supreme
is

government of a country,

Paramount.

and

an implied declaration of some im-

virtual.

45 mediate and impending public danger. Letters of


seal,

Threatening.
I.ici'lisr.

marque and

reprisal, are letters

under

or commissions 'granted by a governbetween

reneived and revived, in the 22d line? G. denote? 7. Of what two subjects does section tion third. 9. What second treat? (3.) S. Repeat the substa
is

the difference

What do

their prefixes

between dealings and trujfir, in the 84th line? 10. and bar^'iin.*. in the 85th lino? ($4.) 11. Give a synopsis of section fourth. 12. What is the iiflereiMM between (frclined
is

the difference

Between

contracts

74
ment
to
its

LAW OF
citizens to
prisal of the

NATIOxXS.
seizure or
'reCapture.

make

'property of an enemy, or of

Goods.
Individuals.

50 'persons

who

belong to a government which

has 'refused to do justice to the citizens of


the country 'granting the letters of

Declined.
Giving.

marque
private

and

reprisal.

The

icar-vesseh thus permitted

Men-of-war.
J'o.-vstssei],

by a government
55 citizens are
( 5.)

to

be 'owned by

its

'called privateers.
is

Named.
Agreement.
CeremonioMljr.

Treaty

a solemn 'contract be-

tween two or more nations, 'formally signed by commissioners 'duly appointed, and ratified in the most sacred manner by the su60 preme power of each state, which thereby
'plights
its

Properly.

Hjghest.
Br that muni.

national

fidelity

and

honor.

PtodfMi
tlly.

Treaties 'usually take effect

from the day

they are

'ratified,

and arc as binding upon


receive a

Approved
nets.

nations as private 'contracts arc upon indi-

65

victuals.

Treaties should always


liberal

fair

and

'construction and

be

kept

mat ion
Sacred.
udes.

'inviolable.

(6.) Nations, like individuals,

know not what 'changes may await them. The most powerful states, whose citizens
70 vainly
'boasted of their perpetual

iments

grandeur
their

Vaunted.
Tontinuance.

and

'duration,

have been subverted and


'art

monuments of
it

demolished by the unspar-

Human

skill.

ing ravages of ruthless conquerors.

Hence

Barbarous.

'behooves the most powerful nations to

Becomes.

and

13. Between called and named, in the 15. What (5.) 14. Of what does section fifth treat? is the difference in the meaning of agreement and contract, in the 56th line? 16. How many different parts of speech are there in the mar-

refused, in the 51st line?

55th line?

ginal exercises in section fifth ? ( 6.) 17. What is the difference in the meaning of changes and vicissitudes, in the 68th line? 18. What

LAW OF
75 apply
to themselves the

NATIONS.

75
Infallible.

same

'unerring rules

and principles of justice and humanity which


they 'require their weaker neighbors to observe
lence

Benevolence

Demand.
Curb.
Justice.

to 'check
:

fraud, oppression

and

vio-

to sustain

liberty, order, 'equity

and
the

BO peace
earth
;

among

all

the
in

weaker powers of
and the

Quiet.

to unite

the

enforcement of the
'rational

Patting in execution.

positive

law of
'the

nations,

Reasonable.

usages of
(7.)
It

Christian

xrorld.

Christendom
Closing.
Effect.

may

be observed, in 'concluding
'tendency of

85

this subject, that the

;grandize the few, to strengthen

war is to more and


it

Increase the

power
Despots.

of.

more
'direst

the bands of 'tyrants,

and bring the

miseries upon the

many

that

cher-

Most

terrible

ishes nothing good,

and

fosters 'all

manner

Every description.
Essential part.

90 of wickedness
Divine law
is

that as the 'true spirit of the

generally diffused among, and


'majority of the

Disseminated
Mass.

understood by the great


people, so do they 'become

more temperate,

Grow.
Upright.

honest, industrious

and

intelligent
'

that,

con-

95 sequently, nations grow


a
'liberal

better,

cultivate
inter-

More prosperous.

and humane policy, enjoy

Generous.
External.

nal peace

and happiness, and 'outward power


Furthermore, that no nation
to another's degradation, or
in

and

'dignity.

Honor.
Minister.

can 'contribute

promote another's 'welfare, without,

a cor-

Happiness.
Sinking.

responding degree, 'depressing or elevating


its

own

that

the inns!

sacred observance

Scrupulous.
Definite.

of the
is

positive laws and rights of nations

19. Repeat the substance of secthe Huty of all powerful nations? sixth. ($ 7.) 20. What ia the difference between co nctu dmg and 21. Repeal the Mbetanee <.|" taction seventh. closinz. in the Mth line?

tion

the only real

guaranty

r >f

indirfdoal happiness and na-

76
is
105

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


'essential

to

exalted national character,

Necessary.
Welfare.
Franchises.

the 'happiness of the whole

human

family,

the perpetuity of the 'liberties of mankind,

and the
be
will

'tranquillity

of the world.
light

It

is

to

Peace.
Desired.
Entirely.

'hoped that the

of Christianity
the
spirit

soon

'utterly extinguish

of

'war, and thus forward the millennium.


tional perpetuity
est individuals

Bloodshed.

those that

and grandeur? 23. Which do you think the happiand nations, those that resort to fraud and violence, or deal with justice and humanity?

LESSON
The

XVIII.

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


(1.) 'brief survey

taken of the 'nature of political power


'enable us

we have now may

Concise.

Character. Help.

more

fully to

understand the origin

and the causes of the American 'Union.


5

Confederacy.

We

have seen that the nations of the

'earth

World.

profess to be governed
principles of justice
'latent

by the 'immutable
during
all

Unchanging.
Right

that
fire

ages a

spark of the
in the

of rational liberty OdmmM.

has 'glowed

human breast

that nearly

Hurnrd.

10 four thousand years ago the 'seeds of republican

Elements.
Duwc ruinated.

principles

'face of the earth

were 'scattered over the by inspiration and when

Surface.

the world 'seemed to be shrouded in political

Appeared.
Ignorance. Ruin.

'darkness

when
The
difficult

the sun of

human

liberty

15 had

set

upon the melancholy 'wreck of anQuestions are elucidated in the Appendix.

Repeat the substance of section first. 2. To whom do you suppose the principles of republicanism were given by inspiration?
( 1.)
1.


ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.
cient republics

77

the
is

Almighty, whose
often

'in-

Unsearchable.

scrutable

wisdom

concealed from

Hidden.

mortal view, brought to light a


(2.)
%

new

world.

Ken.
In that place.

Therein

liberty,

Hying before the poitself

20 tentates of the earth, chose for


asylum.

a secret

Selected.

Thither the oppressed and downall

To

that place

trodden of

the nations of the earth fled


to 'shake off

Kingdoms.
Cast.

and though they were not able


entirely
all

the

shreds of tyranny and of


all

Fragments.
Blind zeal.

25 bigotry, yet the commingling of

nations

and of

all

creeds enabled them

more pro-

Symbols.
Prize.

perly to appreciate the moral worth of

man

30

to value

more highly
and pure

his

'industry

the

Labor.

intellectual

qualities of the 'soul

Mind.

to attain the nearest

approximation of the

Approach.
Fraternity.

age

to

an universal brotherhood

the true
set-

'standard of
( 3.)

human Hence we

dignity.
find,

Criterion.

soon after the

Shortly.

tlement of this country, several 'instances

Examples.
Inhabitants.

35 of an association of the people of America


for

mutual defence and 'protection, while


to the British 'crown.

Preservation.

owing allegiance
the
first

As

Throne.
Succeeding.
Peopling.
Provinces.

early as 1643, only twenty-three years 'after

settlement

of

New

England, the

40 colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut,

and

New Haven,
How

formed a league,

Compact.

meant by
?

in the l^th line

4.

ihe expression "bringing to light a new world," does the world now compare with its con-

dition at that
i

( 2.) 5. Repeat the substance of section second. you give some account of the causes of the first settlement of 7. What was the religious and political condition of this country mankind when this country was first settled? 8. What is the highest attainment of human society? ( 3.) 9. Repeat the substance of sec-

time?

tion thir<!.

10.

What

is

the diflerei

instances

and examples,

78

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


offensive

and defensive, firm and

'perpetual,

Enduring.
T.tle.

under the

name

of the United Colonies of

New
45
their

England.

The

'authority to regulate
'especially
to
Above
all.

general concerns, and

levy

war and make


its

'requisitions

upon each
ac-

Demands.
Means.

component colony
cording to

for

men and money


was
'vested in

population,

an

Given

to.

annual congress of commissioners 'delegated

Deputed.
Provinces.
Existing.

50 by the several colonies.


trarily 'dissolved
( 4.)

This confederacy,

after 'subsisting forty-three years,

was
1686.

arbi-

by James

II.,

in

Broken
Diet.

up.

'congress of governors and

com'fra-

missioners from other colonies, as

>/r/l

as AttHa
Urotherly.

55 those of
ternal

New

England, for the sake of

union

and the

protection of their

Defence.
Internal.

'western frontier,

was

held at Albany, in 1722.

more 'mature congress was held at the same place in 1754, 'consisting of 2 commis60 sioners 3 from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York,
Pennsylvania, and
gress
ish

Perfect.

Comprising.
Delegates.

Maryland.

This 'con-

Assembly,
died.
Ministry.

was

'called at the instance of the Brit-

'government, to take into consideration


in the

65 the best 'means of defending America


event of a

Way.
Feared.

hended.

war with France, then appreThe object of the 'crown was to


with the 'Indians through
T

Government.
Savages.

effect treaties

this

congress

but most of the 'commissioners,


the
'

Members.

70 among

whom w as
'

illustrious Franklin,

Renowned.

in the 34th line?

11.

Between

subsisting

and

existing, in the 5lst line?

13. What is the differ(4.) 12. Give a synopsis of section fourth. ence between apprehended and feared, in the 6Gth line? 14. Between Indians and savages, in the 68th line? (5.) 15. Give a detailed ac-

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


had more enlarged and philanthropic views.

79

Benerolent.

They advanced and 'promulgated some


tion

in-

Made

public.

valuable truths, of which the proper 'recep-

Admission.

by

their

'countrymen prepared the


this

way

Com patriots.
Brotherly.

75

for future

independence and fraternal union.


assembly, the king and

(5.)

From

Convocation.

parliament anticipated

much
its

support; they
'leading

Expected. Prominent.

hoped

insidiously to bribe

mem-

bers by offices, and

furthermore sent their

Moreover.
Secret agents

SO emissaries

to divide the colonies into several

confederacies,
easier

so

that

they might be the


all

Leagues.

controlled; but

the plans of the

Governed.
Defeated,

Growl) were signally baffled.

The sagacious

commissioners, with Franklin for their chair-

Leader.

85 man, drew up a plan of united government,


consisting of a general council of delegates,
to

Method.
Body.
Colonial.

be chosen by the 'provincial assemblies,


to

and a president general


the
!>0

be 'appointed by
of the rights of

Designated.
King.

crown.

( 0.)

Many

war and

peace, and the 'authority to lay and

Power.
Intended.
Veto.

levy imposts and taxes,

were 'proposed

to

be vested in this council, subject to the 'negative of the president;

and the 'union was

to

Confederacy.
Include.

'embrace

all

the colonies.

This bold project


at

95 was rejected by the king, who was alarmed


and, by those 'arts

FrighUnul
Embodied.
Artifices.

the republican principles contained therein

among

the office-holders

which kingly governments so adroitly prac,

Regal.

its

rejection

was procured
What
7

in

every cobetween assembly and and defeated, in the


Ktb.

count of section

fifth.

16.

is

the difference

cation, in the

70th line
-

17.

Between

bajfled

83d

jmopsis of nee between embrace and iwlude.

L9.
?

What Ss
20.

the

the

'.'

1th line

Between

80
100

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


lonial assembly,

and

'singular as
its

it

may

ap-

Curious.
Benefiting.

pear,

on the ground of
Thus, by the

'favouring the

'Crown.
( 7.)
'

Government.

swarms of kingly
'

Multitudes.
Bias.

officers
105

who

filled

the

colonies,

prejudice

was

excited against the 'purest patriots, and

Most disinterested.

for several years these kingly 'parasites suc-

Sycophant*.

ceeded
mosity
the
'

in exciting

much

'

jealousy and ani-

Envy.
Plant a'
nfnrudlinw*.

among

the 'colonies.

So great was
mainly by mo-

disaffection,

fostered

no narchical 'intrigue, that even Franklin des-

I'ilHSM?.

paired of a general and a 'permanent union.

Lasting.

But when the corruption and the


of the government

tyranny
to the

Despotism.
Evident.

became 'apparent

majority of the people, they 'meted out mens rited scorn to the British rulers, and 'reposed
the utmost 'confidence in their

Measured.
Placed.

own

patriotic

Trust.

Congress.

( 8.)

The passage

of the stamp-

Enactment.
Laying.

act by the British Parliament, in 1705, im-

posing a small tax on paper, roused a general


120

Awakened.
In erery part
of.

indignation 'throughout
that the tax

all

the colonies; not


'borne, or
in

that

there

was grievous to be was anything 'unjust


but the 'opposition

Supported.

taxing
'

paper, for several states have imposed a

si-

Like.

milar tax
125

was on

the

Resistance.
Principle.

ground that Parliament had no right


the 'colonies,

to tax

and that taxation and representation were 'inseparable. A congress of


kingly

Settlements.
Indivisible.

and

regal, in the

seventh treat?
titudes, in

22.

What

98th line? (7.) 21. Of what does section is the difference between stcarms and mul-

line?

the 103d line? 23. Between jealousy and envy, in the 107th 25. What is ( 8.) 24. What is the subject of section eighth? the difference between borne and supported, in the 121st line? 26. Be-

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


'delegates

81

from nine colonies met

at

New
The
II.
I.,

Deputies.

York

in October, 1765, at the 'instance and


Commendation.

recommendation of Massachusetts.
colonies

represented

were Mass.,

IVrMMKlJl'll.

Conn..

\. Y., N.

J.,

Pa., Del., Md.,

and

S. C.
'as-

Now

York.

The
i3o

declaration of rights of this body


the 'sole

M;unt;uned.
Only.
Provincial.

serted, that
in

power of taxation

lay

the

'

colonial

legislatures,

and that the


late

rictions

imposed on the colonies by

Restraints.
Edicts.
Official

acts o( Parliament,

were

unjust.

The Con-

gress also adopted an 'address to the king,

mes-

sage.

and a
140

petition to

(^

[).)

The

each house of Parliament Congress of 1765 was only a


[

An

introductory.

preparatory step to the more extended and


lasting union,

Enlarged.

phia, in

which took place at PhiladelSeptember, 1774, and laid the 'foun-

Permanent.

Groundwork.
Union.

dations of the
145

American

'

Republic.
first

The

'meeting of this Congress

was

recom-

Assembling.
Inhabitants.

mended by a town-meeting of the 'people of Providence, Rhode Island, followed by the


Assemblies of Massachusetts and Virginia,

Succeeded.
Legislatures.

and by other public bodies and meetings of


im the people.
's

Gatherings

some of were appointed by


In

the colonies, delethe popular branch

Members.

of the loirislature; in others, by 'conventions

Mrrtinps.

of the people.

The

deputies convened Sepoffi-

Mrt
Selecting.

tember
cers,

4,

1774;

and, after 'choosing

adopted certain fundamental rules of

Kadiral.
T.a\v-m:ikinp

station.
similar a
in

.<\

like, in

the 123d lino?

($9.)

mblotting

ninth.

28.

What

i>

the difference

between

permanent,

the

th<
ie ?

snd and meet-

82

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.

LESSON XIX.
( 1.)

As

the Congress thus 'assembled ex-

Convened.

ercised 'sovereign authority, not as the agent

Supreme.
In fact.

of the government \le facto of the colonies,


but in virtue of 'original

power derived
it

di-

Primary.

5 rectly from the people,


nated only

has been
It

called

Named.
Ended.
Supplanted.
Consolidated

" the revolutionary government."

termi-

when

regularly

superseded by
Its

the 'confederated government, in 1781.


first 'act

was
in

the declaration, that in deciding


this

Deed.
State.

10 questions

Congress, each
;

'

colony
the

should have but one 'vote


'established
It

and

this

was

Voice.
Fixed.

course through the revolution.

'proposed a general Congress to be held

at the

same
this

place, in

May

of the next 'year.

Season.

15

It

was

Congress which 'passed, October


the Bill of Rights,

Enacted.
Proclaimed.
Truths.

14th, 1774,

which
bill

set

forth the great 'principles of national liberty.

was the 'rights that was the cause of the American 20 revolution. The grievances under which
( 2.)
It
'

violation of this

of

Infringement
Just claims.

'

Oppressions.

the colonies

'

labored being unredressed by


Sent forth.
Seventh month.

the British government, Congress 'issued a

declaration of independence, 'July 4th, 1776,

and 'claimed a place among the nations of


25 the earth, and the 'protection of
their ac-

Requested.
Defence.

2. In how many ( 1.) 1. Repeat the substance of section first. sentences can you use the word May. in the 14th line, so that in each case it shall convey a different meaning ? 3. Is seaso7i in the 14th line, used in its limited or extended sense? 4. In how many sentences can you use the word principles, in the 17th line, so that in each case it shall convey a different meaning? ( 2.) 5. From what is infringement derived, in the 18th line? 6. Repeat the substance of section
t

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


kncAvledged law.
Bill

83

The
'

'declaration of the
is

Promulgation.

of Rights, and of

Independence,

the

Freedom.
Orotind-work.

basis on

which the Constitution was founded,


be 'considered as a separate and

and
30 nies

after this declaration of rights the colo-

Privileges.

may

Regarded.
People.

distinct
( 3.)

nation.

'Anterior to this time, there

were

Previous. Separate.
That
is

three distinct forms of


in

government existing

the colonies, 7o wit:


'

The

Provincial or

to sy.

35 RoyaL
ments.

Proprietary,

and Charter govern-

Grantee.
Kingly.

The

Provijicial or 'Royal govern-

ments existed under the immediate governnt

Continued.
Completely.

of the king of England, and

were
this

'en-

tirely

under his control.

Under
'

form

System.
Polity.

government.
shire,

New

Jersey,

New Hampgoverned

and South Carolina were

Ruled.
Period.

provinces, at the 'time of the declaration

The (barter governments were


great political
t

Corporated
Obtained.
Subservient
to.

corporations, 'derived from


an
the

Crown.

( 4.)

The

trtt

governments 'approximated nearest


mother country, and
its

Approached

to that of the
1

citizens

Poland.
Defence
Duties.

the greatest protection in their rights.

The powers

of this government were, like


'dis-

50 that of England and our Constitution,


tributed into three great 'departments

Dirrded.
I'lViMOIlS.

the

Legislative,

and the

Judicial.

I.mv-e*Ttmg.

second. 7. What i the difference between considered and regarded, in iho 30lh line? 9. In of lection tliird. (3.) 8. G how many sentences can you use form, in the 89th lino, in each of" What >> adiflerei difference between/orm and system, in the 39th line? 11. Why doef OM follow
.

j<_*

lief*-:

2,

What were

84

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.

The Charter governments,


'declaration of rights,

at the 'time of the


I.,

were Mass., R.

and

55 Conn.

( 5.)

The

Proprietary governments

were written 'grants from the king to one or more persons, 'conveying to them the general powers of government within their pre'

scribed territories.

The
'

proprietors

exer-

60 cised similar power,

and acted instead of had power


at

the king, and, like him,

any

time to convene or 'prorogue, and also to


negative, or even 'repeal
the Assemblies.

any of

the acts of

The Proprietary
and Md.
it

'govern-

65 ments,

at the time of the declaration of 'rights,

were

Pa., 'Del.,
'

( 6.)

Hence

appears that the king was

not only 'represented, but had, or rather,

claimed the

right, either directly or indi-

70

rectly, to 'abolish

any law, or dissolve any


in the colonics.

legislative

assembly

'ma-

jority of the governors

colonies,

and 'council in the were appointed directly by the king. The judges, and the incumbents of all im'

75 porta nt
the

places,

were
'

also dependent
in

upon
office,
( 7.)

king for their

continuance

though generally paid by the colonists.


It

was

the 'supercilious acts of the governors,

and the 'exercise of despotic power by the


( 5.) 13. What were Proprietary governments? 14. Why is it necessary to use the preposition to after conveying in the 57th line? 15. What is the difference between prorogue and adjourn, in the 6 2d line? ( 6.) 16. hi how many sentences can yon use the word right, in the 69th line, so that in each case it shall not only convey a different meaning, but also be a different part of the Charter governments?

speech?

( 7.) 17.

What caused

the declaration of rights?

18.

From

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


80 king, that led
to

85

the declaration of rights,

Caused.

which was

in direct opposition to the 'arro'

Assumed.
Em?hsh.
Maintained.

gated authority of the

British government,

and asserted
violated the

in

substance that the kins: had


of England; and,
'

common law

Broken.
Smallest.
Assertion.

the colonists never retracted the

least

portion of the

declaration of rights, they


as forming a distinct
;

may

be

considered

Regarded.
Period.

nation from that time


dresses
to

though

in their ad-

the

'

king and parliament they


loyalty,
'

Throne.
Fidelity.

90 professed the utmost


edly hoped
that
all

and undoubt-

grievances would be

Wrongs.
Therefore.
Occasion.

tressed,

and 'consequently that

there

would be no
d

'necessity for the proposed

m
95

1778.
It

Convention.

( 8.)

is

important to bear in mind the

Remember.
Prior.

situation of the colonies 'previous to their

declaration of rights, in order to 'understand


correctly the political 'progress of our country,
100

Comprehend.
Adraacemeot.

and especially the Declaration of Indeliberty.


It

Above
Shield.

all.

pendence and the palladium of

may

here be observed, that the framers of

Mentioned.
Bjntem of
rale*.

the Constitution considered the declaration

of right

in

1774, and that of indesetting forth all the


liberty:
to
'

Ki^mption from
:.

rule.

pendence
105

in

1770, as

Makinc apparent

great principles of

American

hence

Accordingly.

emed
ostitution

it

unnecessary

precede the
(0.) But

Prefer*
Y.x] revs.

with any further 'formal decla-

ration of a

new

bill

of rights.

Fresh.

what time may


is

20.

What

is

the colonist9 be deem<-l independent "f Circat Britain ? ( 8.) the general meaning of loyalty, in the 90th line ? meant by the expression palladium of liberty,'' in the .1 what does that, in the 103d 1. ($ 9.) 22.
'

86
the

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
American people are
them
so 'extremely careJealous.

no ful of their rights, and desirous of 'transmitting


to posterity in 'unsullied purity,

Imparting.
Spotless.

that the 'Congress of the United States,

on

National Assembly.

the 25th of

'

September, 1789, proposed ten


to the Constitution,

Ninth month
Additions.
Explicitly.

'amendments

which more

us 'clearly and definitely specify the rights of


the people, 'prescribe the duties of Congress,

Ordain.

and the

'

limit of the Constitution.


is,

But the
as
'

Extent.

substance of these amendments

before
bill

Heretofore.

intimated, 'contained in the original


120

of

Comprised.
By
(bit

rights

which, though

'

thus rendered less

mnni.

'prominent, will ever remain the basis of that

Conspicuous.

enduring monument of the sages and patriots


of the 'revolution
In
is

"hampions.

the Constitution.

CfaMfl

vernment

so that

sentences can you use the word sages, in the 122d line, convey a different meaning in each case? 23. What the meaning of patriots and champions, in the 122d line?
it

how many

shall

LESSON XX.
'DECLARATION OF RIGHTS
Of the 'Continental Congress, October
( 1.)
14, 1774.
Proclamation.

Federal.

Whereas,

since the 'close of the last

Conclusion.
Asserting.

war, the British Parliament,

'claiming

power

of right to bind the people of America

Restrain.

by 'statutes in all cases whatsoever, hath in 5 some acts 'expressly imposed taxes on them, and
in others,
The

Lacwa
Id direct terms.

under various 'pretences, but


difficult

Pretexts.

Questions are elucidated in the Appendix.

and by whom was the declaration of the bill of Repeat the substance of section first. 3. What is the difference between pretences and pretexts, in the 6th line? ( 2.)
( 1.) 1. rights made?

When
2.

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
in fact for the

87
Income.
Levied.
Provinces.
Illeg-al.

purpose of raising a 'revenue,


in

hath
these

imposed rates and duties payable


colonies, established a

Board of Compowers,

10 missioners,

with

unconstitutional

and extended the

jurisdiction of Courts of

Control.

Admiralty, not only for 'collecting the said


duties,

Gathering.
Cases.
Originating.

but

for

the

trial

of causes merely

arising within the

body of a county:
'ill

15

(-)

And

whereas,

consequence of
before held only

By means.
Formerly.
Titles.

other statutes, judges,


ites

who
the

at will

in

their offices,

have been
in

made dependent on
their
*J0

'crown alone, for


has 'lately

King.

salaries,

and standing armies kept


it

Yearly pay.
Recently.
The Assembly of Lord* and Commons.

times of peace: and whereas,


a

ved

in

Parliament, that by force


in the thirty-fifth

of a statute,
the reign of

made

year of

Enacted.
Rule.

King Henry
accusations
or

the VIII., colonists

may
*jr>

be 'transported to England, and tried

Conveyed.
Charges.
Misdemeanors.

there,

upon

for treasons

and

misprisions,

concealments

of treasons

'committed
statute,

in

the colonies, and,


trials

by a

late
in

Perpetrated.

such

have been directed


in the last 'session

Enactment.
Stated.

cases therein mentioned:

30

( 3.)

And

whereas,

of

Sitting.

Parliament, three statutes were


tilled,

'An art

to discontinue,

made; one in such man-

Regulations.

Postpone.
Period.

ner and for such time as are therein mentioned, the landing

and discharging, lading, and merchan

Cnloading.
ttinf

Mpfing of goods, waiee,


4.

on board

\ at the town and within the harbor of


Repeat the substance of section secon
;h

Port.

whtA does

their refer
{
>

line?

(3.]

at

the

cm

third.

88

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
Boston, in the 'province of Massachusetts
Colony.
Called.

Bay

in

North America

;'

another

'entitled,

'An act for the better 'regulating the govern40 ment of the 'province of Massachusetts Bay, in New England ;' and another entitled, 'An
act for the impartial 'administration of justice, in the

Directing.

Settlement.
Styled.

Dispensation
Tried.

cases of persons 'questioned for


in the 'execution of

any act done by them


45 the law, or
setts

Performance
Restrain meat.

for the 'suppression of riots

and

'tumults, in the province of the

Massachu-

'

on mictions
further.

Bay,

in

New

England
for

:'

and another

statute

was

then made,

'making more
All

Rendering.
AJTUgexneota.

effectual 'provision for the

government of the

50 province of Quebec,' &c.


tutes are 'impolitic, unjust,

which

sta-

'\ui;1']:l

and

cruel, as well

Unwise.
Perilous.

as unconstitutional,
'destructive of
( 4.)

and most dangerous and


rights.

American

Ruinous to
Meetings.

And

whereas, 'assemblies have been


to the rights to 'delibe-

55 frequently dissolved, contrary


of the people,
rate on 'grievances:
loyal,

Broken
Consult.

up.

when they attempted


and

their dutiful,

humble,

Oppressions.

and reasonable

petitions to the

'crown

Government.
Relief.

for 'redress,

have been repeatedly treated


his majesty's ministers of

60 with 'contempt by
'state

Public aflairs

The
of

'good people of the

several

colonies
-

Inhabitants,

Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations,


65 Connecticut,

New

s Different.

3 Provinces.

New York, New Jersey,

Penn-

Penn's
Also.

Wood

sylvania, Newcastle, Kent, 'and Sussex, on


7.

What

is

the difference
8.

45th line?
is

( 4.) the difference

between suppression and restrainment, in the Repeat the substance of section fourth. 9. What between disdain and contempt, in the 60th line?

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
'Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina,

89
The River
Delaware.
Terrified.

and South Carolina,

justly

alarmed

at

these

arbitrary proceedings of parliament

Despotic.

70 and administration, have severally elected,


constituted,

The

ministry

and appointed

'deputies to

meet

Agents.

and

sit

in

general congress, in the city of

Assembly.
Procure.

Philadelphia, in order to 'obtain such establishment, as that their religion, laws, and
lib-

Freedom.
Overthrown.
Convened.
Perfect.

75

erties

may
in

not be

'subverted;

whereupon

the deputies so appointed being


bled,

now

'assem-

[full

and

free

representation of

these colonies, taking into their most 'serious

Earnest.

consideration the best 'means of attaining

Way.
Purposes.
Forefathers.

80 the ends aforesaid, do,

in the first place, as

Englishmen, their

ancestors, in like cases


for 'asserting

have usually done,

and

vindi-

Maintaining.

cating their rights and liberties,


( 5.)

'DECLARE,
'

Proclaim.
British.
Unchangeable.

ionies

That the inhabitants of the English in North America, by the immu-

table laws of nature, the 'principles of the

Truths.
Grants.

English constitution, and the several charters


or 'compacts, have the following
Resolved, N. C. D.*

RIGHTS.

Agreements.
Determined.
Possessions

That they are en1. 90 titled to life, liberty, and property; and they have never ceded to any sovereign power
whatever
their
15-

Granted.

a right to dispose of either,

without

Give away
Permission.

consent.

solved,

'JV.

C. D.

2.

That our ances-

Unanimously
Planted.

95
($

tors,

who

first 'settled

these colonies, were,

II. What is the dif5.) 10. Repeat the wblinca of section fifth. (6.) ference between compacts and agreements, in the 88th line?
Nemine contradicenU, no person opposing or k

8*

90

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
at the time

of their 'emigration from the


entitled to
all

Removal.
Prerogatires.
Privileges.

mother country,
liberties,

the

rights,

and immunities of
Resolved, N. C. D.

free

and natural-

born subjects, within the 'realm of England.


100

Dominion.
That.

( 6.)

3.

That, by 'such
'sur-

emigration, they by no means forfeited,

Gave

up.

rendered, or

105

any of those rights, but that they were, and their 'descendants now are, entitled to the exercise and 'enjoyment of all such of them as their local and other circumstances enable them to 'exercise and
'lost

ALenated.
Children.
Fruition.
Situation allow*.

Use.

enjoy.

Hold.

Resolved,
lish liberty,

4.

That

the foundation of
free

Engis

and of

all

government,

Literal.

no right in the people to


legislative council
;

participate in their

h*r*.
and

and as the English colofrom


their local

T.m cranf

Ur.ccIHl-

nists are not represented, and,

I'i>tant.

and other 'circumstances, cannot properly


be 'represented
ii5

'ions.

in

the

British

parliament*
exclusive

Pereonated.
Sole.

they are entitled to a free and

power of

legislation in their several 'provin-

cial 'legislatures,

where

their right of repreall

Assemblies.
ued.
Legislation.

sentation can alone be 'preserved, in

cases

of taxation and internal


120

'polity, subject

only

to the 'negative of their sovereign, in such

Veto.

manner
case,

as has been heretofore 'used

and

ac-

Habitual.
UuvoidablcBeM

customed; but, from the

'necessity of the

and a regard

to the 'mutual interests

Reciprocal

of both countries,
125

we

'cheerfully consent to

WdhnglT.
Agency.

the 'operation of such acts of the British


13.

12. Repeat the substance of section sixth. between foundation and basis, in the 108th

What
14.

is

the difference
restricted

line

Between

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
parliament as are, bona fuh\ restrained to

91
Restricted.

130

commerce, for the purpose of 'securing the commercial advantages o( the whole empire to the mother country, and the commercial benefits excluding every of its respective members
the regulation of our

external

Foreign.

Knsunng.
Bent fits.

Trading.
Several.

'idea

ul

taxation,

internal

or external, for

Notion.

raising a revenue on the 'subjects in America,

Denizens.
Permission.

without their consent.


i35

(?.) Resolved, N, C. D.

5.

That the

're-

Different.

spective colonies are entitled to the

'common
to the

Unwritten.
Particularly.

law of England, and more especially


it

and
by

inestimable

privilege

of being

Invaluable.
Neighborhood.

tried
140

their peers of the 'vicinage,

accord-

ing to the course of that law.

Manner.

Resolved,

6.

That they are

entitled to

Have a claim
Advantages.
Migration.
Trial.

the benefit of such of the English statutes

as existed at the time of their 'colonization;

and which they have, by experience,


us spectively found to be
'applicable to

re-

their

Adequate.
Geographical

several

local

and other circumstances.


7.

Resolved, N. C, D.
jesty's colonies, are

That

these, h is

maall

The
Also.

King's.

likewise entitled to
privileges, 'granted

the immunities
150

and

and

Bestowed.
I

'confirmed to them by royal charters, or se-

orrohorated
;ons.

cured by their several 'codes of provincial


lav
(8.) Resolved, X.

Regulations.

CD.

8.

That they have

Possess.
Quietly.
inlize.

a right 'peaceably to assemble, consider of


155

their grievances,

and petition the king; and


(7.)
17. 16.

and

restrained, in the 126th line?


1*

Repeat
tbfl

th<-

lubetance of

section seventh.
trial, in

the difference

between

crj>cnrnrc

and

the 144th line?

( 8

Repeal

of section

92
that
all

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
prosecutions, prohibitory 'proclamafor the
Declaration* of
the

King '

will.

tions,

and 'commitments
9.

same, are
Unlawful.

'illegal.

Resolved, N. C. D.
160

That the 'keeping a


times of

Maintaining.
Permanent
mili-

'standing

army

in these colonies, in

tary force.

peace, without the 'consent of the legislature


of that colony in which such
is

Approval.
K.-taim-.l.

army

is 'kept,

'against law.

Contrary

to.

Resolved, N, C. D. 10.
165

It is

'indispensably

Absolutely.

necessary to good government, and 'rendered


'essential

Made.
Important
in the highest drjree.

by

the English constitution, that the


legislature be
that,

constituent 'branches of the

Divisions.

independent of each other

therefore,

Consequ.
Use.
Will.

iitly

the 'exercise of legislative power, in several

no colonies,
sure,

by a council appointed, doting


is

plea-

by the 'crown,

unconstitutional) dan-

King.

gerous, and 'destructive to the freedom of

Ruinous

American
(!).)
175

'legislation.

Law-making
Above -menDelegates.
Persist
in.

All

and each of which, the aforeand


in-

said 'deputies, in behalf of themselves


their constituents,
sist on,

do claim, demand, and


legally taken

as their 'indubitable rights and liber-

Iocon tro* f r 1

bit.

ties

which cannot be

from

Lawfully.

them, 'altered, or abridged, by any power


180

Changed.
Permission.
Deputies.

whatever, without their

own

'consent,

by

their 'representatives in their several provincial 'legislatures.

Assemblies.

( 10.)
eighth.
18.
?

These 'declarations met with a


is

Resolves.

What

the difference

between

kept

and

retained, in the

162d
is

( 9.) 19. Repeat the substance of section ninth. 20. What the difference between altered and changed, in the 179th line?
line

( 10.) 21.

What

does

thus,

mean

in the 185th line?

22.

What

is

the

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
hearty response in every section of the con185

93
Rejoiuder.
Fortunately.
Persevered
in.

federacy.

The union

thus

happily formed,

and continued by a succession of delegates in Congress, has been revered as the guardian of our liberties, through every 'change

Venerated.
Alteration.
Polity.

of our 'government
ntinental Congress,

11.)

The second
at

which assembled
'invested

Provincial.

Philadelphia in

May, 1775, was

by

Clothed.

the colonies with very

ample 'discretionary

Optional
Absolute.
Violence.

powers.

Determined

to assert 'unconditional

sovereignty over the colonies by 'force, Great


i Britain
in the

had already 'commenced

hostilities

Begun.

province of Massachusetts. Congress,


its

Dependency.
Ardo-.

supported by the zeal and confidence of


constituents,

prepared for defence by pub-

Made

ready.
for.

lishing a declaration of the 'causes


aoo

and ne-

Reasons

cessity of 'inking up arms,


to levy
_

and by proceeding
to prescribe

Going

to war.

and organize an army, and sea

Arrange.
Rules.
Bills of credit

ilations for land

forces, to emit

jxiprr money, contract debts,


all

and exercise

the other prerogatives of an independent


;

Peculiar
vileges.

pri-

5 government
the

till,

goaded
soil

attacks of England,
'

caused American
blood,
it

to the utmost by which repeatedly to drink American

Stimulated.
Aggressions.

Earth.
Finally.

at last,

on the 4th of July, 1776, de-

red the

united colonies to be

FREE

and

Federate.
Self-reliant.

^DEPENDENT STATES.
difference
23.

between revered and venerated, Of what docs taction eleventh treat?

in the

187th line?

( 11.)

24.

the sense of repeatedly, in the 206th line? 25. you ue soil, in the 207th line, so as to convey in each case a different what meaning? 26. What wordi are definitions, in Motion eleTen What battles are alluded to in the synonyms 7 what

What phrases will give In how many WtJTI -an


I

195th line?

94

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

LESSON

XXI.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
( 1.)

A 'Declaration
assembled.

by the representatives
Passed,

Proclamation
Convention.

of the United States of America, in 'Congress


'

Thursday,

Adopted.
sYf nth nv nth.

'July 4th, 1776.

When,

in the course of

human

'events,

it

Occurrences.
Destroy.
Ties.

becomes necessary
the political
'

for

one people to 'dissolve

bands which have connected


to

them with another, and


the

assume among
laws of nature,
them, a decent
'requires,

Take.
Dttmrt.
[Vcn-vs.

powers of the earth the 'separate and


'entitle

10 equal station to which the

and of nature's God,

Give them a
ilaim.

respect to the opinions of

mankind

Demands.
Avow.
Uige.
Ti-m-t.s.

that they should 'declare the causes


'impel

which

them

to the separation.

15

(2.)

We

hold these 'truths to be self-evi-

dent: that

all

men

are 'created equal; that

M.itlo.

they are 'endowed, by their Creator, with


certain 'unalienable rights; that

IllYfstCO.
N>f tran^fer-

among

these,

able.

are

life,

liberty,

and the

'pursuit of happil

Quest.
Confirm.
Established.

20 That,

to 'secure these rights

governments are

'instituted

among men,

deriving their just


;

powers from the 'consent of the governed


The
difficult

Concurrence

Question* are elucidated

in the

Appendix.

( 1.)

1.

When was
?

the
2.

declaration of the independence of the

whom was it adopted ? 3. When was Repeat section first. 5. Illustrate the difference between dissolve and destroy, in the 6th line. 6. Illustrate the difference between declare and avow, in the 13th line? (2.) 7.
United States adopted
this declaration

By

made?

4.

What
rights?

truths are said to be self-evident?


9.

8.

What

are inalienable

For what is government instituted? 10. From what do governments derive their just powers? 11. When have the people a

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
whenever any 'form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the
that,
System.

95

Ruinous

to.

25 right of the people

to alter or to 'abolish

it,

Abrogate.
Establish.
Basis.

and
its

to

institute a

new government,

laying

foundation on such principles, and orgaits

nizing
shall

powers

in

such form, as to them

Order.

seem most
'happiness.

likely to 'effect their safety

Secure.
Welfare.
Prescribe.
Trivial.

30 and
will

(3.)

Prudence, indeed,

'dictate, that

governments, long estabbe changed for


'

lished, should not

light
all

and

transient causes

and accordingly,

'expe-

Proof.

rience hath shown, that 'mankind are


3.3

more

Men.
Inclined.

disposed to sutler, while evils are sufferable,

than to 'right themselves, by abolishing the

Indemnify.

forms

to

which they are 'accustomed.

But

Habituated.

when

a long train of 'abuses and usurpations,

Wrongs.
Proves.
Positive.

pursuing invariably the same object, 'evinces

40 a design
potism,

to

reduce them under 'absolute destheir right,


it

it

is

is

their 'duty, to
to provide

Obligation.

throw

off such

government, and

Procure.
Safety.

new guards

for their future 'security.

Such
which

has been the patient sufferance of these colo-

Endurance.
Compulsion.

45 nies; and such


of government,

is

now
(^ 4.)

the necessity

constrains them to alter their former systems

Change.
Narrative.

The

'

history of the
is

king of Great Britain

a history of
all

Reigning.
Successive.

oated injuries and usurpations,


a
abolish

having,

government?

12. Illustrate the difference

between

ami

abro^att, in the 25th line?


14.

What

(3-) 13. What doei prudence has all experience shown? 15. When i- it the 16. Illustrate rernmentl to throw

the duffers
trate

fcgal

an-!

trivial.

abuse*

and

($4.) 18.

What

is

the history of

the

17. Illusthe 3'Ji line. wrong?, in the 38th line? then kiag of Great Britain?

Id

96
50
in
'

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
direct object, the establishment of
2

an

Express.
2

absolute

tyranny over these

states.

To

prove

complete.

this, let facts be 'submitted to a candid world.

Referred.

He
55 'good.

has refused his assent to laws the most


for

Concurrence
Salutary.
Benefit.

'wholesome and necessary

the

public

He

has 'forbidden his governors to pass

Prohibited.

laws of immediate and pressing 'importance,


unless 'suspended in their operation
till

Moment
Delayed.

his

assent

should be 'obtained;

and,

when

so

Procured.

60 suspended, he has utterly neglected


to 'them.

to attend

Omitted.

The

laws.

He

has 'refused to pass other laws for the


of large districts of people,

Declined.
K. ci.ns.

accommodation

unless those people

would

relinquish the right


;

Abandon.
iV.litiral

65 of 'representation
rants 'only.
(5.)

in the legislature

a right

par-

tin; |

inestimable to them, and formidable to ty-

Terrible.

Alone.

He

has called together 'legislative

Law-pi vine.
Inconvenient
Archives.

bodies at places unusual, 'uncomfortable, and

70 distant from the 'depository of

their public

records, for the sole purpose of 'fatiguing

Wearying.
Proceedings.

them

into

compliance with

his 'measures.

He
75 ness,

has 'dissolved representative houses,

Broken up.
Undaunted.
Inroads.

repeatedly, for opposing, with 'manly firmhis 'invasions

on the rights of the people.

He

has 'refused, for a long time, after such


;

Neglected.

dissolutions, to cause others to be 'elected


19. To what What had he

Chosen.

did the king of Great Britain refuse his assent? 20. forbidden the governors to do? 21. Illustrate the difference between refused and declined, in the 62d line. (5.) 22. Why did the king of Great Britain call legislative bodies at places distant from the depository of public records? 23. did he repeatedly

Why

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
'whereby the legislative powers, incapable of
'annihilation,

97
By which.
Dost ruction.
Prac lice.

have returned
exercise
time,
:

to

the people at

80 large for
ing, in

their

the state remain-

the
erf

mean

exposed

to

all

the

I.ial'le.

dangers

invasion lrom without, and con-

Incursion.
Internally.

vulsions within.
( 6.)

He

has endeavoured to prevent the


;

Striven.

85 population of these states


'obstructing
'foreigners
;

for that 'purpose,

Design.

the

laws for naturalization of

Hindering.
Aliens.

refusing to pass others to encou-

rage their 'migration hither, and raising the


'conditions of

Removal.
Stipulations.
Legal execution.

new

appropriations of lands.

90

He

has obstructed the administration of

justice,

by refusing
has

his assent to

'

laws for

Regulations.
Legal-deciding.

establishing

judiciary powers.

He

made judges

'dependent on his

Subject
Holding;.

to.

will alone, for the 'tenure of their offices,

and

95 the amount and payment of

their 'salaries.

Emoluments
Established.

He

has 'erected a multitude of

new

offices,

and sent hither swarms of

officers to 'harass

Worry.
Wealth.
Established.

our people, and eat out their 'substance.

He
ioo

has

'

kept

among

us, in

time of peace,

standing armies, without the 'consent of our


'legislatures.
( 7.)

Agreement.
Assemblies.

He
do?
77th
il

has affected to render the


24. After

'mili-

Warlike.

presentative bouses?

such dissolution, what did

he refuse

to

25. Illustrate
line.
2^.

the difference

chosen, in the

Between

annihilation

between elided and and (Icslrurtion, in

the 7'jth line.


:

the I

did the king of Great Britain endea( 6.) 27. did he obstruct the papulation of the states? 28. did lie make the judges de."ii of justice ? 20.

How

How

How

pendent

30.

What did he recti 31. What did be send What did he keep emong the people in tiraei of
between
salaries

to

this

pe
tin-

33. Illustrate the ditference


,ine.

and

n/i<>lntmntg, in

(7.) 34.

How

did the kinj

u Britain rendei the

"" 9~~

: :

98

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
tary independent
'power.
of,

and superior

to,

the

'civil

Political.

Authority.

105

He
tion,

has 'combined with others, to subject

Coalesced.

us to a jurisdiction 'foreign to our constitu-

Extraneous.
Unrerogniied.

and

'

unacknowledged by our laws

giving his 'assent to their acts of pretended


'legislation

Sanction.

Government.
Stationing.
Soldiers.

no

For
'troops

'

quartering large bodies of armed


us

among

For

'protecting

them, by a mock-trial,

Shielding.

from 'punishment for any murders which


they should 'commit on the inhabitants of
115

Chastisement
Perpetrate

these 'states:

Communities

For

'cutting off

our trade with

all

parts of

InVr.li

the 'world

Globe.

For 'imposing
'consent
120

taxes on us, without our

Obtruding.
Assent.

For For
( 8.)

'depriving us, in

many

cases, of the

Bereaving.
of the vicinage.

benefits of trial

by 'jury:

'transporting us

beyond

seas, to

be

ying.
Feigned.
Repealing.

tried for 'pretended offences

For

'abolishing
in

the free system of

125

English laws
establishing

'neighboring

province,
A
despotic.

therein

an arbitrary governits
'

ment, and enlarging


render
it,

boundaries, so as to
fit

Limits.

at once,

an example and a

in-

Tool.
Bringing.
States.

strument for 'introducing the same absolute


130

rule into these 'colonies

military

power?

35.

For what did he combine with others?

36.

Name
sent.

all

the acts of pretended legislation to which he gave bifl 37. Illustrate the difference between imposing and obtw
tool,

in the 118th line.

ment and

in the 128th line.

(8.) 38. Illustrate the difference between MU ( 9.) 39. How did the king of Great


DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
For taking away our
'charters, abolishing
vilege.

99
Deeds of
pri-

our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally, the 'forms of our government:

Essentially.

Features.
Interrupting.

For 'suspending our own


135

legislatures,

and

declaring themselves invested with power to


legislate for us, in all

Clothed.
Contingencies.

eases whatsoever.

(9.)

He

has abdicated government here,


us 'out of his protection,
us.

Renounced.
Outlawed.
Carrying on.
Pillaged.

by declaring
ho

and

'waging war against

He

has plundered our seas, ravaged our

coasts, burnt our towns,


lives of

and 'destroyed the


large

Wasted.
Citizens.

our people.
at
this

He
145

is

time, 'transporting

Conveying.
Hirelings.

armies of foreign 'mercenaries, to complete

works of death, desolation, and 'tyranny, already begun with circumstances of 'cruelty and perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most
the

Despotism.
Rigor.

Equalled.

barbarous ages, and

'totally

unworthy the

Wholly.
Chief.

'head of a civilized nation.


150

He

has 'constrained our fellow-citizens,

Compelled.
Prisoners.
Inflictere

taken 'captive on the high seas, to bear arms


against their country, to
tioners of their friends
'fall
155

become
'

the 'executo

of death on.

and brethren, or

Brothers.
Die.

themselves by their hands.

(^ 10.)

He

has excited domestic insurrecus,

Sedition.

tions

amongst

and has endeavoured

to

labored.

40. In waging war Britain abdicate his government in this country? against the colonies, what did he do ? 41. What was the king of Great 42. Britain doing, at the time of the Declaration of Independence? What did he constrain the people of this country to do, when taken raptive on \)\o high -c-a- ? 43. Illustrate the difference between }>lun-

dered ar .d piUaged^ in the 140tfa line.


in the
j

A I. Between brethren and brothert, What did the king of Great Britain en153d lin 46. What did deavour to excite amongst the f his colonies?

100

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
'frontiers, the
Borders.
Barbarians.
loducriminate.

bring on the inhabitants of our


merciless Indian 'savages,

whose known

rule

of warfare
160

is

an 'undistinguished destruction

of

all

ages, 'sexes, and conditions.

In every
:

Kinds.
Step.

'stage of these oppressions,

we have petitioned
our

for 'redress, in the

most humble terms

Rebef.
Entreaties.

repeated 'petitions have been answered only

by 'repeated
165

racter

is

whose chathus 'marked by every act which


injury.

prince,

Reiterated.

Stamped.
Describe.

may

'define

a tyrant,

is

unfit to

be the ruler

of a free 'people.

( 11.)

Nor have we been


to time,

Race.
Deficient
Notified.

'wanting

in attentions to

our British brethren.

We

have 'warned them, from time

no of attempts, by their legislature, to 'extend

Exercise.

an 'unwarrantable jurisdiction over

us.

We
We
and

'lfiable.

have reminded them of the circumstances


of our emigration and settlement here.

Incidents.

Colonization.

have appealed
175

to their 'native

justice

Inborn.

'magnanimity, and

by the

ties

of our

we have common

conjured them,
kindred, to
'dis-

Menu]

[mum

Disclaim.

avow

these usurpations,

which

w ould
r

'inevi-

Unavoidably.
Friendship.
ntire.

tably interrupt our connexions and 'corre-

spondence.
180

They

too,

have been 'deaf

to

the voice of justice and of 'consanguinity.

Affinity.

We

must, therefore, 'acquiesce in the neces-

Accede

to.

he endeavour

to bring on the inhabitants of the frontiers? the system of savage warfare in violation of the laws of nations? 48. In every stage of their oppressions, what did habitants of the colonies do ? 49. were their repeated

47.

Was

civilized

the inhapetitions

How

answered?
in the
tish
to

50.

Great Britain? 162d line.


acquiesce?

the character of every act of the king of 51. Illustrate the difference between redress and relief,
( 11.) 52. To what were the main body of the Bri53. In what did the colonists find it necessary

What was

government deaf?

54. Illustrate the difference

between

in the 184th line.

( 12.) 55.

By

whom was

enemies and foes, the Declaration of Inde-

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
sity

101
Disjunction.

which denounces our separation, and

hold them, as

we

hold the

'rest

of mankind,

Remainder.
Foes.
Delegates.
American
fede-

'enemies in war, in peace friends.


ifli

( 12.)

We,

therefore, the 'representatives

of the United States of America, in Ge-

rated commonwealth*.

neral C0NGRE88 assembled, appealing

to the

Collected.

Supreme Judge of
190

the world, for the 'recti-

Uprightness.
Designs.

tude of our intentions, do, in the name, and

by the authority, of the good people of these


colonies, solemnly publish

Power.
Seriously.
Justice.

and declare, That


and of
'

these united colonies are,


to be.

'right

ought
;

Free and Independent States


from
all

and

Governments
Freed.

that they are 'absolved


195

allegiance
political

to the British

crown, and that

all

Throne.
Intercourse.
Entirely.

'connexion between them and the State of

Great Britain
'dissolved
;

is,

and ought

to be,

'totally

and

that, as

dent States, they have


* war,

Free and Indepenfull power to 'levy


'alliances,
to

Broken up.
Make.
Treaties.

conclude peace, contract

establish

'commerce, and

do

all

other acts

Trade.
Free.

and

things,

of right

which Independent States may And, for the support of this do.
on the promutually

Maintenance
Proclamation
God.

'declaration, with a firm reliance


205

tection of 'Divine Providence,

we

'pledge to each other, our lives, our fortunes,

Gage.
Inviolable.

and our 'sacred honor.


I

names of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, see the

Biographical table in the latter part of this volume.

pentlence

made

50.

To whom

did they appeal for the rectitude of

publi
_

to

whose name, and by whose authority was tpendence made? 08. What was solemnly ared ? 59. What rights were claimed for the United [n support of the declaration, what did the colonists 62. Upon 61. Upon whom did they rely? each other
57, In
7

to rely

102 ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.

LESSON XXII.
(1.)

A
'a

year 'before the declaration of


to

Preceding.

independence, Dr. Franklin had 'submitted

Laid before.

Congress

sketch of a confederation

between

An

outline.

the provinces, to continue until their 'recon-

Reunion.
Lasting.

5 ciliation with Great Britain, and to be


petual in failure of that 'event; but
that this plan
it
'

'per-

appears

Issue. Whitot d>Hbe


ratiiif

was never

discussed.

Pending

upon.

the declaration of independence, 'however,

Neverthelcas
Compile.

Congress took measures


10 tional plan of union;
'for,

to

form a constitu-

on the 12th of June,

Because.
Council of re-

1776, a 'committee of one

member from

each 'province was appointed, to prepare

riiintation.

and
15 of

'digest a

form of confederation, to be
colonies. ( 2.)

Arrange method

'entered into
this

by the

The report
Put away.
Investigation
Again taken op.

committee was laid aside on the 20th


its

of August, 177G, and

consideration not

'resumed

till

the 7th of April,

1777, after
to

which

the subject being [from time

time

Occasionally.

'debated, the articles of confederation were 20 'confirmed by Congress on the 15th of No-

Dfnpmd.
Ratified.

vember, 1777.

Congress also 'directed that

Ordered.
Offered.

the articles should be 'proposed to the several


state legislatures,

and

if

the 'articles

were

Propositions,

approved, they were requested to 'authorize

Empower.

25

their delegates

in

Congress

to

'

ratify the

Make

valid.

'same.
( 3.)
(
1.)

Articles.

The

'delegates of N. H., Mass. R.

I.,

Deputies.

1. Mention two phrases that convey the same meaning as and preceding, in the 1st line. 2. What is the difference between sketch and outline, in the 3d line? 3. Does compile, in the 9th line, always signify to form ? ( 2.) 4. What is the meaning of the expres-

before

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. 103


Conn., N.Y., Pa., Va., and S. (\, 'signed the
articles
Subscribed.

on the 9th of July, 1778. The


^lst,

'N. C.

North Carolina.

30 delegates 'signed them on the


k

and those

Ratified.

from Ga., on the 24th of the same month; those of N. J., on the J0th of November following: those of
ruary, and 5th of
'Del.,

Georgia,

New

Jersey.

on the 22d of Febbut 'Md. pos-

Delaware.

May, 1779:

Maryland
Opposite.

35

itively refused to ratify, until the 'conflicting

claims of the 'Union and of the separate


states to the 'crown-lands should be adjusted.

Confederacy.
Public domain.

This

difficulty

was

finally 'obviated,

by the

.Removed.
Relinquishing.

claiming states 'ceding the unsettled lands to

40 the United States,

for

the 'benefit of the


'insuper-

Advantage.
Insurmountable.

whole Union.

( 4.)

The former

able objection of

Maryland being 'removed,

Displaced.
Representatives.

her delegates signed the articles of confederation on the 1st of 'March, 1781; four

Third month.

45 years,

sevcji

months,

and twenty-one days


to the 'sove-

And 31 weeks
Independent.
Deliberate.
Assertion.
Approved and
confirmed.
Self-gOTcrning.

after they

had been submitted

reign states by Congress, with the 'solemn

averment that they ought


'adopted, as they

to

be immediately

seemed

essential to the

very

50 existence of the Americans as a

'free people,

and without them, they might be constrained


to bid

Not having.
Farewell.
At last.

'adieu to safety

and independence.

The

confederation being thus

pleted, the event

was

joyfully

comannounced to
'finally

Gladly.

sion "the same,' in the 2'ith

1'iin,

in

the 37th line,

and 26th lines? (3.) 5. Are crown-lands and synonymous? 6. What is the differ*
!

ence
is

benefit
o

not g(X"

in die 40th line (4 4.) 7. as a definition of adieu, in the 5 2d line, instead ve the actual meaning of adiiu. farewell and good(*j

and advantage

Why

bye, aii-l alto their

derivation.

9.

Arc revohUumarji and trann-

104 ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


55 'Congress; and, on the 2d of March, 1781,
that
The
national assembly.

body assembled under

the

new

'powers.*

Admjniitraiion.

( 5.)

The

'term of the continental Con-

Duration.
Strictly.

gress consists 'properly of


first,

two

periods.

The

extending from the

'first

meeting, on the
'ratifica-

Primary.

60 4th of September, 1774,


tion

until the

Confirmation

of

the

'confederation on the

1st

of

League.
Designated.
Transitional.
After.
Official

March, 1781, has been 'named the period of " the 'revolutionary national government ;" the second, 'from the 1st of March, 1781,
65
until

the

'organization of the

government

beginning.

under the Constitution, on the 4th of March,


1789, has been 'denominated the period of
" the confederation."
(6.)

National com*

P.CL

Entitled.
Jurisdiction.

The 'power of
It

Congress
70
4th, 1774,

was

'national,

from September
had
those

General.

and 'gradually progressive.

By degrees.
Means.

the

authority to concert

'measures

deemed

best to redress the 'grievances, and


liberties,
2

W rones.

preserve the 'rights and


'colonics.

of

all

the
Settlements.
'Possessed.
Faculties.

The Congress
it

of 1775 had more

75 ample powers, and


at

accordingly exercised
functions of
In

once some of the highest

sovereignty, as has been before shown.

Exhibited.

1776, the
erting

same body took

'bolder steps, ex-

More danng.
Vindicated.

powers not

to be justified or

accounted

80

for,

without 'supposing that a national union

Admitting.

03d line, synonymous? (6.) 10. Name a phrase conveying the same meaning as gradually and by degrees, in the 70th line. 11. Give a phrase signifying nearly the same as concert those ma in the 71st line. 12. In how many sentences can you use the word had, in the 74th line, so that it shall have a different meaning in every
tional, in the
* The articles of confederation, being null and void, are not Inserted here but as a matter of curiosity, and in order that the reader may compare them with the Constitution, they have been added to the Appendix. The names of the signers of the Confederation and also those of the Declaration of Rights will be found in the Biographical Table.
;

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. 305


for national purposes

already existed, and

Then.
clothed.
Kiul.

that Congress

waa

invested with supreme

power over
85
ties.

all

the colonies, for the

purpose
liber-

of preserving their

common

rights

and

Separate and
equal.

The

people never doubted or denied

Quvs-noued.
Proceedings.

the validity of these acts.


(7.)

The

united colonies

were a

nation,

Federate.

and had a general government, created and


acting by the general consent of the people,

Common.
Provincials.

90 from the time of the declaration of


but the
not, and, 'indeed,
Still, its

rights

Publication.

powers of that government was


could not be well defined.
'firmly established

Authority.
In fact.

supremacy was
cases,

Immovably.
Respects.
Public.

in

many

and

its

control over the states,

95

in most, if not all 'national

measures, univerarticles of con-

sally

admitted.

( 8.)

The

AcknowWlged.

federation not being ratified so as to 'include


all

Comprise.
Provinces.

the 'states, until

March

1st,

1781, in the

'interim,
ioo

Congress continued to exercise the

Mean

time.

authority of a 'general government,


acts

w hose
T

National
Obligatory.
OoTrrnment*.

were 'binding on all the states. By foreign powers, we were politically known
as the United States; 'and, in our national

Moreover.
Coalition.

'capacity as such,
105

we

sent

and received am-

bassadors, entered into treaties and alliances,

Formed.

and were admitted

into the general

commubel\\';:r-makers

nity of nations, exercising the right of


ligerents,

and claiming 'an equality of snver

parity.

and prerogatii
the union of the
I

PriYiU

instar

What cpmentcl
I

luring the

l.

When did When were

ime
the
arti<-

a natioua]
fttion r;ti-

By what

title

wa> our country

politically

known imong
i

admitted and

106 ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


no
( 9.)

The

continental Congress soon found


articles of

Ascertaiued.

that the

powers 'derived from the

Drawn.

confederation were 'inadequate

to the legiti-

Not equal.
Efficient.

mate objects of an 'effective national govern'Whenever it became necessary to ment.


ii5

As often
Trade.

as.

legislate

on 'commerce and taxes, defects


;

were

'

particularly evident

and

it

was

at

Especially.
IU vise.

length indispensable to
so as to give authority

amend
and

the articles,

'force to the na-

Strength.
Traffic.

tional will, in matters of 'trade


120

and revenue.
the

This was done from time United States.


26th of April,

to time, until

Kri-eatcdly.

adoption of the 'present Constitution of the Now existing

The 'movements of Congress

Motions.
oobom) nooth.

on the 3d of 'February,

1783 30th

1781 18th and of April, 1784

Fourth month.
Third month.

1^5

and the 3d of 'March, 20th of September, and 23d of October, 1780 would be inte-

resting to the student,

and show the 'progress


limits

Advancement.

of constitutional legislation; but the of this chapter afford no


130

Bounds-

them.

(10.) Peace

room to 'discuss came; the illustrious


and

Examine.

Renowned.
O on traliimo.
Official

'commander-in-chief of the revolutionary


armies surrendered his 'commission
the
;

warrant

armies were
T

'

disbanded, without pay.

Diamianed from
err ice.

135

Mutiny w as suppressed, after Congress, 'surrounded by armed men 'demanding justice, had appealed 'in vain to the sovereign state,
within the jurisdiction of which
it

Beset.

Requiring.
Ineffectually.

was

sit-

Territory.

received, in the

gress soon discover?

( 9.) 18. What did the continental con( 10.) 19. As the words commander-in-chief, in the 131st line, are defined in the margin by a single term, why are they not put in italics? 20. Give some other forms of expression,

106th line?

conveying the meaning of

in vain

and

ineffectually, in the

136th

line.

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. 107


ting, for protection.

The expenses

of the

Disbursements.

nation were reduced to the 'minimum of a


140

Lowest point
XcviTtheless
Diiembarrawd.

peace establishment;

cuid yet the country


it

was

not relieved, for

wanted, not a league

of thirteen 'different nations, with thirteen


distinct

Separate.

supreme governments, but a general


be 'revered
as a

Cnconnected
Reverenced.
Mother.
Based.
Self-reliance

government, that would


145

common

parent by

all

the sister states

government 'founded on the principles of the


declaration of 'independence
constituted

a government

by the people

in their inherent,

Composed.
Power.
League.
Ending.
Directly.

primitive 'capacity.
i5o

(^ ll.)

In the

Congress of the 'confedera-

tion,

during the closing years of the revo-

lutionary war, and those of peace 'immediately succeeding,

James Madison and Alexability.

Following.

ander Hamilton displayed their 'signal


155

Eminent.
Soon. Character.

John Jay was associated with them


sional

'shortly

after the peace, in the 'capacity of congres-

'secretary for foreign affairs.

The

Manager.
Humiliating.

mortifying experience of every day demonstrated to these

men

the 'incompetency of

Inadequacy.
Conducting.
Business.
Withdrawn from
pulilir attention

Mt the articles of confederation for 'managing


the affairs of the Union, at

home

or abroad.

Though
in

in

retirement,

justice

Washington brooded suffered by his companions

arms, the warriors of the revolution

Wrongs.
Soldiers.

the prostration of the public credit

and

faith

Depression.

of the nation, by the 'neglect to provide even

Omission.
Liquidation.

payment of the
( 11.) 21. miltOI

interest of the public

When

ac
ability'
( 12.)
22.

and Alexander HaWln-re was the

tlioir grf-at

Hea

108 ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


debt

and

the 'disappointed hopes of the


;

Defeated

friends of freedom
170

for, in

the

'address of
'states,
Commonweal tha
Exultation.
Strove.

April 18th, 1783, from Congress to the


it

was

said to be the " pride and


for

'

boast of

America, that the rights

which she con-

tended were the rights of


( 12.)
175

human nature"

Mankind.
An amendment.

The

first

idea of a revision of the

articles of confederation,

by an 'organization
and
their

Arrangement
Unlike.

of means 'differing from that of a compact

between the
Vernon,
iHo

state

legislatures

own

Assemblies,
inted.

delegates in Congress,
in

was

'started at

Mount
S.
;

March, 1785.

'convention of

M.t'lUR
.ratr

delegates from the state legislatures, 'inde-

from.

pendent of Congress, was the 'expedient which presented itself for effecting an augmentation
'regulating

Shift.

Enlargement
Acts.
Italia*

of the powers of Congress in commerce. This proposal was

and

MS 'made and adopted in the legislature of Virginia, in January, 1786,

l'.n.iirhril.

and

at

once

comAnna-

lm;artrd.

municated
( 13.)

to the

other state 'legislatures.


held at
in

The convention
September 178G,
delegates
central
'

polis, in
190

'pursuance of
attended

rmity
with.

this proposition,

from
M..MU.

only

five

of the
their

states,

who, on

comparing
the 'glaring

restricted

powers with

Limited.

defects

of

the confederation,

NotorioM.
V

merely reported a recommendation for an195

cmul.

other convention of 'delegates from


states,

all

the

Deputies.

with enlarged powers, to 'meet at


( 14.)

Assemble.
Fifth mouth.

Philadelphia, in 'May, 1787.

The

of a revision of the articles of confederation originated ? ( 13.) 23. What is the difference between glaring and 7iotorious, in the 193d line?

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. 109


Constitution of the United States

was framed

Palladium.

by
200

this

convention;

the

'authority of the

Powers.
Individuals.

'members of which was derived from the


state legislatures,

and not

'directly

from the

Immediately.
Transition.

people.

During the

'revolution, the

power

of the

people had never been called into

Populace.
Displaced.

action* far their rule


.wo

had been 'supplanted by


But, in

state sovereignty;

and a 'confederacy had

Federation.

been substituted for a government.

Put in the
place
of.

forming the Constitution, the delegates soon


perceived that the 'necessary powers were
h
210

Compiling:.

Requisite.

as

no 'combination of state govern-

Association.

ments

could

bestow

and

that,

'

leaving
'au-

Abandoning

power
of the

for right,

and the irresponsible

Sway.
Axioms.
Proclamation

thority of state rule for the 'self-evident trvtlis

Declaration of Independence, they


their steps,

must retrace
2i5

and

fall

back from

Return upon.
Amity.
Original.

a league of
states,

friendship

between independent
constituent sove'for

to

the

'primitive

jnty of the people,

from them only

Because.
Proceed.

could supreme authority 'emanate.

(14.) 24. Are people and populace, in the 203d line, synonymous ? 25. Are the words self-evident truths, in the 212th line, perfectly defined by the term axioms?

LESSON
{\ 1.)

XXIII.
BeafM.
Radical.
Principal.

It

appears that the violation of the


of rational
liberty

ntial

principles

and

the common law of England was

the

immewai
'<

What 'J. fir-t. ( 1.) 1. Give a synopsis of taction diate cause of the Declaration of Independence
I

the

imme-

In

bow many

"TTT~

110 ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


diate 'cause of the Declaration of IndepenOccasion.

5 dence

'and that the Declaration of Rights,

Moreover.
Recapitulation.

Oct. 14, 1774,

was

but a 'reiteration of those


to the

fundamental principles 'conceded


lish

Engbe-

Granted.

people in the 'glorious revolution of 1688,


'time the British

Renowned.
Period.

at

which

constitution

10

came

'fixed

and determined.

After making

Established.

the Declaration of Independence, 'congress

The eovernniriit.

ordered

it

to

be 'engrossed and signed by

its

Copied.

members.

They

'also resolved, that copies

Furthermore
Different.

of the Declaration be sent to the 'several

15 assemblies, 'conventions, and committees, or


councils of 'safety, and to the several

Associations.

com-

Protection.

manding
that
it

officers of the 'continental troops;


in

t'nited.

be 'proclaimed

each of the United


army.
( 2.)

Declared.
Prominent pan

States,

and

at the 'head of the

20

It

may

be useful to show more definitely the


of the
continental

Exactly.

'proceedings

congress

Transactions

pending the Declaration of Independence.

Depending.

June 25

8th, 1776, congress

resolved

itself into

Formed.
Entire.

a committee of the whole house.


is

Here
is

it

'proper to explain that a committee

one
ChetMl
Body
politic.

more persons 'elected or appointed by any society, 'corporation, court, legislature, or any number of individuals 'acting together. Committees may be appointed to examine 30 or manage any 'matter or business. When any subject of 'importance is brought before
or

Moving.
Investigate.

Affair.

sentences can you write the word engrossed so that in each it shall convey a different meaning ? 4. Why do you suppose congress ordered copies of the Declaration to be sent to the several assemblies. &c, instead of printing circulars and sending them? (2.) 5. Give a synopsis of section second. 6. What is the expression " head of the

army" called?

7.

How many

kinds

of corporations

are

there?

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. Ill


legislative

bodies, they usually resolve them-

Vssemblies.

committee of the whole house, and 'debate and amend the subject till they
selves into a
;

CoUtie.
Discuss.

it

into a

shape that meets the approba-

Form.
More than
half.

tion of a majority,

which being reported and


is

confirmed by the house,


lect
(

referred to a se-

Sanctioned.

number of their body. 3.) The 'form for any body

Committee.

to
is

go

into

W;.y.

40 a committee of the 'whole house


the house or meeting
into a

for the

Total.

speaker, on motion, to put the question that

<"li

airman.

now do

'resolve itself
to 'consider

Form.
Discuss.

committee of the whole,


business

the

proposed

which
some one

should

be

Subject.
Clearly.

15 distinctly specified.

If

determined in the
as prolo-

atlirmative, he appoints

Speaker.
Quits.

cutor, he

leaves his seat, and takes a place


as

the

any other 'member, and the person appointed chairman does not take the
aker's chair, but
sits

same

Delegate.

Moderator.
Presiding officer's.

at the table of the

'secretary.

committee of the whole cannot


if

Clerk.

adjourn as other 'committees may, but


their business is 'unfinished, they rise
'question.
( 4.)

Councils.

on a
is

Xot

finished,

The house

or meeting

ubject.

-umed, and the chairman of the committee


of the whole reports that they have accordinn to 'order
ration,

Recommenced.

Announces.

had the business under consideto

Command.
AdrancemenL
Close.

and made 'progress therein; but not


finish
sit
it,

having time

have directed him

60

to ask leave to

again.

The

question

is

Once more.

(3.) 8.

G
I

sense
lino
!
'

is

whole

W
-'

lental

O
(!) 11arc tome of

whole 1
n for the
I

What

112 ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


then put, on their having
'

leave,

and on the

Permission.

time the house will again 'resolve itself into

Form.
Council of re
ference.

a 'committee.
'elicits

committee of the whole

in the fullest

manner

the opinions of

65

all

the

members of

'an assembly.

The mem-

meeting.
<>fpar-

bers are not restricted to 'parliamentary form,

uauu-nt.

but each one speaks upon the subject in a


familiar
( 5.)

Matter.
Desires.

way, as often as he

'chooses.

The

following
the
'

is,

in substance, 'ex-

Taken.
Records.

70 tracted from

June 8th, 1776.

"After

journals

of

Congress
session
'chair,

being in

Meeting.
Sprkrr' rL

some

time, the president

resumed the

and the 'chairman of the committee of the whole, Benjamin Harrison, of 'Va., reported
75 that the 'committee had taken into consideration the 'matter to

Foreman.
Virginia.
I'nder.

them
sit

referred, but not hav-

BUM
Conclusion.

ing

come
to

to

any

'resolution thereon, directed

him
1

'move

to

again

on

the

10th.'

PrepoM.
Determined.
or
(bit

'Resolved, that this Congress will, on the


'inst.,

80 10th

at ten o'clock, resolve itself into

month.

a committee of the whole, to 'take into their


further consideration the 'resolutions referred
to them.'
to order,
( 6.)
Subjects.

June 10th, 1776. Agreeably


itself into

According.

Congress 'resolved

a com-

Went.
Additional.

85 mittee of the whole, to take into their 'further


consideration the
ferred
;
'

resolutions

to

them

re-

Matters.

and

after

some time

'spent thereon,

Bestowed.
Took
;i:ain.

the President 'resumed the chair, and Mr.

Harrison 'reported that the committee have 90 had under consideration the 'matters referred

Announced.
Business.

the advantages of a committee of the whole? ( 5.) 13. Give a synopsis of section five. ( 6-) 14. is ?natters used in the 90th line,

Why

instead of resolutions, in the S6th line?

15.

Why

is

it

necessary

to

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. 113


to

them, and have

come

to

'resolution
to report."
Requested.

thereon,

which they directed him


right ought to be, free

" Resolved that these United Colonies arc,

IVtrrnuned
hy vote.

and

oi

and indepenall

Should.

95 dent states: that they are absolved from


allegiance to the British
all

the

crown: and that political 'connection between them and State of Great Britain is, and ought to
dissolved."

Obligations.

Relation.

Kingdom.
Dissevered.
Officially de-

be. totally
100

( ?.)

June 11th, 1776. " 'Resolved, that

termined.
Special.

the select

committee

for preparing the

De-

claration of Independence 'consist of five.

Be composed
Elected.

The committee were

'chosen

as

follows:

B QJamin Franklin of Pa., John

Adams

of

Pennsylvania
Massachusetts.

Mass.. Thomas Jefferson of Va., Roger Sherman of Conn., Robert R. Livingston of X. Y. The momentous question propounded June 10th, 1770, was held under consideration
till

Connecticut.

Proposed.
Deliberated.

July 2d, 177G,


:

when

the resolution

At which time.

i"

passed the house

and on the 4th of July, 1776,

Wn

arprored by Coi.g,c>.

was, as before stated, 'passed the entire meltable Declaration,

Allotted.

as the

which is as 'imperishable history of 'our country, and under the

Eadiaiug.

lance of Providence, has developed the


us most perfect 'Constitution that

Pirertion.
3ytcm
of polity.

and

ill

ever formed.

( 8.)

human wisdom The members of

Ability.

imittee, tn the place of considering the


jht.

Instead.

in

mea

16. Illustrate tlie various the 94th line? N line, in different sentences. ( 7.) committee f>>r drafting
I

raal to
i

p; oinl

-<iect

committee of the
the
l
'

v.
f
(

17th line, in-

stead of pasttfl

lO

""

114 ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


'one first

named

as chairman, and instead

Person.

of electing a 'chairman themselves, followed,


120
it

Foreman.
Wise.
Engrnged.

is

supposed, the 'sage advice of Frankto

lin,
'ez

and each member 'agreed


document according
it

draw up
feelings
that the

to

his

own

An

inatruxneDt.

and 'sentiments; and


draft
125

was agreed

Views.

most 'congenial

to

the views of a

mathat
first.

with.

jority should be adopted.


their 'final meeting,
it

'When they had

At the time.
Last.
Draft.

was determined

Jefferson's 'production should be read


It

so 'fully

met the views of the other mem'several


It

Entirely.

bers of the committee and of 'Congress, that


130

The Representative.

after receiving

minor

alterations,

it

Many.
Approved.
'

was

'adopted.

would be highly
each

interesting

to read the 'productions of

of the other
it

'<>;it\s.

members of
135

the committee; but

is

'supWriters.

posed that their

authors, considering their

own

plans of no 'importance, destroyed them.

Value.

(0.)

The Declaration of Independence


It

exhibits the true causes

Revolution.

will

and 'nature of the be 'seen by reference to


it

Principle.

Ot .serve I.

that 'document, that

only renounced the


;

Instrument.
I'es;>tism

ho 'tyranny of the British king

that the forms

of religious 'worship, political and legislative


'proceedings, schools and seminaries, and the

Adoration.
Business.

English language, 'remained unaltered


their essential features.

in all

Continued.
Important.
Crowning
atona-

ns stitution, the 'keystone of the arch of


in the 118th line?
21. Illustrate

The American ConAmein sentences

some of

the various

meanings of instrument, in the 122d line. 22. Why is not the Senate added to the Representatives, in defining Congress, in the 129th line? 23. Why would not adapted answer in the place of adopted, in the 131st line? ( 9.) 24. Give a synopsis of section nine. 25. What is
J

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. 115


rican liberty
'reared

the

noblest

monument ever

Memento.
Erected.
Good
qualities.

by mortal hands, bears a strong ivsemblanee to, and embodies all the 'excel( 10.)

lencies of, the 'English Constitution.


150

British.

The English has the same important checks and balances, under 'a different name, to cut ire power, that the American has.

Regulators.

Another.
Rulers.

Many Englishmen
stitution
155

have

'said

that our

Conit

Averred.
Transcribed.

was
'

'copied from theirs; but

is

hoped that our 'youthful readers have, by


this time,

Young.
Acquired the halm.

learned to reason and reflect for

themselves, and will be 'able to


just
line

draw

the

Competent.
Separation.
Assertions.

of 'demarcation.

Furthermore,

they can reply to such absurd 'expressions,


160

without being 'offended with their foreign


brethren, that,
if

Angry.
Fact.

such be the

'case,

" the

copy"

far 'surpasses the original.

Exceeds.
Forefathers.
Vindicating.
Accomplished.

(11.)

The
oft'

fact

is,

that our 'ancestors, in

throwing
than

the British yoke,

and 'asserting
no more
:

cessfully their independence, 'did

many

nations 'before them had done

Previously.
People of Rome.

the Greeks, the

Romans,
in

the Hollanders, the

Swiss, and recently the French, have been

Lately.
Asserting.
Entirely.

eminently

successful

'vindicating
in

their

no liberties, but 'signally failed

transmitting

the blessing

of liberty to their 'posterity.

Descendants.
Superior.

Hence

the pre-eminent merit of our ancesin

tors consists
the difference ( V

their

having 'constructed a

Made.

.;

between monument and memento, in the 146th line? d after English, in the 150th line? mran, in the 152d line? 27. Illustrate the meaning
in the
]'. r

of offended and angry,


ally
:

>th
I

line!
I

38.

What

prepositions usurethren need in "ship of state,"

and angry
1

the 161st line

(n)

30.

What

it thi

116 ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.


'compass from the wrecks of republics, and
175
Guiding needle.

of the excellencies of every

'nation,

that

Country.
Direct.

would successfully 'steer the ship of state in safety between the 'Charybdis of anarchy and the 'Scylla of despotism and that, as 'countless centuries pass away, if we of the
;

Wlurlpools.

Rocks.

Innumerable
Age.

180

present 'generation act well our part, will


l

prove to the despots of the world that the


Constitution
is

Demonstrate
Combustible.
Incombustible.

not composed of 'inflammable


asbestos.
( 12.)

wood, but of 'imperishable

We
185

should not, however, 'forget that the deitself,

Be unmindful.

claration was, in

'vast,

a solemn unsigners,

Momentous.
Subscribers.

dertaking;

that

most of the

had

they consulted their


their

own

'ease

and

quiet,

Comfort.
Profits.

own pecuniary gain, or


countrymen
;

the

emoluments

of office, would have


190

bowed, as many of
throne of the

imbed.

their

did, to the

Power.
liable

king

that, to

one at

least of that 'immortal

'band of patriots, a direct oiler of ten thou-

Company.
Situation.

sand dollars,

in addition

to the best

'office
2

under the 'government, was made by


195
1

an

Crown.
Secret

emissary of the Crown; and that, had they A

been unsuccessful, they would have been class-

Failed.

ed
in

among the

vilest

of England's rebels; that,


'hei-

Basest.

common

with those guilty of the most

Wicked.

nous crimes, they would have 'expiated their


2oo

Atoned

for.

temerity on the 'scaffold;


perty would have
children
left

( 13.) their

pro-

Gallows.
Forfntrd to thr -niment of Kujland.

been 'confiscated, their


their

mm

in

'penury, and

names

Poverty.

called? 31. What is meant by "the Charybdis of anarchy,'' and the 32. What is the meaning of asbestos, in the "Scylla of despotism"? 183d line? ( 12) 3.1. What ia the expression "throne of the king," 34. To what does (hey refer, in the 195th line? called? ( 13.) 35.

ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION. 117

*)o

Wottld have been a


'inscribed only

by-word and a 'reproach


those of felons of the

Disgrace.

among

Written.

darkest dye on the criminal calendar of Eng4


land.

They sought

not so

much
the

the praise of

Cototed.
Minds.

men, as the approbation ^(


sciences.

their

own

con-

They sought

path of duty,

Track.

irrespective of their
-210

own

ease, or of impend'solicitous to

Without regard to.


Anxious.
Actions.

ing dangers.

They were more

perform honorable deeds, than they were


'obtain
'merit.
( 14.)
215

to

from

men an honorable name, without

Receive.

Goodness.

As the tyranny of the king of 'Great


the chief cause of the 'misery
let

England.
"Wretchednew.

Britain

was
the

and the bloodshed of the revolution,

us

Slaughter.
Pipe.

smoke
lish

calumet of peace with our Eng-

brethren.
the

We
our

should be mindful that

Recollect.

in

days of the revolution there were


'tories in

Times.
Supporters of
tyranny.
Cruel.

many

some of the most 'barbarous deeds of the war were performed by Americans against their
country
;

own

that

Executed.
Fellow-citizeni.

own countrymen; and


-225

that, in the British

Parliament, were delivered some of the most

Pronounced.
Orations.

powerful
lips, in

speeches ever uttered by

human
While names

favor of

American

liberty.

Support.
K.o.nls.

the archives of our country herald the

of our ancestors,

may

our

lives

exhibit their

Show.
Excel lenrc.

wisdom, and our breasts glow with emulous


What
expris

the most heinous crime

known

to

English law?
37.

3G.

Are
is

all

that rebel

government

guilty of treason?

What

the

may
39.

How

called, in the 201th line ? ( 11.) 38. What the expression, " calumet of peace," in the 217 th line, be railed? enemiei oi friendi ? should we tree,! the
|
i

\ ame some of the La 41. Name some of t

elladed

lo

in

tin-

B21st line.
to.

be* in the British Parliament, alluded

118
230 'zeal

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


in

their virtues,

and our own actions

Enthusiasm.
Truth.
Declarations.

speak loudest their praise, and the sincerity


of our 'professions.
42.

How can we best show our gratitude an analysis of Lesson XXIII.*

to

our ancestors?

43.

Give

LESSON XXIV.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AM ERICA. t


We
the 'People of the United
States,
in
Inhabitants.

order to form a more perfect Union,


tablish Justice,
lity,

es-

Confirm.
certain

insure domestic Tranquil- Make


the

provide

for

'common

defence,
se-

Public.

promote the general


'

Welfare, and

Prosperity.

cure the Blessings of Liberty

to ourselves

Advantages.

and our
this

'Posterity,

do ordain and establish

Desce ndants.

'Constitution for the United States

Form
vrrniueut.

of 'America.

The

v-

Continent.
I.

'ARTICLE
10
Sec.
1.

ClrniM.

All

legislative

Powers 'herein

In this.

'granted shall be vested in a Congress of the

Conceded.

United States, which

shall 'consist of a Se-

nate and 'House of Representatives.


1. Repeat the preamble of the Constitution. 2. Repfirst of Article I. 3. Repeat section third of Article I. 4. What is the difference between establish and confirm, in the 2d line? 5. Between
i

welfare
*

and

prosperity, in the 5th

line?

6.

Chosen and

elected, in

the

Intended for advanced pupil*.

copy of the Constitution, as well as the Article* of the Confederation, it believed to he an exact ropy in letter, and punctuition. For the former, the Author ia indebted to C< ion-! Hi< key's work on the C >nstitudon for (he published by Olajoier, Mis>rs and Smith both of which works purport to have been accurately original, in the Deportment of Stale at Washington and which, therefore, may be n lied on, even to punctuation. In accordance with (he custom of the day, it will be perceived that moat of (he nouns are written is capitals, and that the puMfaariOaV ns well as the orthography, in some instances, varies fr >m th- common usage of the present day. Lessons 24, '2j '2d 27. SB.The >m.ill fknre 1, before the first letter of some word in ea<-h line, has beea added for conven enee. and docs not ap|ar in the original copy of the Constitution. Several words have N-en a 'an changed to italics, to waist in the use of the margiual exercise*. No words in the original copy, either of the Constitution or it*
text,
;

+ This

lntter, to the Federalist,

compared with (he

AmeudmeuU,

appear in

italica.
.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


'Sec.
2.

119

15 shall be composed of
'second
States,

The House of Representatives Members chosen every Year by the People of the several
in

Pait
Consist.

Other.
Voters.

and the Electors

each State

shall

have the 'Qualifications requisite

tor Electors

eg*] power.

of the most numerous 'Branch of the State


*J0

Division.

Legislature.

Assembly.

No
five

Person

shall be a 'Representative
to

who

Delegate.

shall not

have attained

the

Age

of twenty-

Arrived

at.
f

Years, and been seven Years a 'Citizen


Slates,

POHMM
Hcttivu
chise.

<

O.t

fran-

of the 'United

and

who

shall

not,

Union.
Selected.

25 when
in

'elected,

be an Inhabitant of that State

which he

shall be 'chosen.

Elected.
Toxr* asaeuwd
on real ealai*.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be

apportioned

among

the several States

which

Distributed.

may
30 ing
be

be included within this Union, accord-

Contained.
Relative.

to their 'respective

'determined
of free

Numbers, which shall by adding to the whole


Persons, 'including
those

Ascertained.

Number
bound
35
'excluding
all

Comprising.
Labor.
Ejecting.

to 'Service for a

Term

of Years, and

Indians not taxed, three-fifths of


rsons.

other

I',

The

actual Enumeration

Real.

shall
first

be

made

'within three

Years

after the

Dunn?.
Asscmbbng.
Following.

Meeting of the Congress

of the United

ites,

and within every 'subsequent Term


direct

of ten Years, in such 'Manner as they shall

40 by

Law

The Number of Representa-

I'n scribe.

tives shall

not 'exceed one for every thirty


but each State shall have at Least
tive;

Surpass.

Th<

Wand,
-

Be allowed
T.ll.

one
26th lino
J

and

'until

such enutnerain

Apportioned *nd dutrihnt*u\


I

the 28th Linel

S.

Actum!
I

and

real, in

the 36th line

"'

'""

B3d

line

10.

120

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

tion shall be 'made, the State of

New HampMasfive,

Finished-

45

shire shall be entitled to chuse three,

Have a claim
8 Agents.
RepreKcnUtire

sachusetts 'eight,

Rhode
'one,

Island and Provi-

dence Plantations

Connecticut

New York
vania

'six,

New

Jersey four, Pennsyl-

6 Delegates. 8 Deputies.
5 Factor*.
Also.

'eight,

50 Virginia

ten,

Delaware one, Maryland six, North Carolina 'five, South CaGeorgia


three.

rolina five, 'and

When

vacancies 'happen in the

Repre-

Occur.
Commonwealth

sentation from

any

'State,
'issue

the

Executive

Authority thereof shall

Writs of Elec-

Send

out.

55 tion

to

'fill

such Vacancies.
of Representatives shall chuse

Supply.
Elect.

The House
their 'Speaker

and other

Officers,

and

shall

Chairman.
Only.

have the
Sec.
3.
'

'sole

Power

of

Impeachment

The Senate

of the United States

Upper House
Formed.
Assembly.
Every.
Voice.

60

shall

be

composed of two Senators from


and 'each Senator
shall

each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof,


for six
'

Years

have

one Vote.
'Immediately after they shall be assembled

Directly.

65

in

consequence of the

first

'Election, they

Public choice
Exactly.

shall

be divided as 'equally as

may

be into

three 'Classes.

The

Seats of the Senators

Ranks.

of the

first

Class shall be 'vacated at the Ex-

Made

void.

piration of the second 'Year, of the second

Twelvemonth.

70 Class

at the 'Expiration of the fourth

Year,

End.
Order.

and of the

third Class at the Expiration of

the sixth Year, so that one-third

'may be

Can.
Selected.

'chosen every second Year; and


cies

if

Vacan-

happen by 'Resignation, or otherwise,


the difference

Formal withdrawmeut.

What

is

between

class

and

order, in the 71st line?

11.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


75 during the 'Recess of the Legislature of any
State, the

21

Suspenoon
of business.

Executive thereof

may make
fill

tem-

Transient.

porary Appointments
of the Legislature,

until the

next Meeting

Convening.

which

shall then

such

Those.
IVhViencies.

'Vacancies.

80

No
not

Person

shall

be a 'Senator

who

shall

Member

of the Senate.

have attained to the

Age of thirty Years,


Voter.

and been nine Years a Citizen of the United


States,

and who

shall not,

when

'elected, be

Chosen.

Om

Inhabitant of that State for which he

A rcMdentElected.
Officer

85

shall

be chosen.
Vice President of the United States

The
shall

npxt in rank In-low the

PraMi

nt-

be President of the Senate, but shall


'divided.
'Offi-

Chief Officer.
Separated.
Sen-ants.

have no Vote, unless they be equally

The Senate
90
cers,

shall

chuse their other

and also a President pro tempore,

in

For the time be in?.

the 'Absence of the

Vice President, or when

Non-attendance.

he shall exercise the Office of President of


the United States.

Perform.
Union.

The Senate
95 try
all

shall

have the

'sole

Power

to

Exclusive.

Impeachments.

When

'sitting for

Holding a

hmSoo.
Intention.

that Purpose, they shall be

on Oath or

Affir-

mation.
is

'When

the President of the United

At the time.

tried, the

Chief Justice shall


shall

'pre-

Superintend
temporarily.
Individual.

side:
ioo

And no

Person

be convicted

without the
the

Concurrence of two thirds of


Attending.

Members present
t

in

Cases of Impeachment

shall

Seiiti

:.

DOf
:

further than to

removal from
c\\-

Disf'larrn.i nt.

Disqualification to hold and

,.ity.

the

P'tli

Bud lmo

122
105

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


'Profit
Emolument.

joy any Office of honour, Trust or

under the United States


Indictment,

but the Party 'con-

Found guilty.
NotwithaUndioc

victed shall 'nevertheless be liable and subject to


'

Trial,

Judgment and

Arraignment
ChMliarment.

'Punishment, according to
no
Sec. 4.

Law.

of holding Elections for 'Senators


presentatives, shall

The Times, Places and 'Manner and Rebe 'prescribed in each


but the

Mode.
Delegates.
Directed.

State by the Legislature 'thereof;

Of

it.

Congress
us
'alter

may

at

any time by

Law

'make or
to

Konn.
h.-m-e.

such

Regulations, except

as

the

'places of chusing Senators.

Localities.

The Congress
in

shall

assemble at

least

once
be

Meet.
ring.

every Year, and such 'Meeting


first

shall
'

on the
120

Monday

in

December,

unless
DH

they shall by
Sec. 5.

Law

'appoint a different Day.


shall be the

).

Each House

Judge of

F.iaminfr.

the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of


its

own Members, and

'a

Majority of each
to

The

greatest

ini.ii!>er.

shall constitute a
125

'Quorum

do Business;

but a smaller

day

to day,

Number may 'adjourn from and may be 'authorized to comin

IBM
Warranted
by
rig
I

it.

pel the

Attendance of 'absent Members,

Non-altcndiDf.

such 'Manner, and under such Penalties as

each House
130

may 'provide. Each House may determine


Proceedings, punish
its

Prescribe.

the Rules of
for 'dis-

Fix.

its

Members

Unruly.

orderly 'Behaviour, and, with the "Concur-

Conduct.
2 Consent.

rence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House
14. Behavior
sent, in

shall

keep a 'Journal of
132d line?
15.

its

Diary.

and

conduct, in the

the 132d line?

16. Place

and

spot, in

the

Concurrence and con145th line? 17.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


135

123

'Proceedings, and from time to time publish


the same, excepting such
their

Transactions
Portions.

Parts as

may

in

'Judgment require Secrecy; and the

Opinion.
Individuals.

Yeas and Nays o( the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire
ho of one
fifth

Satyed ofdeSet down in writing.

of those Present, be entered on

the Journal.

Record.

Neither House, during the


Congress,
shall,

'Session

of
Suspend business.

without the 'Consent of the

other, adjourn fpr


145

more than
'sitting.

three days, nor

to

any other 'Place than


shall

that in

which

the

Spot.

two Houses
Sec.
6.

be

Assembled.

The Senators and

Representatives
for their Ser-

Members of
Congress.

shall receive a

Compensation

vices, to be ascertained
i5o

by Law, and

'paid

Disbursed from.

out

of the "Treasury of the United States.


shall
in
all

Public fund.
The levying war against
United
of
the State*,

They

Cases, except 'Treason,


privi-

Felony and Breach of the Peace, be

or giving aid or comfort to their

enemies.

leged from Arrest during their 'Attendance


at the Session of their 'respective Houses,
155

Presence.
Particular.

and

in

going
for

to

same; and
either

and 'returning from the any 'Speech or Debate in


shall not

Coming back.

Harangue.
Called to account.
Situation.

House, they

be 'questioned

in

any other Place.


Senator or Representative
160

shall, 'dur-

Pending.

ing the

Time
to

for

which he was
civil

'elected,

be
Port.
Government.

a]. pointed

any

'Office

under the

Ithority of the United States,

have

been

created,

or

the

which shall 'Emoluments

Profits.

whereof
brtari

shall

have been encreased during


[Ilaftrate

Aucmpnted.

Ohnxy and
line.
!

r..

the difference beis

(hbme.

.What

the HilTWence

124
165

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


;

such time
of either
'Office.

and no Person holding any 'Office

Charge.
By authority
of.

'under the United States, shall be a

Member

House during

his 'Continuance in

Continuation

Employment

between office and charge, in the 165th line? 21. What is the ence between continuance and continuation, in the 167th line?

differ-

LESSON XXV.
Sec.
7.

All Bills for raising 'Revenue shall

Mnaej

for paiMc eiprMra, tijr

inrmn* of laic*,

originate in the

House of Representatives
propose or concur with

eioMt,

diaate.

toms, Jutiaa,

but the 'Senate

may

Upper house
of Congress.
Alteration*.

'Amendments as on other Bills. 5 Every Bill which shall have passed the House of 'Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented
to the 'President of the

Form

of

law

aol enacted.

Deputies.
Offered.

United States
but
if

If

he
Subscribe his

approve he
10 return
in
it,

shall 'sign his

it,

not he shall

name
M-ns.

to.

with
it

Objections to that
'originated,

House
shall

Adverse remHail origin.


Insert.

which

shall

have

who

'enter the Objections at large


nal,

on

their JourIf after

and proceed

to 'reconsider

it.

Reriew.

such

'Reconsideration

two

thirds
Bill,

of that
it

15 'House shall agree to pass the

shall

Body.

be

'sent,

together

w ith
T

the Objections, to the


it

Transmitted.
Also.

other House, by which

shall

likewise be

reconsidered, and

if

'approved by two thirds

Sustained as rxht.

of that House,

it

shall

become a Law.

But

The

Bill.

20
1.

in all

such Cases the 'Votes of both Houses

Suffrages.

difference
is

Repeat section seven section eight, Article I. 2. Illustrate the between likewise and also, in the 17th line? 3. What the meaning of re before consider, in the 13th line? 4. What

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


shall be 'determined

125

by yeas and Nays, and


voting for

Decided.
Kxprvswing their ) ufrreiue for,
oi rejection of.

the

Names

of the Persons

and
Bill

against the Bill shall be entered on the 'Journal of each

Diary.
Particularly.

House

respectively.

If

any

35

shall not

be 'returned by the President within


after
it

Sent back.
Sabbaths.
Bill.

ten

Days (Sundays excepted)


in
'

shall

have been presented


be a law,
it,

to him, the

'Same

shall

like

Manner
by

as

if

he had signed

Equal.
Close of Session.

unless the Congress


its

their

'Adjournment
it

30 prevent
not be a

Return, in which 'Case

shall

Contingency.
Statute.

Law.
'Resolution, or Vote to

Every Order,
the

Concurrence of the

which 'Senate and House of


shall

Formal determination.
Upper and lower houe of Congrea.

Representatives

may

be 'necessary (except

Requisite. Sent.

35 on a question of Adjournment)

be

'pre-

sented to the 'President of the United States;

Executive.

and before the

Same

shall 'take Effect, shall

Have.
Sanctioned.

be approved by him, or being disapproved

by him,

shall

be 'repassed by two thirds of

Re-enacted.
Delegates.
Restrictions.

40 the Senate and House of 'Representatives,


according to the Rules and 'Limitations prescribed in the Case of a
.

Bill.

In the event.

8.

The Congress
to 'pay the

shall

have 'Power

Legal authority.

To

'lay

and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts


Debts and provide
general 'Welall

Impose.
Discharge.
Prosperity.

45 and Excises,
for the

common Defence and


the United States
;

fare

<>f

but

'Duties,

Customs.

is

in the 29th line? 5. Illustrate 6. What is the meaning of dis before word*. .line? 7. What peculiarity has it? B. Illustrate its meaning with othei words. 9 What is the meaning of pro before

the

meaning of ad before journ,


6

45tfa

line'

HOW many

WOItll have two prefixes in With oth<T words. 12.


.;

11-

126

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


and
2

'Imposts

Excises

shall

be

uniform

Contribution*.

throughout the United States

3 Inland

dm ion.

50

To 'borrow Money on
'United States

the credit of the

Obtain.

Government.

To regulate Commerce with tions, and among the 'several


with the Indian 'Tribes;

foreign
States,

Naand

Trade.
Different.

Races.

55

To

establish an uniform

Rule

'of

Natural-

For inn>tln| ilim* with thr

ization,

and uniform

Laws

on the subject of
the 'Value therefix

TilejMOf ntiTc cilixen.

'Bankruptcies throughout the United States.

Insolvencies.

To
of,
'

coin

Money, regulate

Worth.
Stamped money.

and of foreign 'Coin, and

the Standard

60 of Weights and Mcasi/rcs; To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting

Quantities.
Porcine.

the

Securities and 'current Coin

Taper.
'Circulating.

of the United States;

65

To establish Post Offices and To promote the progress of


useful Arts,
to

post

Roads

Mail-routes,

Science and

by securing

for 'limited

Times

Restricted.
Sole.

Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right


Writings and Discoveries;
inferior
to

to their respective

Inventions.
-

To To
nies

constitute 'Tribunals
;

the

of jus-

tier.

70' supreme Court

Hid, est

define and punish 'Piracies

and Felo-

Robberies.

committed on the high Seas, and Of-

Crimes.
International

fences against the

Law

of Nations

Law.
Proclaim.

War, grant Letters of Marque 75 and Reprisal, and make Rules 'concerning Captures on Land and 'Water;
declare
Repeat section
14.
is

To

Pertain
Sea.

eight.

13.

What usually precedes a


reprisal
16.
?

declaration of

war

What are

letters of

marque and

15. In
is

how many words


between meaning

pro a prefix, in section eight?

What
?

the difference

insurrections and rebellions, in the S4th line

17. Illustrate their

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

127

To

raise

and support Armies, but no Ap-

Maintain.

Money to that Use shall be for a Ionizer Term than two Years; SO To provide and maintain a Navy To make Rules for the Government and
propriation of
:

For that purpose.

Time.
FurniNh.

kws.
Troops.
Enrolled
jnrai
citi-

Regulation of the land and naval

Forces;

To

provide for calling forth the 'Militia to

execute the

Laws

of the Union, suppress Jn-

Rebellions.

B5 surreetions and repel 'Invasions;

Attacks.

To

provide for 'organizing, arming, and

Patting in order.
Drilling.

disciplining, the Militia,

and

for

governing
in

such Part of them as

may

be employed

Engaged.
Retaining.
Severally.

the Service of the United States, 'reserving


!>0 to

the States 'respectively, the

Appointment

of the Officers, and the 'Authority of training


the Militia according to the 'Discipline

Legal power.

deall

System of
teaching.

scribed by Congress

^Directed.
Exert.
Place.

To

'exercise exclusive Legislation in

95 Cases whatsoever, over such


ceding
36k>n of

'District (not

ten

Miles square) as may, by


the

Beyond.
Surrender.
Place.

particular States, and

Ac-

ceptance of Congress, become the 'Seat of


the
00

Government of

the United States, and


all

Power.

'exercise like Authority over

Places

Have.
Bought.
Commonwealth.
Building.
Edifices.

purchased by the Consent of the Legislature


of the
for the
nals,
_
r

State in

which the Same

shall be,

Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arse-

Dock- Yards, and other needful Build:

And
otlior VTOrds.
18.

with some

How many
in
?

miles squnri<U<1
it
<

<lnr>s

the pre-

formerly con1 milea qoare and the difference between 21. Illustrate tln-ir difference by example, 22.
19.
r
i

H'.w many
1

128

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

To make

all

Laws which

shall

be necesSuitable.
Prec<.-dmg.

sary and 'proper for carrying into Execution the 'foregoing Powers, and all other Powers

Vested by

this Constitution in the

Government

Placed.

no of the United States, or in

any Department
Feron
r.ourU
i

uinala
to

or 'Officer thereof.
Sec. 9.

per-

form
lic

any pub-

July

The

'Migration or Importation of

.ration.

such Persons as any of the States


isting shall think

now

exGrant entrain

proper to 'admit, shall not


the Congress prior to the
eight,

us be 'prohibited by

Interdicted.

Year
but a

'one

thousand eight hundred and

i8oa

Tax or Duty may be imposed on such

An

impost.

Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for

!ru;rrss:on.

each 'Person.
120

Individual.
For lrllTw1ng a
person f.-^m
ipriaon or for

The Privilege of the Writ Of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when
in

meat,

from one court

Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public

to auolhrr.

Safety

may
Bill

'require

it.

No
125

of Attainder or

'c.r

past facto

Lam
shall

Law mxleriuf
an art punishiMf, in manner

shall

be passed.
Capitation, or other direct,

which

it

No
be

Tax

> noi puntahahle at trw


titnr
it

wu

committed.
!

'laid,

unless in Proportion to the Census

U1JH is.il

or 'Enumeration herein before directed to be


'taken.
130

Account of
ilatioo.

Made.

Duty shall be exported from any State.


or

No Tax

laid

on Articles

Goods.

Sent

out

in

traffic

No

Preference shall be given by any Re-

Advantage.
Trade.
Province.
Sailing:.

gulation of

'Commerce or Revenue
to,

to

the

Ports of one 'State over those of another:


135

nor shall Vessels 'bound


23.

or from, one
meaning of

Repeat section nine.


is tion

What
is

is

the

capitation, in the 126th line?

24. In

how many words

the affix tion, in in section nine

an

affix?

25.

What

the

meaning of

the prefix ap in appro-

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


State, be

129

'obliged to

enter, clear, or

pay

Compelled.

'Duties in another.

Customs.

No Money
sury, but in
140

shall

be drawn from the "Trea-

Depository of the
public

nosey.

Consequence of 'Appropriations
a regular 'Statement
Exhibit.
Disbursements.

made by Law; and


tures of
all

and Account of the Receipts and 'Expendipublic

Money

shall

be 'published

Made

puhiic.

[from time to time.

Statedly.

No
145

Title of 'Nobility shall be granted


:

by
Having.
Confidence.
Permission.

the United States

And no Person

'

holding

any Office of Profit or 'Trust under them,


shall,

without the 'Consent of the Congress,

accept of any present,

or Title,
150

Emolument, Office, of any 'kind whatever, from any


'

Receive.
Sort.

King, Prmce, or foreign


Sec. 10.

State.
into

Government.

No

State shall 'enter

any
coin

Make.
League.

Treaty, 'Alliance, or Confederation; grant


'Letters

of *Marque

and

# Reprisal

Commissions
Issue.

Money;
155

'emit Bills of Credit;

make any

Thing but gold and silver 'Coin a Tender in 'Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto

Money.
Liquidation.

Law,

or

Law

'impair-

Weakening.
Bargains.
Appellation.

ing the Obligation of 'Contracts, or grant

any
iGo

'

Title of Nobility.

No

State shall, without the 'consent of the

Approval.

Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except


lutely

Taxes.
Positrreiy.

what may be
its

'abso-

Commodity or

necessary for executing

'inspection
all

tn;u,tifarturc

examining.

Laws: and the net Produce of


and Imposts,
laid

'Duties

Customs.
(inwl or produce

by any State on Imports


28.

Iirnt>i
.

<>'

fo-

.mtfi.

priatums. in the 139tb line?

Wh1
;

peculiarities

bai

it

27.

Ren\u\

peat

28. Illustrate

the difference
linn.

between mporti

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


or 'Exports, shall be for the Use of the Trea-

sury of the United States; and


shall

all

such 'Laws
2

Ordinances.
Reexamination
for correction.

be subject to the 'Revision and Controul

of the Congress.
170

'Direction.

No

State shall, without the

Consent of

Permission.

Congress, lay any Duty of 'Tonnage, keep

Carrying caYr.SM-ls.

Troops, or Ships of
'enter into

War

in

time of Peace,

any Agreement or Compact with

Make.

another State, or with a foreign 'Power, or


175

engage
in

in

War,

Entered

unless actually 'invaded, or

by

an
a

army with

hostile design.

such 'imminent Danger as will not admit

Impending.
Procrastination.

of 'Delay.
exports, in the
to

29. Are there any words spelled contrary 165th line? present usage, in section ten ? 30. Name some words that are spelled differently by writers of the present day.

LESSON XXVI.
ARTICLE
Sec.
1.

It
Authority.

The

executive 'Power shall be

'vested in

a President of the United States of


lie shall 'hold his Office during

Put

in possesof.

sion

America.
the

Retain.
In

Term

of four Years, and, 'together with


President, chosen for the
l '

company.

5 the Vice

same

Like.
En the follow-

Term, be

elected,

as follows

ing way.

Each

State shall appoint, in such

Manner
a
'whole

Designate.
Prescribe.

as the Legislature

thereof

may
to

'direct,

Number
which

of Electors, equal

the

Total.

10 'Number of Senators and Representatives to


the

Amount.

State

may

'be

entitled

in

the

Have a claim
National Assembly.

'Congress:
1.

but no Senator or RepresentaII.


2.

Repeat section one, Article

What

is

the

affix or in Elector, in

the 15th line?

3. Illustrate

its

meaning of the meaning with

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


tive,

131

or Person

'

holding an Office of Trust

Having.

or 'Profit under the United States, shall be


15 appointed an Elector.
[*

Emolument.

Presidrntchooser.

The

Electors shall meet in their respect-

Assemble.
Written papers.

ive States,
3,

and vote by

'Ballot lor

two Per-

one of

whom

at least shall not be 'an

dweller.

Inhabitant of the 'same State with them-

Identical.

20 selves.

And

they shall

make a

'List of all

Catalogue.

the Persons voted for,

of Votes for

each

and of the 'Number which List they shall


to the

Amount.
Every one.
Testify to in writing.

ngn and
25 directed

'certify,

and transmit sealed

'Seat of the

Government of the United

States,

Metropolis.

to the President of the Senate.


'

The
Pre-

Superscribed
Sight.

President of the Senate shall, in the

sence of the
sentatives,

Senate and House of Repreall

Upper House
Break the
seals of

open

the Certificates,

and the
shall

Votes

shall then

be 'counted.

The Person

Reckoned.
Quantity.

30 having the greatest 'Number of Votes


be the President,
jority of the
if

Number be a Ma'whole Number of Electors


such
if

That.
Entire.

'appointed; and

there be

more than one


House of Repreby Ballot and
if

Deputed.

35

who Number

have such Majority, and have 'an equal


of Votes, then the

The same.
Voices.

sentatives shall immediately chuse

At once.
ive.

one of them for President

no Person

have a Majority, then from the

five highest

uumber.

on the
M)

List the said

House
Votes

shall

in

like

Roll.

Manner chuse
i

the President.

But
shall

in

chus-

Elect.

n*_r

the President, the

be taken
tlio

BgW.

some other words.


*

I.

What
[1.1

peealiaritiei arc there in


5.

orthography
a n;i-

What

i-

paragraph

is

canceled,

Article XII. of the

Amendments being

substitute! for R, which

132
by

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


States, the
'

Representation from
;

each
or

Deputation.
Beta* entitled
to.

State 'having one Vote

A Quorum
of a

for this

Purpose

shall

'consist

Member

45 'Members from twothirds of the States, and


a Majority of
all

Delegates.

the States shall be 'necesIn 'every Case, after the


Each.
Election.
Electoral coll(.

sary to a Choice.

'Choice of the President, the Person having


the greatest

number of Votes of

the Electors

50

shall

be the Vice President.

But

if there

Unless.

should 'remain two or more

who have

equal

Be

left.

Votes, the Senate shall 'chuse from them by


Ballot the

Take.
Th arroau

Vice President]

Bl SVi

Urn

offl.

55'chusing the Electors, and the

The Congress may determine the Time of Day 00 which they shall 'give their Votes; which Day shall
be the same 'throughout the United States.

Selecting.

l*rt of.

No

Person except a 'natural horn Citizen,


(4'

or a 'Citizen

the

United States, at the


this

60 time of the 'Adoption of


shall be
eligible
to

Constitution,
B for.

the Office of President;

neither shall any

Person be eligible

to that
to

One.

Office

who

shall not

have 'attained

the

Reached.
Period.
Ia the limit* of.

'Age of

thirty-live

Years, and been fourteen

G5 Years a Resident 'within the United States.


In

Case of the 'Removal of the President


his

Displacing.

from Office, or of
or
'Inability to

'Death, Resignation,

Decease.
Incapacity.
acquirement*.

discharge the Powers and


said Office,

'Duties of
[

the

the

same

shall

70 devohz on the Vice President, and the Congress

Fallta
Event.

may by Law

provide for the 'Case of

rural born citizen, and a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of the Constitution? 0. What is the salary of the President


CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
Removal, 'Death, Resignation, or
claring
Inability,

133

Demise.
Proclaiming.

both of the President and Vice President, 'de-

what

Officer shall then act as Preshall act accordingly,

Govern.

75

sident,

and such Officer

Conformably
Incompetency.

until the

Disability be removed, or a Presi-

dent shall be 'elected.

Chosen.

The
80
shall

President

shall, at

stated Times, re-

Regular.
Remuneration.

ceive for his Services, a Compensation, which


neither be encreased nor

diminished
shall

Lessened.

during the Period for

which he

have

Time.
Accept.
Salary.
Either.

been elected, and he


that Period

shall not 'receive within

any other 'Emolument from the

United States, or any of them.

85

Before he enter on the Execution of his


Office, he shall take the following

Oath or

Solemn declaration,

made with
to

an appeal

God

Affirmation:
44

for the thereof.

truth

do solemnly 'swear (or affirm) that

Vow.
Perform.
Shall.

" will faithfully

execute the Office of Presi'will to

90 " dent of the United States, and


u best of

the

my Ability preserve,
The

'protect

and de-

Guard.
Civil compact.

" fend the 'Constitution of the United States.

Sfx.
//?

2.

President shall be

'Commander

Generaliaairao.

Chief of the 'Army and


States,

Navy

of the

Land

forces.
sol-

05 United States, and of the


veral

'Militia of these-

Citizen
diery.

when
in

called into the

actual
require

Mustered.
Military'

vice of the United States; he

may

July

the Opinion,

writing, of

the

'principal

Chief.

Officer in each of the executive Departments,


ioo

Branches of government
Pertaining.

upon any Subject relating


their

to the Duties of

respective Offices, and he shall have

Several.

affirmation, in

1 7. Illustrate the difference between oath 8. Repeat section two, Article II. the 86th line. peculiarity is there in the orthography of lOCtiofl two, Art.

and
9.
II. 7

~T2

134

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


to

Power

grant Reprieves and Pardons for

Temporary n*.
JH-n.loM of tb death aeau

'Offences against the United States, except in

Cases of 'Impeachment.
105

He

shall

have Power, by and with the 'Ad-

Counsel.

vice and

'Consent of the Senate, to

make

<

incurrence

'Treaties, provided

two

thirds of the Senators

Compacts.
QofcoMfc

present 'concur; and he shall nominate, and


'by

and with the Advice and Consent of the


shall

Through.

no Senate,

appoint 'Ambassadors, other


Iwttan
Paramount.
IVsisiKitioas

public Ministers and Consuls, 'Judges of the

'supreme Court, and

all

other Officers of the

United States, whose 'Appointments are not


herein otherwise 'provided
H5 shall be 'established by
gress
for,

and which

Prepared.

Law:

but the Coft-

Fixed.

may by Law

vest the

Appointment of
Courts of Law.

Place.

such inferior Officers, as they think 'proper,


in the

KmUt.

President alone,

in the

or
120

in the

'Heads of Departments.
fill

Chiefs.

The
all

President shall have 'Power to

up

Authority.
Oiviir.

Vacancies that

may

'happen during the

Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions

A 1. 3. nre
Terminate.
BuaiMM
term.

which
3.

shall 'expire at the

End
to

of their

next 'Session.
1-25

Sec.
to the

He

shall

from time

time 'give

Furnish.
Condition.

Congress Information of the State of

the Union, and

recommend

to their

Consi-

Notice.

deration such 'Measures as he shall judge

Proceedings
Proper.
Call tOf<

necessary and 'expedient; he may, on extra130

ordinary Occasions, 'convene both Houses,

10. In

how many words


12.

in

section two, Article

II., is

ad a prefix?
L29d

11. Illustrate the

difference
their

between

recess

and

absence, in the

line?

What do

sentences

can you write

prefixes denote? 13. In case, in the 131st line, so as

how many
to

convey

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


or either of them, and in Case of 'DisagreeA

135
difference.

ment between them, with 'Respect

to the

Regard.

Time
to
135

of 'Adjournment, he

may

adjourn them

The

close of session.

such 'Tiroe as he

shall think

proper; he

Period.

shall

receive Ambassadors and other public


;

Accept.

Ministers

lie

be 'faithfully
all

Care that the 'Laws executed, and shall Commission


shall take

Ordinances.
Strictly.

the 'officers of the United States.

Employees.
Chief
officer.

Sec. 4.
ho

The

'President,

Vice President

and

'all

civil Officers

of the United States,

The whole of
the.

shall be

'removed from Office on Impeach-

Displaced.

ment

for,

and 'Conviction

of,

Treason, Bribe-

Leg^l proof.
Offences.

ry, or other
a different
15.

high Crimes and 'Misdemeanors.

meaning in each? 14. Repeat section three, Article II. Repeat section four, Art. II. 16. What is the meaning of Vice when prefixed to nouns ? 17. In how many sentences can you write Vice, so that it shall convey a different meaning in each?

LESSON XXVII.
ARTICLE
Sec.
1.
III.

The

judicial

Power

of the United

Leg^l.

States, shall be 'vested in one

supreme Court,

Placed.

and

in

such inferior 'Courts as the Congress


to

Tribunals.

may
5

from time

time ordain and

'establish.
'infe-

Found.

The Judges, both of


<1

the supreme and

Lower.

rior Courts, shall 'hold their Offices

during

Keep.
Conduct.
Salary.

Behavior, and

shall, at stated

Times,

receive for their Services, a 'Compensation,

which

shall

not be 'diminished during their

lessened.
Stay.

ritinuance in Office.
1.

Re] eat .section one, Article

III.

2.

Repeat section two, Article

136

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNI ED STATES.


Sec. 2.

The

judicial
in

Power

shall 'extend

Reach.
Suits.

to

all

'Cases,
this

Law

and Equity, arising

under

Constitution, the

United States,

'Laws of the and Treaties made, ot which


;

enactments.
Contracts.

15 shall be 'made, under their Authority

to all

Entered

into.

Cases 'affecting Ambassadors, other public


Ministers and Consuls
;

Acting upon,

to all

Cases of ad-

nment

miralty

and

'maritime

Jurisdiction;

to

Naval
Disputes.
Litigant.

'Controversies to

which the United States

20

shall be a 'Party;

to Controversies

between

two or more

'States;

Citizens of another State;

zens of 'different States,


of the

between a State and between between Citizens


Citi-

SovM-ctfntiw.

Various.

same State 'claiming Lands under


different States,

Awrlinf orhar1UK till* tO.

25 'Grants of

and between a
and
foreign

vr |
\

State, or the Citizens thereof,

States, 'Citizens or Subjects.

Inhabitants.

In

all

Cases affecting 'Ambassadors, other


Ministers

Euvoyt.
National.

'public
30'i7i

and Consuls, and tlmse


'original Jurisdiction.

which a State shall be Party, the supreme


shall

Wherein.
Primitive.

Court
all

have

In

the other Cases before 'mentioned, the


shall

Named.
.,'i*;als.

supreme Court
tion,

have

'appellate JurisdicReality.

both as to

Law

and Fact, with such

35 'Exceptions, and under such Regulations as


the Congress shall 'make.

Reservations
Provide.

The

'Trial of all Crimes, except in


shall

Cases

ExaminationFreeholders.

of Impeachment,

be by

Jury;

and

such Trial shall

'be

held in the State where

Take

place.

40 the said Crimes


III. 3.

shall

have been 'committed;


in
5.

Perpetrated.

In

how many

sentences can you write the

convey a different meaning Public Ministers, and Consuls?


shall

Article, so that it are Ambassadors, Illustrate the various meanings of

each?

4.

What

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


but

137

when

not

committed within any

State,

Done.
Stations.

the Trial shall be at BQCh Place of Places


as the Congress

may by Law have


in

directed.
States,

Ordered.

Sbc
45

S.

Treason against the Untied


only
levying
to their

Republic of K America.

shall consist

War
No

against

Wagtag,
Worn,
Assistance.

them, Of
ing
shall

in

adhering

Enemies, givperson

them

Aid and Comfort.

be convicted of Treason unless on the

Found

guilty

Testimony of two Witnesses to the same 50 overt Act, or on Confession in open Court. The Congress shall have 'Power to declare
the

Evidence.

Apparent.
Authority.
Penalty.

Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work 'Corruption of Blood,

Detriment to
children.

or Forfeiture except during the Life of the

Loss of right.

55 Person attainted.

Rendered
famous.

in-

ARTICLE

IV,

Sec

1.

Full 'Faith and Credit

shall

be

Belief.

en in each State to the public Acts, Re-

Allowed.
Ifeasorot.
Comprehrnsire.

ds, and judicial


other State.

'

Proceedings of every

And

the Congress

may by

'ge-

60 neral

Laws

prescribe the 'Manner in which


shall

Mode.
Edicts.
Authenticated.

such 'Acts, Records and Proceedings


be proved, and the Effect thereof.
.

2.

The
is

Citizens of each State shall

Every.

be entitled to

all

Privileges and Immunities


several States.
in

Have

drum

in the

Person 'charged

any State with

Emptiest!

<]

ason, 'Felony, or other Crime,

who

Anv ofVnee

pim-

shall

.haMe
death.

with

from Justice, and be found


.

in

another

In

III.?

7.

nOW many WOrdl II CO* and What is the last paragraph in


Dlaatrate in lenteaoai ibe

vark

is

of open,

in

the

50th line.

1".

tion

12*

138

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


on 'Demand of the executive
fled,

State, shall

The

requisi-

tion.

70 Authority of the State from Avhich he

be 'delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

Offence.

No
75

Person held

to

Service or Labour in
thereof, 'escaping

As a
i

slave.

one State, under the


l

Laws

1.

vine

into another, shall, in

Consequence of any
discharged

By means.
Released.

Law

or Regulation therein, be

from such 'Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on 'Claim of the Party to whom
such Service or Labour

Bondage.

Demand.
Owing.

80

Sec.

3.

New

States

may be 'due. may be admitted


Union:
bill

by
Con federal io*.

the Congress into this

DO new
nor any

State shall be funned or 'erected within the


'Jurisdiction

bOMHttC

of any other State:

State be formed by the 'Junction of two or

I'limn.

85 more States, or 'Parts of States, without the


'Consent of the Legislatures of the States

'concerned as well as of the Congtt

tatHMftft

The Congress pose of and make

shall
all

have

Power

to disNtvr-s>;iry

needful Rules and Ke-

90 gulations respecting the Territory or other


Property 'belonging
to the

RelaUng

to.

United States;
be so

Pertaining.

and nothing

in this 'Constitution shall

construed as to 'Prejudice any Claims of the

United States, or of any 'particular State.

Individual.

95
to

Sec.

4.

The United

States shall 'guarantee

Secure.
B*pr

every State

in this

Union a Republican

one, Article IV. 11. Repeat section two, Article IV. 12. Illustrate in 13. sentences the various significations of claim, in the 7Sth line. What is the difference between union and confederation, in the 81st
line?
14. Illustrate
is

in

sentences their various

significations.

15.

What

the difference

between power and

authority, in the SSth line?


17.

16. Illustrate in sentences their various

meanings.

Repeat section

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

139

Form

of Government, and

shall

protect

Defend.
Solicitation.

each of them against Invasion; and on 'Application of the Legislature, or of the


100

Exe-

Governor.
Called together.

cutive

(when

the Legislature cannot be 'con-

vened) against domestic Violence.

Intestine.

ARTICLE

V.

The

'Congress, whenever

two

thirds

of

National Assembly.

both Houses shall

deem

it

necessary, shall
Constitution,

Branches.
Alterations.

propose 'Amendments to

this

Hi or, on the 'Application of the Legislatures

Request.
Different.

of two thirds of the 'several States, shall


call

Convention for proposing Amendin

Deliberative

Assembly.

ments, which,
to all Intents

either Case, shall 'be valid


this

Have

legal

force.

and Purposes, as 'Part of

Portion.

no Constitution,

when

ratified

by the Legisla-

Confirmed.
Respective.

tures of three fourths of the 'several States,

or by Conventions in three fourths thereof,


as the one or the other

Convocations

'Mode of Ratification

Form.
Chosen.
Alteration.

may

be proposed by the Congress; Provided

no that no

'Amendment which may be made prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner 'affect the
first

Before.

Act upon.
Stipulations.

and fourth Clauses


first

in the

Ninth Section

of the
120

Article; and that no State, with-

Commonwealth.

out

its

Consent, shall

be

deprived of

its

Permission.
Representation.

equal Suffrage in the Senate.


three, Article IV.
culiarities in
e

18.

Repeat section

four, Article IV.


in Article IV.
?

19.

What

pe-

orthography are there


23.

20.

How many
several

sentences are there in Article IV.

21.

How many paragraphs?


between
and
sentences their various

22.

Repeat Article V.
L06tfa

What
is

is

the difference
in

different, in the

line?

24. Illustrate

significations.

25.
lii.

What

the difference bet

ween
lis

pot end

portion,

in the 109th
in the

varioui lignificaneeeerioiu,
20.

112th line?

28.

Whet

their ptelixes 1

140

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


ARTICLE
VI.

All Debts 'contracted

and Engagements
'Adoption of this
valid against the
Constitution, as

Incurred.
Ratification.

entered into, before the


Constitution, shall be as
125

Binding on.
t'ompart.
Revolutionary
alliance.

United

States

under

this

under the 'Confederation.


This Constitution, and the
suance thereof
130

Laws

of the

Statutes.

United States which shall be made


;

in

Pur-

Consequence
Entered
By.
into.

and

all

Treaties made, or

which
of the

shall be

made, under the authority of

the United States, shall be the

supreme
in

Law
the
the

Paramount.
Country.
Restrained.

Land; and

the Judges

evevy State
in

shall be

'bound thereby, any Thing

Constitution or
135

'Laws of any State

to

Legal enartni nt-s

Contrary 'notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representative^ before 'mentioned, and the Members of the several
State 'Legislatures, and
all

Delegate*.

executive and
States

acnU.

judicial 'Officers, both of the United

M.-u-.stratrS.

ho and of the several States, shall be

bound
Conever be

<'oil>tr;wurd.

by Oath or Affirmation,
stitution; but

to 'support this
shall

Uphold.
Form
of belief.

no religious 'Test

required as a

Qualification to any Office or

Prerequisite.

public 'Trust under the United States.

Confide

ARTICLE
145

VII.
Confirmation

The

'Ratification of the Conventions of

Illustrate in

difference

sentences their various significations. 30. Wh.it i- the lairs and statutes, in the 127th line? 31. Illuin sentences their various significations. 32. Repeat Article VI. 33.

between

What

is the difference between land and country, in the 132d 34. Illustrate in sentences their various significations. 35. What

line?
is

the
the

difference
difference

between
between

nevertheless

and notwithstanding, and


prerequisite,

in the

135th line?

36. Illustrate in sentences their various significations.


qualification
in

37.

What

i*

the
39.

143d line?

38. Illustrate in sentences their various significations.

What

is

the

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the
States so ratifying the

141
ordaui.

Adequate to

Among.
Sanctioning.

Same.

Done
150

in

Convention by the Unanimous

Made.
Represented.

Consent of the States present the Seventeenth

Day

of

September

in

Hhe

Ninth month
"

>tr

if our Lord one thousand seven

Anno Domini.

hundred and Eighty seven 'and of the Independence of the 'United States of
155

Also.

American Republic
Testimony.
Signed.
Appellations.
Tbe Father of hii
Country.

America whereof

the

Twelfth.

In

'Witness

We

have hereunto 'subscribed

our Names.

GEO WASHINGTON
Presidt
difference

and deputy from


in tbe

Virginia.*

Delegate.

between done and made,


witness

149tb line?
41.

40. Illustrate

in sentences tbeir various significations.

What

is

between
sentences

and

testimony, in the 155th line?

tbe difference 42. Illustrate in

43. many simple sentences are there in each Article of the Constitution ? 44. manyparagraphs are there in each Article ? 45. What Articles have onlyone section? 40. What is the number of sections in each of the
their various significations.

How

How

other Articles

The names

of the rest of the signers of the Constitution are in the Biographical Table in

the latter part of this volume.

tions

On pages 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, and several other pages in this book, few queshare been asked, on account of its being easy for the teacher to supply them. It will be observed that the questions of a moral bearing are not as frequent in this part of the book H in the former. These questions have been omitted, on account of its being easier for the
Sote.
It was found, that carrying out the plan of full questions, operate against its general introwould increase the size and price of the book I duction into Elementary schools. But it should always be borne in mind that moral flj are of paramount importance, and no recitation should be allowed to pass without to guide the pu,r>i! anght in this respect. It cannot be too indelibly impressed on the mind of the
I

teacher to supply such questions.

un

pupil, that the

an exact copy of the Constitution, excepting the itiTirierd words, which in the original are uniform, and hare been changed and the figures added for ronv :n the use of the marginal exercises; that the spelling, punctuation, omissions of pi

above

us

all

of

too, 4te .,

were peculiar to the withtime. and that to and l


ndix.

iitwaswn'.t-

iMgMge

un-

iru.ta'e

any of the pnenjiai u*age of thi

the progression of the English language, see

poetry, in

till

142

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

LESSON XXVIII.
ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO, AND AMENDMENT OF, THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
Proposed by Congress, and
suant to the
'Constitution.
Vrftified

by the

Sanctioned. According.
Primitive.
Syrfr

Legislatures of the several States, 'purfifth

article of the

'original

m of role*.

(ARTICLE
5

1.)
'

Congress

shall

make no

law respecting

Rule.
Forbidding.
Restricting.

an establishment of

religion, or 'prohibiting

the free exercise thereof; or 'abridging the

'freedom of speech^ or of the press; or the


right of the people peaceably to 'assemble,

Liberty.

Meet
Solicit.

10 and to petition the Government for a redress


of 'grievances.

Wrongs.
2.)
Ordered.
I'n.UTtion.

(ARTICLE

A well

'regulated Militia, being necessary

to the 'security of a free State, the right of

the people to keep

and bear 'Arms,

shall not

Weapons.
Violated.

15 be 'infringed.

(ARTICLE

III.)

No

Soldier shall, in

time of 'peace

be

Quiet

'quartered in

any house, without the consent

lodging.

2. Repeat Article II. I. of the Amendments. the difference between law and rule, in the 5th line ? 4. Illustrate in sentences their various significations. 5. What is the difference between freedom and liberty, in the Sth line? 6. Illustrate in sentences their various significations. 7. What peculiarity is omitted 8. What is the difference between grievances in the Amendments !

1.

Repeat Article
is

3.

What

and wrongs, in the 11th line? 9. What is the difference between 10. Repeat Article III. arms and weapons, in the 14th line? 11. Illustrate the difference between quiet and peace, in the 16th line. 12.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


of the Owner, nor
in

143

time of war, but in a

Proprietor.

manner
20

to

be prescribed by law.

Way.

(ARTICLE

IV.)
Sfcfe.

The
rinst

right of the people to be 'secure in

their persons,

'houses, papers, and

effects,

Tenements.
From.
Infringed.
Likely.

unreasonable searches and seizures,


be violated, and no Warrants shall

shall not
:e,

but upon probable cause, supported

by

23 Oath or affirmation, and 'particularly describing the place to be 'searched, and the

Minutely.

Examined.

persons or things to be

'seized.
V.)
to

Taken possession
of.

(ARTICLE
\
capita!,
<>r

person shall be held

answer for a

Apprehended
Life-endangering

otherwise infamous crime, unless

30 on a presentment or 'indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or


naval forces, or
tual
'

Written accusation.

Instances.
Citizen soldiery.

in the 'Militia,

when

in

ac-

service
;

in

time

of

War

or public

Duty.
Peril.

'danger

nor shall any person be subject for


to be

35 the same offence


of
life

twice put

in 'jeopardy

Danger.
Constrained.
Oire eridence.

or limb; nor shall be 'compelled in


to 'be

any Criminal Case

a witness against
life,
'

himself, nor be deprived of

liberty, or
;

IV.

<

dam
in.

property, without due


ill

process of law

nor

Proceeding!

private property be taken for public

without just 'compensation.

Remuneration.

(ARTICLE
In
all

VI.)
Arraigned.

criminal prosecutions, the accused


and manner,
in

Between
line.

warn

14. Illustrate the differenc

tervice

and

duty, in

10th line. 18. Repeat Article IV, en oath end affirmation, In the 25th 10. hloetnue the difference between Article V. jeopardy ami rfoogsr, in the 53d line. 17. Bet
the

WOW

:th

hue.

MM

ration, in the

144

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


enjoy the right to a speedy and public
Quick.
Equitable.
Mi (demeanor.

shall
trial,

by an 'impartial jury of the State and


wherein the 'crime
shall

45

district

have been

'committed, which district shall have been


previously 'ascertained by law, and to be

Perpetrated.
Established.

informed of the nature and cause of the accusation;


to

Reason.
Set
face
to

be 'confronted with the wit;

50 nesses against him

to

have

Compulsory
fa-

Forahle.

'process for obtaining Witnesses in his

Proceeding.

vour, and to have the Assistance of Counsel


for his 'defence.

Lawyers.
Vim] .cation.

(ARTICLE
In 'Suits at

VIT.)

common

law,

where

the value

Prosecutions.
'ignite.

55

in

'controversy shall exceed twenty dollars,


trial

the right of

by jury shall be preserved,

Maintained.
!ied.

and no

fact 'tried

by a jury
in

shall

be other-

wise re-examined

any 'Court of the United


rules of the

L*iral tribunal.

States, than according to the

Precedents.
I'liwntten.

60 'common law.

(ARTICLE
Excessive
excessive
bail

VIII.)

shall

not be required, nor

Security.
Penalties.

'fines

imposed, nor cruel and un-

usual 'punishments inilicted.

(ARTICLE

IX.)

The 'enumeration
65 certain

in

the Constitution, of

Specification.
r,;unsay.

rights, shall not

be construed to 'deny

or disparage others 'retained by the people.


line.

Kept

20. What is the difference between 43d line? 21. Between crime and misdemeanor, in the 45th line? 22. Between cause and reason, in the 48th line? 23. Between proceeding and process, in the 51st line? 21. What peculiarities are there in Article VIII.? 25. Repeat Article VII. 26. How many simple sentences are there in Article VII.? 27. Repeat Article VIII. 28. What is the difference between bail and security, in
19.

speedy

Repeat and quirk,

Article VI.
in

the

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


(ARTICLE
X.)

145

The powers
States

not 'delegated to the United

Intrusted.

by
to

the Constitution, nor 'prohibited

Forbidden.
Retained.
Inhabitants.

by

it

the

States,

are

'

reserved to the

70 States respectively, or

to the 'people.
XI.)

(ARTICLE

The
in

Judicial 'power of the United States

Authority.

any suit 'commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by 'Citizens 75 of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any 'Foreign State.
shall not

be 'construed to extend to
equity,

Understood.
Instituted.

law or

Dwellers.
Commonwealth.
Distant.

(ARTICLE

XII.)
Assemble.
Ticket.

The
states,

Electors shall 'meet in their respective

and vote by

'

ballot for President

and

Vice President, one of whom,

at least, 'shall

Must.
Citizen.

80 not be an 'inhabitant of the same state with


themselves; they shall 'name in their ballots
the

Designate.

person voted for as President, and in

Man.
Separate.

'distinct ballots the

person voted for as Vicelists

President, and they shall 'make distinct

Form.
Balloted.
Individuals.

85 of
of

all
all

persons 'voted for as President, and


persons voted for as Vice-President,

and of the 'number of votes for each, which


'lists

Amount.

they shall sign and certify, and trans-

mit sealed to the seat of the government of


inel
"ti

29.

Repeat Article IX.


Repeat Article X.
difference
38.
'

30. 33.

What
31.

is

kepi
le

and
1

retained, in
32.

the COth line?

What
is

the difference peculiarity

Irti

IX.

What

the difference

and
XI.
35,

inhabitants, in the 70th line?

What

is

th<*

between
tod
is

state

Repeat Article and comm o nwea lth, in


34.

the 75th

linel 37. R'-j -at Article XII.


attemlle. in the 77th line

foreign

distant, in

the

78th

line?

What

the difference

between
tidfef, in
1
-i
l

inert

and

baUoi ai.d

the 78th

linel

B tween catalogues and lute, in the 88th line

Between

13

146

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


to the President
44

90 the United States, 'directed


of the Senate;

The

mmii.

President of the Se-

Speaker.

nate shall, in 'presence of the Senate and

Sight
lii

House of Representatives,
tificates

'open

all

the cer-

:tk

the

seals of.

and the votes

shall then

be counted;

Computed.

95

The

person having the greatest number


'majority of the whole
'appointed
;

LaqpMt
Ballot*.

of 'votes for President, shall be the President,


if such number be a number of Electors

Plurality.

and

if

no

Returned.
Kiress.
Greatest.

person have such


ioo

majority, then from the


'

persons having

the

highest numbers not


list

'exceeding three on the


for as President, the
lives shall

of those voted
Ixjwer House
WithoBl
dr\ m y.

'House * Reptesentaballot, the

choose 'immediately, by

'President.
105

But

in

choosing the President,

Cfctatf

tmm

the votes shall be taken by states, the repre-

Delegation

sentation from each state having one 'vote:

a quorum for

this

purpose

shall

consist of a

Bt
I'<

QOOpfKd
i'Ula-s.

member
states,

or 'members from two-thirds of the


all th

and a majority of

shall
if

no be necessary to a choice.

And

the

House
a

of Representatives shall not 'choose


sident

Pre-

whenever

the 'right of choice shall


On.

devolve 'upon them, before the fourth day of

March
ii5

next following, then the Vice-Presiin

Succeeding.
Chief magi*-

dent shall act as President, as

the case

of the death or other constitutional 'disability


of the President.
greatest
and

The

'person having the

Citizen.

number of votes

as Vice-President,

Mfltf,
.

presence

the 9 2d line ? 42. Between open and break thi 93d line? 43. Between largest and greatest, in the 45. What differline? 44. Between upon and on, in the 113th lino ence is* there between the orthography of the Amendment! and the
sight, in

seals o/, in the

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


shall
i*)

147

be the Vice-President,

'if

such Dumber

Provided.

be a majority of the whole 'number of Electors 'appointed, and


jority, then
if

Amount.
Allotted.

no person have a ma-

from the two highest 'numbers


the Senate shall choose the Vice-

Names.
Seta*.
Legal number.

on the

list,
;

President
1*5

a 'quorum lor the purpose shall

consist of two-thirds of the 'whole

number
But
the
that

Entire.

of Senators, and

'a

majority of the whole

More thrm
one-half.

number

shall

be necessary to a choice.
'ineligible to
'eligible
to

no person constitutionally
office of President
130

Incapable of being elected.

shall

be

Qualified

for.

of Vice-President of the 'United States.


1

Union.

Constitution

40.

What

are

some of

the differences

between those

you account for the apparent inconsistencies in the use of capital letters? 48. Do you suppose there is any human composition free from error? 49. What ought these things to teach us? 50. In how many words is ad, and the forms it assumes, a prefix in the Constitution and its Amendments? 51. In how many words is
?

documents

47.

How do

con

and
is

its

variations a prefix?

52. In
is

prefix?

53. In

how many words


its

pro a prefix?
is

words
re

ob
?

and

variations a prefix?

how many words is pre a 54. In how many 55. In how many words is
its

a prefix

56. In

how many words

sub and

variations a prefix?

57.

How many

many forms ? 60. What is the frequent of important words in the Constitution? 61. repetition of important words in the same paragraph called? What rule in written documents should take precedence of all others? 62, What are the significations of the prefixes, ad, con, pre, pro, and 64. Illustrate the meanob? 63. Illustrate the use of each in words. ing of the words in sentences. 65. How many words are spelled dif66. How many in ferent from present usage, in the Constitution?
the

forms does ad assume? 58. Why does ad take so 59. Why do you suppose there are so many repetitions

Amendments?

67.

What

do you suppose was the

last

important

which was written according to the old plan of beginning every noun with a capital letter? 68. Do you know of any nation at the present day that begins all nouns with capital letters? Name the advantages and disadvantages of this plan? 70. Name 71. all the peculiarities of the Constitution and its Amendments.
national document,

How

do you account

for

many
',

of the variations?*
[ding to the proficiency of the class.

The Turner mnv oupiiinM ]miHr

After

a Imetitt,

and

questions in
;

in

ihe succeeding oummenUry.

148

COMMENTARY ON THE

LESSON XXIX.
( 1.)

Constitution

is

'derived

from the
settle,

Traced.
Signifies.

Latin con, and statuo, and 'means to

to fix, to 'establish, to ordain, decree, appoint,

Confirm.

or determine.

It 'denotes particularly that


is

Means.
System.

5 'form
either
its

of

government which

instituted

by the people, or

for their 'benefit.


it

In

Advantage.

'general acceptation,

signifies a

system

Usual
Essential.

of 'fundamental rules, principles, and ordinances, for the 'government of a society,

Control.

10 community,

state,

or 'nation.

In England,

Country.
I'u'Wl.

and other 'monarchical countries, the Constitution

depends upon the 'immemorial con-

sent of the people,

and long-established usage;


for a

Custom.
Plurality.

hence

it

is

difficult

'majority of the

15 people in 'monarchies either to


nitely

know

defi-

Kingdom*.

what
its

their Constitution

is,

or to 'un-

Comprehend
Signification.

derstand

'meaning.

( 2.)

But the Conis

stitution of the

United States

'accurately

Correctly.

and clearly
20 and

'defined in writing, in such plain

Expressed.
Familiar.

'intelligible language, that it can be comprehended by 'every person who can read any article understandingly, 'throughout our 'land. It establishes and defines the 'rights of the people, and prescribes the power

Each.
All over.

Country.
Privileges.

25 of

and 'rulers. That part of the Constitution which precedes the first 'Article,
legislators
its

Governors.
Distinct el&uM.

has been justly called


( 1.)

'preamble

though

Preface.

t ution

1. Give a synopsis of section one. 2. From what is Constiderived ? 3. Illustrate its various meanings in sentences? 4. Wherein is our government different from that of England and other monarchical governments? (2.) 5. What is the character of the

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


the framers did not designate
it

149

by any name

Title.

'whatever.

AM ill
is

30

( 3.)

Preamble
It

derived from the Latin


to 'go or

dcrivmtiY*

of.

pr<r.

and ambulo, and means


proem.
In

come
it

Walk.
Especially.

before.
tion, a

denotes particularly an introducits

general acceptation,
to

Preface.

means an introduction
a
bill,

any 'discourse or
to a statute,

Speech.
Preliminary.

35 writing, the introductory matter


the parties to

it names any document of writing, and sets forth in 'general terms its objects and its meaning. Every article in the 'Consti-

or act of a legislative 'body;

Assembly.
Instrument.
Unrestricted.
Supreme Law.
Allusion.
Particularited.

40 tution has reference


ified

to

one or more of the

objects in the preamble,


first

which

pre-

cedes

the

article,

and
its

'

expounds the
'framers.

Explains.

motives and the designs of

The

Makers.
Consequently.

preamble

is,

'therefore, of the

utmost import-

45 ance

in

'elucidating

the principles of the

Illustrating.

istitution.

(4.)

"We

the 'people of the

Citizens.
Signifies.

United States," 'denotes that the people of

each and every


rate

'state

have, by their sepa-

Confederacy.
Acknowledged.

and deliberate

acts, 'adopted the

Con-

50

stitution,

and that

it

consequently 'emanated
all

Proceeded.
Fountain.
Digest of law

from the highest 'source of


istitution, like

power.

The

every other 'code, has been

variously understood by different individuals.


It is

Construed.
Plain.

evident that a

work of such a compre-

55 hensive and enduring character, must speak


derived

Lasting.

State* 1 (3.) 0. From what is preamble is a pre8. the object of a preamble? mocb importance? 9. Illustrate it as a noun, and as a verb the people ), " itences. ( 4.) 10. What
?

7.

What

is

Why

We

note

11.

Has

the Constitution been underre

any code which

150
in

COMMENTARY ON THE
general terms

that
its

it

is

to

be 'viewed
its

Taken.
Unitedly.
Clear.

'conjointly,

and that every word has


as

na-

tural

and 'obvious meaning.


It
is,

( 5.)

'preamble declares
the

it

Introduction.

60

to

be, 'established

by

people

it

is

Founded.
Obligatory.
In.

contract binding alike each and every

citi-

zen

'within the United States,

to establish
'

and maintain a government


of the whole people, and
is

for the

benefit

Advantage.
Superior.
Also.

therefore 'para-

65 mount

to all state Constitutions,


( 6.) It

and

all

other

'authority whatever.

was

scrutinized

Power.
Points.

previous to

its

adoption

in all its 'bearings,


;

by

the people of the 'whole country

not on one

Entire.

occasion alone, but fur a series of months.

Succession.
First.

70 Since

its

'original adoption,

it

has stood the

investigation of the entire people of seventeen

All the.

new

states.

It is,

therefore, the

work of pa-

Production.

triots

of a past age, 'endorsed by thirty sepaIt

Sanctioned.

rate state legislatures.

was

expressly pre-

Tramcd.
Mass.
Compritiifcd.

75 pared

to be ratified

by the

[great

body of the

people, to be 'understood by them, and to be the


'fireside

out the land.


its,

that

companion of every family throughSuch are its transcendent merit has stood the 'test of time and recivilized

Domestic
Unequalled.
Trial.

80 ceived the 'admiration of the


( 7.)

w orld.
T

Applause.

The

'Constitution

of the

United

Supreme law
Preface.
St ipulations.

States contained originally a 'preamble and

seven
is

'articles, the

framing of which occu-

exempt from erroneous interpretation? (5.) 13. By whom, and what purpose was the Constitution established? 14. What is paramount to all authority? ( 0.) 15. Give a synopsis of section six. 16. What are some of the reasons that lead you to believe that the Constitution is a work of much merit? (7.) 17. Give a detailed account of section seven. 18. What is the difference between mcuHlHi
for


CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
pied several of the purest patriots, and the

151

Most disinterested
i\i)itioans.

85 ablest

statesmen of the country, from the

14th of
1787.
It

May

till

the

17th of September,

To.

subsequently passed the ordeal of

thirteen distinct state 'conventions,

and

re-

MMOfcliM
Learned.
Intelligent.

ceived the most profound criticism of the

M lamest and most enlightened body of patriots


that

bad ever existed


aire.

in

any country or

in

laved.

any
its

Hence we

find

every word has

Epoch.
Signification.

place,
it

and every sentence a 'meaning


the only uninspired

that

is

document ex-

In being.
Essential.

95

tant, that

combines the fundamental princithe political


times.

ples

of

all

'wisdom of ancient

Knowledge.
Days.
Conciseness.

and modern
for

( 8.)

The preamble,
is
'

comprehensive brevity,

probably un;

equalled in this or

any other language it declares the authority by whom, and the objects for which the Constitution was orstitution

Tongue.
Proclaims.
Purposes.
Instituted.

dained and established; and though the Con-

was framed by
a law,
it

the tried and faithful


it

Composed.
Citizens.

representatives of the 'people, yet, before


ioo

became
the

received the 'comments and

Observations
Investigation

scrutiny of the whole

people

of the

country
patriots

and
<>f

each and every one of the

D n it rd States
led.

the revolution
its

may

be considered

a contributor to
no

transcendent excellences

Surpassing.
7a alt.iisly.

though
posed
oesl
its

some may have strenuously opadoption; for it is only by the


latent defects of
'rectified.

Ratification.

criticism, that the

Hjdden.
Corrected.

a theory can be discovered and


nriA
<

3d line
20.

(&)

19.

section eight

What u

th<

Repeat the substance of n atoaawati and obhidden, in the

urvatvjn*. in the 105th

lino?

21.

DelWtaU httni Bad

152

COMMENTARY ON THE
(9.) 'Happily for this country, for the

fame

Fortunately.

us of

its

'framcrs,

and for

all

succeeding ages,

Authors.
Potent.

there existed a powerful, an enlightened, and

even a patriotic band, 'opposed


of the Constitution
;

to the adoption
its

Adrerse.
Inestimable.
Part*.

and some of

most

'in-

valuable and permanent features would have


120

been omitted, had


eyed opposition.

it

not been for an argusx

nharp-cifhted.

'From the
and

first

settlement

Ever

after.

of the country, the colonists had


'benefits

seen the

Perceived.

of association

at the declara-

Advantages.

tion of
i25

independence 'nothing was deemed more importance than fraternal union. ( 10.) The trials and reverses of the revolution were but a 'series of experiments
of

Naught.
Brotherly.
Misfortunes.

Course.

towards cementing the

'ties

of friendship
Contiguous.
.mng.

among
130

'neighboring

states,

which, though
to the

'originating in necessity,

and contrary

'practices of ancient confederacies, has proved


to the world, that

Customs.
Enduring.

'permanent political ag
neighboring
'Constitution

grandizement can alone be 'attained by states


'disseminating
i3o

Reached.
ling.

blessings to

all

communities.

The American

Palladium.
Prodigies.

far surpasses the seven ancient

'wonders of
its

the world, in the magnificence of


tecturc,

'archi

Construction
Approbation.

and

in its

claims to the 'applause of

'mankind.
no
is,

The

world.

( 11.)

Yet, this instrument, 'perfect as

it

Complete.
Sanctioned.

was

'adopted unanimously by only three


( 9.)
22.

112th line?
is

Of what does

section ninth treat?

23.

What

the difference

between potent and powerful,

in the 116th line? ( 10.)

tween

Give a synopsis of section tenth ? 25. What is the difference beseries and caurse, in the 127th line? 26. Between practices and 27 Palladium is neither definition nor customs, in the 131st line?
24.

synonym of

Constitution

what

'.

is

the

meaning of

it?

(11-) 28.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


of the 'smaller states of the Union
:

153

and so

LMMJt
Circumspect.
Almost.
Obtained.

prudent, so extremely cautious were OUT ancestors, that


ii5
it

was
it

'nearly a year after

it

was

framed before
'requisite
to

received the sanction of the


states

number of
it

make

and of the people, the supreme law o{ the land. It

^ary.

Paramount.
Beta,
Arvror<xl and

will be
'ratified
150

perceived that the Constitution

was

by the people, who are the only true source whence all authority 'flows and that it differed 'essentially from the old articles
;

HHMHi

Issues.

Materially.

of confederation, which emanated from the


several state
the
i5o

Sprang.
Assemblies.

legislatures.

(12.) If then

American Constitution emanated from


it

Proceeded.

the people,
it

is

reasonable to suppose that

Think.
Right.

contains nothing but

what

it is

'proper for

the people to 'know, nothing but

perfectly 'intelligible,
it is

what is and nothing but what


understand
:

Be acquainted with.
Clear.

the 'duty of

all to

and the

Obligation.

i6o

first

six lines of the 'preamble comprise the

Introduction.

'objects

for

which
first

the

Constitution

was
a

Ends.
Constructed.

'formed.
(13.)

The

'object

was "to form


that

Intention.
Signifying.

more
iGo

perfect

union;"

'implying

the

union then existing, the union that had 'carried

Bome.
Vict.ntslv.

them triumphantly through the revolutionary war, the union that, taking them as
to the
still

dependent colonies, had raised them


rank of

Derated.

an independent

nation,
20.

was
What

Repeat the substance of section eleventh.


!

i>

the difference

reived

an <\

compute, in the 140th linel seen, in the I48tfa linel (12-) 51. Of
''
I
;

>>.

Between ptr
doefl
BectirHl

what

nrul

right,

in the 156th line

stion thirii

teenth.

34.

the

154
170

COMMENTARY ON THE
This " more perfect union" would
Defectire.

'imperfect.

secure 'tranquillity

and prosperity
( 14.)

at

home,

Peace.

power and

'dignity abroad,

and would dimiIt

Honor.
Strife.

nish the causes of 'war.

would

175

'enhance the general happiness of mankind, 'confer dignity upon the American name, and
give power, not to 'rulers, but to the people;
thus 'perpetuating the "
It

Increase.

Bestow.
Governors.
Eteroizin<r.

more

perfect union."

should not be forgotten that our ancestors


'difficulties to

Forefathers.
Obstacles.
PrrpoaKMion*.
Applied
elvea.

had many
180

contend with

sec-

tional jealousies and prejudices then existed

as they

now do

but

they 'went to their

them*

duties with pure hearts


'liberal

and enlightened and

Open.
Lnlanrrd.

views.

From

the political state of


it

'society,
185

and the force of circumstances,

The Community.

was
and
'

requisite for
liberal

them

to
;

'make numerous

Grant
Generous.
Slight

concessions

and now,

for the

people to 'disregard the injunctions of the


Constitution, and 'cast
political 'insanity.
ioo
it

aside,

would denote
be, for

Throw.

( 15.)

Far more

'rational

would

it

navigators to 'disregard the position of the

Pass by unnoiK
i

heavenly bodies, destroy their 'charts and


'compasses, and attempt to steer their
'barks
105

Sea-maps.
Magnetic needles

frail

amid storms and darkness across

the
Main.
Annihilate.

pathless 'ocean, than for the people of this

country to 'destroy the chart of their


168th
( 14.)
line'?

liber-

36.

35. Between imperfect and defective, in the 170th line? Give a detailed account of section fourteenth. 37. What

is the difference between confer and bestow, in the 175th line? 38. Between difficulties and obstacles, in the 179th line? (15.) 39. Of what does section fifteenth treat? 40. What is the difference between rational and reasonable, in the 190th line? 41. Between ocean and main, in the 195th line? 42. Cannot main be used in two directly

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


ties,

155

by

permitting

the

violation

of their
the
first

Sufloriug.

Constitution,

and

to

cease to

'imitate

Knuilate.

virtues of their ancestors.


-200

( 16.)

The

Moral txoel-

object

declared
M

in

this

Constitution
It is

is,

to

PranJilitml
Establish.

form a

more

perfect union."

reasonits

able then to

infer,

from the character of

framers, and the


'deliberation of the

unparalleled caution and

Unequalled.
Consideration.

whole people, before they


its

consecrated

it

as the charter of the rights of


'provi-

Hallowed.
Stipulations.

mankind, that an observance of


sions

and rules
But

will secure the objects de-

Intended.

.ed.

how can
it,

the people either 'sus-

Uphold.

tain the Constitution, or


2io
is,

even 'know what

it

Understand.
Reflect upon.
Period.

unless they read


j

and 'ponder the mean-

of every sentence.
It

( 17.)

has been computed by enlight'the

Calculated.
All the inhabitants.

ened statesmen, that of


in
2i5

whole population
in ten thou-

our country, not one 'woman

Mother.
In.

sand, or one voter 'out of"every hundred, ever

read the Constitution.

Yea,

it is

'susceptible

Capable.
Inviolable.

of demonstration, that the most 'sacred oaths


to

support

the

Constitution, are 'annually

Yearly.
Host.

taken by a
220

multitude of men,

who

never

read a single sentence of that sacred document.


triots

Wtftiag.
Souls.

If the

pure

'spirits

of departed pa-

are permitted to 'watch over the intef

Superintend ami gmrd


Descendants.
Felicity.

their

posterity and their country,


bliss,

from the regions of


.)

well

may we

43.

in the 20Stti line

45.

Repeat the substance of section >ixrence between wmmerat^d Mid ha lhwtd mder and ngfent, in the 210Ui linel
^
|

teentfa treat
Intfd. in

IT.

What
linel

is

the
48.

the
B<

21

'2th

Between

blut

end felicity,

in

the 234th line

19.

IWeeO

fteorrfl

and

156
225

COMMENTARY ON THE
its

suppose that the 'manes of

illustrious

Shades.
Earnestness.

authors often exclaim, with an 'intenseness

beyond the reach of human 'imagination, " 'O tempora 2 mores !" Let it never be forgotten that teachers, and not warriors,
!

Conception.
Oh, the

Umea

2 Oh. the morale!

230

common

schools,

and not 'swords and bayo"

Brands.
Continue.

nets, sustain

and 'perpetuate the power and


its

the 'glory of our country, and


'perfect union."

more

Fame.
Complete.

Of
235

'lands untaught

it

has been aye the

doom

States.

To fill untimely 'an ignoble tomb; Then foster 'learning, if you wish
Your country from

A
to

disgraceful

save

Knowledge.
Terrors.

the 'horrors of the glaive.

brands, in the 230th

line?

f>0.

What

is

the

meaning of

aye, in the

234th line?

51.

Of

glaive, in

the

237th line?

LESSON XXX.
( 1.)

free 'people should ever pay the


to the liberal 'eduTraining.

most scrupulous attention


cation of those

whom

'nature has pointed

Providence.

out as the

'first

teachers of mankind.

No
Reach.
Lasting.
Pupils.

5 nation has ever attained, or can ever attain


'enduring greatness,
perficially educated.

whose females are

su-

The

'school, then, the

entire school, both 'male

and female, should


that
fun-

Masculine.
Familiar.

early be

made

'acquainted with the most

10 perfect 'charter of

human government

Embodiment
Primary.
Fnl lowed.

was ever framed by mortal men, whose


vista of
( 1.)
1.

damental principles can be 'traced down the

Time,

for nearly

four thousand years,

Forty centu-

To what

should a free people ever pay the most scrupu


;

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


'deriving their

157

immutable wisdom from

in-

Receiving.

15 spiration.

SDmnc
1

poorer.

To keep 'intact this ''perfect union formed/ And give its blessings to each Yuture age, Our youths must be with patriot 'passion warmed
>0

Untouched.

Coming.
Ardor.

By 'studying its glories on that page Where, 'midst foul blots 'exposing Britain's shame, Is graved, in words of fire, 'Columbia's fame.
( 8.)

Pondering.
Disclosing.

Our country's
Primary.
Institute.

The

'

first

object

after

forming a
'establish

"

more

perfect

union,"
it is

was

" to

justice."

Thus

evident that the authors

Clear.

25 looked not

for a

model among the most


in

Pattern.

powerful governments of the age

which

Mighty.
Unchangeable.

they lived, but to those 'immutable principles


thai respect

men according

to their 'deeds;

Actions.

and which, as countless centuries 'passed


30 away, would enable the monument of their
labors to

Rolled.

Memorial.
Continue.
Strict.

remain unaltered.

Without the
'safe;

most 'exact and impartial administration of


justice,

no inhabitant would be

hence

Secure.
Equity.
Chastise.

the necessity " to establish justice" that would

35 protect or 'punish alike the exalted


state with

and the

humble, the rich and the poor, the 'powerful


its its

Potent.

'millions,

and the
( 3.)

feeble terri-

Myriads.
Coate-"
Persons.
S. pnrale.

tory with

hundreds.

In

disputed

boundaries, in conflicting claims of indivi-

40 duals living
each

in 'different

states, in reference

to the national debt,


state,

and the

local

laws of

Sectional.
vrautbor.ty.

the 'national government

must

lous attention?

2.

From what

is

Columbia, in the phrase M Columbia 'i


I

derived, and what is its meaning 1 4. What is th>*is of section second. pattern, in the 25th line? 0. Between safe at

fame/ 21sl

line,

-ive a

mode/ and
line?

($3.)

6.

Of what does

section third treat?

7.

What

if

the diffe rence

"it

158
deal to
all

COMMENTARY ON THE
'even-handed justice.
august and
in
it

The

people
arbiter,

EquaL

having

'an

impartial

grand.

45 might 'repose been found

with perfect safety. Thus


all

Rest.

border 'warfare, which in


to

past history had


tranquillity of

War.
Interrupt.

'disturb

the

'neighboring states would be prevented, and


the honest 'foreigner, driven

Adjacent.
Alien.

by oppression
in the

50 from

his native country,

might 'repose

Confide.

liberality
stitution,

and justice of the American Conwhich proclaims to the 'uttermost


is

Equity.

Extreme.

limits of the earth, that its 'object

" to es-

Aim.
Uffcfc

tablish 'justice."

55

( 4.)

"To

ensure domestic 'tranquillity,"


It

Quiet.

was
is

the third 'object of the Constitution,

I>t

sun.

important 'here to remark, that immedi-

In this place.

ately after the 'war, the confederation bore

the

'aspect of

a speedy dissolution.

The

Appearance.

60 sages of the revolution had, with reason,


'feared less the formidable

men.
Dreaded.
Riot*.

power of Great
had

Britain, than the domestic 'tumults, that

'engulphed
lics.

all

former democracies and repub-

Swallowed
up.
leracy.

The 'confederation was a league of G5 'friendship among thirteen separate and independent 'sovereignties or nations, each of

Amity.

Governments
Plots.

which was exposed


monarchies.
liable to arise

to the intrigues of foreign

Dissensions and disputes were

Contention*.

'among themselves
its

in fact

each

Between.
Present.

70

state,

looking to
and

own

'immediate interest,

rest, in the 45th line? 8. Between disturb and 47th line? (4.) 9. From what is independent derived? 10. What does its first prefix denote? 11. What does its second prefix signify? 12. When two prefixes are joined to a word, which governs the meaning of the word ? 13. Illustrate the difference between contentions and dissensions, in the 68th line? 14. What

between

repose

interrupt, in the

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


bad
silently

159

withdrawn
till,

its

support from the

Quietly.

confederation,
'its

in the

language of the day,


to fall,

Expression.

tottering edifice

was ready
its

and

Shaking.
I'mler.

crush the country

beneath

ruins."

(5.)

75 The

states

of Greece furnish

admonitory

Warning.

lessoha o( the evils of

disunion; and, not-

SepvstauL
Motives.

withstanding the most powerful inducements


existed to 'cement the union of the states,
yet

Strengthen.
Tr.al.

every day's
strifes

'

experience

proved, that

SO petty

were

likely to

'agitate the dif-

Disturb.

ferent states.

'Dissensions about boundaries, 'cause of discord, had


arisen;

Quarrels.

the the

fruitful

Source.
Fearful.
Increasing'.

states

seemed

to

be jealous of each
;

other's

85

common head
was,
in
fact,
full

growing greatness there was no to the government there was


;

General.

no president of

all

the states

but 'each

state

Every.
Reality.

an independent nation, and


privilege of establishing

had the
00

any

Possessed.
Sort.

kind of government.
( 6.)

Hence, foreign

'intrigue

might be
states,

Finesse.

brought to bear 'upon one or a few

On.
Actuate.
Hinted.

and induce them


vernments:
it

to

adopt monarchical go-

had been even suggested that


'king.

Washington should be
'continue; that there

Experience

Monarch.
DemoDilrated.

95 proved that the confederacy could not long

must be a government

luina.n.
V.ircr.

of more power and energy; that, to main(\o their prefix-

Mm
thoir

(
lit,

5)

r
l

>.

What

ifl

the difference
in

between
sentences
each,

iii

the

b,

Bid line? 17, What is

16. Illustrate

the difference
in

between

ana
catin
to

every, in the 86tli line?

18. Illottrate
i

m
word

theii rignifi-

W
on, in

it

of the Otmcet importance

preserve domestic tranquil:


the

between
iu order

upon and

Old

line

each

in

160

COMMENTARY ON THE
and secure domestic
the utmost importance.
tranQuiet.
Different.

tain the union,


quillity,
100

was of

Se-

parate states would not have the power to

Ability

defend themselves against foreign 'aggression


;

Assaults.

the

weak would be

'unable
;

successrivalries,

Not

able.

fully to

contend against the strong

Coropetit ions

jealousies,
105

and retaliatory measures would

Revenging.
Unlimited.
Separation.
Bliss.

be 'interminable. Those who had been rocked


in the cradle of 'disunion, and experienced

the horrors of war, well

knew

that the hap-

piness and 'greatness of nations, as well as


families,

Strength.

consisted

in 'piety

and domestic
IV.irr.

no 'tranquillity.
in the first

mid. 23. simple sentence of section 24. What advantage is there in spelling words from 25. What in spelling them seriatim one's reading lesson?
In
the
third.
I

LESSON XXXI
( 1.)

The

fourth

'object

in

establishing

I'cMi'n.

the Constitution was, "to

provide for the

common
human
The

'defence."
is

As

the present state of


Formed.

society

'constituted, the powerful

5 are 'prone to disregard the rights of the weak.


history of the world exhibits the 'mournindividuals and nations are disMelancholy.
Prone.

ful fact, that

posed to consider their immediate pecuniary


interest,

and not

their

own permanent

'wel-

Benefit.

10 fare, the cause of justice, or the 'inalienable


rights of

Inherent.

man.

Innumerable instances have

Numberless.

(
2.

1.)

What

1. What was the object of the framers of the Constitution? does the history of the world show ? ( 2.) 3. What is the

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


'occurred, in

1G1
i

which

the most unwarrantable

an spired.

and unprovoked assaults have been made


upon the weak and deteneeless.
a matter of the utmost
their dearly-bought

Attacks.

($2.)

'The
it

IVrKc.
K-taMishers.
t'i.Mscquence
Inheritance.

15 founders of our republic justly considered

importance

to shield

treasure

the

legacy

they were to

bequeath, not to their posterity


all

Give by will.
Finally.
Artifices.

al^ne. but eventually to

mankind

against
In

90 the
the

arts, the

arms, and the machinations of


union

crowned heads of Europe.


without

Kmijs.

there would be no danger of


the states
:ld
:

it,

the 'chances of

war 'among war


2

Between.
Liabilities.

increase, in exact 'ratio to the


states.

aug-

Proportion.

85 mented number of
sources of
( 3.)

There would be
prolific of all

increased.
Fruitful.

no guarantee against the most

war

territorial boundaries.
'collision

Causes.
Clashing.

If

our forefathers feared

among

only thirteen nations

if

they 'saw

Observed.

30 the necessity of union then


ions

to

guard against
assaults

Need.
Invasions.
Beneficial.

at

home, and
briefly

from

abroad,
for us to

it

may

be interesting and 'profitable

examine

some of the grounds


in

Caudmtf.
tshed.

01 which they

predicated their views,

35 providing better for the 'common defence.

General.
Beheld.

lewed the early history of the mother


country, divided into seven
S Gotland and
and
\$

kingdoms, unIreland, 'sub-

Realms.
Exposed.

(\\ffor

legacy, in the 17tli


5.

lino?
\s

4. Illns-

nullifications.

What
Ii

the differ-

the iropresrestricted to

ne of the dictkmari
r

ia

thii

opinion.
the

syi.
-y.

( 3.) 8. Oire tweetl need


hot ween

jn the

'

10.

What

if

'litl.rrr.--f

162

COMMENTARY ON THE
wrongs
all

jected to insults and

'scourged
nations.

Chastised.
Fearful.

40 and

'

timid victim of

warlike

They

traced the causes of the 'growing and

Increasing.

constantly advancing 'greatness of England,


as century after century passed 'away, to the

Power.
Br.

'augmented and cemented union

at

home,

till

45

all

the nations of the 'earth

respected the

World.
Appellation.

British 'name,

and awarded

to

England the
( 4.)

proud

title

of mistress of the 'ocean.

A
its

'memento of the

effects of disunion,

and

Memorial.

results, misery, 'imbecility, and ruin,

was

Weakness.
Indians.

50

to

be seen in the 'aboriginal inhabitants of


After having degenerated from
ttie

'this count?';/.

Anirnra.

time 'immemorial, the Indians, at


the 'discovery of America,

time of

Hit of

mind

and 'consecrated
55 disunion,
the

their

were numerous, time to war; vet, by

Finding out
I >e

ruled.

'tribe after 'tribe was overcome by European 'conquerors, until, where millions of the aborigines were formerly 'mar-

Invaders.

MnMrn-d.
Oidrr of
battle.

shalled in battle array, no vestige remained


*

of their 'existence.

)U

!D':.

60

( 5.)

The measure
'filled.

of their 'irrational

Unreasonable.

career has been

No more

do the

Made

full.

midnight
disgrace
soil.

orgies of barbarous 'incantations

Revelries.
1 En chin tram U.

human

nature, and pollute Atlantic


is

Their only 'monument

the history
will

Memento.
Victors.

65 written by their 'conquerors, which

ever

ocean and sea, in the 47th line? ( 4.) 11. Repeat the substance of section four? 12. What is the difference between consecrated and devoted, in the

54th line?
14.

13. Illustrate
is

in sentences their various sig-

nifications.

What

the difference
in

between
their

tribe

and

sept, in

the

55th line?

various significations. ( 5.) 16. What is the only monument of the aborigines of the Atlantic states? 17. In what way is the common defence best secured ?

15. Illustrate

sentences

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


remain, to exhibit the results of war, and to
afford a 'salutary lesson
to
all

163

Consequfcrne.

succeeding
is

Beneficial.

ages, that the

"common

defence"

best se-

nmntiniM
Continual.

cured, not by the constant use of arms, but

70 by fraternal union.
stitution

((>.)

Since the Con-

nrvthnly.

was formed, Europe has furnished incontestable proofs of the wisdom of our
ancestors.

Framed.
Prudence.
Peers.

Hereditary kings and

'

nobles

have made

common

cause

to 'extirpate

every

Eradicate.

75 root of republican

principles;

the soil of

Tenets.
Steeped.
Striving.

Europe has been soaked with


millions

the blood of

'struggling for liberty; the people


'against

of

Prance and Greece have had.


for

Contrary

to.

their will,

monarchical forms of government

Inclination.

80 'prescribed

them by the M Holy Alliance ;" and unhappy Poland has been 'crushed by
the tyrants'

Established.
Overwhelmed.

power, and blotted from the

list

Despots'.

of nations.

would be as
85 rope
;

Without union, standing 'armies requisite in America as in Euwithout standing armies,


in

Jlattalions.

I:. '.;<

nv-iMr.

and one of the champions of the Conof republics can never be

Zeaksoi supporters.

stitution said, that "

Remarked.
l'r vilc.-ts.

the

liberties
;

'danger
( 7.)
1)0

nor, with large armies, safe."

Jeopardy.

The

fifth

object of the 'framers of

the Constitution,

was " to

'promote the gcextensive

d welfare."
Hint
'

In a country so

i-

the (Inference
in

Illustrate

20.

R
I

between OgH and geiM nititms. in the 68th sentences their various significations. ( 0.) 21. What is the difference lection six.
the 7 J
1

jirv/i arc. in
!

line?
lieis

J-:2.

Between

nohlcs

pftTt, in the 1-Ul line

23,

Why

does

word

tyr<ints. in the
I

wrhen the same word

often need to express


tie-

importance of
'

punc

''

wmt

the fifth

What nasi

necessarily

164
as the

COMMENTARY ON THE
American
republic, there

must

'neces-

Indicpenaably.

sarily exist a variety of

'pursuits,

and of
state

Objects.

'occupations

among the people


it

of the different

Vocations.

95 states; and the apparent policy of one

Seeming.
Incite.

might 'induce
'duty,

to

import

all

goods free of

whereas another
all

state

would impose
in

Impost
Articles.

duties upon

imported 'goods,

order to
at

encourage the 'manufacture of goods


100

Making.

home.

( 8.)

No

'plan of legislation could


in a

Scheme.
Cunt rived.

be 'devised, which would be acceptable


'pecuniary view to
part of the Union.
all

the people in every the 'importance

Monetary.

Hence

-ity.

of a national 'government that


105

would look

Administration.
S< ction.

with impartial eves upon every part of the


Union, and adopt only such laws as would
'contribute the greatest

amount of

benefit to

Yield.

the greatest 'numbers

that would, so far as


award
to

Multitudes.

circumstances

justify,

each section

Adjudge.

no corresponding advantages, and enact laws,

Frame.
Grants.

and make 'appropriations that would eventually 'redound to the glory and lasting benefit

Contribute.
Individual.

of the whole country.

(9.)

Separate states

look generally to the immediate interests of


us their
to

Particular.

own

people, and

would not be so
'

likely

Apt.

keep
all

in

view the rights of the

citizens

Denizens.
Chief.

of

the other states, as the 'general govern-

ment; and 'commerce, the greatest source

Traffic.

exist, in a country so extensive as ours? ( 8.) 27. Is there any plan of legislation that will contribute equally to the pecuniary gain of every part of the country? 28. What are your reasons for this opinion? 29. What are some of the advantages of a national government? (9.) 30. Give a synopsis of section nine. 31. What is the

difference

between citizens and denizens, in the 116th line? 32. Illustrate in sentences their various significations. 33. What is the differ-

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


of wealth, of 'improvement, and of civiliza-

165

Advancement.

tion, if left to the

protection v( single state

Guardianship
Ruined.

governments, would
jealous

be

destroyed by the

and

arrogant powers of Europe;

Haughty.
Fostering.

but under the protecting care of the Union,


the
its

American

flag

commands
is

respect in

Baaaur.
Karth.
Shields.

every part of the


mightiest
the general welfare

world, and

one of the

bulwarks of knowledge.
is

Hence

best

promoted by the
object

Advanced.
ConlVderatloll.

Union.
( 10.)
lao

The

sixth

and

'last

menis,

FiuaL
Makers.
Insure.

tioned by the 'framers of the Constitution


,%

t<>

secure the blessings of liberty to our-

135

American liberty obtained by an immense sacrifice had been of treasure and of life; the people had endured all the horrors and misery of war.
selves

and our

'posterity."

Descendants.

vast.

Suffered.

Dreadfulness
Originators.

and the authors of the Constitution


and
religious liberty.
to establish a

fully ap-

preciated the 'inestimable blessings of civil


( 11.)

Invaluable.
Spiritual.

Hence, they
that

wisbqd
140

government
rights

might

Form.
Permanrncy.
Similarity.

combine
sibility

'durability with
'equality

moderation of power

responof energy with with a sense of independence diness of counsels with popular
elections
1

stea-

Know/

l<fty

spirit

^patriotism with the love

Zeal

for.

145

of personal
the

aggrandisement

to

combine

Advancement.

happiness of the whole with the least

Welfare.

practicable 'restraints, so as to insure perence betw


sentence? :t of the a
r.can liberty obtained
!

and banner,
I

in

the

121th lino

.'U.

Utattrata

in

In

what way W%t


ant of

(1


166
manence
150

COMMENTARY ON THE
in the public institutions, 'intelligent
Wise.
Pure.
Toils.

legislation,

and 'incorruptible private


'

virtue.

The
out

success of the

labours of the framers

of the Constitution has 'thus far been with'a

So.

parallel.

( 12.)

Here, thought

is

An equal
WealthSafe.

liberal,

conduct

free,

'property and person


;

'secure,
155

manners independent
its

and here mind


us alone,

enjoys
rests

free 'scope.

With

now

Exercise.
Trying.

the chief responsibility of 'testing the

practicability of a 'republican government.

Free.
Signal.

We stand as a 'beacon of hope to the enslaved


millions of other lands,
160

and an object of

Yiis-

Suspicion.

trust

and 'dread
'light

to their oppressors.

The

Fear.
I'n-cfilrnt.

success or failure of our 'example, will dis-

pense

and

liberty

to

the world, or

Knowledge.
Nerve.

'strengthen the hands of tyrants,


'firmer the chains,

draw
no

still

and extinguish

for ages
'disDiaacrtemeata.

i the hopes of the oppressed.

May

sensions, no vice or corruption, 'destroy our


'flattering

Annihilate.

prospects; and

may

no dazzling

Favorable.
Plausible.

visions of ambition, no 'specious pretensions

of deceiving tyrants, ever induce us to betray


no our high and 'sacred trust. THE CONSTITUTION
That 'monolith,
so lofty

and enduring,
its

Obelisk.

Which Has long


175
It is

fills

the eye with


its

'proportions grand,

Dimensions.

since 'proved

fitness for securing

Shown.
Happy.

UnnumberM
a 'proper

blessings to our 'favor'd land.

monument

beside,
Framers.
In truth.

For

all its 'authors,

mighty, pure, and sage,

Who

are 'indeed their grateful country's pride,


glory of a 'trying age.

The crowning
section eleven.
39.

Testing

( 12.) 3S.

What

is

the

meaning

great responsibility rests with us? of monolith of obelisk, in the 171st line?

What

40. Illustrate the difference

between them.
j

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

167

LESSON XXXII.
legislative DEPARTMENT**
(
1.)

The

exercise of legislative, execu-

Employment
Authorities.

tive,

the

and judicial powers, is indispensable to energy and 'stability of government.


these are
all

IVrmancncy.
Reposed.

Whenever
3 son, or

'vested in one per-

body of men,

the

government

is

Assemblage.

despotism*

Their entire

separation in our

Detachment.
Gives.

Constitution, forms one of the strongest possible securities to public liberty

and 'private

Individual.
Benefits.

rights.

The advantages
power,
a

of a division in the

gislative

also,

are

numerous.

It

Manifold.
Places.

inU

cheek upon hasty or oppressive

slation; opposes a barrier to the accu-

An

obstruc-

tion.

mulation of
vents

all

powers

in a single

body,

'pre-

Hinders.
Macliinations
Acts.

any

artifices

of popular leaders, and

15 secures a calm review of the same 'measures

by differently 'organized bodies.


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
.)

Constructed.

Section second 'relates to the strucBMOt

ture

and 'organization of the house of repreThis being the

more 'popular 20 branch of the legislature, the members are ted at intervals of only two years, that
sentatives.

the people
( 1.)
1.

may have
ar"
all

frequent opportunities
the evils arising from a

What
it

are
r
.

legislati

vested?

3.

want of union ? Of how many

bran-

I.
>.

What powers
form
?

government?
is

What

d
I

are necessary to 6. What are the


!

of a division in

department

(% 2.)
ch<

7.

often are the


era

members ofths House of Representatives

who

wtk:

n the meaning of wordi, are referred


1st

to the

*es. Sex of rii/riyrm an * See Article I. of the Constitution, sections

and

fed

168

COMMENTARY ON THE
Disapprobation.

of expressing their approval or 'disapproval of their 'conduct, and of making

known

their

Proceedings.
Desires.

25 'wishes
nefits

through

them.

representative

should be of 'sufficient age to enjoy the be-

Proper.

of some

experience, to

have

his 'judg-

Understanding.

ment 'matured, and his and generally known.


30 pected
to feel that

principles established,
'Aliens cannot be exsoil

Well formedForeigner!.

'attachment to the

and

Regard.
Familiarity.

interests of the country, nor that 'acquaint-

ance with

its institutions,

which

is

'necessary

Requisite.

to constitute patriotic or 'efficient public officers.


It
is

Competent.
Essential.

'important that a representative


]

35 should possess a familiar knowledge


'interests

of the

An

intimate.

of those

whom

he represents, and
of the measures

Advantages.
Effects.

share with them the

'results

which he may
40 every
thirty

'support.

( 3.)

The number
one for

Uphold.
Limited.
Citizens.
Immoderately.

of representatives

was

'restricted to

thousand 'inhabitants, that the


large,

House might not become 'unreasonably


and too unwieldy
siness.

for the 'transaction of bu-

Performance
Discreetness.

There

is

also

much 'wisdom and


state,

consideration 'manifested in that provision,

Exhibited.
Grants.
Proportion.

45 which 'secures

to

every

however
'ratio

small,

one representative; otherwise the


'exclude the smaller states from
the legislative
8.

of re-

presentation might be 'raised so high as to

Elevated.

any share of

Debar.

power

in

one

'

branch.

The

House.

By whom? 9. What are the qualifications for electors? 10. Why11. What are the qualifications a short term of office selected? 12. Why is a qualification in requisite for members of the House? 13. Why are aliens excluded ? respect to age necessary? 14. Why should the representative be an inhabitant of the state in which he 16. is chosen? (3.) 15. How are representatives apportioned?
is

See Article

I.

of the Constitution, sections

1st

and

2d.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


50
ratio of representation

169

established by act of

Made.

Congress,

in

1843,

is

one

for seventy thous-

A member.
Souls.

and

six

hundred and eighty inhabitants.

(4.)

The power of impeachment


in

is

the

Arraignment
Charge.
Trusts.

right to present a written accusation against

55 persons

high

offices, for
trial for

the purpose of

bringing them to

Persons of high

any misconduct. rank and influence, who


justice.

Misdemeanor
Station.

might escape punishment before the ordinary


tribunals,

Common.
Trial.

may

thus be brought to
first

GO The third section of the


o/'the

article 'treats

Relates

to.

organization and 'powers of the Senate.


SENATE.*

Functions.

( 5.)

Two

senators are chosen from each

Selected.
Division.

state, so that in this

'branch

all

the states are


states

'equal:

and though the small


in the other

may

be

Alike.

G5 'outvoted

branch, by the larger

Overcome.
Complete.
Level.

ones, here, the smallest stand

on a perfect
are
state,

equality with the largest.

The members

sen by the legislature of the

and are
term of
in
its

Elected.

therefore the representatives of the states,

Accordingly.

70 and not of the people


six

'directly.

Immediately.
Insures.

years

secures greater

stability

counsels, and
ation in
ie

its

more experience and informmembers, than a shorter term.


be
l

Practice.
Briefer.

census

to

made?

17.

How

i>

the
19.

number of represen-

tatives
that e

limited!

18.

Why

thus limited?

Why
?

is
!

it

important

the

ire

have at least one representative 20. What is in 1843? (4.) 21. How are vacancies filled? 23. Over what the speaker and other officers chosen
1

24.

lint li

the

power of impeachment?
il

Of what
bers cho*'
cho*'-'
I

it

the Senate coenpoc

F<-r

what
years secure
!

28.

Why
What

does a

81.

are the memeqaal number 30. epresent proportion is oh


:in
!

How

170
The

COMMENTARY ON THE
Entire.
Will.
Affairs.

'whole body is changed in six years, and 'must always retain a large share of ex75
perience in public 'matters.

The Senate
;

is

an 'important check upon government and it is worthy of 'remark, that those republics that have 'endured the longest, and secured
80 most the 'respect of mankind, have been 'shielded by the wisdom and foresight of
Senates.
in
( 6.)

Essential.

Observation.

Continued.

Regard.
Protected.
Post.

The

'office

of Senator being,
that

some

respects,

more 'important than


is

Momentous.

of Representative, greater age

'required.

Demanded.
Lengthened.
Intercourse.
Distant.

85 The term of citizenship is also 'increased, on account of the connexion of the Senate with
'foreign nations, in the appointment of

am-

bassadors, and the

formation

of

treaties.

Nine years does not appear


90 sonable term

to be

an unreaatRegard.
Motlur.

for a foreigner to lose his

tachment
'identified

for his 'native country,

and become

with the interests of his adopted


Land.

'country.
( 7.)
bit

Senator must also be an inhax

resident.

bitant of the State

which he

represents, that
'

Arts

for.

he

may

be acquainted with the

local intein

Particular.
Requirement*.

rests

and 'wants of the State, and share


State.

the effect of 'measures, relating to the rights

Acta.

and 'sovereignty of the


ioo

Here,

we

Supremacy.

may

'observe, that

no

qualification, as to pro-

Remark.

every second year"? 32. How may temporary appointments be made? 33. In what time is the whole body changed ? 34. What does it al-

ways

retain?

35.

What

are the qualifications requisite for a senator?


?

( 6.) 36. of the House?

Why is greater age required for a Senator than for a member 37. Why a longer term of citizenship 38. Why
( 7.)
See Article
I.

should he be an inhabitant of the State which he represents?


of the Constitution, section 3d.


CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
perty,
tors or
is

17]

required either in regard to SenaRepresentatives.


'Merit and talent
stations of

Respect.

Worth.
Offices.

have
honor
ioo

free access to the highest


in

the land, and thus receive

direct

Immediate.
Assistance.

and powerful 'encouragement

( 8.)

The

:ate is probably the most suitable body upon which this power could have been

Proper.
Trust.

conferred.

It is

generally composed of

men

Bestowed.
Eminent.
Uprightness.

of distinguished talent, mature age, and ripe


no experience, in
the

whose wisdom and

'integrity

whole country have 'confidence.

In a

Credence.
Impulses.
Territorial.

great degree removed from popular passions,

and the influence of sectional prejudices, they


uld be likely to act impartially.
115

On

ac-

Equitably.

count of their numbers, and the

assurance

Confidence.
Stabdity.

arising from 'permanency of place and dignity of station, they


( 9.) It
is,

would act independently.


political

Without
straint.

re-

moreover, a

body, and

Furthermore
Familiar.
Functionaries.

acquainted with the rights and duties of the


i public officers
it.

who

should be brought before

Trials for

usually

come

before the

impeachment are not such as Supreme Court the


;

Misdemeanor*.

Customarily.
Used.
Guilt.

court

is

not, therefore,

'accustomed

to ex-

amining cases of
i-io

political

'delinquency.

'Besides, one of

its

judges

may

be the very
in

MTCovrr.
A
rr;u -r.cd

person to be impeached, and

that case

39.1s there any property qualification required in a Senator? 40. Who i5 president of the Senate ? 41. When may he vote? 42. What officers are chosen by the Senate? (8) *3. What body has sole power to try impeachments, and who presides when the president r 4is to be tried ? What 4 \. What number is necc^ary to convict? are v mi why tho Senate is the most Mutable body for the trial of imp Why II DOt the Supreme Court suita! f% 10.) 47. How flu does
>.
'

n tth.

172
the court

COMMENTARY ON THE
would be
'

likely to feel a strong


its

Apt.
Favor.

'partiality for

one of

members.

( 10.)

The
130

'object of

impeachment being punishremoval from


Yet, that they

Purpose.

ment

for political offence, the

TransgTes-

office 'appears to

be

sufficient.

Seems.
Avoid.
Penalty.

may

not 'escape chastisement, they are ametrial

nable to

and 'punishment

in

the courts

of law.
135

For

this 'reason, trial for

impeach-

Cause.

courts

ment may have been 'excluded from the for then, they would 'decide twice
;

Debarred.

Determine.
Crime.
Permitted.

upon the same

'offence.
its

( 11.)

Each

state

is

'allowed to consult
in reference to the
140

own

local convenience
'elec-

time and place of

Choosing.

tion
to

but, as the 'ability of the


its

government
to

Power.
Measures.
Final.

carry on

'operations,

depends upon

these elections, the 'ultimate

power

make
is

or alter such 'regulations, in order to preserve the 'efficiency of the government,


H5 'placed in Congress.

Schemes.
Enenry.
Vested.

Otherwise, the govern-

150

ment would possess no 'means of self-preThe more 'carefully we examine servation. the nice 'arrangement and the skilful distribution of the powers of the 'Constitution, the more shall we be 'impressed with the
surpassing
the

Power.
rifely.

onl.r.
rue

law
of.

Cub timed

wisdom of

its

'construction,

and

Format ion.
Receive.

more
its

shall

we

'imbibe the patriotic zeal

of

'framers.

Const rurtrrc.

judgment extend

48. To what else is the in cases of impeachment? convicted party, liable? 49. Why were trials for impeachment excluded from courts? ( 11.) 50. How are the times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, prescribed? 51. Who may alter such regulations? 52. With what exception? 53. Why is this power necessarily left to Congress?
See Article
I.

of the Constitution, section 1th.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

173

LESSON XXXIII.
DUTIES AND COMPENSATION OF THE MEMBERS; AND OF THE POWEUS OF CONGKE*>.
'

(1.)

The power
;

to

judge of

elections

Ctaoiet nada ol othYcrs.

must be

lodged somewhere, in order to pre-

Placed.

vent impositions

and

if

vested in any other

Wrongs.
Hazardous.
Requisite.

body, might prove 'dangerous to the legis5 lative department.


It is

important that some

number should be
of business;
Bsed
rign

fixed for the transaction

Performance.
Occasionally.

or laws might "sometimes be

by a minority, and thus defeat the


of
the

Enacted.
Object.

Constitution.

power
is

to

mpel the attendance of absentees

also

Enforce.
Totally.

indispensable, or legislation might be 'utterly

suspended.

No body
and

can 'transact business


self-respect,

Do.

with proper 'order and deliberation, nor preserve


its

MethodHonor.
Ability.

'dignity

without
its

15 the power of making and enforcing


rules.
( 2.)

own

member, knowing
is

that his

Regulations.
Suffrage.

'vote
it

upon every question


exposed
in

recorded where

is

to public view,

and

may

be

OpenAccount.
Consideration.

brought

judgment against him,

will vote

20 with

deliberation

and caution upon every


Both

'measure presented for consideration.


H< uses must concur to enact a law.

Act.

Hence

Make.

the provision to prevent unnecessary adjourn(


to
1.)
1.

judjje

Of what is each House the judge? 2. What constitutes a What may a smaller number do? 4. Why is the power of the election?, fa <<f ifti DWO members, given to each y should a majority be required 10 OOMtitatfl 1 quorum? House over its pro Mid members?
.

essary to Congress
See
Ar'M
'
1

(<

J.)

8.

What

of the

<"< >n*tituti'

174

COMMENTARY ON THE
Retarding.

ment and needless 'delay in the transaction of 25 business. Congress must 'adjourn, every second year, on the 3d of March, because on
'

Prorogue.
For.
Service

day the term of 'office of all the representatives and one-third of the senators expires. ( 3.) 'Objections have been made to al30 lowing a 'compensation to members, because it was alleged that it 'tempted the unworthy to
that

Terminates.
'ions.

Recompense.
Incited.

intrigue for office, 'chiefly on account of the

Mainly.

pay.
sation

On

the other hand,

if

no 'compensa-

Remuneration.

was

'allowed, none but the wealthy


in the 'halls

35 would be found

of Congress, and

Seats.

'poverty might exclude the highest merit from


the 'councils of the nation.

Inchcenre.

Senators and

Assemblies.

Representatives are 'paid from the national


'treasury eight dollars per day.

Compensated
Mtory.

The exemption

40 of members from
the

'arrest,

must not be consi-

Seizure.

dered a personal privilege, for the benefit of

Advantage.
Fellow-counsellors.

member, but

for the benefit of his 'con-

stituents,

who might

be deprived of his

'ser-

I.tUTS.

vices and 'influence in the national councils. 45 'Exemption from being questioned for "any

Weight.

speech or debate,"

is

also a public right, 'de-

Instituted.

signed to secure independence and firmness


must each House keep, and from time to time publish ? 9. What proportion is necessary to have ibe yeas and nays entered on the journal? 10. What is the object of this? 11. How long can one House adjourn
without the consent of the other? 12. Why cannot it adjourn for a longer time ? 13. Why must Congress adjourn every second year on the 3d of March ? 14. In what cases are they privileged from arrest ? 15. Can they be questioned in any other place for any speech or debate in either House? ( 3.) 16. What are some of the reasons for allo\\ tag compensation to members? 17. How much are they paid? 18. For what reasons are they privileged from arrest? 19. From being quesfor any speech or debate? (4.) 20. What offices are the members
See Article
I.

of the Constitution, section

6.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


in

175

action,

and freedom

in

'debate.

( i.)

IVsctission.

'Legislators are thus prevented from holding

Lawgivers.
Incompatible
A.

50 any

office

inconsistent with their legislative

An intermingling of the department* is also prevented. The House of Representatives have the power of 'levying taxes. The probable reason why 'revenue bills 55 must originate in the House of Representatives is, that the members are 'elected
duties.

commingling.

obviated.
Assessing.

Income.

Have

origin.

Chosen.
Immediately.

directly

by the people, and therefore ac-

quainted with their local 'interests and their


wishes, while the Senators are 'chosen by

Advantages.
Elected.

60 the

legislatures of the states.

It

is

also in

Assemblies.

accordance with the 'usages of the British


Parliament;
all

Customs.
Collecting.

bills

for

'raising

revenue

must originate
55 preventatives.
Congre^B,
bills

House of Commons, which corresponds xcith our House of Rein the

Commence.
Is

similar to.

According

to the 'usages of

Practices.

that indirectly 'create or aug-

Make.
Can.
Delegates.
Prohibition.
Restraint.

ment

the revenue,

nate as well as the


.)

'may originate in the SeHouse of Representatives.


is

The

'veto

generally regarded as

70 imposing a salutary 'check upon rash and


sty legislation.

The power
is

of the presinot absolute;

Authority.

dent
if

is

only negative, and


bill

Condition d.
Carried.

be passed by a vote of two-thirds,


it

er reconsideration,

becomes a law,

not-

Review.
Privilege.

15 withstanding
;

his veto.

The

veto 'power has,

from holding?

origir.

Why?

24.

21. Why? To wboai


?

a law

(< 5.)

22. Where do revenue bills must cwry bill he presented 25. What ii done if be re*
i

bill

>T -

How

28.

What
See'.
deCooetilntlon,
w-rti.,n

bje

tkmi bare

"

176
however,

COMMENTARY ON THE
in its present form,
it

many

'opposers,

Opponent*.
Argue.
Help*.

who

'contend that

is

ture in the

government

a monarchical fea'enables one

man

80 of the people and


( 6.)
left to

to set his private 'opinions against the

wishes

Views.

ought to be modifiedis

Changed.
Wisely.

The adjournment

very 'properly
devolves

the 'discretion of Congress, unless the


it

Judgment
Passes
to.

two houses disagree, when


the Tresident.

on

The

eighth section of article

Division.

85

first 'specifies the legislative

powers conferred
to
'

Names.
Levy.
Gather.

on Congress.
and
cises, in

Congress has power

lay

'collect taxes, duties, imposts,

and ex-

order to 'pay the debts, and provide

CanceL
Protection.

for the

common

'defence and general wel-

90

fare, but for

no other purpose.
Congress
is

They must
prohibited
Equal.

be 'uniform.

thus

from giving an 'undue preference to particular section of the Union, or to the


particular 'interests of

any

Improper.
Part.
Benefits.

any

party.

95

( 7.)

In 'times of war, the expenses of

Seasons.

one year
of peace,

may
when

exceed the revenue of

many

Be more than
Exigencies.
Usual.

years. 'Emergencies

may
to

also arise in times

the 'ordinary revenue would

be found
ioo

'insufficient

meet the demands


effi-

Inadequate.

upon government.

In such cases the

Power.

ciency of the government would be 'greatly


been made to it? be presented? (
30.

Much,

To whom must every order, resolution, or vote Can Congress adjourn without the consent of the president? 32. What if the two Houses disagree? 33. For what purposes has Congress power to lay and collect taxes, &c. ? 34.
G.)

31.

the difference
excises.

Must they be uniform? 35. Why is it important? 36. Illustrate between taxes and duties. 37. Between imposts and
38. Illustrate in sentences their various

meanings.

How may

( 7.) 39.
is

congress borrow
See Article
I.

money?

40. For

what purposes
8.

this

of the Constitution, section

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


'impaired, without this power, and even
its

177

Weakened.
Jeoparded.
Adjust.

very existence might be endangered.

The

power
ioo

to

regulate

commerce with
'left to

foreign

nations can only be safely 'entrusted to Congress.


It

Committed.
Submitted.

cannot be

the states.

Exthis.

perience under the Confederation taught

Showed.
Followed.

Each

state then

pursued

its

own imaginary
'conflicting re-

local interests; opposite

and

daahfng.
Competition.

no gulations

were adopted;

'rivalry

and jealousy
;

impelled each to retaliatory 'measures

our

Proceedings.

commerce

'dechned, and
;

of foreign nations

became contention was


to be

the prey
rife
;

Diminished.
Confusion.

'an-

archy and ruin seemed


no (
8.)

near at hand.

Appeared.
Plans.

To

prevent conflicting 'arrangements

by the

states, the

power

to 'establish " a uniis

Create.

form rule of 'naturalization"


gress.

given to Con-

Indenization.

Citizens of one state are entitled to

Residents.

the rights
120

and privileges of
if

citizens in an'require

Advantages.

other.

Now,

one state should

Ask
Period.

a long

term of residence, and

another a

short one,
ized
in

a foreigner by becoming natural-

An

alien.

that

term, might
i-

which required the immediately remove


all

'shortest
to

Briefest.

any
citi-

At once.

other,
zen.

and claim

the privileges of a
'

IVmand.
Hal
itation.

The term
-

of

residence required by

Co

five years.

Bankrupt laws are

Statutes.

'designed to obtain for honest but unfortunate

InW-ndfd.

discharge from debts which they


no are unable to
teuaryl
42.

rioaiaarn
Discharge;.

pay-

They

also secure to
baa oongresf orer
tt>

41.

What power

commerce 1
*

What

iW not be leA
r

the state*

has congress with regard


See Artirh
I

lo

naturalisation and bank-

of

178
creditors a

COMMENTARY ON THE
full

surrender

of,

and an equal
bankrupt

Resignation.
Property.
Insolvent.

participation

in,

the 'effects of the debtor.


to pass
'

The
laws,
135

states

have power
there
is

when

no bankrupt law of the

Enactment.
Operation.

United States
( 9.)
all

in 'force.

Money

being the 'standard

by which

Medium.
Effects.

merchandise and property of every kind,

as well as the value of labor, are 'measured,

Gauged.

should be of uniform value throughout the


no nation.

Equai
Given,
Establishing

like

reason

might be 'assigned

for 'fixing the


sures.

standard of weights and meacannot, therefore, be


'

They

left

to

Referred.

the states, as this

would produce intermin-

Continual.
Perplexity.

Conable confusion and embarrassment. ns gross has power to punish 'infringements upon its sole right to 'coin money, and to
prevent 'forgery and fraud upon
ties
its

Encroachment*.

Mint
Counterfeiting.
I

securi-

when they borrow money.


Union, the
'adoption

( 10.)
all

As

Lre.

the mails are to be carried to


150

parts of

Conveyed.
Selection.

the

of any uniform
states

system of 'regulations by the different

Rule*.

would be impossible. The post-oflice is one of the most 'useful departments of government. By it, 'intelligence, literary and private, is
155

Unattainable
Beneficial

Infoimation

'disseminated through the country with great


'speed

Spread,
I>i>jatch.

and

regularity.

It

keeps the people

constantly 'advised of the doings of their


ruptcies?
45. For
44.

Informed.

Why may

not the states enact naturalization laws?

what are bankrupt laws designed? ( 9.) 46. What power has congress over moneys, weights and measures? 47. For what reason is this power given to Congress rather than to the states ? 48. In what case may Congress punish counterfeiting? (10) 49. What power has it in regard to post-offices and post-roads? 50. Why?
See Article
I.

of the Constitution, section

8.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


rulers,

179

which

is

indispensable for a free go-

Requisite.

vernment.
io

'Authors of valuable works, and

Writers.
Introducers.

'discoverers of useful inventions ought to be

'considered

public

benefactors, and

should

Deemed.
Compensation.

receive encouragement and reward for their


labors.

They cannot
states.

obtain

'

protection

Support.
Privilege.

from the

copy-right or 'patent,

given by one

state,

might be 'violated with


'generally defined to be

Invaded.
Rest.
1'suallr.

impunity by

all

the 'others.
is

(11.) Piracy

robbery upon the high seas.


declared
ito

Pirates are the

Open waters.
Foes.

enemies of

all

nations,

and

may
of

be

punished by any nation.

The laws

Condemned.
Drawn.
Usages.

nations can only be 'deduced from reason

and the law of nature, and the 'practices


and
general

consent of 'civilized
is

nations.

Learned.

Each government
175

'responsible to foreign

Answerable.

governments
on the high
tions.

for the 'conduct of its citizens


seas,

Deportment.

and must have 'power


to

to

A utbority.
Violation.

punish any 'infraction of the


( 12.)

laws of na'declare

The power
It

war

Wage.
Obviously.
Fitly.

must evidently be deposited with the general


l

eminent.

seems
are

to

belong 'appropriall

atelv to
all

Congress, where

the states and

Commoawrtltht
Inhabitants.

the 'people

represented.

Congress

y raise and

support armies; but no apthis


1

What

are

\\\o

department
fi
j I

science an

the u I
I

arts?

r
.

).'{.

52. How may Why may not a

Coostate

*rant a copy-rig
to e-"
'

54.

(S 11.)

What power has Congress in regard r r What powei in regard to piraWhat is piracy 1 T>7. Why may

>- >-

'.

any

gainst the la
r
1

tO

ws of nations 1 ( war 59. Why i|

1*2.)

tin-

ngress 1
See Artirlr
I

60.

What

ar<> letters

of manrne and

of tbeCoostitotioi.

180

COMMENTARY ON THE
Purpose.
Period.

propriation of money to that 'use shall "be for


185

a longer 'term than two years."


this

Without

authority, the

power

to

'declare

war

Make.
Ineffectual.

would be 'nugatory. It secures promptitude and by being always 'prepared of action


;

Ready.
Prevent.

for
190

war, a nation
is

may

frequently 'avoid

it.

This power

also important, for the 'sup-

Checking.
Rebellions.
MlMlSt'd.

pression of domestic 'insurrections.

As

this

power might be 'abused


a restriction
is

in

times of peace,
'ap-

placed upon the grant of

Supplies.

propriations for the support of armies.


105

Maintenance

(13.) Congress 'may "provide for and


'maintain a navy." This
'objects as that to raise
It is

power has

the

same

Support.

and maintain armies.


Thought.

'considered less dangerous to the liber-

ties
200

of the people than \in army.

There

is

A soldiery.
.Wvount.
Fleet of ship*

no 'record of any nation having been deprived of liberty by its navy, while many have

been ruined by their 'armies.

navy

is

very

wrces.

'important for the protection of

commerce,
in

NY.dfu'.
Protection.
Control.

and
205

is

a strong

arm of

'defence

war.

Congress

may "make
This* power

rules for the govern-

ment and
forces."

'regulation of the land


is

and naval

Management

'an

indispensable
( 14.)
'

necessary.

consequence of the preceding clauses.

Previous.
ftfaks provi-

The
210

next

power of Congress

is

to

pro-

mam,
Knforre.

vide for " calling forth the militia to

exe-

61. For what purpose are they granted ? 02. What power regard to armies? 63. How is this power restricted? 64. "What are its objects? 60. ( 13.) 65. What power in regard to a navy? What are the benefits of. a navy? 67. What power in regard to the regulation of land and naval forces? 08. To what is this power incident? ( 14.) 69. For what purposes may Congress call forth the

reprisal?
in

See Article

of the Constitution, section

8.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


cute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections,
free

18]

Subdue.
Incursions.

and repel 'invasions."


the

Among

people, there are

'strongest objec-

Greatest.
Sujijxirting.

tions to
215

maintaining a large standing army,


the

justly
}

deemed

curse of republics.

This

Bane.
Citizen soldiery.

>\ver

of calling on the 'militia prevents this

necessity,

which must otherwise


'exercised

'exist,

for

Be.

the purpose of suppressing insurrections and


riots.
220

SuMunig.
Wielded.
Maintain.

The power
is

by Congress

over the militia

designed to 'secure uni-

formity and energy of action, while the 'control


left

Governance.
Hinders.

to the

states

'prevents

them from

being entirely deprived of the means of military defence,


in

Wholly.
Exigency.

any sudden 'emergency.


authority in

Ml

( ir>.) It is

indispensable that government


its

Needful.
Ability.
Officers.

should have power to enforce


the place

where

its

functionaries convene, so

that they shall not be liable to 'insult, or to


their proceedings interrupted

have

Abuse.
Debates.

by

force.

One

instance has occurred, where, being unable


to

Occasion.
Acquire.

obtain the protection of the state in

which

they were, they were obliged to adjourn to

Compelled.
Authority.

another

place.

(^10.)

The 'power over


to

places 'purchased for the erection of forts,

Boegfct
like.

S8

etc..

was

dictated
the
in

by similar reasons
of government.

that over

seat

This

Site.

declares
militia?
70.
I

plain

language the power of


this

What

necessity does
tei

power ha'

the organizing
I

power prevent? 71. What and governing of the militia? 74. 73 For what purpose 7

wee between immmctkMB and


i

yfafil (15.) 75. over the seat of poverninenl and placet par-

ibeee
See Article
I

poweni
tfe

77.

What

is

the

of

n,

icction

8.

182
means
240

COMMENTARY ON THE
all

Congress to 'employ
to

necessary and proper

Apply.

carry out the 'foregoing powers.


that a

Preceding.

It is 'clear,

power

to

do a thing, with-

Evident.

out the right to use the 'necessary

means

to

Needful.
Futile.

perform
power.
all
245

it,

w ould
r

be an

idle

and

'useless

But

this clause is inserted to

avoid

Put

in.

possible 'doubt, for

DJMI

it;iiiity

The bane of governments is 'want of power To make effective 'wholesome laws enacted, And steadfastness 'forsakes them from the hour
Concessions are of 'feebleness exacted.

Lack.
Useful.

Desert*

78. By whom selected? present seat of government? ( lfi.) 80. For what pot] What general powers are given to Coflgresi 81. Give the four last lines of the lewon in prose, and supply the eili
!
|

7<.

LESSON XXXIV.
PROHIBITIONS UPON THE POWERS OF CONGRESS, AND UPON THE STATES.*
( 1.)

The

ninth section of the

first 'article

cuom.
h<>
Expatriation

of the 'limitations and prohibitions upon the power of Congress. " The'migratreats

tion or 'importation of such persons, as

any

Entrance
Fit.

5 of the States

now

existing shall think 'proper

to admit, shall not be 'prohibited

by the Con-

ForWiOaa
r.eviou*
impost.
Levied.

gress, prior to the year

one thousand eight

eight. But a tax or duty may be 'imposed upon such importation, not ex10 ceeding ten dollars for each "person." This

hundred and

mmm,
Relating.

clause will be understood as 'referring to the


(
1.) 1.

What

prohibition

tion or importation of certain


*

upon Congress in respect to the migrapersons? 2. What tax may be imp


of the Constitution, section
9.

See Article

I.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


slave-trade.

183

Congress ^vas 'prohibited from

Prevented.
Prohibit.
Peranna In bond-

passing any act to prevent the importation

of 'slaves until the year 1808.


15 this
restriction

Boob

after

was
its

removed,

Congress

Restraint.

abolished the slave-trade, thus setting the


first

Destroyed.
Prohibition.

example of
used
in

interdiction in

modern
is

times.

(&) The

writ of habeas corpus


law, and
is

Days.

term

common
is

em-

Phrase.

90 ployed, when a person


ertain

imprisoned, to
is

Incarcerated

whether the imprisonment

lawful

Determine.

or not.
fies
4i

The

writ, " habeas corpus," signi-

Means.

you may have the body," and autho-

Empowers.
Addressed.

rizes the officer to

whom

it

is

directed, to

25 bring the prisoner from 'confinement, before


a judge, and
if

Durance.
Reason.
Inadequate.
Rightly.

the cause of the imprison-

ment be
at liberty.

insufficient,

he

is

immediately

set

This

is

justly esteemed the great


liberty,

bulwark of personal
upended unless
it."

and cannot be

Defence.
Intermitted.
'Security.

u the public 'safety require

( 3.)

"

\o

bill

of attainder, or ex post

Impeachment.

facto law, shall be passed."


tainder,
is

bill

of at-

Enacted.
Criminating.
Brings.

an act 'convicting a person of


for

ne

fault,

which

it

inflicts

upon him
trial.
life

punishment of death, without any


Surfi acts,

Penalty.
Ik reave.

they deprive a person of


guilt,

without any lags] proof of his


To what does
!

are

in the

Criminality.

thi< prohibition refer?


5.

4.

Has

the slave

<.f
-

When, babeai rorpoi be Mtpended 7 What ($ 3.)


?

( 2.)

only. <an the privilege of the


6.

8.
is

What Can a
a
hill

is

a writ of habeas

hill

of attainder or of attainder ? 10.

i)

a bill Of att'iijvhr ;m<[ an ex post facto

184

COMMENTARY ON THE.
Ex
post facto
Censurable.

highest degree 'reprehensible.

40 laws are laws made after the 'act is done. By these a person might be 'punished for acts

Deed.
Chastised.

which were lawful when 'committed. The tyranny and injustice of these laws are 'apparent. " No tax or duty shall be laid on arti( 4.)
45
cles exported

Done
Obvious.

Goods.
Favor.

from any State.


to the

No

'prefer-

ence

shall

be given by any 'regulation of


ports of one

Law.
Harbors.
Ships.

commerce, or revenue
sels,

State over those of another; nor shall 'ves-

bound

to or

from one State, be obliged

Compelled.

50

to enter, clear, or

The
it

'design
to

pay 'duties, in another." of these two clauses is similar;


'rights

Taxes.
Piin.nsr.

is

preserve the equal


to 'prevent

of the

Privileges.

states,

and

Congress from giving


to the interests

Debar.
Improper.
Ki.C^rro.ntii.

any 'undue preference


55
'pursuits of

and

one state over those of another.


shall

(5.)

"No money
made by
law.

be 'drawn from

Taken.

the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations

And

a regular state-

Detail.

ment and account of


from time
to time."

the receipts and expenshall be published

Disburse -

G0 ditures of all public money


of the 'president are

M;ul;

known

Thus, the expenditures

Expenses.

made dependent upon

Chief magis-

the 'appropriations of the people's representa- G rants.


tives.

An
is

'account of the expenditures and


to

Exhibit.

65
law

'receipts

be published, that the people


( 4.) 12.

Moneys

re-

11.

What

are ex post facto laws?

What

restriction

in respect to taxes,

of these

commerce and revenue? 13. What is the purpose restrictions? ( 5.) 14. In what manner, only, can money be
the treasury?
15.

drawn from
granted
?

tures be kept

and published?

16.

Why should an account of expendiWhy may not titles of nobility be


title
9.

17.

Why may

not an officer receive a present, office or


I.

See Article

of the Constitution, section

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

185

may
and

bo acquainted with the nature, extent,


authority of each.
in (
(>.)

Character.
Force.
Uniformity.

perfect

equality, not only

rights
all

and

privileges,

but in

rank,

among

citizens,

being con-

Standing.

70 lemplated by the 'Constitution, there would


be manifest

Chnrter of
rights,

impropriety
titles

in

allowing Con-

Un.siiitable-

IKSS.

gress to grant
vent

of nobility.

To

pre-

Rank.
Corruption.

bribery of national servants by foreign

nations, officers of the

government are

'pro-

Debarred.

75 hibited from accepting any present, 'emolument,


the
office,

Reward.
Division.

or

title.

The

tenth 'section of
the
'prohibitions

first

article
states.

contains

Interdictions

upon the
( 7.)

On-

No

State shall enter into any treaty,


;

Become a
party
to.

60

alliance, or confederation

grant

letters

of

Compact.
Stamp.
Placed.

marque, or reprisal
government.

or coin money."

Such

powers are 'reposed exclusively

in the national

They cannot be

exercised by

Used.

states of various local interests, and acting

Numerous.
Interfering.

sj from a different policy, without 'conflicting


with each other, and with the
general go-

Main.
Rufti'iud.

vernment.

The

" bills of credit" alluded to,

are a denomination of paper

money

'issued

Sent out.
Previous
to.

by the colonies before the revolution, and terwards by the states. No -adequate funds provided to redeem them, and they e
'depreciated,
quite
until

Sufficient.

Set apart.

they
( 8.)

became nearly

or

I.ewnrd
value.

in

valueless.

From
( 6.)
'

this

example,

Worthless.

fr,.m

Uy
Lted
?

ment?
fru:n

18.

Why
'

MCaptim
DC*

xn Y I>^ ,s, nt

are officers of the frnm foreign ^ovt<>

nts ($7.) 19. gTant letters of BMU

Why

* Uowed
Wb9*
nation
10,

make

treaties,

are bilk of credit?


129.

See

Coortitwtioti,

page

~: i6*~~

186

COMMENTARY ON THE
Forbidding.
Issue.

be seen the propriety of 'prohibiting 95 their 'emission. The making " anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts," has been found to be attended with

may

An

offer.

DiscoYered.
Dcstructire.

similar 'pernicious results, and


for
100

is

prohibited
to

similar
'bill

'reasons.

The power

pass

Causes.
Instrument.

"any

of attainder, ex post facto law, or

law impairing the obligation of 'contracts, or to grant any title of nobility," is denied to
the states.

Bond*.

Refused

The

reasons

why

they are

de'(//-

Withheld
from.

nied
105

to

the general

government have been

Spoken of

luded to; and the same 'objections exist


'regard to the states.
(9.)
It will

in

Rmmi.

be 'seen that the powers here


to,

denied to the states, belong


ercised by 'Congress.

and are excould not

iM.l.

The same

Tha Na'mnal
mtily.

no be intrusted to the individual states, without

Separate.
siting.

'producing confusion, and engendering feuds


*

destructive cf the prosperity, and dangerous


to the 'peace, of the

iMrmnntal
to.

Union.

In case of acIncursion.

tual invasion,

when

delay would be attended


fatal

us with pernicious,

if not.

consequences,

Ruinous.
Protective

they have power to engage in defensive war.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.*
( 10.)

The second

article

relates to the

Refers.

structure, 'organization

and powers of the


'Section
first
is

Regulation.

'Executive Department.

as

Presidential

( S.) 21. Why may not the states pass bills of attainder, ex post facto laws, or grant any title of nobility'? (0.) 22. What restrictions are 23. What, in respect to laid upon the states in respect to duties'? troops and ships of war, compacts with the other states or foreign powers, and engaging in war? 24. Why are these powers denied 25. In what case may a state engage in war? to the states? ( 10.)
* See Article
II.

of the Constitution, section

1,

page

130.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


Hi follows:
vested

187

"The He

executive

power

shall

be

Authority

in a

President of the United Stat


shall

Confederated
Rttain.
Period.

America.
the

hold his office during


;

and together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term.

term of four years

Selected.
Acting.

be elected as follows."
is

The executive power


in

'vested

in

a single individual, to secure


the administrais

Lodged.
Despatch. Space.
Steadiness.

energy and promptitude


tion.

The term

of four years

long enough

to

secure independence and 'firmness in the


cution of his duties; but not so long as

Performance
Feeling.
Citizens.

to

remove

sense of responsibility

to,

and

dependence upon* the people.

In case of the

iney of the office of President, by death,

Place.
In

impeachment, or otherwise, the Vice-PresiEH dent

any other
in. inner.

succeeds him

in

office.

(11.)
'

President
their

and Vice-President
the fourth

The commence
govern-

Follows.
Degfei

duties on
liflg

day of March,
first

Functions.

their election.

The

A Her.

ment under
ho ration on
fore
it

the Constitution vent into opc-

Commenced.
Third month.
F.ach.

the 4th of 'March,

1789, there-

is

on

this

day

that

'every second
is

year a new House of Representatives


with
nate
official
is

'vested
th

Clothed.
tad.

power, and one-third of

renewed: hence the term new


to office,

('on-

Phrase.

us grc-^.

Representatives and Senators 'may

Cnn.

be 're-elected
tinue to be

and consequently cons

Chosen.
Delegate!
in.

wumbers of Con^
I

long as

whom
first

ia

the

27.

Sow

long doei the

'
.

Why U

the

exec. did the

in

g
See A

individual 1 (11.) 30. When go into operation nn<h-r the Constitution 1


a single


188

COMMENTARY ON THE
Several. Council.
Appellation.

the citizens of their 'respective states see pro-

per to keep them in the National 'Legislature.


150

( 12.)

The 'name
first

of the Congress for any


!

year

may

be found by

1789, the year the

Subtracting.
Present.

Congress
the 'result
155

originated, from the 'current

year, and 'dividing the remainder


is

by two
if

if
Quotient.
Title.

an even number,

it

denotes the
;

'number of the Congress of the year


'remains one, this last remainder

there
to

is

be

Is left.

'added to the quotient, and the result will be


the Congress

of the year.

'Ex. 1848

do

+
For exnmplc.
Equal*.

1789 '= 59
ioo

-f-

29

remainder
in

30,

the

name

of the

for the

year 1818.

new Congress, (13.) The

'session

Continuance.
Citizens.

'people

not 'vote actually for President, but for electors


;

Ballot.

and these electors vote

'directly for

ssljr.

President and Vice-President.


165
it

This

'plan,

Way.
Accompanied
by.
Strictly.

was

thought, would be 'attended with less

excitement than a

purely popular election.


the chief
to

No

'right hereditary

names

Privilege of
birth-right.

Ordain'd our country's 'togged sons

guide

Nervous.
Leader.

No
170

'warrior famous, grasping as a thief,


'through bayonets to
all

Can here

power

ride;

On.
Tyrants.

Our law from

such 'despots gives

relief,

175

And, 'as our freemen point to it with pride, Kings tremble for their 'crowns, and see in grief, 'Throngs move towards open polls with manly stride, Where, free from 'sharpened sabres at their throats,

While.
Thrones.

Crowds.
Keen-edged.
Quiet.

They
( 12.)
31.

cast in peace their 'silent,

mighty

votes.

How

are the different Congresses

named?

32.

How

can

you ascertain the name of each Congress? (13.) 33. How many presidential electors are chosen from each state? 34. Do the people
vote directly for President? 35. Why was the present mode of election preferred? 36. Give the last ten lines of this lesson in prose, and supply the ellipses if any.
See Article
11.

of the Constitution, section

1,

page

130.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

189

LESSON XXXV.
( 1.)

Article

'XII. of the

Amendments
in

Twehe.
a
plain.

of the Constitution points out, in \in explicit

manner, the duties of the electors


their votes,

casting
in re-

Bt tfon

and gives such directions

Instructions.

5 gard to the signing,

scaling, transmission,
certificates of the elec-

RncJoMiig.

and opening of the


tors, as are

Unsealing.
Essential.

necessary to prevent frauds or


It

'alterations.

also provides for an election

Changes.
Delegates.

of the President by the House of 'Represen10 tatives, and a Vice-President by the Senate,

Second executive officer


Selection.

whenever

make a 'choice through their electors. They are, however, ricted in their choice to the three who have
the people fail to

By.

Choosing.
Ballots.
Trifling.

received the highest number of 'votes. Other15 wise, a person having a 'small

number of
( 2.)

$ might be elected, 'against the wishes of


a large majority of the people.

Contrary
Plurality.

to.

The
'give

design

of making

all

the

electors
is

Cast.

their votes

on the same day,

to 'prevent

Avoid.
Impositions.

20 frauds or

political

combinations and intriggea

among

the colleges.

Congress has

'still

fur-

Yet.
'

ther provided against frauds in the migration of voters

from one 'place

to another,

and ML
K i ;inng.
,

double- voting, by causing the electors them($


:

1.

How
mak<
limit--

do the

electors-

How
ul to
i1

is

proceed in the ohofe* of President the Presi lent chosen, when the elecII 4. To what \ te-President ! w
'

number
-

5.

nate
is

6.

Why
H

aro they thai limited


-

To what number is 7. To bOW many


?

electors

each
?

ifled

from

being electors

($

2.]

the

tun.

rt,

and

See Article XII. of the

AmeadneoU

of the Coootitnti

190
25 selves
to

COMMENTARY ON THE
be chosen
'upon
the

throughout the 'Union.

By

same day law of Conand Vice-

On.

United States
Choosers.

gress, the 'electors for President

President must be 'appointed on the Tuesday

Designated.
Following.
Enjoined.

'succeeding the

first

Monday

in

November.
'on the first

30

( 3.)

The

electors are 'required to vote

for President

and Vice-President
in

During.

Wednesday
year

December,
l

in

'every fourth

Each.
Choice of officers.

after the last

'election.

The

electors

do not assemble at the general seat of gov35 ernment, but 'usually


'respective
'state

Washington.
Generallj.
Particular.

at the capitals of their

states.

are required

The electors in each to make and sign three


the votes given
seal.

Commonwealth.
Attestations.

'certificates

of

all

by them,
the

and
40

to 'put the

same under

One of

Place.

'certificates is to

be at once put into the postPresident of the Senate


'certificate is also

Authentica-

office, 'directed to the

Addressed.
Testimonial.

at
to

Washington.
be
'sent

Another

by some responsible person, selected


last certificate

Conreyed.
*

by

the electors, to the President of the Seis

Chairman.

45 nate; and the

to be 'deli-

Committed.
Precmct.

vered to the judge of the

'district in

which

the electors shall have assembled.

The day

Convened.
Numbering; Succeeding

appointed for opening and counting the votes


is

the second

Wednesday of

the 'following

day on which they shall give their votes, determined ? 10. Why should the same day be fixed throughout the Union? ( 3.) 11. Why is it necessary that the House of Representatives choose the President before the 4th of March? 12. In case it fails to elect a President, what is then done? 13. When are the electors chosen for President and Vice-President? 14. When are they required to vote for President and Vice-President? 15. How many distinct tickets are the electors of each state required to sign? 16. What do you suppose is the reason of this law? 17. When are the votes of the electors of all
the
See Article XII. of the Amendments of the Constitution, page
145.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


50 February.
also
( 1.)

191

Section

first

of Article

II.

Svcond month.

relates to the qualifications of the Pre-

Refers.
Requisitions.
Capabilities.

sident.

By

the 'requirements o( the Consti-

tution, the qualifications of the Vice-President

must be the same as those of the President.


55 The
office

Shall.

of President being the highest


in

Situation.

post ^f honor

the United States, the highest


is

Dignity.

degree of attainment
a person
eligible
to

required to render

Aecomplishnient.

that office.

As

to the

Qualified

for.

qualification

in respect to

age, the middle

Requirement
Chosen.

BO period of
characters

life

has been 'selected,


individuals

when
'

the

of

are

generally

Commonly.
Formed.
Perfection.
Patriot.

known,
\
true

their talents fairly

'developed, and

the faculties arc fast ripening into 'maturity.


i

beer ofhu country could

see, witii-

05

out fearful
in his

apprehensions, the highest office

Forebodings
Given.

country's gift intrusted to any other

than a citizen of the 'Union.


.)

Confederacy

Provision

is

made

for

any posto pre-

Precaution.

sible

contingency that might occur


a
total

Chance.

70 vent

suspension

of the

executive

An

entire.

functions,
fatal, to

which would be
interest

injurious, if not

PlltlfS.

the

of the country.
is

The

Welfare.
Stipend.

salary of the President


id

twenty-five th<uthat

dollars

per annum;

of the Vice-

ye:ir.

thousand dollars.
of-lent
ted?

The

'salary

Kmolument
Bo] ined.

cannot be increased during


18.

(4.)

What

qualifications arc requisite for


Presi
l<-iit
'

tli-

same

20.
i

Why

[tiired

Bl

Wnal

plied

ying the vacancy 1

24,

of the "Hi * of Presi lent -m>President, wrho is to provide for What ii the talary of the rVesiJeutl

192

COMMENTARY ON THE
which he
shall

the 'period for


elected."
tation to

have been
all

Time.

This provision removes

'temp-

Inducement
Plot.

use his influence, or to 'intrigue

80

for
It

its

increase during his 'administration.


this

Term
fice.

of of-

cannot be 'diminished, because


favor.

would
Sutwtrrient
to.

make him
humble
85
bility

'dependent upon Congress, or an


its

'suppliant for

( 6.)

No-

Petitioner.

thing has contributed so

much

to the 'sta-

Strength.

and

'unequalled

prosperity

of our
'prin-

Unparalleled
Doctrines.
!>", (inent.

country, as the universal and abiding


ciples of Christianity.

No

witness, no jury-

man, no judge, no governor, no president can ever 'enter upon any duty, without first
90 being
'placed

Justice.

Engage

in.

under oath
belief in a

or

affirmation,

Hound

by.

which implies a

supreme being,
to the

Involves.

who

will

'reward the good and punish the


it is

Requite.

'guilty;

and

moreover an appeal

Bad.
Innocence.

Judge of
95

all to

bear witness

to the 'purity of

the intentions of the person 'taking the oath

vmg.
Obligatory.

or affirmation, and

is

the strongest 'binding

authority on the 'conscience.


( 7.)

Mind.

Woe

be to him

who

'inculcates the
idle

Enforces.
Unprofitable.
Established.

idea that these arc vain


ioo

and

forms;

they were 'ordained by the founders of human


liberty in

America, and no one can 'escape

Evade
God.
Break.

the retributive justice of


idly invoked.
25.
26.

'Him whose name

is

Should any President' violate

his

the Vice-Presioath is the President to take? ( G.) 29. What lias 30. contributed most to the stability of our form of government? What is required from every public functionary on his initiation into office ? ( 7.) 31. What is the consequence of a violation of the so-

Why may not this salary be increased during his Why not diminished? 27. What is the salary of
28.

term of office?

dent?

What

See Article

II.

of the Constitution, section

1,

page

133.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


solemn obligations of office
ioo

193

should he dare
merit, and pro-

knowingly to exclude honest


le

to

office

for

dishonorable

ends,

the
Crtagtag.

fawning

tools n\

party; he

may

receive the
his ob-

outward and temporary applause of


lioofl

L'wriKil.

sycophants, but will even by them

no be

inwardly despised

his

doings will pass

Secretly.

the searehimr ordeal of an enlightened posterity,

Scrutiny.

and

his happiest

fate

on earth

will

be

Lot
Protect.

an early oblivion: but no evasion can


him, of any
iter

'shield

who pander
offifee,

for

power, and
inevit-

Cater.
Place.

principle for

from the

able retribution of heaven.


rriKB
8.)

Punishment.

OF THE PRESIDENT.*
section of the second
Part.

The second

article

enumerates the powers and duties of

Recounts.
Direction.
Plainly.

the President.
is>

The command
ailment; for
in

of the army,

navy, and

militia,

obviously belongs to the

no other de-

Branch.

in
-

we

'expect

to

find the qualifi-

Look

for.

of

promptitude of action and unity


indispensable to success in cases

Qunkness.
Nece.^
Insurrection.
from puUahoirnt.

of
U5 of

war

or rebellion.

(^ 9.)

The

President

>wer to grant 'reprieves and pardons.91

imperfections
lav.

fallibility
ity

of

that

in human human tribunals, and new testimony may be

iMe.
.uiity

nee.

i brought to light,
lemn pow

which might prove


:

the inno?

Harmless-

nblic functionary

H2.

What

($ s.)

mmand

of the
'ant
?

army the power

lo grt
"*.

pp

133.

194

COMMENTARY ON THE
I

cence, or 'mitigate the crime of the offender,

usse.
very,

render this power 'highly important


'administration
'code,
135

in the

of justice.

Any

criminal
miti-

Dispensc x.on

which provides no pardoning or

Sy>tem.

gating power, would justly be 'considered


cruel and 'oppressive.

Deemed.
Tyrannical.

The

President cannot

'pardon in cases of impeachment; because


the 'convicted party might have been acting

Remit punishment.

Condemned.
Sanction.
Instance.
Clear.

under
140

his 'authority, or be

one of

his corrupt

favorites.

In this 'case, there

would be a
guilty.
is
it

dangerous temptation to 'pardon the


( 10.)

The treaty-making power

so
is
Liable
to.

extensive, and so 'capable of abuse, that

not 'confided to the President alone, but two145

Committed.

thirds of the Senate

must 'concur with him.


Approbation.
Officers.

Thus, a treaty receives the 'sanction of a


sufficient

number of

public 'functionaries, to
its

give the surest 'guaranty of


cessity.
i5o

utility

or nefur-

Warranty.

The power

of appointment

nishes one of the greatest 'means for exert-

Facilities.

ing influences, 'possessed


It
is,

by the executive.

Kujoyed.

however, guarded

in

some

'degree,

by

Measure.

making
155

the appointment dependent upon the


( 11.)

'concurrence of the Senate.

The

Pre-

Approval.
Displaces.

sident 'removes the officers of his appointment

without the 'assent of the Senate, and usage

Concurrence

seems
lias
35.

to

have given the 'custom

validity.

It
Held.

been 'maintained by some of the

StateS-

Why may
in

not the President pardon in cases of impeach meat!

( 10.) 36. What body must concur with the President in forming treaties? 37. What proportion? 38. What body must concur with

him
39.

Why

the appointment of ambassadors and other public oflB is the appointing power thus granted? ( 11.) 40. Is the
See Article
II.

of the Constitution, section

2, paq;e 131.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

195

men who
Ml tion, that

'assisted in

framing the Constitu-

Aided
.\p;>n\al.
IllV. >*
111:

where

the advice

and 'consent of

the Senate are necessary to an appointment,

lit

they are also 'necessary to a removal from


'office.

Requisite.

Employment

-i rrence by the Senate necessary to removal from office 4*2. In what VYbai opinion has hern held by sotne concern iilg this? case has die President power to iill vacancies 1
!
l

LESSON XXXVI.
( 1.)

The

third

section of the

second
Supcrintendiuice.

article

enumerates the duties of the Presi-

dent.

From

his

general 'supervision of the

affairs o{ the

nation, foreign
is

and domestic,
of the Union,"

Concerns.
Particularly.

5 the President

'peculiarly qualified to give


state

"information of the

Condition.

and, from his large experience, to recom-

know

ledge.

mend measures
gress.

for the 'consideration of

Con-

Act ion.
incca.

'Occasions

may

arise,

when

the in-

10 terests or safety of the nation 'require im-

Demand.
ration

mediate action.

Hence
only
in

the necessity of a

power
ment.
15 be

to

convene Congress.
shall take

He
that

can adthe

Convoke.
!

journ Congress

case of 'disagreecare

lew

'-He

laws
Ju:]y.

faithfully executed."

The

great object

in the

establishment of the executive departis,

Administering.

ment
(
1.)
1.

to

accomplish a
the pi

faithful 'execution

Perfbrmenofl

Why

i-

ecoliarly qualified to give infbrma-

Why
When m
?

i-

th-

power

to

DOt adjourn
ihlish-

Congr--^

L.

What

196
of the laws.

COMMENTARY ON THE
( 2.)
It is

a 'duty of the Pre-

Reqmrement
Yearly.

sident to send 'annually to Congress, at the

20 'opening of the
should
include
l

session, a

message, which
all

Begin rung.

a synopsis of

national

An

epitome.

'matters of importance.

Special messages

Business.
Especial.

are often sent to Congress, which have 'particular reference to one, or only a

few

'sub-

Mutters.

25

jects.

It is

evident that the chief magistrate

President.

of the nation wields an 'immense and increasing influence through patronage.

Extensive.

The num-

Power.

ber of postmasters alone, 'dependent on the


'executive,
in

Depend inf.
Administration.

1846,

was

fourteen thousand
in

30

six

hundred and one; \vhereas,

1790, one

But.

year after the 'Constitution went into operation, the


'office
filled

Government.

number was only

seventy-five.

The

Amount.
Station.

of the President ought always to be

from the rank of the wisest and best


'nation.

Ablest.

35 statesmen of the
( 3.)

Country. Holds.

The

President 'occupies the most

exalted office in the country, and as he receives


all

Admits.
Ministers.

foreign 'ambassadors

who

are

the 'personal representatives of their sove-

Peculiar.

40

reigns, as has been 'heretofore

shown

in the

Previously.

'Laws of Nations, (page


cessarily have

G6,)

he
much

must ne-

Regulations
Influence.
Alterations.

much

'weight with foreign

powers, and

in

cases of 'revolution, or dividiscrimi-

sions of other 'governments,

Realms.

merit of the executive department? ( 2.) 5. What annual fluty devolves on the president? 6. What are some of the causes that increase the influence of the president 1 7. What number of post-offices was there in the United States in 1790? 8. What number in 18-lfi ? ( 3.) 9. Who do you suppose occupies the most exalted office in the world? 10. What gives the president much weight with foreign
See Article
II.

of the Constitution, section

3,

page

134.

STITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


49 nation and wisdom
the executive?
is

197

required on the part of


Repolsfoo.

inasmuch as the rejection of


hostility. (4.)

ambassadors usually produces

Generally.
Infracted.

When treaties are


it

violated by foreign nations,


to

devolves on the President

require their

IVmand.
Execution.

60 proper enforcement.
_ tect

When

public officers

their business, or
is

abuse their privi-

Mnegard.
Dfeobaige.

leges,

it

the dutv of the President to 're-

move them, and


ful
r
.

appoint
agents.

in their
It

places faith-

Employ.
Factors.

and

etlicient

may

be proper of Con-

)5

here to 'remark, that no


gress,

member

Observe.

no judge, no president, no

'officer
is

what-

Functionary.
Excellent.

ever under the national government


able, in

'honor-

any

titular

way, by the

'authority of

Sanction.

the Constitution;

all titles

are 'given as mat-

Accorded.
Courtesy.

60

ters of etiquette.
( 5.)

The

'President, like the

members of
discharge

Chief- magistrate.

Congress, cannot be impeded


of his
official

in the

Hindered.

duties, but

is

privileged from

Exempted.
Desertion.
Office.

arrest in

all civil

cases; but for any derelic-

65

tion of

duty, he

may,

in

common

with

all

the civil officers of the general government,

Municipal.

impeached, and

is

also held accountable to

Arraigned.

the courts of justice for

any

violation of the
Citi-

Tribunals.

laws of the land, the same as any other


nators
their

and
id

Representatives
all

hold
to
Obtain.

o
V.

derive
i:

their

power

pow<
other nations

dent
the

.f

truot-

duty of the president when treaties i- tin' duty of the presi2. Whal t!:o national officers neglect theii duties or abuse to them 1 re memben <! Con]
i-

tlie

'

14. Illustrate tin- d

and

ruhjert, in

the
Se*

(S 6

5,

Illustrate

the difference be-

17*

198

COMiMENTARY ON THE
Employers.
Freed.

act from their 'constituents in the several


states,

and consequently are 'exempted from


;

'impeachment
75
liable to

but for misconduct, they are

Arraignment
Ejected.

be summarily expelled from Con-

gress.
tive,

(G.) In the exercise of his 'preroga-

Right.

the President pursues the course dic-

Follows

tated to

him by

his 'conscience,

and has the

Sane

ef jus-

power of 'contributing much to the prosperity 80 or 'ruin of the republic. The President of
the nation should 'consider his

Adding.
Destruction.
Ktc.ird.

own
the

interest

of secondary moment, and the 'welfare, not

Prosperity.
Clique.

of any 'party or state, but

of

whole

Union, of paramount importance:

his

main
[\sm\

85 'study should

be, DOt to

secure the temporary


but
to

'eulogies of favorites,

perform with
mortal

'uprightness the functions of the most exalted


office that

oan be 'committed

to

man

Entrusted.

90

to 'preserve the purity of republican insti-

tutions, to

add

to

the

honor and prosperity


civil

Plenty.

of the nation, and thereby 'promote the

Forward.
Privilege*.

and religious
( 7.)

liberties of the

world.

However

excellent, patriotic,

and

Eminent.
ations.

pure

may have

been the characters of

Ame-

95 rican Presidents, the people should 'constantly

remember

that no past 'excellence,


'restraints

Worth.
(

no barriers of the Constitution, no


of law, can be of any 'avail
'inspect the
:

tions.

if

they cease to

Effect.

conduct of their

rulers, if
16.

they

Overlook-

tween ruin and destruction, in the 80th line. main study of the president of the nation?

What

should be the

the people constantly remember ? 18. What of a republic? 19. Why should people inspect the conduct of their rulers? 20. What is requisite to sustain and perpetuate liberty 21.
?

( 7.) 17. What should are the extreme dai

See Article

II.

of the Constitution, section

1,

pa^e

130.

CONSTITUTION OF
100

T11K

UNITED STATES.

199

become ignorant
pass from the
10

of the

requirements of the
inevitably

titan-Thin
r^riaiij

Constitution, political

power must
to the few.

many

republic

ivo P ie.
Tyranny.

name may become

a despotism in reality,
broils

or be rent asunder by intestine


105

and

Tumults.

anarchy.

Intelligence and vigilance are

Knowledge.
continue.

alike requisite to

perpetuate liberty.

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
( 8.)
It is

TREASON.
Obvions.

evident that government must

possess an administering tribunal, to interpret the laws, decide no offences,

judiciary.

'controversies, punish
rights.

Disputes.
Else.

and enforce

'Otherwise the

ernment
or this

will be 'deficient

and powerless,

Imperfect.

power

will be 'usurped

by the other

Assumed.
Destructive.

ailments, which would be

'fatal to liberty.

The
lis
rt

celebrated Montesquieu has said, that


is

Famous.
Freedom.
Divided.

there

no

'liberty, if the judiciary

be not

separated from the legislative and executive

powers."

And no
As
it

'remark receives stronger


all

Observation.

'confirmation from experience, in


the world.
is

ages of

Corroboration.

the 'duty of the judi'constitu-

Function.
Validity.

clary

to

decide

concerning the

tionality of the 'acts of the legislature; to

Proceeding
Contitutionl.

carry

into

effect

'

established

laws,

and

prevent the

enforcement of those that are

Sanction.

"itutional; its

powers are

'equally

t&

Co-extensive
Division.

with those of the legislative 'depart-

Do

wise* an<l grod rulers wish to keep their national or legislative proceedings from the knowledge of the people ? {% 8.) 22. For what Why should it be separated se is a judiciary n< from the 94. With what are tin jtl licial p co-extensive ? vrti Mooteaqoiaii (S 9.) 96. In what is the
.

See Article

III.

of the Constitute

200

COMMENTARY ON THE
( 9.)

ment.

judiciary.

The third article 'relates The judges, as we have


of the
Senate.

to the
'seen,

Refers.

Observed.

are 'appointed by the President, with the

Deputed.

'concurrence
130

Were

they

Assent
Chosen.

'elected

by the people directly, they would be liable to have their feelings enlisted in favor of the party which 'elected them, and to be 'prejudiced against the party which opposed

Kncnrrd.
ChoseBiased.

135

them. They would be more liable to be 'swayed by faction, and to mould their decisions to suit the 'prevailing opinions of the

Prone.
Influenced.
Existing.

day,

ill

order to

retain their places.

The
beArbitrators.

'judges " hold their offices during

good

havior*"
uo

They can be removed only on


This
secures firmness and
all

Set aside.
rs

impeachment.
independence,

cer-

tain.

by removing

'apprehen-

Fears.

sions of being displaced, so long as they 'dis-

Perform.

charge

their duties with fidelity

and integrity.

Truth.
t'nchtnf

A
145

situation so 'permanent

and independent,

so exalted above the hopes of higher 'aspirations, should


to leave

awaken

a 'laudable ambition

Praiseworthy

behind them a lasting fame, by a


faithful 'discharge of duty.

Renown.
Performance

wise and
( 10.)
150

Section second of Article


jurisdiction

III. 'reEx'rnt of
authority.

fcrs to

the

and powers of the


juris-

judiciary.

The Supreme Court has


'treaties of the

diction in cases 'arising under the constitutional

Coming

up.

laws and

United States,

Compacts.

judicial
28.

27. How long do the judges hold their offices ? should not the judges be elected by the people? 29. What is the probable effect of this term of office upon the judges? ( 10.) 30. To what cases does the judicial power extend? 31. Why does it

power vested?

Why

See Article

III.

of the Constitution, page 136.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


because the judicial power must be co-exPi tensive with the
in

20]
son that.

For the reaI-aw-making.

legislative

and executive,
in

order to insure uniformity


operation.

respect to

Becro.
Action.

their

The
work

other cases of juristo be particularly


this

diction are too

numerous
<>(

Many.
Character.
Pertain.

mentioned

in

kind.

They

Mi are such as obviously appertain to the juris-

diction of the JSupreme Court,

and such as
are

Tribunal.
Suitably.

could not 'properly belong to the courts of


the states.
( 11.)

Foreign

'ministers

Envoys.

national
iti3

officers,

and no court can have


such foreign
officers, but

Functionallt'S.

jurisdiction against

Legal power.
Highest. Authority.

the

Supreme Court of

the United States.

of admiralty

The JSupreme Court has power over cases and maritime jurisdiction, because they are intimately 'connected with

Naval.
United.

rro

commerce, and the

'regulation of

commerce
It

Management
Administration.

belongs to the national government.

has

power over
and

'controversies

between

states,

Disputations.

citizens of 'different states,

because no

Various.

state should be 'a


its

judge

in its

might be inclined
(\ 12.)
i

to favor
is

own case, as it its own citizens.


'original jusuit
is

An

arbiter.

Disposed.

court

said to

have

Primary.
Begin.
Appealing.

icti< n,

when a party may 'commence a


revise

before such court.


right to
ieo

'Appellate jurisdiction

and affirm or reverse the


other 'court.

decision

made by some
ing

The

Tribunal.

under the Constitution and laws of the United


does the judicial powei extend to cases 33. Why to cases of admiralty and marithe states and Why
?
I

~i

(11.)

32.

Why
3
l.

aflec

hetu has

Tn
In

what what

202
right of trial

COMMENTARY ON THE
by jury
is

'esteemed one of the

Considered.
Barriers.

great 'bulwarks of cures to every one

human liberty. It sewho may be accused of


trial

Charged with

crime, 'an impartial


185

by

his fellow-eiti-

just

zens,

who can have no


if

interest in oppressing

Maltreating.

him, and are presumed to have a

common
The
the
Commonwealth.

'sympathy with him


trial

he be innocent.
state

must "be held


shall

in the

where
'

crime
190

have been 'committed, that the


not be

Perpetrated.
R(>sulenre
Associates.

accused

may

removed from home,


tried

witnesses, and
strangers,

friends, to be
feel

among
for

who

no 'sympathy

him,
I'r,

and may be prejudiced against him.


appellate jurisdiction?
38.
37,

di.sjx.scl.

What

is

meant by

original jurfsdici

appellate jurisdiction ? 39. How must all crimes e\ impeachments be tried? 40, Where must it be 41, What are the advantages of a trial by jury? 42, Why should the trial be held

What by

where the crime was committed?

LESSON XXXVII.
( 1.)

Section third of Article

'III.

relates

Three.
Rebellion.

to 'treason.

Treason

is

the highest crime


its

known

to

human

laws, as

aim
less

is

to over-

Subvert.

throw the 'government, and must generally


5 be 'attended with

AdminiNtra-

more or
is

bloodshed.

Accompanied
Enormous.
I>is:ru>t.

So

'atrocious

is

the crime considered, that


likely to rouse

even a 'suspicion of treason

the public indignation against the suspected

Wrath.

person, to a 'degree that must operate to the 10 'prejudice of the accused, though he might
(
1.)
1.

Height
Injury.

In what does treason consist?


See Article
III.

2.

How many
ITT.

witnesses

of the ronstitution, \w<tp

"

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


be innocent.

203

To

prevent the 'innocent from


is

Guiltless.

suffering, treason

confined to 'overt acts

Public.

of

'hostility

against the government.

For a
cases

War.

like reason,

two witnesses are


while
necessary.

'required to

Denuded.
Find guilty.
Essential.

15 'convict
only one

of treason,
is

in other

( 2.)

"

The Conpunshall

gress shall have

power

to declare the

Authority.

ishment of treason.

But no 'attainder

Conviction.
Confiscation.

work corruption of
20 cept during the
'According
treason
life

blood, or forfeiture, ex-

of the 'person attainted. of England,

Individual.

to the

common law

Agreeable.
Unfeeling.

was punished in the most 'cruel manner. The 'offender was drawn to the He was then hanged 'gallows in a hurdle.
25 by the neck, cut

Criminal.
Gibbet.
Still.

down
his

while

'yet alive, *his

head

cut

off]

and

body quartered.
is

The
death

'Decapitated.

punishment

declared by Congress

Pronounced.
Gibbeting.
Lost.

by hanging.

Under

the

common
all his

law, the

person attainted forfeited

estates, real

30 and personal. His blood was also corrupted,


that his descendants
'inheriting

Moveable.

any of
suffered

his for

were 'incapable of property. Thus the


crimes of their

Not capable
Possessing.

'innocent
'ancestors.

the

Harmless.
Progenitors.

PRIVILEGES OF CITIZENS FUGIPUBLIC RECORDS PUBLIC DEBT TIVE CRIMINALS AND SLAVES

LEMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS OATH OF OFFICE RATIFICAKELIGIOUS TEST


TION,

&C
If a
to

IS

{\ 3.)

case which had been 'decided


3.

Determined.

are re^uir^-l
!

conrict of treason 1
4.

[% 2.)

UoW
5.
II

i-

CongTeM

punishment of

treason"?

II

treason confined to in regard to the WtoM treason punished under the


is

Why

restricted

See Article

of the Constitution.

pe*<

204
in

COMMENTARY ON THE
one state could 'afterwards be brought
another
at
state,
it is

to
Plain
Litigation.

trial in

'evident that end-

less 'contests

law might be produced by


effectu-

either party,

and the 'ends of justice

Pufyuwa
Foiled.

40

ally defeated.

Section second relates to the

privileges of citizens, 'fugitive criminals and


slaves.

Runaway.
Relation.

In 'regard to this subject there exists

much

animosity, and 'diversity of opinion.


citizens of

Contrariety.

"The
45
to all

each

state shall

be entitled
citizens

Haw-

a claim

privileges

and Immunities of

Rights.

in the 'several states."

though 'consisting of as they are bound by the Constitution

The United many di tie rent

States,
states, to the
General.
'>>m;nsing.

same

'national

government, constitute one

50 nation.

'Hence, a citizen of one part must


'part.

:'.re.

be a citizen of any and every

(4.)

Portion.

This 'provision
'benefit
'aids in

is

designed for the mutual


states.
It

Measure.
Advantage.
Assis's

and convenience of the

carrying out the demands of justice,


to 'suppress

55 and must have a tendency

crime,
its
Probabilities.

by diminishing the chances of escaping


penalties.

This 'enables the slave-holding


'reclaim
slaves

Empowers.

states

to

who may have


is

'escaped into the states where slavery

not

Fled.

60 'permitted.
common law common law?
?

The
6. 7.

third section of the fourth

Allowed.

suffer? (3.) 8. Why should credit he pfren in each state to the judicial proceedings of every other? 9. To what are the citizens of each state entitled in every other state? 10. In what manner may fugitive criminals be reclaimed? 11. What is the tendency of this provision? 12. How may fugitive slaves be recovered ? 13. What is the design of this provision ? ( 4.) 14. What power has Congress in relation to the admission of new states? 15. What in relation to forming new ones
to

How was an attainted Who were thus made

person treated under the

from the other states?

1G.

How many

states

were there when


137.

the

See Article

IV. of the Constitution,

page

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


article relates to the

205

admission of new
territories.

states,

Entrance.
Districts.

and the government of


the Constitution
thirteen
states:

When

was ibrmed,

there

were only
seventeen

Framed.
Subsequently
Admitted.

since that time


thirty.

G5 have been added, making


(
f>.)

There is still remaining 'in the vest amount of territory, which will probably be admitted at some future time, 'formBut 'Congress has no ing several states. 70 power to form a new state within the jurisdiction of another state, or 'merge two in
a vast

Towards the
Pacific.

Very

large.

Constituting:.

The

national

legislature.

Limits.

Involve.

one, without the 'consent of the legislatures

Approval.
Interested.

of the states 'concerned

for then, the states

would no longer be independent, but hold


75
their
It

Uncontrolled

sovereignty at the will of Congress.


but

Supremacy.
Just.

is

reasonable that Congress should


to

have 'power
tories,

govern and control the

terri-

Authority.

since they are the property of the


States.

Because.
Provinces.

United

The

territories

generally

80 have a governor appointed by the president,

Designated.

and a

legislature, 'consisting of representa-

Composed.
Inhabitants.

tives, elected

by the 'people of the


delegate to the

territory.

They

also send a

Representatives at
iiate

House of Washington, who 'may


cannot vote.
(6.)

Deputy.
Can.
Discuss.

questions,

but

The

fourth section of the fourth article gua-

Secures.

rantees a republican 'form of government to

Mode.
IVrnntted.

each of the
sritation
18.

states.

Were
17.

a state allowed to
have
rrnnl
sinr-e

was adopted!

How many
-

been added?

Why may

others without the (* 5.) 19. What control has Conroperty of the United Si
'

are the
*

rM '"

""'O

"

]
'

What

Se

Article IV. of the Constitution. pa*e

13a

IS

206

COMMENTARY ON THE
it

'adopt a monarchical government,

would

Receive.

90 be

'

dangerous

to,

and probably destruc-

Detrimental.
Obligation.

tive of, the

Union.
all

The duty

of a govern-

ment
'limits

to

protect
its

the people within the

Guard.
Bounds.
Rebellion.

of

jurisdiction,

from domestic

vioin-

lence,

by

'insurrection,

and from foreign


prescribes

95 vasion, cannot be 'reasonably doubted.


( 7.)

Candidly.

The
in

fifth

article

'

the

Sets forth.
Improvement*.

manner
fect;
ioo

which 'amendments may be made

to the Constitution.

No

Constitution

is

'per-

Complete.

and no one can be so 'framed as


all

to

Formed.

meet

the 'exigencies
.7

different ages.

which may arise in total change may in the


which
the

Emern
An
entire.

'course of time take place in the character,

Process.

or 'aims and

pursuits of a people,

DttifM,
tons.

will require corresponding 'changes in


]05

powers and 'operations of government, to suit their interests, conveniences, and 'necessities.

Wants.

To guard
is

against too 'frequent and

Newtag
Mutations.
Variable.
Fitness.

easy 'changes
no perous

also highly

important
'propriety

A
of

'changeable government cannot have a prospeople.

Hence

the

making two-thirds of each 'House of Congress necessary to propose 'amendments, and

Branch.
Alterations.

*an application of the legislatures of two- A


thirds of the states, 'necessary to call a con-

request.

Essential.

ns vention.
ration

( 8.)

The

sixth article

is is

a 'decla-

Prodi
CsMeien-

of an obligation which

'morally

must the United States guarantee to every state? 22. Why is this necessary? 23. Is it the duty of the general government to pr the states from invasion ? ( 7.) 24. How may amendments be ma le ? 25. Why are they sometimes necessary? 26. What should be guarded against? ( 8.) 27. In what manner are all debts binding upon goSee
Article V. of the Constitution, paxre 139.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


'binding

207

upon

every

nation

through
in
if

all

Obligatory.
Variations.
Entirely.

'changes.

The powers enumerated


would be
utterly useless,

the

Constitution

they

no could not be exercised independent of

any
they
it-

Used.

other

power
not

or,

in

other

words,

if

language,

were
self

supreme; and the Constitution


(i

Paramount.
Void.

would be

nullity.

The

propriety of
'officers,

an oath on the part of public

in

Functionaries.

ns every department, will hardly be 'doubted.

Questioned.
Article.

The
any
the

last

part of this 'clause

is,

to prevent

alliance

between church and

state in

League.

administration of the government.

The

Management
Furnishes.
Injurious.
Similar.
Trial.

history of other countries 'affords examples


10 of the

mischievous effects of such a union,


sufficient to

amply

warn

us against a 'like

experiment.
(9.)

Two

of the

'states,

North Carolina

Confederacies.

and Rhode Island, did not

at first 'accede to
it,

Consent.

the Union, but they finally 'ratified

when
'close

Confirmed.

thev f>und that the national government 'conBldered them as foreign nations. At the

Looked upon
End.

of the Constitution follow the 'names of the


'delegates* from the different states,
mi

Cognomens.
Deputies.

most of

whom
try.

are 'distinguished

in

history for their

Eminent.
Discreetness.

wisdom and

patriotic devotion to their coun-

At their head, as President, and tideVirginia,

Depot?.
Is

stands
28.

the
is

name

of
to

registered.

ncnts in

ail

circumstances 1
land
1

What

declared
}

be the su30.

the

29.

Who

arc

hound thereby 1
31. 33,

What
reli-

thout this provision

What
is

officers

Constitution 1

Why
ore

any

required

to

See

Bin*r:iplnr.il

208

COMMENTARY ON THE

H5 to 'every

George Washington a sufficient 'guaranty American that the Constitution was framed with 'prudence and foresight, and with an ardent desire that it might 'prove a
blessing to the

Warrant.
L'acli.

Discretion.

Become.
Continual.

'perpetual
'people.

whole American

Nation.

ratify the Constitution?

35.

Who was
?

tion

34. What states at iirst refused to ratify it? President of the Convention that framed the Constitu36. Of what is his name a sufficient guaranty?

LESSON XXXVIII.
AMEND.M FATS.
( 1.)

The 'amendments
all

to the Constitu-

Additions.

tion

have

been

'ratified,

and are

now

Approved.

part of that 'instrument.

The

greater part

Document.
Efficiently.

of them are designed

more

'effectually to
in

5 guard rights before 'alluded to


stitution,

the

Con-

Referred.
Lucidly.
interdictions

or

more

'clearly to define certain

'prohibitions of

power, the exercise of which


to the 'interests

would be dangerous
country.

10 shall

The first article is make no law 'respecting an

"Congress
establish-

of the

*
clause.

concerning.
Forbidding.

ment of

religion, or 'prohibiting the free ex-

ercise thereof; or 'abridging the freedom of

curuu.ng.
Liberty.

speech, or of the press; or the right of the

people peaceably to assemble, and to

'peti-

Memorialize
correction.

15 tion the Government for a redress of


ances."
( 2.)

y;riev-

We

have

'seen, in Article

VI.

observed.

( 1.) 1. Of what are the amendments now a part? 2. For what are they mostly designed? 3. Why is Congress forbidden to make any law respecting an establishment of religion? ( 2.) 4. What preSee Article
I.

of the

Amendments

to the Constitution, page 112.


CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
of the Constitution, thai no religious
'test

209

Pledge.

can be required, as a qualification

tor office.

Exacted.

The

first

clause here,
is

is

an extension of that

Enlargement
Interdiction.

20 prohibition, and
reasons.
It

supported by the same


all

prevents

interference of goduties.

Intermeddling.

vernment
this

in

religious

.Moreover,

Pious.

clause presents an insurmountable bar-

Passage.
Junction.
Pretext.
Different.

rier to the

union of church and state, and

25 Congress can never have any 'pretence for


legislating-on the 'various forms of religion.
.//

whatever time a government has estab-

Whenever.
Creed.

lished the

frm

of belief of any sect,

it

has

usually patronised only those professing that

Favored.
Oppressive.
Sects.

30

belief,
all

and placed 'grievous restrictions upon

other 'denominations.
( 3.)
It

may

be proper here to remark,

Suitable.

that the Constitution

makes no
civil

'provision for
it

Arrangement

the support of

Christianity, because

was

The

religion

of Christ.
Altogether.
Christianity.

35 framed exclusively for


the Christian religion

purposes; and

formed no part of the


states
to the general
'political

agreement between the contracting

B.inrain.

each of which surrendered

National.
Public.

government a few of
r

its

rights

the better
state

protection of the rest; but

every

and

every

individual

in

the

fYi M.n.

country retained untouched and unmolested,


wry principle of his religious freedom.
It

Ei pt

sents an insuperable barrier in this country to the union of church >' been the result whenever any nnd 7 tfl ( 3 J 6. For what reason, government haippotl Christianity in the
-

tution

7.

Why
I

d
B.

the national gorernrnenl

any

if their political rights 1


See Article

Wbatd
Amendmentto

ind ererjr indi ridual


v

of the

ptfl 112

"uT

210

COMMENTARY ON THE
to
Impracticable.

would likewise have been 'impossible

45 introduce the 'subject of religion in such manner as to meet the 'approbation of the

Matter.

Sanction.

numerous 'sects of Christians;

for

though

Denominations.

most agree on the fundamental doctrines of


religion, yet there are various 'minor differSmaller.
Founders*.
Disliiiguihe>1.

50 ences.

( 4.)

Among

the

'framers of the

Constitution

were men as 'eminent for their wisdom and 'piety, as they were for their patriotism; and the history of our country
has 'demonstrated that religion

Religion.

Chronicle.

may

flourish

Proved.
<;r.-;itrst.

55

in 'aid

its

'utmost vigor and purity, without the

of the national government:

and

that

Help.

the universal '(dissemination of Christianity


is

best promoted, the highest

happiness of

society secured, and the most enduring glory

60 of the nation
of 'schools.
( 5.)

'attained,

through the medium

l\Y:iclicd.

rn 'iiaries.

The

'freedom of speech and of the


Deration.
>..:<.-.

press

is

indispensable to the existence of a free

government.

The

acts of the

65 are open
'abuse of

to
its

free 'discussion,

government and thus any


This

Debate.
Ill-use.

powers may be exposed.

power

is

designed to 'shield the people from

r.'i.ird.

those tyrannical usurpations, which have so

wantonly deprived the world of some of the


70 richest 'productions of the mind. In despotic countries, no newspaper or book can be 'published,
retain
10.
?

Wickedly.
Lrtcrmry work*.

Printed.

even of a

scientific

or literary cha-

An

artistical.

How

what
first

( 4.) 9. What does the history of our country d em oust rate ? the happiness of mankind best promoted? (5.) 11. In manner is free discussion useful ? 12. What is the design of the
is

Article of the

Amendments
I.

to the Constitution
to the Constitution,

( 6.) 13.

What

See Article

of the

Amendments

page U2.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


raeter, without the

211

sanction of government

Approval.

and there are probably,


[75 in the United States,

at the present time,

Now.
Gazette.

more newspaper pres


of the

than

in

all

the rest

world.

(>.)

Globe.
Dreads.

Despotism always fears the


public discussion; but
stituted

truth, anil stitles

our government being


for the benefit of the

Examination

by the people

Founded.
General.
Justness.

80 people,

is

interested in the
;

universal disseits

mination of knowledge

and the purity of


its

objects and the ability of

administration,

Wisdom.
Make.
Diffusion.

should ever be so manifest as to render the


discussion of its affairs, and the dissemination

85

of truth,

itfl

jest

bulwarks.

It

should,

Barriers.

however, be
3

'distinctly understood, that this

Clearly.
Privilege.

not confer

an unrestricted right

of speech or publication.
( 7.)

Utterance.

If

that

were the
bis

case,

'citizen

Denizen.

90 might
nity,

vilify

and abuse another with impureputation,

Reproach.

might destroy

and sac-

Immolate.
Felicity.

rifice his

happiness and dearest interests, from


to gratify a spirit of

mere wantonness, or

Sportiveness.
Disafflcion.
Insurrection.

revenge.
ellion,

A man

might even excite

sedition,

and treason against the governgives liberty to print or say anyin his rights,

ment

It

thing that will not injure another


proj erty,
<>r

Wnmg,

reputation

or that will not disMta*.

turb the public peace, or threaten the overire

jomp of the

rotri

tions

upon knowledge

in

does despotism

alv.

What
17
>ll

despotic countries? an* the BtTO


light
to

the
(5 7.)

iay pi
be*

ing of this
tl

and

B.

What mu>t
D
?

ibe condr.

( 8.)

8m Article

of the

A mend menu

to

*PM

H2.

212
100

COMMENTARY ON THE
The
is

throw of the 'government.

right of the

Administration.

people " peaceably to assemble and 'petition


for a redress of 'grievances"
( 8.) It is difficult to

Pray.

invaluable.
'ab-

Wrongs.
Despicable.

conceive of a more

ject state of slavery, or one


105

more humiliating

Degrading.
Ideas.

to those

who have even

limited views of their

own

'rights,

than where the people dare not


their grievances,

Immunities.

make known
denied
in

and

'petition

Memorialize
Relief.

for their 'redress.

This right has often been

'despotic

governments, under a

Tyrannical.
Rebellions.
Plots.

no pretence of guarding against 'insurrections

and

'conspiracies.

( 9.)

The second

article

is

"

well

're-

Organized.

gulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the 'right of the people to

Needful.
Liberty.

us keep and bear

arms

shall not be infringed."

Weapons.
Imperious.

Some

'tyrannical

governments resort
it

to dis-

arming the people, and making


to keep arms, or participate
in

an

offence

crime.

military 'pa-

Drills.

rades.
120

In

all

countries where despots 'rule

with standing armies, the


allowed
to

people are not

Inhabitants.

keep

guns and other warlike


'nature of a standing

Muskets.
Character.

weapons.

The
fully

true

army was
125

'known by our forefathers;


its

Recognised.
Realized.

they had 'experienced


before the
'revolution.

practical results

It

may

indeed be

Change.
Doubt.

a
19.

question, if

England could have waged

What is the most abject state of slavery to which man is subject ? What right has been denied under despotic governments? ( 9.) 21. What is the condition of the people in despotic countries? 22. What is the difference between guns and ?7iuskets, in the 121st line? 23. In what way had the republic of this country realized the evils of standing armies? 24. Are the citizens of a country easily made
20.
*

See Article

II.

of the

Amendments

to the Constitution, page 112.

CONSTITUTION OF THE I'MTED STATES.


any war of long duration against the colo
-.

213

Province!.

without

its

standing army.

The

citi-

IYnnanf nt.
Soon.

zens of any country


i3i)

quickly perceive the

injustice of despotic 'measures,


lerally

and cannot

Proceed mp>
Hirelings.

be
is

made
the

the

tools of oppression.
folly

(10.)
]

It

extreme of

for

any
in

Height
Support.
Se-.isons.

eople to maintain a large standing

army

times of peace: almost every feature of a


OS free

government
;

is

'abolished in organized

Destroyed.

armies
for

the soldiers are not tried by juries

Equals.

at the

any real or 'supposed offence; they are mercy of their officers in 'short, under

Imaginary.
Fine.

the

most 'absolute despotism.


endearments of domestic

Denied the
the freedom

Complete.
Defined.

no privileges of going out of 'prescribed limits,


the
life,

Home.
Discourse.

of speech, or the enjoyments of the social


privileges of civil society, they are required
to

Free.

move

as puppets, to receive orders

which

Automatons.

Ho they must obey, to 'consider others as their


superiors,
( 11.)

Deem.
Render.
Imperceptibly.

and

to

pay homage

to
to

men.
be the ser-

Thus, gradually led

vants and slaves of power, to obey 'com-

Mandates.

mands, right or wrong, they are


uo ble, for offences
entail

'further lia-

Moreover.
Derelictions of duty.

which

in civil

society

would

but

slight

punishment, to be 'court-

Trird bf military oiii<Xrs.

rtialled,

whipped,

man

of

hung or shot. Thus discretion, of wisdom, and of


on?
(
16

Executed.

Judgment.

aru.i
X\

if).) 25. What laws exist in established tendency of long-continued surveillance How must men in armies view their officers 1 28. lure to go without the limits prescribed by tbelc

officers?

some other objections


lo>e
(\ 11.)

to

permanent armies.
difference

30.

Do you suppose any people can


armies?
31.
III

their liberty

without standing

W:
of the

between

See Article

Amendnv

214
'years,
155

COMMENTARY ON THE
may
be hung, for refusing to obey, or
Advanced
age.

questioning the orders of

some young and


'senseless

Doubling.
Foolish.
Partiality.

perhaps passionate

and

upstart,

whom
placed

chance, accident, or favoritism, has


in
It
is

ito

'command. remark, that the most illustrious generals of the revolution were 'citizens and not soldiers
well
profession, and

worthy of

Authority.

Renowned
Civilians.

by

gave the strongest


( 12.)

testi-

Evidence.

mony

against 'standing armies.

The

Permanent.
Continental.

whole 'revolutionary army were


fore the war,
105

citizens be-

and may

justly be 'regarded as

Looked upon
Regular.
Potent

citizen soldiers;

and the 'standing army of the


the most oppressive

'king of

England was

and

'hated instrument of his power.

The

princi-

Abhorred.
Relinquished
Positions.

pal officers, like Washington, 'resigned their


offices,

and assumed

their places as citizens at

nothe

'close of the

war. Ambitious

men may

ad-

End.
False.

vocate the 'feigned glory achieved by standing 'armies


:

but the people should remember,


is

Fu

c<s.

that as the soldier's profession


their
175

advanced,

Calling.
lUlMllCSS.

own
[

'calling

is

degraded.
all

Make war the


and every

most honorable of
one must bow
ism.
1

callings,

Respected.

to

the

nod of military despot-

Reverence.
Host*.

Wherever

the largest standing 'armies

have been found, there also has existed the EM sway. most oppressive and 'absolute despotism. decontrolled
a trial by jury and a jury prohibited? 33.
trial

by court-martial

32.

Where

is

trial

by

the illustrious generals of the revolution? ( 12.) 34. Did the revolutionary generals resort to war as a profession? 35. In what light may the whole revolutionary army be regarded? 36. What was the most oppressive menial anil tool of the king of Great Britain? 37. What effect has the exaltation of the soldiers profession upon the pursuits and calling of citizens? 38. Who

Who

were

must support soldiers?


See Article
II.

( 13.) 39.

What

are insuperable barriers to

of the

Amendments

to the Constitution, pa^e 142.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


wo
( 13.)

215

The

great body of the people, the

Large,

militia of a nation, presents insuperable barriers


to

Invim\bh\
Cunning.
Established.

the usurpation of

power by
o{

artful

and ambitious met);


ing armies, are the

citizens

and not 'standFreedom.


uni-

bulwarks

Supporters.

Let then
rsally
all

all

knowledge and power be

At'ainm.nt.
Spread.

disseminated
liberty,

among

the people,

and
fo-

toes to

whether domestic or
of the world

Enemies.

gn, will ilee like M chaff before the wind."

Dust
National.

The
i'-o

political condition

is

such,

that

the

friends

of

human
an index

improvement
alert:
if

AdvaQOellirilt.

should be constantly on the


history of the past
it

the

Look-oat

is

for the future,

director.

admonishes the people of

this

country

to

Counsels.

'countenance no system of policy that proioj

Favor.

duces an inequality of its citizens;


that arms, followed

as

shows 'profession, have


it

disparity.

Vocation.

inevitably produced

either the

most abject

Despicable.

slaves and absolute despotism, or a dissolute


I

Depraved
Confusion.
I'nhappincss.
Fatal.

disorderly soldiery, the utmost 'anarchy

xo and misery
site (

both of which, though


then

in

oppo-

extremes, are alike ruinous to republics.

1 1.)

Let

each

and every
in

'citizen

Inhabitant.

throughout the land, participate


of honor or of 'disgrace there

whatever
be
let

Share.

may

at-

Ignominy.
Calling.

ta'ched

to the

profession of arms;
us

not

the
ially

idea that a Standing

army

Wry

ibsord.

protect the country, ever be

of

power

!'

'

If milit

ntial,

who

ougrc

the

tendency of keeping
t.

men

constantly un lei military


orl*r*.

requiring them
rant-

receive
(^
l

and obey

urn
i.

1.)

See Ac

if

!I

of the

Amendnv m


216
entertained.

COMMENTARY ON THE
In cases of sudden
invasions,
HntfilA n-

Itwm
iVrturltailiillS.

as well as violent commotions, the country


210

must be
people.

'shielded

by the great body of the

Protected.
Individual.

Let then our 'chief reliance be upon


'peace every soldier

the citizen soldiery so that in 'war every citizen

Conflict.

may
215

be a soldier, and

in

(Jillrtllde.

a citizen.

Let not the 'military profession be

Warlike.

considered the requisite road to the highest


honors, but as a necessary
evil,

Necessary.

produced by

Generated.
CJnriglifc IHX>.

the wickedness of tyrants, and the ignorance

of their subjects.

The

third

'amendment

is

Addition.

"No soldier shall in time of peace be 'quartered


220

Lodged.
Approbation.

in

any house without


in

the

'consent of the
in

owner; nor
in

time of war, but

manner

Way.

to be prescribed

by law."

It

was

a 'custom
Despotic.

'arbitrary times to lodge soldiers in the


to

houses of private citizens, without 'regard


225

Respect for

their interests, or to

forms of law.
?

in any house 43. In what manner ever been done without regard to forms of law? 43. Why should not <j, in the 2Q2d line, be changed to an, when you substitute usage for custom I

42.

Can

soldiers be quartered

only?

44.

Has

it

LESSON XXXIX.
1.)

The

fourth Article protects the

citi-

Secures.

zens against unreasonable innovations and

Changes.
(

by government officers. In 'former times, any house might be searched,


molestations

unYials.

!';ist

5 at the 'discretion of the officers of government, without any ground


(1.)
1.

Option.
S

of 'accusation,

What
III

rights of the

what conditions
See Articles

may
and

warrants

IV. of the

people cannot be violated? 2. UpOfl for search be issued? ( 2.) 3. What Amendments to the Constitution, pages H2 and 143.

ISTITUTIOH OF THE UNITED STATES,


and many
such
innocent
acts.
this
I

217

pera

suffered

front)

Guiltless.

'illegal
f

T
kind
ssible
in

riders

!?! m
MOO*.

this

10 country.
five

sions of Articles

and

y important
_

T
n indictsed can be

Momentous

ssar
put
-

Charged.
;
u>:
:"

They
oppression,

him
his

/.

15 from
It

unnecessary
shall

before

Seventy.
Confirmed.
Ordeal.

be 'established: he cannot be hartrial,

:d

by more than one and pr


shall

and cannot
;

be 'compelled to self-accasation
liberty,
.re
all

his

life,

Forced.

protected by

BhhM
Expeditions.

20 law, unless he
public, that he
if

have

forfeited

them by

crime; and his

trial

must be 'speedy and


be promptly acquitted,
ala

may

innocent.

( 3.)

They

d the ac-

cused every reasonable advaiv

de-

Vindication.

25 fence: he

is

to be informed of the nature of


_

Chara
~
:..-.

the 'accusal

inst

him, that he

may
-

pre-

:_-?

pare his defence and refute the allegation: he


i

Rebut.

be confronted with the witness

gainst
to

Deponents,
lnterroeate.

him. that he

may

question them

he

is

ha ve

to

compel the attendance of witand he may ha\


;

Proceedaga.
:

;.

sel to assist

him

in his defence.

In arbitrary
all

emments, many, and


these pri
it
_
s

frequently

of

Often.

are denied.

Uhmt

crime*

necessary before a person can be brought to trial for an infamous 4. In what other respects is the accused protected from inconvenier. and oppression ? 5. How are false accusations 7. 1$ 3 I trial be b. the accused be informed of the accusations against him ? See Articles V and VI of the Amendments to the Constitution, psfe 143.
'

~T9~~

218
35
( 4.)

COMMENTARY ON THE
The
seventh Article has 'reference
Allusion.

to the 'extension of the right of trial to civil as well as criminal cases.


lates only to the 'courts of the

by jury
're-

Application.

This

Pertains.

United States.
in

Judiciary.

This Article also prescribes the manner

Likewise.

40 which the Supreme Court


the facts in a 'cause tried

shall 're-examine

Review.
Case.
Security.

eighth Article

is

" Excessive

by a

jury.

The
not
;

'bail shall

be required; nor excessive


cruel

fines

'imposed

nor

Exuded.
Executed.

and unusual punishments

'inflicted."

45 Cruel

and

atrocious

punishments,

which

Wicked.
Malignity.

might be

inflicted

from 'malice, or

to gratify

a feeling of

'revenge, are thus prevented.

Vindictive-

The

history of past 'ages affords

numerous
rthy.

examples of the disgraceful and tyrannical


50 exercise of what
is

The

ninth Article

is

"The

here 'prohibited.

( 5.)

Defarred.
Bcatton

enumeration

in

the Constitution of certain 'rights shall not

Privileges

be construed to deny or
'retained

disparage others

due.

55

is

" The powers not 'delegated


to

by the People."

The

tenth Article
to the

Kept.

United

Given.

States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by


it

Forbidden.

the States, are reserved to the States

Secured.
Individually.

'respectively, or to the People."

These two
It is

Articles speak for themselves.

evident

Clear.
In'risred.

60 that the powers not delegated


as are prohibited to

to the

United

States must 'belong to the States, except such

Appertain,

them or

to the

people.

dtizens.

confronted with the witnesses against him? 9. Are any of these privileges ever denied to persons accused 1 (4.) 10. To what civil cases is the ri^ht of trial by jury extended 1 11. What is prevented by the prohibition of excessive bail and fines, and cruel punishment- ? ( 5.) 12. What powers are reserved to the states respectively, or to
See Articles
VII., VIII., IX.,

and X., of the Amendments

to the Constitution, pa?es 144

anl 145.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


(^ 6.)
\1

219
lnun-

The
the Unit

power of

shall
in

nol

nd to any suit

law or

nmenced or
States
is

pr

another
or
i>

sul

any

fo.,!>.

This
of the

merely an additional
prohibit

Supreme Court,

the
in

powers of which
treating o\
(7.)

haw
III.

been considered,

Article

BnodMd.

of the Constitution,*

This

amend-

ment

applies only to original suits against


tea,

75Uk-

snot exclude the Supreme


trying cases brought by appeal

??*.

n
urt.s.

or writ o( error from any of the state


bunals.

triI

wrii cf error
in

is

writ founded

*2LJ

*r*

on an alleged error

judgment, which car'superior tribunal, and

r>

80

ries the suit

to

some

authorizes the judges to examine the record

OH which judgment has been given in interior court, and to reverse or affirm
'no.

the

the

ibml

65

($ 8.) The twelfth and lust Article <^ the Amendments has been inserted in the body

stitution.1

It
;

may, however, be
i

\.vertheie

and every Article


t

K^^rked.

ndments of

!io

<

'onstjneion

1-

90 equally

ai
I

die

jutli

rer of

writ
*

of error f

( 8.) 16.

Smpuge

arm

220
tion,

COMMENTARY ON THE
and
justly considered part

and parcel

Rightly.

of that 'document.
is

The

twelfth

Amendment
the

Instrument.

the only one that 'alters, in


It

any way,

Changes.

original Constitution.

was

'proposed in

Propounded.

95

803, on account of the presidential contest

By reason. Thomas.
Suffrage.

of

Aaron Burr and Thos.

Jefferson.

On

the
it

the return of the electoral 'vote, in 1801,

was found that each had seventy-three votes. ( 9.) The House of Representatives pro100

Ascertained.

Commenced.
2d month.

ceeded, on the 11th of 'February, 1801, in


the

manner prescribed by

the Constitution,
C. SL,

Ordained.

to elect a President of the

and con-

linted States
Vote.

tinued to 'ballot

during the business hours of

each day,
105

till

the 17th of Feb. 1801,

when

February.
'

Thomas

Jefferson

was
is,

elected, on the thirty-

in.s.n.

sixth ballot, 'Chief-Magistrate of the Union.

President.
CotMeqnaaOT.

This amendment

therefore,

important,
ex-

inasmuch as
iio

it

requires

the

electors

Particularly.

pressly to designate the 'candidates for President

and Vice-President;

by that meant

Then-hy.
\. e.Iless.

saving the nation from 'useless expense, and


the animosity of party 'rancor.
( 10.)

Virulence.
Use.

The

Constitution has been in 'opeIn peace and in

ration for fifty-nine years.


ii5

Purine.
Protector.
Origin.

war

it

has proved
In
its
'

itself

the 'guardian of the


it
:

republic.

'infancy

was
it

assailed with

unparalleled

vehemence
if

was

then

Violence.

matter of 'theory,

the Constitution could

Conjecture.

Why was Article XII. of the Amendments inserted in the body of the Constitution? 17 What is peculiar of the twelfth amendment ? (9) IS. Give an account of the presidential contest in 1 S01. 19. Why is the twelfth amendment important ? ( 10.) 20. How long has the Constitution been in force 3 22. 21. What has been the result of its operation ?
See Article XU. of the Amendments to the Constitution, pa^e 115

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


rittft

221
to.

upon the country union, and

its

na-

Give

i?o

tural consequences, 'prosperity and power.

Success.
Proof.

Experience, the
theories, has
its

infallible

test

of

all

human

demonstrated the 'wisdom of

Sageness.
Unrivalled.

arrangements, and the unequalled blessits

ings of
125

operation.

attempt to

Those who hereafter 'weaken its bonds, must do so


its

Action.

Enfeeble.

against the weight of

own

transcendent
light of

Tower.
Precedent.
Trial.

example
all

to bless

mankind, and the


:

past

experience

and

nothing but the

mental
\e
a

darkness of the people could ever

Blindness
Intrigues

chance of success

to the

'schemes

of those

unworthy Americans who would


this glorious

Base.

wish

to destroy

'confederacy.

Union.

(| 11.)

Every

friend of 'liberty throughout


felt

Freedom.
Motive.

the world has


135

new

'impulse to duty

by
it

the

unparalleled 'prosperity and happiness

Success.

:iferred

by the American Constitution:

Bestowed.
Fortification.

has proved the mightiest 'rampart against


those dreaded evils which
patriotic opponents feared
its
it

early but often


;

Feared.
Adversaries.

might foster

its

ho fruits have surpassed the 'expectations of the

Hopes
Confident.
Sincere.

most sanguine of
honest

its

framers.

Let then every

person reflect

upon the dangerous

doctrines of dissensions and 'disunion. Every

sppuration.
Recollect.

one should remember that our bond of union


broken,

we have
I

thirty distinct but


in
?

Severed.

Constitution
f
:

its

infancy?
24.

23.

What

is

the

the

human Amei
all

theories

(11)
its

What

effect lias the

stituti >n

bad on the friends of liberty


results
27.

throughout the
iloctr

25.

What

arc

upon the
i

evils

it

was

in

disseminating

snd disunionl
?

What would

the destruction of the Constitution

28. If the

result from Union were destroyed,

19*

222
'feeble

COMMENTARY ON THE
nations,

where now

exist the

most

He

picas.

prosperous people of the world.


that are

'Questions
'deDetermined.

now

debated and reasonably

cided in the 'Halls of Congress, would then


150

Houses
Settled.
Strife.

be 'decided by brute force in the


'battle.

field

of

( 12.)

Let 'disunion once take place, and


tell

Sepe rationMark. Terminate.

who can
'end
155
1

where
could

the line of division will


the

Who

tell

number of unprin-

cipled politicians and military 'adventurers

Dmftmdom.
Heavy.
Required.

would spring up; the enormous taxes that would be 'exacted of the people to supthat

port armies for mutual aggression; the mili-

Annoyance*.

tary despotism ami theconsequenf misery that


160

nesa.

would 'inevitably follow (^ 13.) Hut how can the Constitution be 'maintained, unless it is made known to the people, and how
I

Certainly.

Supported.

Community.
Inculcated.

can

it

be

made known

it'

not

'taught
'

in

our schools?
105

Unless the youth of our


it

land

Country.

learn to 'appreciate the security

gives to
life,

property, 'liberty, equal laws, and even

and
to

'realize the truth that

measures injurious
surely
that

Comprehend.
Finally.

one section of our country must 'eventually


divided,

injure all;

we must

fall:

Severed.
Exist.

no united our country will not only stand, but

take the

'

lead of

all

others in the improve-

Advance.
Domestic.

ment of
'attain

the 'social condition of

man, and

a degree of renown unequalled in the


( 14.)

Reach.
Chronicles.

'annals of the world.

For nearly

how would

questions of sectional moment be then decided ? ( 12.) 29. Would the Union, once divided, continue without numerous subdivisions and distractions? ( 13.) 30. What is the only effectual way to support the Constitution? 31. In what consists the strength of our country? 32. To what desirable position does the Constitution lead

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


its

223

su

thousand

years during

has
that

the
'time
in

world
liberty

been
has

G000.

created, yet

PerimL
Shut.

heretofore been pent


ries,

up

narrow

territo-

and never before had dominion on such


is

Predominance.

magnificent scale as
;

now

exhibited in

Grand.
Information.
Offered.

America

never before have knowledge and


to the million,

equal laws been extended

and
and
the

the highest 'offices of honor, of profit,

and of

riaces.

usefulness, been given alike to the rich

Utility.

the 'poor; never before


IBS

have the mightiest


in

Indigent.

men

of a nation, the brightest 'names

Appellations.
Cycle.

curriculum of fame, risen to immortal re-

nown from
of merit.
( 15.)

obscurity, solely on the ground

Retirement.
Ability.

The

Constitution

may

justly be

Palladium.

urded as the promoter of universal

knowand of

Looked upon
Equal
rights.

ledge and equality

among men,
it is

the patron

of

letters,

the fountain

of justice

Literature.

'order in

human

society;

the strong bulIt


is

System.
Liberty.
Edifice.

wark of American freedom.

a mag-

nificent

structure,

reared with unequalled

wisdom by
successful
its
'

the purest patriots,

and the most

Sagacity.
Friends.

'

benefactors of the
are

human
and
is

race
intelli-

pillars

now
;

the virtue
its
'

Supports.
I';i>!

gence of the people

keystone

union.

nmp.

aw Vice, immorality, and corruption

may 'under-

Sap.
Local.

mine the one;

faction,

sectional jealousies,

and

strife,

may
it

'corrode and destroy the

Consume.
Solicitude.

other.

Let

be the 'care of every Ameri33

despotic ru others? 3
36.

What
r

men
('"j

long lias the world continued under the example of freedom to all promoted to office under the Constitution?
intry et

For what reason 1

15.1

87.

How may

the Constitution be re-

224
can
205

COMMENTARY ON THE
to

'comprehend the vastness of


to 'guard
it

its

bless-

Understand.
Protect.
^Intrusions.

ingvS,

and

from

all

possible 'en-

croachments.
( 16.)

The

'legacy of the Father of his

Farewell Address.

country

sets forth alike the

'importance and

Necessity

the 'paramount claims of the Constitution.


210

BfcfeMt
Reverence.
Co-existent.

Those who 'revere the sage counsels of him, whose fame is 'co-extensive with the history of America, will 'coincide in the opinion, that
the Constitution should be studied in
'schools.
all

AgTee.

the

Learned.
Seminaries.

"

It is

of infinite

moment

that

you

215

should 'properly estimate the

immense value

AtVquately.

of your national union to your 'collective and


individual happiness

Combined.
Felicity.

a 'cordial, habitual,

you should cherish and immovable attach;

that

Heartfelt.

ment
220

to it;

'accustoming yourselves to think


it

Habituating.
Shield.

and speak of

as of the palladium of your

'political safety
its

and prosperity; watching

for

National.
Solicitude.
Hint.

preservation with jealous

anxiety; dis-

countenancing whatever
a 'suspicion that
it

mny

suggest even

can, in any event, be

Doubt.

K5 abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon


the
first

On.

dawning of every attempt

to alienate
rest,

Appearance.
Part.

any

'portion of our

country from the

or

to enfeeble the sacred ties

which now

link

Weaken.
Different.

together the 'various parts."*


garded
39.
?

38. What should be the care of every American? ( 16.) should be properly estimated? 40. Should all understand the Constitution? 41. Is it written so that all can understand it? 42. Should each pupil in every school in the country understand it? 43. Should every citizen study it? 44. How should all speak of it? 45. Would it be reasonable or safe to require persons to speak in a favorable manner of a document which they had never read?

What

* The entire Farewell Address Burleigh."

is

inserted in the " Citizen's Manual, by Joseph Bartlett


CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
( 17.) Great w ere the hearts,

225

and

'strong the minds,

Stoat
\hu\c.

those
l

who

'framed, in nigh del

ie

'immortal league of iove that binds


lair

Eternal,

Our

'broad empire, state with state.


the
gla Lneea of the hour,
i]

And deep
2Tv3

When,
In

si

icioua task

was done,
Awful.
Unstained.

solemn

trust, the

WmM

given

to

sword of power Glory's unspoiled Sox.


is

That noble race

gone; the suns


'risen

Worthy.
Soared.
Rin^s.

Of
240

sixty years

have

and

set;

But the bright 'links those chosen ones


So strongly 'forged, are brighter yet.

Formed.
Americans.
Stretching.

Wide Wi

as

otir

own

free race

increase

le shall

extend the

'elastic chain,

And
245

bind, in 'everlasting peace,


Lte,

Evcrduring.

a 'mighty train.
47.
50.

Bryant.

Potent.

( 17.)

46.
?

framed
all

49.

What were great? What was given?

What strong? 48. What was To whom? 51. What is gone?

53. What shall extend wide? 54. Should >'hat are brighter yet? endeavor to imitate the virtues of Washington, who endeavored never to tell a falsehood, violate an obligation, or be guilty of any other
tl

dishc

55. If

we

strive to attain the highest pinnacle, shall

and accomplish more good than 'A* ho do you suppose the happiest in this good !
\>

we

we
life,

should otherwise?
the

wicked

or the

LESSON
THE

XL.

Dtmn
(1.)

AND EE-POXSIWLITIES OF VOTERS.*

The
in

impressions

and

'prejudices

Pm Me*
Early exist-

imbibed

infancy

or of a nation

the infancy of a person and perpetuated the use


in
-

Contjaoad.
Expressions.

of

which should vary


are,

circumst
(%
1.)

perhaps,
rly life
?

226
in

DUTIES AND
no instance more
'indelibly

and injuriously
'social, poli-

Permanently
Domestic.
Public.

fixed,
tical,

than those relating to our

and 'national associations.

Thus, the

phrases and the impressions 'incident to them,


10 "right of suffrage," which 'implies the grant

Appertaining

Means.
Governing.
Privilege.

by the

'ruling

power

to the subject to exer-

cise the

elective

'franchise,

and " govern-

ment," as applied to a 'detached body of

Separate.

men

in

power, are both rendered 'obsolete

Antiquated.

15 by the 'peculiar character of our republican


institutions,

Genius.
Assertion.

and by the declaration that "


free
its

all

men

are 'created

and equal

\"

hence

Made. RtkfH
i

society, as 'regards

organization and goits

vernment,

is

resolved into
votes,

'original ele-

Primary.
Law-r:

20 ments

and

man

and

elects 'legislators
'privilege;

and

rulers, as a right, not as a


'exists
( 2.)

government
government.
litically free

for

man, not man


all

for

Endures.
nally.

As then

men

are 'po-

and equal, the only 'operation


is

Thing.

25 necessary

to 'constitute civil society

their

Form.
Defence.
Feeble.
Illiterate.

association for social enjoyment, the pr


tion of the

'weak

against the

strong, the

'ignorant against

the

shrewd, the destitute


;

against the wealthy, 'and so forth

and

in this

Ac.

30 'compact each has equal


pate and 'express his will. of every

liberty to

partici-

Agreement.
Declare.

The

united will

member

'constitutes

the

govern-

Makes.
People.

ment of
( 8.)

a republican

'community.

'republican
less

government
l

then,

is

Free.

35 nothing more nor

than a contract formed

An grremmt.

2. Do people derive the right to vote from their rulers? 3. For whtkX does government exist ( 2.) 4. What are some of the advantages of society? ( 3.) 5. What is a republican government? 6. What is
?

RESPONSIBILITIES OF VOTERS.
by the people for 'mutual protection, deand security of their inalienable rights.

227
Reciprocal.
I'nfraiisfer-

fence,

Hence
his

the duty oi every Freeman


interest

is

plain;

Oivious.

own

and the

interest of those

40 dear

to his

heart, his family

and

his

suc-

Followers.
Collected.
Citizens.
-led.

3, require him nmunity and express

to meet the

assembled
general
to

his

wish respectthe

ing

measures

proposed
will

for

weal,

which
his

be

found

ultimately
( 4.)

Prosperity.

45 subserve

own

self-interest.

But
in-

Promote.
Diffident.

how, and where,


dividual,

shall a

modest, humble

meet the

assembled

community,

Gathered.

sing this great nation, to express his

Forming.

'opinion fearlessly and efficiently


as.

At

the

Con Wet ion.


Place of election.

His diffidence

is

there at once rehis rights

lieved

by the consciousness of
;

and

Knowledge
Vote.

the use of the ballot

and

his vote, thus cast,

may

counterpoise
'coffers, the
in

that of

the millionaire

Counterbalance.

over his

judge on the bench, or

Treasures.

55 the general
( 5.)

command.
in

High

officers.

Except

very small communities,

Societies.

the direct 'agitation of the question under

Discussion.

debate, cannot conveniently and simultane-

At the same
time.

ously be discussed and decided by the united

ComUned.
Jncxlent.

60

will of the nation.

This circumstance gives


govern-

to a representative republican
it,

Pu.ity.

in

which

the voter

delegates to his

Grants.

representative the privilege of 'carrying his

Conreying.
Views.

opinions to the

legislature,

and presenting

the duty of every freeman


us
that
?

(
dii

I.) 7.

How

do voters express

their

8. Is

th<-re

any
to

te

of the

man

'he most

man

in the

country?

(^ 5

a repre

at?

($6.) 10,

228
65 them
his

DUTIES AND
for him.
( 6.)

But

let

the 'voter bear

Balloter.

constantly in 'mind, that the ballot here cast,


is

Memory.
Direct.

'immediate opinion, expressed on the

matter at issue, and such 'collateral points


as are 'connected with
it,

Indirect.

to

be immediately
his

United.

70 decided

in the

'

legislature

by

agent

and

Law making
department.

no one should be so 'thoughtless as


of expressing
aspirant,

to conOccasion.

sider the " election" merely an 'opportunity


his
'partiality
'elicited

for a favorite

Favor.
Culled forth. Witty.
Individual.

who

has

admiration by a
for the gratificiti;

75 'facetious " stump speech," or


zen will discard
will look with

cation of personal feelings; the candid


all

unworthy motives

he

Renounce.
Honesty.

pureness of heart and

'sin-

cerity of purpose, to the future

effects of
Election.

80 the
be

'choice of officers.

( 7.)

He

will neither

the 'tool

of party, nor allow personal

Instrument.
Pique.

'enmity or prejudice to
will

sway

his vote.

lie

'participate with a pure

patriotism of

Share.

other ages in the self 'sacrifice of individual

Immolation.

85 or party preferences,

for the

most 'meritoreflec-

Worthy.
Directed.

rious and the ablest officers, and, 'governed

by good
tion,

common
select

sense,

and patriot

Meditation.

will

faithful,

efficient,

and

Competent.
Deputy.

trusty 'agent, to

convey and execute

his will

90 on subjects connected with his


tianity

interest, the

Themes.
Religion.

interest of the nation, the well-being of Chris-

and of the 'world.


Thus, as so

Earth.

( 8.)

much

'importance
it

is

Value.

attached to the

'elective

franchise,

appears

Voting

prerogative.

triotic

11. To what will every pashould every voter bear in mind ? voter look? ( 7.) 12. What should not sway the opinion of the voter? 13. What will govern every intelligent voter? ( 8.) 14.

What

RESPONSIBILITIES OF VOTERS.
95 that the duty of a voter
vilege to the freeman
:

229
Business.
("oiiscc.utiiOf

is

one of great
its

prito

but

importance

the nation rests on the honesty, the

candor,

Sni'vr.ty

and

'intelligence

of

its

several

members;

Enlighten-

ment.
Suitableness.

hence the propriety and necessity of the ex100

ertions to

disseminate, with other general

BtMTolaat,
1>

topics

of education, a

principles of the government,

knowledge o( the and to 'incul-

ranches.

cate morality and

religion

is

Iufuse.

the pillars on

Christianity.

which
Mi
tutions.

rest

the

freedom, the

permanency.
instiself-

Puration.
Liberal.

and the entire value of our republican


(0.)

Every

voter

bound by

Balloter.

interest,

independent of the
the
scriptures, to

unerring comsupport such

Undeviating.
Maintain.
Aid.

mands of

measures as

will

contribute most to amelio-

no rate the sufferings and 'distresses of society,

Adversities.

general prosperity of his country, and,

Weal.
Duration.
Tp.-rrss.

above

all,

to the

perpetuity of

its

institutions.

In the course of time, additions to


is

and

altera<

of the Constitution must necessarily be

If

course.

113

proposed for the consideration of the people,

Deliberation.

and even

its

very existence

is

'committed
injunction

to
is

Entrusted.
tiinmand.

them

hence the
all,

imperative

placed upon

to

understand that document,

'umprehend.
Benefits.

which has conferred so many blessings upon and, inasmuch at there are in our
con
-at

Seeing that.
Foll-fi

a million of
j

adult white per-

deemed imporand
emiioa
' I

tant her

briefly the necessity


re
frail ;bi*t
t

benefit

ibe
!<

">.

which
ll!

insti-

($V.)
I

17. \Vh;it

';m
L9.

pertoni unable

to

read be considered safe guardians of liberty

Who

direct the

230

DUTIES AND

claims of sound instruction, to 'allude to the


125

duty of

all

to support 'measures for the ge-

Meaus.
Dissemination
Guide.
Fate.

neral 'diffusion of knowledge, and especially

of those

who

direct through the ballot-box

the 'destiny of the nation.


( 10.)
130

If a citizen neglects to

'vote,

he

Ballot.

'relinquishes

one of his most valuable

privi-

Gives up.

leges, and neglects an important 'duty.

The
ought
if

OMigation.
Glory.

'boast of our republic


'feature,

is,

its

representative
plan,
all

and

to

carry out

its

Character.

to be represented.
135

All 'ought to vote, for


fails,

Should.
Design.
Inhabitants.

they do not, the 'object of government


citizen who may be justly said

the

'people are not wholly, but only in part, represented.

Every good
polls,

stays

away

Km fft
Bafl*
event.

from the

to 'frustrate

the plan of our institutions;


140

and

in 'case of The

bad

officers

being elected,

to tacitly

support
( 11.)

Silently

their election

and

its
is

consequences.

Result*
(

In voting, a 'man

acting both for himself


is

"itizen.

and

his country,

and

under obligation to

lity.

use the utmost

discrimination

and

sound

Judgment.
Designation.
Instances.

H5 sense in the selection of public officers, and

conduct himself on
ness,

all

occasions with cool-

candor, and kindness.

There should

Ingenuous-

never be any angry words, or imputations


of bad 'motives.
150

Exist.

The

display of ungovern-

able temper, or of rude and ungentlemanly

conduct,

is

beneath the dignity of freemen,

Below.

destiny of the political affairs of the nation? ( 10.) '20. What does the man relinquish who neglects to vote? 21. Why should all vote in a republican government? ( 11.) 22. Under what obligation is every man who votes? 23. What should never exist? 24. Do the best of men ever make mistakes? 25. Do instances occur in which men think profound statesmen wrong in which, if they possessed

RESPONSIBILITIES OF VOTERS.
and
totally

231
Undeserving.
Commonwealth.

unworthy of a

citizen of the

Amein the

rican 'republic.

The

best oi

men may somestates-

times think they are right, and yet be

wrong: and men often think profound

.earned.

men
were
(
i6o

in

the

wrong, when,
right.

if

they

enjoyed
that they

Possessr

their advantages, they


in the

would know

Understand.

True way.

12.)

In

making

political 'statements,

it

Assertions.

is

incumbent on those

who advance them


in

to

Obligatory.
Discretion.

use

much

caution and inquiry


it

reference

to their

validity:

is

by

fair

and honorable

Soundness.

-ion thai

the cause of

human
folly

liberty

Argument
Promoted.
Defraud.

idvanced

and the greatest


is

any party

iw or people can commit,

to

cheat, "dupe,

and deceive each other;


will

all

honorable

men

Impose upon.
Aim.
Rebellion.
Liars.

endeavor
justice.
in civil

to support the

cause of truth

and

As

'treason

is

the worst crime

known

society, so should political de-

ivers be

ranked
f

among
and

the

most heinous

Classed.

truth,
all

be 'dismissed from

Discarded by
Ma^mnimou*.
Demonstrate*.

the society

cf

honorable and respectable

men.

( 13.)

Experience 'proves, that the


are accustomed to rea-

mre the
:

human race
upon

Habituated.

and

reflect

their duties, the more pure


e.

"Munitions.

aod'holythe;
for

A.

community that has


Course.

tones been oppressed by

taxation, and
ire

made
prone

the
to

cringing slaves of
Tyranny.
Fetter*.

run into the extremes


their

i of rice and folly

when

shackles arc
ht1

9.

(12.) 90. >w should Wiii' do6i experience


11
'i

that

man

is

232

DUTIES AND
Induced.

removed, and are sometimes led to believe that " kings rule by divine right," and that

Munarchs.
Qualified for.

man
185

is

not 'capable of self-government

withif

out ever 'reflecting on the absurdity, that

Pondering.

men,

in the 'aggregate,
affairs, the

cannot control their

Whole.
Inferior.

own

'baser class of

men may
not

seize the

'prerogative of heaven, and

Exclusive
privilege.

only 'govern themselves, but also others; that


the 'greater
190

Direct.

number should be oppressed with

Majority. Minority.

taxes to support in sumptuousness the 'few


that they must have 'an imbecile race of kings, to force them to 'submit to law and
to

A weak.
Yield.

do

right.

( 14.)

The

fact

is,

that

///

Heretofore.

times past, education


ids

has been 'denied

to

Withheld
from.
I'lisHfUh.

the

mass of

the people; hence the most

dis-

interested

benefactors of our racr,

those
that.

Mankind.
Diffused.

who

'disseminated

most the

fundamental

principles

of

human

'equality

people should be free and enlightened


200

that the

Kdurati-d.

'virtue

and wisdom

constituted the highest

Morality.

'excellence of character

and that men should


have been sacrimultitude,

Worth.

be'respected according to their personal merit

Esteemed.
Sanctity.

and the
ficed
205

'piety of their lives,


'illiterate

by the

who were
're-

Ignorant.

'duped and made the


( 15.)

tools of artful despots.

Deceived.
Celebrated.
Siiges.

Recount the names of the most

nowned

'philosophers of antiquity, the most

disinterested statesmen, the ablest 'orators,

Speakers.

the purest 'philanthropists, even to

him "who

Lovers of mankind.

incapable of self-government? ( 14.) 30. What has heretofore been the state of education? 31. What has been the fate of those who have heretofore contributed most to human happiness? ( 15.) 32. What are the names of the most distinguished philosophers of anti-

"

RESPONSIBILITIES OF VOTERS.
2io

233
Endured.
Tormenting.
1

spake as never

man

spake," they have

'suf-

fered the most 'excruciating pains, and death,

through

ignorance, by the hands of these


Ail v;i

whose

best interests could alone be 'promoted

need.

by their existence;
those

Providence
benefit of

will

ever

God.
Certain.

PU rentier the inevitable hour of death happy to

who

live

for the

mankind;

Wcitoa
Unrevcaled.
Descendants.
Truly.

but they brought 'untold misery and wretch-

edness upon themselves and their posterity,

and

their

ignorance

may
in

justly be said to

have clothed the world


Ignorance
then

mourning.

( 1G.)

Habited
Want
of

cannot be anything but a


to those

know-

ledge.

moral crime of the darkest dye

who
The

Color.

have

imperishable education placed within

Enduring.

their reach,

and

fail to

take the

'prize.

Reward.
Unerring.
Proves.

xx history o{ the world, the


future

infallible

index of

human

action, 'shows that no people

can remain
ledge, true
ire

free

who

are illiterate:
is

know-

Uneducated.
Requisite.

knowledge,

indispensable to

'permanently

in families

even the neit,

Lastingly.

cessary riches of
a republic,
to
it

this

world.

Without

in

Wealth.
Entirely.

is

utterly impossible for

wealth
to

continue
:

in,

and contribute happiness


seize

Administer.
Corrupt.

a family
invites

it

becomes

the 'putrid carcass that


it,

unseen vultures, that

and
its
Unavoidable.
Holders.

bring either poverty or 'inevitable ruin on

ime the mo-t distinguished orators and philanthropists? bat J id th< ( 16.) 35. Why is it a crime What is shown* bj ry of the world, on
'
.

tl
7

37.

Why
*

is

kn<

try to

public arvl private

38.
39.

knowledge.

What does *e who D

n without
live
ty
?

for

the benefit of

mankind

best

20*

234

DUTIES AND

LESSON
( ].)

XLI.
Individual ga iiiPleasure.

'Self-interest alone, even for this


'enjoyment, renders
let

world's

moral

intelli-

gence 'indispensable;
'satisfied whilst,

then no one rest

Necessary.

within this Union, there are

Contented.

5 hundreds of thousands
to

who

find

it

difficult

Are puzzled.

'discriminate between right and

wrong;
.'tit.

it is

ncf^enough that they


;

and write
bity,

know how to read an 'enlightened man without prothe

Educated.

may become

more

'efficient tool for

lal.

10 mischief; but morality should be paramount


to letters.

Let the 'youthful mind be always


in

Young.
Stamped.
f'<

'impressed with moral examples


'practice,

theory and

and so be

fortified

against the evil

rformance.
.'rs.

influences of after-life.

( 2.)

Let the

'in-

15 structors of youth receive such 'remuneration.

tldl.

and such honor,

that the profession

may comand
sotloi*.
InililT. :

mand

the ablest

talents of the land,

ciety will receive the rich

rewards of the
to the vital sub-

common

harvest.

'Apathy

20 ject of the moral 'training of the young

may
of

Guidance.
Opulent.

be fatal; no citizen, however 'wealthy, or

however

'exalted,

can escape the

evils

surrounding and depraved ignorance.

Let

Corrupting.

none 'imagine themselves

in

conscious secu-

( 1.) 1. What renders moral intelligence indispensable 1 2. Can the morals of children, or the property of individuals, remain safe among ignorant and corrupt communities? 3. What may an enlight-

ened man without morality become


site

4.

What examples

to

enforce morality?

( 2.)

5.

Who

are requiwill reap the benefits of

having good instructors? 6. What is necessary to hav lehool besides good teachers? 7. Are any so wealthy or so exalted, that they may be shielded from surrounding ignorance? S. Who have a

RESPONSIBILITIES OF VOTERS.
25
rity.

235
Ignorance.
Intellectual.
Fulfil.

surrounded by mental darkness, or imall

moral 'mental illumination;


to

have a part

perform

the

richest

and the poorest, the


citizen

mightiest

men

of the nation, and the feeblest

Most influential.

Women

of the land; no

should be

Voter.
Insensible
of.

imgfor the mental distresses, and perishing wants of the multi( 3.)

Endurances.
Deathly.
Individual.

tudes within this republic.

May

no

le-

thean stupor overtake, or contracted personal

views engross the attention of the citizens

Monopolize.
Productions.

U pf

America,

till,

revelling

in

the

fruits

of
're-

ethers' labors,

and claiming part of the

Fame.
Ferocious.

nown
rian

>f

their ancestors, the

hand of barbatekel,

ignorance writes M
<>n

menc, mene,

Want

nf

know-

ledge.

upharsin,"

the walls of the

republic,

and

Nation.

40 the

tide

of

brutal force, guided

by mental
re-

Depraved.
Recklessness
Coasts.
Smaller number

depravity, sweeps for ever liberty from the


'shores of

America.

Let then every one

nber that here the people rule, that the minority must
IT)

always submit
political

to the

majority,

Yield.

whether

their

measures savor of

National.
Discretion.

6 or virtue, of folly or

wisdom;

the vigi-

lance of

all

should be used, that the 'eloquence


the
zeal for party

may

not cause

Devotion.

them
ts

to

forgel

cither the rights or

mental

"f their 'country,


i

All minorities in a

republic are en-

Cornmon\*rltn.

titled to

equal rights and protection with the

Security.
Infraction.

rity.

and any violation of the JUSt rights


i

pariI

of knowledge 1

9.

Who
DOH
refer

ailed

236

DUTIES AND
Diminutive.

of any minority, however 'small, would be

55 'despotic oppression
worst of
all

in

a republic

and the

Tyrannical.

despotisms has been exercised

Wielded.
Masses.
Supports.
Flagrant.

by ignorant 'multitudes, over the wisest and


best citizens.
evil person, for

Any man
any
his

that

votes for

an

office,

60 nous 'offence against


liberty;

commits a heicountry and human

Crime.
D'f;imr.

he does

all in his

power

to

disgrace

and

ruin the republic.


is
it

But the cause of


Progressist.

liberty

ever 'onward, and though often be-

trayed,

cannot be kept down.

Apparently
it

Seemingly.
Destroyed.
Fcitrucd.

65 crushed and entirely Consumed)


ill

will rise

some

other land, and like the fabled phoe-

nix, will revive

from

its

ashes with renewed

Dust.

youth and vigor.

(>)

The

great majority
Inhabitants.

of the 'people of the American republic will

70 never knowingly pursue a course


liberty.

'fatal
is

to

Ruinous.
1

Education, 'moral education,

the

nri'iTt.

sole

foundation on which the perpetuity of

Basis.

our institutions 'depends;


centered
the
future

upon

it

alone

is

Rests.

renown of America. 75'Greece, Carthage, Rome, Poland, Switzerland, Holland,

Fame.

and France, those attempted

Gaul.
Cinders.

nurseries of republics,
liberty are
still

where

the

embers of
to look to

glowing, are

now

Burning.

the 'eyry of the eagle of freedom in the

New

Dome.
D tn.ent.

80 World.
( 4.)
14.

The

countries of the 'Old World,

Con-

12.

public?

13.

Under what circumstances may despotism exist in a reWhat does a man do who votes for a wicked officer?
there been times

Have

liberty in the

world?

15.

when there appeared to be no rational What lias taken place on such occasions?

( 5.) 16. Will the majority of the American people knowingly pursue a wrong course ? 17. What is then the only security for the perpetuity of our institutions? 18. What countries are now to become disciples

RESPONSIBILITIES OF VOTERS.
that formerly contained
all

237

that

was

consi-

dered of surpassing splendor


tions of

in the

produc- MagmteMt
to he-

man and

of

nature, are

now
if

come

the pupils of

America; and
fidelity

we

per-

Pisrijles.

B5 form our duty with the


j,

o{ our an-

[A

cnty.

our
.

country will

attain
all

enduring
time, the

lYrmauent.
Pining.

and
rational

receive, 'through

enviable appellation of the


liberty.

Alma Mater

of

Cberiahiag
im>liirr.

FritiVm.
it

90

( 0.)

In
all

conclusion,
voters, that
to

may

be well to

("losing.

remind

and are subject

we enjoy more liberty more sudden and intense than any other people on the
citizen
is

C.t

MB

Liable.

Controrer-

globe.

Every
almost

a voter and a lawis

Imlividaal.

05 maker,

every one
to his

politician,

Nearly.
United.
Sects.

warmly attached
site

party; and the op-

views and interests of parties engender


tnd there
is

contro\
that the
ioo

'imminent danger

Threatening.

ascendency over an opponent

may

Power.

be too often the aim, 'when, on the contrary,


the disr<
ject

Whereas.

>wry of truth should alone be the ob/ion. (7.) Party contest, even
Search.
Ignorant.

with a small number of uninformed voters,


y
i<*.->

endanger

the

tranquillity of the nation

by a

straggle for

power among ambitious


country

rontesl.
Nation.
I*roTe.

Political questions in this

:he virtue
.

and intelligence of the and

and the
19.

discretion, moderation,

JndjBrment.

-i

Whel majr be
jnrt
1

* 6 (> n

eoYiable
)

title

21.

What
of

rouir
<-t

of America 1 20. nrc ihe people of this Whmt etjoeei con:

all

( 7.)
.

whom

238
integrity of
110

DUTIES AND
American
politicians.

Upon

the

ipnghtnea
important
Prosperous,

present generation devolves the 'momentous


question of republican government.
cessful,
If sue-

we

shall

recommend our

institutions

commend,
1

to the 'esteem, the admiration,

and the imita-

tion of the 'civilized world,

Knlitrhtened.

no

( 8.) It is

believed that no 'secular

knowinsti-

Worldly.

ledge can 'contribute so


lity,

much

to the stabi-

Conduce.
Splendor.
Qualify.

perpetuity,

and 'grandeur of our

tutions,

and so well 'prepare voters


'duties, as

to dis-

charge their
120

a familiar acquaint-

Obligation*
Familiarity.

ance with the Constitution.


of the present and the
only with
its

The converse
not

'rising generation,

Coming.
Doctrine*.

'principles, but with the causes,

the motives, the forbearance, the 'unwearied

Indefatigable
I'nequalled.

labor in
125

its

production, and the 'unparalleled


'sagacity of
its

wisdom and

framers

the
of

Quirk

(baftl

nt.

daily and domestic

intercourse

with that
spirit

('mmunica-

'hallowed instrument, and the pure


its

Consec rated.

authors,

must

promote

harmony and
Enliren.

union, and 'inspire every one with patriotism,


130

and 'an ardent desire

faithfully

and

effi-

A warm.
Discharge.
Constitution-

ciently to perform his duty.

Voters are the


the

protectors of the 'charter of freedom;


children of the 'poorest

may

yet enjoy
its

some

Most obaeure
Reward*.
Write.

of
135

its

highest honors, and, like

framers,

by patriotism and merit engrave their names on the pillars of 'immortality. Let then every
one, 'severing the chains of prejudice, select
the best

Etenuty.
<'u:tm?.

the

men for office, that the duration of republic may be 'co-extensive with time.

Continuance.

0f

ldu "

devolves the momentous question of republican government? (&) 27. What is believed to best prepare voters to discbarge their duties
?

REsrONSlBILLTIKS OF JURORS.

239

LE

S S

X XL

DUTIES and RESPONSIBILITIES of JTTBOKS.


( 1.) 'Tin: right

of

trial

by jury was justly

Bomb.
Regarded.
Invaluable.

asidered by our ancestors as one of the

most inestimable privileges of freemen, and


the
violation of this prerogative

was one
in

oi'

Infringement
Denizen.
Reserving.
Standing.
National.
Inheritance.

5 the causes 4 o( the revolution.

No

'citizen 1

of the United States, excepting those


gjular

the

army, and

civil

officers

under the

era]
this

government, can ever be deprived of


birthright.

natural

Jury
in

trials in civil

10

suits,

when

the

amount

controversy ex-

Dispute.

ity

dollars, arc also 'guaranteed to


in this

Secured.
Notwithstanding

every citizen
the trial
prized, and

country.

( 2.)

'Though

by jury
is

lias in all

ages been highly

Periods.

justly considered the palladium


little

Bulwark.
Relatively.

15 of liberty, yet comparatively


fore been

has hereto-

done duly to discipline the mind,

Properly.

or to impress the responsibility of the 'undertaking on the minds of those

Duty.
Preside.
Arbiters.
('hanicters.

who

are to

'sit

as judges, and decide on matters affecting

20 not only the fortunes, the


( 1.)
2.
1

reputations, and

H<>w wn; the


.

trial

What

is

nion of the
5.
1

ti.

\\

j|

by jar] menis of

7.

W
by
I

by jury regarded by our ancestors 1 by jury? 3. What arc your reatbe difference between rfc/iizm and What person! in the United States are not ter being impeached, be tried :!i with Article V. of the Amend'
trial
i

Can
tried

the

memberi
?

of the established
!><

army be
fore

horn

must they
11.

tried

( 2.)

from

tri:il

by jury

What

lias

hereto-

itndi of the majority of the people

Se Declaration at Independ*i.
itutK.n.
.

pafM

113 and

Hi

wcuan

eeeoa

' ;

240

DUTIES AND
Coun'
r

the lives of their fellow-cit'zcns, but even the


'well-being of society,

and the permanency


( 3.)

Welfare.

of our

institutions
is

of justice.

The

Judicatur

*.

object of juries

thwarted,

if

men, from

01>structed.
tabic.

25

deficient or

improper mental training, are

incapable of listening to evidence, and rea-

soning and 'discriminating

between direct
It is

Discerning

and irrelevant testimony.


that

well

known

Not

applicable.

men who have never formed


themselves,
to evidence, to

the habit

Custom.
Ratiocinating

30 of
for

attention, of investigating
after

and reasoning
for

listening
totally

a few

Hearkening.
Confused.
Subject.
Plain.

days

become

bewildered

with regard

the 'matter in controversy.

Hence,
35

it

is

evident that well-meaning

men
and

may
for
if

often be called

upon

to

discharge duties

Perform.

which they are

totally 'unprepared,

Incompetent.
Fitted.

not suitably 'qualified by mental training,

they

may become
rights.

the

instruments of

'de-

iving.

priving

their fellow-citizens

of their 'most

Dearest.
Privileges.

40 valuable
to

( 4.) It is a

prominent 'object of

this

book
and
Relish.
n-ted.

impart a

'zest

for critical, accurate,

'continued attention, and the most extended

examinations of any

'subjects that

may come
and
'disI

Questions.

45 under consideration,
cipline

to strengthen cs

Peculate.

the

mind, and awaken that 'comof self reliance and self peris

Praiseworthy

mendable
'success in
while
at

spirit

Dependece.
.try.

severance, which

essential to the highest

any
13.

calling,

and which constantly


|

Prosperity.

school, to act as jurors?

(3)

12.

What may thwart

the

necessary for one properly to discharge any duty which involves testimony, and affects the property or live? of persons 1 ( -4.) 14. What is the difference between object and 15. What is necessary to the highest success design, in the 41st line?
object of juries?
is

What

RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
50 affords renewed and increased pleasure,
the most
in

241
Bestows.
Ardent.

intense thought and the most unapplication.


( 5.)
It
is

wearied

believed

KXUgenoa
Accurately.
Fitted.

that no youth

can study

this

hook thoroughly

without being better prepared indue time to


").">

discharge

efficiently, not only the cilice of a

Effectually

juror, but all the varied


its

duties of

lite

that

Aviations.

use will indelibly impress on the minds


all,

Permanently
Culture.
Intellect.

of

the importance of the proper 'disci-

pline of the

"mental powers

that,

actuated
loftiest

SO by the purest philanthropy, and the


patriotism,
that their

Benevolence

as

well

as

the

consciousness

Love of country.

own

private interest and 'imme-

Direct.

diate

personal

happiness

are

inseparably

Enjoyment.
Domestic.

linked with their social duties, they will be-

65 come the enlightened, the


lant

efficient, the 'vigi-

Watchful.
Protectors. Incentives.

guardians of justice.

Thus, while each

receives
si

new

impulses to cultivate, in the

possible

manner, the immortal mind, an


is laid,

Way.
Basis.

imperishable foundation

on which to

70 rear the inseparable superstructures of domestic


bliss

Erect.

and national 'greatness.


the object of this

Power.

'.)

As

work

is

to 'be-

Serve.

nefit in part the

present as well as the rising A degree.

neration, the

following
:

subjects will be

Succeeding-.
Concisely.
Description.

75

briefly considered

the

manner of the organipower; the

zation of juries; the nature and character of


their duties; the extent of their

Boundaries.
RiKht.

'correct
in

way
7

of doing business
r
-

their respon-

will

any callim bare


a

>.)

16.

Whnt

effect

ifl

it
'

hoped the use of


!T
-

this

book

Wbal
18.
to

i-

the result of

Imptiif

ring

mindl

(*)

What n the object


oontider*
(7.)

wnrk

ii

242
sibilities,

DUTIES AND
and
'influence on the social

and
( 7.)

Power

over.

80

political 'institutions of

our country.

Regulations.
Particular.
Specified.

jury

is

a 'certain number of

citizens, se-

lected at 'stated periods,

and

in the

manner

'prescribed by the laws of the various states, whose 'business it is to decide some question

Directed.

Duty.
Dispute.

85 of 'controversy, or legal case. Juries are of two kinds; the grand jury and the 'petit
jury.

Traverse.

In whatever 'manner the jurors


it is

may

Mode.
Taken.
Precinct.

be 'selected from the people, the sheriff of the county or

the duty of

district, to re-

90 turn

'their

names, on a piece of paper, to the


to

The

panel.

court, previous

the

'appointed

day

for

Designated.
Arbiters.

opening.

Grand

jurors must
district

be

selected

from the county or

over which the

Bailiwick.

court has 'jurisdiction.

Twenty-four men

Legal authority.

95 are 'summoned
duty.
( 8.)

to attend court, but not

more
upon

Notified.

than twenty-three are ever

entered
'a

Sworn.
An
occurrence.

This prevents

contingency

that might otherwise 'take place, of having

Arise.

twelve 'men
ioo

in

favor of arraigning a party

Jurors.

for trial, 'opposed to the other twelve,

who
Not

Contrary.

might wish
less

to 'ignore the indictment.

Make
Art.

invalid

than twelve

men can
;

'serve

on any grand

jury in any state

and 'generally some odd number, 'between twelve and twenty-four, is


is

Usually.

Betwixt.

20.

What

a jury?

21.

How

are juries selected?

22. 23.

Do

all

the

states

have the same laws

in reference to juries?

How many

24. What is a sheriff'? 25. What is the kinds of juries are there ? duty of the sheriff? 26. What is a panel ? 27. What is the difference between panel and pannel? 28. What is the largest number of grand jurors ever sworn? ( 8.) 29. Why is not a larger number sworn? 30. What is the smallest number of men that can ever serve on a grand jury? 31. What number is usually selected ? 32. What is an odd number? 33. How is the foreman usually selected? ( 9.) 34.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
lis

243
of
Taken.
Set apart.

selected.

After they are called

to the side

the court-room 'appropriated for the jury, they

are generally 'permitted to choose their


'foreman.

own

Allowed.

But the judges can appoint, or


then required to 'take

Spokesman.
Chief
Satedrihe
to.

rather nominate a 'foreman for them.


no
(^ 8.)

The foreman

is

the following oath or 'affirmation,

'administered by
M

You, A.

B.,

which is some authorized person: do 'solemnly swear (or ailirm),


diligently
inquire,
all

Avrrmeut.
Given.
Seriously.

that

you

will

and true
articles,

Attentively.

no presentments

make, of

such

Indictments.
Subjects. Keeping-.

'matters
in

and

things, as shall be given to

charge, or otherwise

come

to

you your know;

ledge,

touching

the

present

'service

the

Session.
Associates'.

commonwealth's counsel, your


120

'fellows',

and

your own, you

shall 'keep secret;

you

shall

Not

reveal.

present no one for envy, hatred, or malice,

Antipathy.
L'niudicted.

nor shall you leave any one 'unpresented, for


fear, favor, 'affection, or

hope of reward or
all

Love.

n; but shall present

things truly, as
to

Emolument.
Information.

they

come
1

to

your knowledge, according

the best of your understanding, so help

you

Utmost.

God.'

( 10.)

After the 'foreman has taken

Leader
Leptd.

the above 'official oath, the grand jurors are


i

m according

to the following

precedent

Affirmed.

ix "

You and each

of you do solemnly swear

Every DM.
Invocation.

(or affirm), that the


tion)
/,

same oath

(or affirma'on kit

which your foreman has taken


you and 'every one of you

For himself.
Each.

shall well

is

the foreman and enrh oftli


1

35.
III

What

tworn and affirmed, in the worn, what >!ionll he <!

1 29th

May

required tO rlo before pIOthe difference between After the grand jury are the poweri (' the grand jury
i-

244

DUTIES AND
part."

and truly observe on your


135

The grand

Keep.
Qualified.

jurors, after being thus 'sworn or affirmed,

should be informed by

the 'presiding judge

Chief.

of the 'nature of their business


extent of their
'jurisdiction,

times

may

be 'permitted to

and the which someextend beyond

Character.

Power.
Allowed.

ho the 'limits of their county; he should also 'briefly allude to all the offences, and other
matters,

Bounds.
Succinctly.

which
It is

it is

their duty to 'investigate.

Examine.
Go.
Exclusively.

(11.)
tire to
145

the duty of the jury then to 're-

a room appropriated solely to their use,


in secret as a jury of accusation.

and

sit

The

Arraignment
President

foreman acts as 'chairman, and the jury should appoint one of their number to perform the duties of 'secretary; but no records should
be kept of their
150

Scribe.

proceedings, except those

Doings.
Requisite.

that are 'essential for their transacting their

own
use.

business in order, and for their


( 12.)

'official

After the grand jury

is

'organ-

Regulated.

ized, the

Attorney-general usually supplies


bills

the State.

them with
155

of 'indictment, which should

Accusation.

'specify the allegations against offenders.

On

Enumerate.
Eudorsed.

these

bills

are 'written the

names of

the wit-

nesses by

whose 'evidence they are supported.


to

Testimony.

The
160

witnesses, before the jury 'proceed

Enter upon.
Waiting.
Attentively.

business, should be in 'attendance at court,

and should be 'carefully examined, with the utmost 'scrutiny, and in such manner as in

Carefulness.

ever extend beyond their own county? 38. When? ( 11.) 39. should the grand jury do after receiving the directions of the judge? 40. Should they have any officer besides the foreman ? 41. Why? 42. Why should they not keep permanent records of their proceedings? ( 12.) 43. Who usually draws up the bills of indictment for the jury? 44. What should the indictment contain? 45.

What


RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
judgment of the jury will best elicit the whole truth in reference to the pending inthe

245
opinion.

K elation.
Purpose.

dictment
itt

for the 'object of the

grand jury

is,

to secure the 'punishment of the guilty,


to

Conecfion.

prated the innocent; to prevent the commission of 'crime, and lead all to reverence and obey the laws of the 'land; to

and

Guard.
Wickedness.
Country.
Criminal.

show
1:0

that the

way

of the 'transgressor
is

is

hard, and that the only 'path of safety

the

Road.
Well-doing.

path of 'duty.

Why should witnesses be in attendance at court? 46. How should they be examined? 47. What should be the object of every grand juror?

LESSON
( 1.)

XLIII.
Invariably.

The grand

jury should 'always ex-

amine witnesses under oath, and 'proceed with the utmost vigilance and caution.

Act.

Watchfulness.

When
it

twelve jurors have 'agreed that the


'

Decided.

5 accused party ought


is

to

be placed upon
'find

trial,

Should
Bring
in.

their

duty at once to

a true
is

bill,

and

any

further delay on their part

merely
against

Longer.

a waste of time, and of the public 'money.

Treasure.

When
it

the grand jury 'find a true

bill

Kcfum.
Impeached.

10 an accented party, on the testimony of others,


is

called

an

indictment.

( 2.)

When
if

Named.
Are aware.
In.

twelve of more jurors 'know of any public


offence within their jurisdiction, or
ft I.)
trial'
I.

even

of

ar

In what manner should grand jurors examine evidence ? 2. when twelve bare decided lo pnl the accused on when twelve 01 more jurors know 4. What wlu-n OHO juror Knows of any crime ? 6
>

21*

246
one or more
15 of any
they
libel,

DUTIES AND
'jurors, less

than twelve,

know

Tnera.
Pest.

'nuisance, or public offence, he or

may

be 'placed on oath, and examined


as

Put.
Testifiers.

in the after

same way

any other witnesses, and


if

such 'examination, a true

twelve jurors shall

Iuvt^'-i-j-a;.

agree that the 'allegations are just, they

may
a

AccusuUoijs.
>nt::i:a:.rs.

20

find

bill,

and cause the authors or


trial.
it

<

offenders to be brought to
bill
is

When
is

Adjudication

found in

this

'manner,
It

usually

Way.
Written.
Pn>iKT.

called a presentment

should be
the

drawn
alleged

up
25

in

'legal

form, describing

offence, with all the proper

'accompaniments
Particulars.

of time, and 'circumstances, and certainty of the


libel,

nuisance, or crime.
in

The word

Annoyance.
Includes.

presentment,

the jurors' oath, 'compre-

hends

all

bills,

and

is

'consequently used in

30

its

'most extended application.


(
;>.)

No

indictment or presentment can

True Bill

be made, except by the 'agreement of at least


twelve jurors.
is 'the

When

a true

bill is

found,

it

duty of the foreman to write on the

Incumbent
on.

35 'back of the indictment, "a true bill," with the 'date, and sign his name as foreman.

Outside.

Time.

The

bill

should be 'presented to the court

Handed.
Before.
Verified.

publicly,

and

in the presence of all the jurors.


is

When

an indictment
r

not

proved
it

to the

40 satisfaction of tw elve jurors,


[

is

the duty

Arbiters.

of the 'foreman to write on the back of the


bill,

Moderator.

with the date, " we are ignorant," or

Ignoramus.

is the difference between a presentment and an indictment? should a presentment be made? (3.) 7. What number of jurors must concur, to bring in a true bill? 8. After the jury have concluded to find a true bill, what is the duty of the foreman ? 9.

5.

What

6.

How

RESPONSIBILITIES OP JURORS.
"not a
there
4")
is

247
Vira.

'true

bill, "

or * not round."

When

not sufficient evidence to authorise


find a true
bill,

Empower.
Bring
in.

the jury to

and they express

a doubt
it

as

above described, the indictment

\:mit(l.
Iciiori.il.

said to be "

made

null

and
all

void/'

The

indictments, instead of being signed by the

In plane.

foreman,

may

be signed by

the jurors, in

fach

of.

50 which ease the foreman's name should be at the head of the list of names. (4.) In referenee to indictments, the jury must depend
entirely

Instance.

Panel.

Accusations.
Solely.

on the testimony of others, and their

own judgments.
.-).">

When
all

a disinterested witin

Opinions.

ne>>. of

good moral character, has been

Reputation.
Ascertain.
Requisite.
Halls.
Belief-

a position to

know

the facts about

which

evidence
lity to

is

'required,

and has

sufficient abi-

testify in

'courts of justice, the jury

are legally bound to place implicit 'credence

60

in

such evidence,

'provided

there

is

no

If.

'motive for telling


story
tion
;

false

or exaggerated

Cause.
Scrutiny.
Discretion.

but

it

requires the closest discrimina-

and judgment on the part of each juror,

to detect the fallacies of evidence,

inasmuch
to

Deceptions.

65 as the accused party can never be present.


5.)
It
is

Criminated.
Obligatory.

incumbent on every juror


opinion

use his
these

own
is

matters, as well as

and good sense in and any all others


;

Judgment.
Subjects.

one

who
is

'swayed by the suggestions of


his

Mored.
Impulses.
I'.ilse.

70 others, against the dictates of


science,

own

con-

recreant to the trust reposed in


tlir
if
?

would be
1

amd shoal
.

for or, in
11.

lines

is

bill

On what mu<t
the jury

depend
n

in

($ 5

may

indictments? IS. a juror be sai


:

What

ifl

ID

Boh juror? the tntiM reposed

248
him*

DUTIES AND
Every public
'offence within the
'

county

Crime.

may

be considered a

legitimate subject of
;

Lawful.
Accusation.
Arraigned.
Merely.
Ascertain.

'indictment by the grand jury

but they can


their business

75 never
is

try the 'accused party

'simply to investigate the case, so far as

to 'see if the criminated party

ought to be
debarred
his 'favor.
it

put on

trial.

Hence they

are
in

Prevented.

from examining any witness

Behal
Closing.

80

( 6.) In "concluding this subject,

may

be

well to 'remark, that grand jurors are justly

Observe.
Silence.

bound

to 'secrecy

for if they

were

not, the

'imprudent remarks of jurors, that

bills

had

Careless.

been 'found against accused persons, might

Sanctioned.
Criminals.

85 enable the

'guilty to

escape, and
It

thereby
also

'thwart the ends of justice.

would

Defeat
Incentive.

hold out an 'inducement for persons guilty of


'crimes to inquire of jurors

respecting the
their
is

Offences.

accused, and 'consequently facilitate

Therefore.
Retribution.

90 escape.

The
The

certainty of punishment

the

surest 'preventive of crime.


( 7.)
all

Hindrance.

'duration of secrecy
If a

is

not in

Continuance
Lasting.

cases 'permanent.
in

witness should

'swear

open court directly opposite


in

to the Take

oath.

95 evidence given
to the witness
T

by him
'be at

'before the

grand

In presence
uf.

jury, the 'injunction of secrecy in reference

Obligation.

w ould
be

an end.

Any

of

Terminate.

the jurors might


that the witness
ioo

'put

on oath, to show
*

Sworn.
Entitled
Perjury.
to.

and was

worthy of credit, guilty of 'testifying to a falsehood.


not

was

15. Can the grand jury ever try the accused party? ( 6.) Assign a few reasons why grand jurors should be bound to secrecy ? 17. What is the surest preventive of crime? (7.) 18. Is the injunction of secrecy on the part of grand jurors always permanent? 19.

in

him?

16.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF Jl'RORS.

249

From
jury

these reasons

it

appears, that the grand

may

be justly considered the vigilant

and

efficient

guardians

erf

public

virtue.

JURY OF TRIALS.
*)

To

the petit jury are


civil

committed

all

Small.
Issues.

io5

and criminal. Petit jurors must be selected from the citizens residing
trials,

both

Picked out.

within the jurisdiction of the court.

The

Bounds.

form of the
'different

petit jurors'

oath varies in the


M

Tniwrsc.
SeveraL
Plirase.

states of the
in

Union; the following


:

no "form

is

substance generally used

You

and each of you 'solemnly swear,


true

to try the

Sincerely.

matter at issue between the parties, and a


verdict to give, according to

Question.

law and

Judgment.
Testimony.

the 'evidence."
ii5

As

the

grand jury was con-

sidered the jury of accusation, the petit

may

Arraignment
Considered.

be 'regarded as the jury of conviction


their 'qualifications should

hence

be of an equally

Attainments.

high order, and every one should be 'im1

Impressed.

with a sincere 'desire to render

strict

Wish.

ion

justice to all the parties concerned, without


partiality or

Every one.
Favor.

hope of reward.

( 9.)

petit

jury consists of twelve persons, and unlike


the grand jury,
it

Comprises.

requires 'perfect unanimity

Complete.

nable them to render a judgment against


125

any party.
What

When
petit jury

the

litigant parties, in

BNHMM
law.

at

In
is

committed
s-

t<>

tin-

be

Do the

local

always regarded? ( S.) 20. What what way must the petit jury ooetoma of this country vary in the
21. In
i-

seler-

What What wa

required of each jnrof ered


l

l>

25.

be the

must a

petit jury al

il

alw;i

uy

to

250
their
'allegation,

DUTIES AND

come
is

to

a fact which

is

statement.
Alleged.
Trial.

'affirmed

on the one

side,

and denied on the

other, the cause

at 'issue,

and the jury are


trial

the 'sole judges of the matter in controversy.


130

Only.
Fairness.
Public.

To

insure

'uprightness,
'in

the

by jury

should always be

open court

The
side,

wit-

nesses should be 'sworn in the presence of


the judges, the 'counsel
all
135

Affirmed.

on each

and

Lawyers.
Bystanders.

the 'spectators.
( 10.)

The

'evidence should then be given

Testimony."
Devolves,

by the party on
proof.

whom

'rests

the burden of

After the 'witnesses called by a party

Deponents.

are examined, the privilege of re-examining them


ho
is

liuup.

'allowed to the opposite party.


question
is

CnillWtl.

Whenever a
'considered

'asked

which

is
liti-

Impounded.
Deemed.
Court.

improper by either of the


'Generally, before

gants, the judges decide upon the propriety

of the admission.

any
the

Commonly.
Proof.
AtMr->s.

evidence
145

is

offered, the counsel


side,

who open

cause on each
in

make a

short 'speech,

which they

state the case, the matter in


to prove,

Name.
Litigation.

'suit,
x

and the facts which they expect

in order that the jury

may

better understand

So.
Plaintiff.

the evidence.
150

( 11.)

After the party who

supports the affirmative of the issue has exa-

Questioned.

mined

all

his witnesses, the 'opposite party

Adverse.
Maintain.

then calls evidence to 'support his side of the


'question.

The

parties

sometimes try

to re-

Controversy.

enable a petit jury to render a verdict? 29. Who are the sole judges of the matter in controversy 1 30. Why should all trials be in public ? 32. ( 10.) 31. What is done when an objectionable question is asked What is usually done before any evidence is offered ? ( 1 1.) 33. What is done after the evidence for the prosecution is examined ? 34. What should determine in cases of conflicting testimony ? 35. What is done
?

=J|

RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
but the testimony 'produced by each other;
1^5

251
Offered.
C outnOeting.
Prescription.
L'leept.

and whenever
'but the jury
it.

'conflicting testimony

is

pro-

duced, neither the judges, nor any authority

have a
all

right to decide

which

rs

After

the

witnesses have been


plaintiff ad-

OonMfc

examined, the counsel for the


i6o

Hand.

dresses the jury, su?ns up the evidence in bis

own
case,

favor,

shows
insists

all

the strong points in his


in favor

Exhibits.

and

upon a judgment

Verdict.

of his

client.

Pa trim.

( V2.)
io3

The opposite
in like

'counsel then addresses

Attorney.
Also.

the jury, and


facts

manner claims
to

all

the

and the law on his side of the question.


the argu-

In his favor.

reply of the plaint ijfs counsel

Replication.

ments (f the counsel of the defendant mav 'follow, and then 'the answer of the counsel of
lro

Succeed.

rejoinder.

ike

defendant to the
to

plaintiff's

'replication.

Reply.

According
plaintiff

'custom, the counsel for the

Usage.
Surrejoinder.
Pleas.

has the privilege of speaking last

After the
finished,

arguments on both
the

sides

are

presiding judge

proceeds to
sides,
it

CloseO.

m up

the reliable evidence


to the jury so

on both

Collect

and explains
ild

much

of

as

Expounds.
Thanks.
Succinct.

he deems correct.

The

opinion of the judge

contain a clear and explicit exposi-

tion of the law, but the

judge should never

Expounder
ot law.

idertake to decide the facts, for these are


after all the
is

Endeavor.

evidence
1

lias

been produced
37.

but, in

the

f7ih

line?

How many

86. What part of speech different parts of speech

adv*

30. When an is it always a preposition? a conjunction 1 41. Whnt i- the difference between dunt, in the 103d J the Roman and the Bogtfctl - \ Rounder? 43. Whose linel {% K'.| 43. What is a Reph 14. After the counsel has the privilege of addressing the jury la-t 7

may

but

be?

38.

When

'A'lipn

252
committed

DUTIES AND
to the jury.
It is

generally 'coninter-

Acknowledged.

ceded that the judges are the proper


preters of the law.
for ever
185

Justices.

And

the 'jury should

Arbiters.

'retain inviolable the right of decid-

Keep

sacred.

ing upon the 'validity of testimony.

Troth.

arguments on both sides have been closed, what is then done? 45. What should the judge not do ? 4G. If he should decide the facts of the 47. What case, would the jury be bound to coincide with his views? evils might result, if a judge decided upon the merits of the evidence ? 49. What to the jury? 48. What is generally conceded to the judge? 00. What are the advantages of this plan ?

LESSON XLIV.
( 1.)

After

the judge has


sides,

summed up

the the

Le*al expounder.
9

evidence on both

and elucidated

Given his

points of the bur, the jury should 'retire to

Withdraw.
Entirely.
Closely.

some room appropriated


subject in 'litigation.

'solely to their use,

5 and consider 'critically and exclusively the

'meaning of the
as well as

Much reliance as to the law may generally be placed


of the judge
;

Controversy.
Signification.

in the 'explanation
all

but in this

Elucidation,

other matters
to 'use
his

at issue,

each

On

trial.

10 juror

is

bound

own good

sense,

Exert.
Caution.
Error.
Ablest.

with the utmost 'prudence and discrimination, lest

some

'fallacy of

judgment, from

which
all

the 'wisest and best of

times 'exempt, should


( 2.)

men are not at sway the opinions of

Free.

15 the 'court.

Should a juror at any time

Bench.

( 1.) 1. What is meant by the judge's charge to the jury? 2. What should engross the attention of the jury after they receive the charge of the judge ? 3. What are some of the important duties of the judges ? 4. What are some of the essential duties of each juror ? 5. Are all men liable to err in opinion ? 6. Why should court, which implies several judges, be used in the 15th line, when judge was used in the 1st line*

RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
'honestly believe that the judge

253
Sincerely.

had mistaken
is

the 'application of the law,

it

his

duty to

Precedents.

'mention such instances


if

in the

jury-room, and Num.

no jufOT

is

able to explain the

same

so as

Cm.
Court.

*20 to

show

that the

bench was

right, they should

at

once inform the presiding judge of the

Immediatrly.
Fulfils.

same.
or

For no man does

his

duty as a juror,
'society

fulfils

his obligations to

and

his

The community.

country,

who

follows blindly the 'ipse dixit Men assertion.

2 5 of any man, or
( 3.)

any 'body of men.*

Number.
Ain"ee.

on a jury
to

No one should ever 'consent to serve who is conscious of being unable

Sensible.

draw just 'conclusions from statements which have before been made; of 'discrimi30 nating between specious eloquence and plain
evidence; for
if

Inferences.

Judging

Showy.
Moved.
Declamation.
Gifted.

a jury

may

be swayed by

the enchantment of 'oratory, the lawyer


is

the

most

'eloquent, or perhaps the

who one who


influ-

iks fast, will

always have an 'undue

Unwarranted
Illiterate.

ence

and an ignorant and incompetent jury

may
(
-J.)

then as often be 'arrayed on the side of

Marshalled.

Ierred?
8. Is
9.
it

7.

What

i=

the duty of any juror when he thinks the judge has the duty of a juror to follow blindly the opinions of
JTOO Substitute

others?

Wh4n

why
rant

is it

necessary

in

the
I

community former instance


?

for society, in the

23d

line.

to

prefix
11.

the article the?

serve as a juror?
( 4
)

and

ii

12.

How
i
'

What may an ignoshould a jury regard


Bturlien
in

Reports will
en in
:i

Ur infan
in

trial

London,

1670,

|....ii.
iruprtv.iri..
i>!

charged with
'

.t.

\\

il

it

iry

were fined end imprisoned bot by and acqnitted. for the nrfkneing res;

law.1
tins

on
hi,, r.
I
..

wrong;

dut> ho to d<i then every ruan sees thai .real charge, and of no use in determining riglit and and therefore the trials by them may be belter abolished than continued."
...._-...
.t..
:..
j

..:.:>'

iry (n<lii of

254

DUTIES AND

error as on that of justice. ( 4.)

of the 'court are entitled to


ful

The opinions much and carewere


to fol-

Right.

Judges.
Deliberation.
Strictly.

'consideration, yet
'implicitly

if

a jury

40 low
oath,

such directions, they would


the 'requisitions of their

not comply with

Demands.
Requires.

which

'enjoins

them

to act

according

to

the best of their

own knowledge.
to

They are

1'tmosL

not to 'see with " another's eye, nor hear with

View.
DiM-harge.

45 another's ear," but


according

'perform their duty

to the 'dictates of

an approving

Monition.

'conscience, with an abiding


the omniscience
( 5.)

remembrance of
is

Sense of right
Continual pr*-

and 'omnipresence of God.


so plain that

'Sometimes a case

ind then.

50 the jury

may

'render a verdict without leav;

Bring

in.

ing the 'court-room

but

'controversy

is

involved

when the matter in in much obscurity,


room, and

Jury-box.
Suit.

they should

'retire

to the juror's

Withdraw.
..]

there freely 'interchange views on the various

.ike

mutually.
Illegal.

55 points
to

at issue:

it

is

'unlawful for any juror


his

have 'communication with any but

Intercourse.

'fellow-jurors
'court.

and the proper

officers of the

Do

laborer*,
tri-

By

the

*common

law, jurors were


fire,

Judicial bunal.

kept without

food, drink, candles, or

Sustenance.

13. How should jurors endeavor to disthe opinions of the court ? charge their duties? ( 5.) 14. What may be done by the jury when 15. When there is much obscurity in the evidence the case is plain? what should be done? 10. What is unlawful for jurors to do? 17. What is the common law? 18. Wherein does the common law differ from the statute law? 19. What was a regulation of the common

law?

20.

Where

is

the

common law

in

all

its

essential points in

* As the term, "common, or unwritten law," is in general use. it may be proper here to observe, that, the term is OSftd in contradistinction to written or statute law, wlicti is a ra e of action prescribed or enacted by the legislative power, an. promulgated and recorded in wrnnc But the common law is a rule of action which derives its authority from Ion? us -ge oi lished custom, which has been immemorially received and recognized by judicial tribon this law can be traced to no positive statutes, its rules or principles are to be found only in the records of courts, and in the reports of judicial proceeding's. The common law is in ra England, and its essential features are recognized by the supreme courts of everv state in the Union, as well as by the supreme court of the Umed States.
1 i

RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
GO
until

255
the
Dmmob.
To
the contrary.

they rendered

a 'verdict, unless
((>.)

court directed otherwise.


in

But juries
such exact
in

'modern times are not hound

to

rules,

and instances frequently occur

which

Otl en.

they do not

come
l

to

65 are dismissed by the court


then be tried de novo*

any agreement, and the case must At other times, when


:

Verdict.

Discharged.

Anew.
Troublesome
Entangle-

they find

it

difficult

to

determine

all

the

Points in dispute, from the 'perplexity of evi-

ment
Oniutalligi-

dence, and the obscurity of law, they

may
done,

bionoM.
Peculiar.

70 render a
either

special verdict,
'stating all the

which

is

by

evidence

in

general

Recounting.
Justices.

terms, and requesting the "court to decide


the case for them, or the case for the

by finding the
to

'facts

of

Truth.
Prosecutor.

plaintiff'

or defendant, but

75 requesting the judges


cording
.)

decide the case ac-

Court.
Lefral principles.

to 'law.

Criminal

prosecutions 'require
;

of

Demand.
Steady.
Correct.

jurors the most

unwavering firmness
to

they

are

as

impartial judges, and should


the side of

SO not Incline cither

leniency

Lean.
Misdoers.

towards the Criminals, nor on the other hand


be unjustly anxious for 'conviction.
In the
is

Condemnation.

United Slates, the 'tendency of juries

pro-

Inclination.

iy

always

to

favor the side of the guilty,


it

Criminals.
Infirmity,

Qtly

is

this

weakness of our
to

ire that jurors


8,

have mo&l

guard against
punish-

DisjxjMtion.

The

certainty of immediate
lay ofjarora in

Suffering.

modern times?
!

22.

the jury are dismissed by the court, ial verdict 26. In what two
'.

20.

What

is

tli^

(hity

the surest pre-

256
ment
is

DUTIES AND
the surest preventive of 'crime; and
Wickedness
Looseness.
Influence.

the inadequacy of law, or the laxity of juries

90 towards criminals, has a strong tendency


to lead the injured parties to take justice into

The

law.

their

own
is

hands, and 'summarily avenge

Quickly.
Injuries.

their real or supposed 'wrongs.

This state of

society

the

more

to be 'dreaded, as all

law

Feared.

95

is

thus trampled on, and anarchy, one of the


all

Waal
tice

of jus-

'hideous monsters that have crushed


republics,
is

other
It

Frightful.

thereby 'fostered.

( 9.)

re-

Cherished.
Insight into.
Micdemeaaora.

quires but

little

'acquaintance with

human

na-

ture to know, that wherever crime can be


ioo

committed with the greatest 'impunity, there both property and life are the most insecure.
It
is,

Kxamption from

Unsafe.
Usual.

however,

natural for those

who

are

'interested, or

expect so to be, to "declaim

Concerned.
riiu-iiMy.

'eloquently against the horrid law,"


105

and dwell

most 'pathetically upon the claims of humanity. Jurors should however 'remember,
that the 'purest principles of true

Ban

in

mind

humanity

Mostgc nume
Shield.

require

them
is

to

'protect

the innocent and

punish the guilty; that the 'amount of


no 'suffering
infinitely
less,

human

Sum.
Misery.
Sufferers.

confined to one

criminal, than extended to

many
in

'victims;
fol-

and that the "

'horrid

law" has made the

Cruel.

lowing most 'humane provisions


to criminal 'prosecutions.
ventive of crime?

reference
In cases

Benevolent.
Arraignment*.

( 10.)

28.

come avengers of
this state

their
to

What own

has a tendency
real or
?

to

lead persons to be20.

supposed wrongs?
30.
that

Why

is

in

the

of society 96th line?


it

be dreaded
31.

What
a

part of speech
is
it

is that,

When

is

relative

pronoun?

32.

When

is

an adjective pronoun?

33.

When

a conjunction?

(% 9.) 34. What is it natural to expect from those directly or indirectly interested in criminal cases? 35. What is the most com-

RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
nces against government, the accused
at trial

257
Treason.

has the right to exclude thirty-five


assigning any reason, and
Giving.

jurors, without
also

the privilege of

preventing any
is

man
to

Hindering.
Acting.

from serving as a juror, who


BM unfriendly or

supposed
in all

he

incompetent: and

other

Unfit
Suits.

criminal cases, the accused or his counsel,


at
trial,

may

object to

and exclude twenty


also has the pri-

Shut

out.

men, without assigning any cause whatever


for so doing.

Rendering.

The accused

Right
Excluding.
Object
to.

vilege

of

challenging the whole

panel of
chal-

jurors for any just cause, or he


_re

may

"
it

t<>

make
130

judiced,

Or if the accused can Any particular jurors. appear that the community are 'pre- Biassed. the trial must be 'removed to some n
the polls"
lanircd.

other place.
(^ 11.)

Situation.

The number of names


or seventy-two,

of jurors

Triers.

returned to court varies: there are usually


forty-eight

Given.
Appellations.

whose 'names
a cause
is

are
135

written on 'tickets, and generally put

Papers.

into

a small receptacle:
the
first

when
of

Box.
Individuals.

railed,

twelve

those

'persons

whose names

shall be

drawn from
it

the box,

Tnkcn.
'-

ve as jurors, unless 'challenged or excused:


hut in criminal
141

to.

cases

frequently happens
is

Suit*.

drawn without obtaining the requisite number* The 'deficiency is then supplied by summoning
that the entire

number of names

Whole.

Twrlvr

suit-

,'irors.

lable

humanity!
the

( 10.) 36.
88.

What hamane
i

provisions have horn


t

law

pumy.

ia the LOOta

Knal

Whnt

aning of tha prefix mi the meaning of the prefix

in

Mh
I

line
I

lirfnre

|0tb line

the 190th lioa

(11.)

nyms

in section 11

22 #

258
'men
to

DUTIES AND
act as jurors
( 12.)
Talesmen-

from the spectators in There are two 'methods of H5 determining whether the juror challenged is competent, and has no 'partiality for either
court.

Ways.
L'xcluded.
Bias.

of the parties.

First the court

may

'appoint

Name.
Individuals.

two
to
150

indifferent 'persons,

try the first jurors,


first triers

who must be sworn who when found cabecome


law.

Examine.
AJlirnicd.

pable by the

are 'sworn and

the sole 'triers of

all

the other jurors for that

Judges.

case

this

is

the plan of the

'common

Unwritten.
Court.

Secondly, the judges


triers
155

may

themselves be the

of the jury

this is the

more expedi*
Approved.
Nation.

tious

way, and

is

'sanctioned by several of

the states of our 'country.


( 13.)

visions of

There arc also other 'lenient prolaw in favor of 'accused persons.


party must
in

Kind.
Indirted.

The 'impeached
100

be

made

ac-

quainted with the 'charges,


vious to the day of
the
trial,

writing, prelist oj
i'.nwl.

and have a

names of
;

the jurors, their


'a
list

business and

Avocation.

residence

also

of

all

the witnesses The

names.

165

are summoned to appear in the case. The law also provides that the accused may 'summon witnesses to prove cither innocence, or the 'mitigation of the alleged offence, and
further that the accused party

who

Notified.

Enacts.

may have

the

Suspected.
Choice.
Strongest.

'selection of counsel for assisting in


170

making
one

the 'best possible defence;

again, no

are usually returned to court ? 41, Who is called? \2. What are talmmmt] ( 12.) 43. What methods are there of determining whether a juror that is challenged is capable of serving ( 13.) 44. What are some of the lenient provisions of the law in favor of criminals ? must be done before any one can be put on trial for any heinous
40.

How many jurors' names


any case

serve as jurors on

that


RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
can be
until

259
Placed.

'put

on

trial for

any heinous
least

offence,

thought guilty by at

twelve disinin
i

considered.

terested

men on
by

the

grand jury, and

Finding

true bdl.

indictment the grand jury must be


173

sus-

Upheld.
Reputable.
Declared.

tained
( 14.)

respectable

sworn witnesses.
verdict against

If a jury lias

found a

any one, and there has been any 'transaction

Proceeding.
Injurious.

whatever during the


a

trial,

prejudicial

to the prisoner, the judges


180

by law are bound


if

Bench.
Hearing.
Set free.
Illeeal.

to grant

new

trial.

But

the party

is

once

acquitted, there

can be no new

trial,

however
Again,
1-3

fraudulent

may have

been the

means by which he obtained


in

his acquittal.*

Acquired.
Uncertain.

doubtful cases, the law


to

commands
prisoner

the accused

be acquitted.
if

No
is in

Released.
Found
guilty.

can ever be convicted,


sider
i.

eleven jurors conhis favor,

him

guilty,

and only one

In fault.

e.,

no one can be convicted,

until at least
'petit

That
Traverse.

twelve grand jurors and twelve

jurors

i have, on oath, declared to that effect, accordto the

Averred.

evidence and the best of their

Testimony.
Opinion.

judgment.

Moreover,

in

addition

to

the
ju-

perfect unanimity of twenty-four sworn


rors,

Agreement.
Unanimity.

must be added also the assent of sworn

and the concurrence of the court.


must the grand jury l>' MMtftified in cases of inWhat i* done when an unfair verdict is rendered 48. What i> done when an unfair verdict is against any criminal ?
at

dictment

( 14., 47.

40.

When

eleven jurors are for conviction,


re
m

and one can


1

airain-t

it,

what

is

ifa

any punishment

mormbto and diainpunthan

.'1.

Wli

rs

.ndmenU

of the Cons* it n'

; :

260

DUTIES AND

LESSON XLV.
( 1.)

The

'remarks

in this

book have no

Observations

reference whatever to the propriety or impropriety of 'continuing existing

At

all.

ishment, but are 'intended to

modes of punshow that the


'infallibly

Perpetuating
Deeignod.
Invariably.

5 regulations of society should be


in force,

put

and so long as

juries 'efficiently
is

and

Well.
Faithfully.

'properly perform their duties, there

no dan-

ger of convicting innocent persons: that the


innocent, and society in the aggregate, have

Condemning.

As one body.
Ruffians.

10 rights as well as felons; thai so long as laws


exist,

they should be 'administered with cer-

Enforced.
Rectitude.
Appli.-

tainty, scrupulous justice,

and

'impartiality,

by those who have charge of their


( 2.)
It

'execution.

has been intended to show that

Demonstrate

15 our 'laws are reasonable

and

humane,

in
Supposed.
Defence.
Convicted.
Pr^,>, J.

giving 'alleged criminals an ample chance

of justification

that no one can ever be


fair hearing.
It

'condemned without a

may
for

be remarked that our laws 'emanate from

20 the people, and should be administered


'null for

Put

in force.

the 'good of the people, and not rendered


the

Advantage.

temporary

benefit of individuals

that a constant desire for

change
in

is

agitating

Alter.it:

the minds of the

community

reference to

KelaMon.
Certainly.

25 our laws

and that they must 'inevitably

'change either for the better or for the worse


( 1.)
1.

Be altered.

is the purport of the remarks in this book upon the ought laws to be impartially executed? (2.) 3. What is the character of our laws in reference to alleged criminals? 4. From whom do laws emanate? 5. Should the people be afraid of laws of their own making? 6. If the representatives of the people make a bad law. what may be done? 7. What is a strong argument

W hat
r

laws?

2.

Why

RESPONSIBILITIES OF JIRORS.
hence the necessity of universal moral edu(3.) There is reason to apprehend that, from the eloquence of la wyers, the negcation.
tives,

261
General.

Inattention.
I";ivur.

and the clemency of execua great many dangerous offenders are


uries,
let

IVj'rcdators.

annually

loose, to prey

upon and mar the

Impair.

happiness of the people; thai the loop-holes for


the escape of criminals are annually increas-

Awnues.

The

guilty.

35 ing

that the 'punishment of


is is

crime by human
;

Correction.

law
law

more and more uncertain


reverenced
less

that the

Doubtful.

and

less; that gilded

Regarded.
Offence*.

crimes and moneyed offenders frequently go


unpunished, and that the most atrocious have

Wicked.
PlSjMisul.

40

at their

mercy

the property, the morals, and

the lives of the

innocent,

whose numbers

Unoffending.
Devastation.
Deterioration

alone form a barrier to their rapacity.


( 4.)

Is

there no danger that 'degeneracy


will

and corruption, 'mob law and anarchy,


45 inevitably overrun
the

Lynch.
Certainly.

country

that

the

hands
will

erf

ignorance, and the tools of tyrants

King*.

insidiously disseminate throughout this


fatal error, that the
is

Cunningly.

Union the
criminals

'punishment of

Chastisement
Despotism.

oppression, and their indiscrimi-

50 nate acquittal philanthropy


lering train to a

and that the me-

Winding.

mammoth powder-maga-

Hug*.
Notifying.
Irresistible.

zine will be lighted without


>f

the

warning the peodanger of an overwhelming explo)

The more

critically
in
?

and exten-

Accurately.
Relation.

55 lively our laws are examined,


in favor of

reference to
(^ 3.) B.
.
.

unii
in'l

itioa

What m tben
!i*

rea-

son to
di&sc

aj;

What
11.

fol

-racy

and corrup-

fatal
if

jiimv

D6 insidiously

To what
I

will this opinion,

lead?

c ;

ha a critical

allowed t<> prevail, examination of our laws?

262

DUTIES AND
more 'transcendent
Indeed,
it
Superior.
Justness.

the trials of criminals, the


will their

'wisdom and humanity appear, comseems

pared with those of other countries.


so perfect are they in this 'respect, that

Nations.

Repard.

60 impossible that 'an innocent person could


ever be 'convicted.
It

guiltless.

should, however, be
it

.lined.

'borne in mind, that any law which, while

professes to protect the property and lives of


citizens, 'permits reckless persons to

Guard.
Allows.
Steal.

burn their

65 houses,
lives;

seize their property, or take their

and then, out of 'professed philanlets

Pretended.

thropy,

them escape or 'pardons them,


most oppressive despotism.
in its
;

'sanctions the
(6.)

Sustains.

The law

'administration
the trial

70 either better or worse

grows by jury must


bless the

Citizens.

make

either a progressive
its

advancement, or

Constant.

"decline in

power

to protect

and

Orow weaker.
Part.

larger and better 'portion of mankind.


the juries of the country
is

To

'committed the

Entrusted.

75 correct administration of justice; they are


equally bound to convict the guilty and protect the innocent
;

Law.

Condemn.
Hence.
Penetration.
Particulars.

'consequently, they should

exercise their utmost 'sagacity, and have patience to enter into the minutest 'details
;

they

80 should be slow

to convict

on the 'testimony

Evidence.
Vicious.

of dissolute and 'immoral witnesses, slow to


convict persons
racter,

known

for 'probity of chastill


wortlkj
Set at liberty.

and

for leading 'exemplary lives,

slower to 'acquit infamous persons,

whom

13. What seems impossible? 14. What is every law that without reason acquits or pardons convicts? ( 6.) 15. How does the law in its ail ministration grow ? 10. What are your reasons for this opinion ?

17.

What

is

the difference

between

voters

and

juries, in the 74th line?


RESPONSIBILITIES OF JTRORS.
85 they believe guilty, with the evidence pre-

263
Criminal.

ponderating against them.


they

( 7.)

Sometimes

OccMtonally

may honestly differ from the judges; they may even know what is deposed in court to be absolutely false, when such evidence
iy

Smccrt

ly.

Swam

to.

Cntrue.

be alike

unknown
should

to the 'counsel

and the
divest
Free.
Bias.

court.

They

endeavour

to

themselves of every particle of prejudice


to act as the impartial arbiters

between man

Judges.

and

man,

irrespective

of personal fear or

WtthoQl
ganl
Praise.
to.

ro-

95 personal favor, popular applause or popular


'indignation.
into the fold

The
is

turning of a ravening beast

Censure.
Tear* d.

as

much

to

be dreaded, as the

'possibility of cruelly confining

an innocent

Likelihood.
Clothing.

m
ioo

the guise of a wolf.

(^ S.)

When we

consider the general ex-

Humanity
Prudence.
Purity.
Class.

eellrney of our laws, the


-

a
to

wisdom and spotintegrity of the American judiciary as body, the ample provision already made
befriend criminals, and the very great
iary advantage
it

Aid.

is

to the

lawyers

who
is

Profit.

arc selected to defend them, to procure their


acquittal, to

Chosen.
Liberty.

we may
it

be assured that nothing


the

be feared from

oppression of law,
be, in all
its

Grievance.

'administered as

always must

no 'essential features,
18.

by jurors

selected from the


K.

Important

f 7.)

19.

May any
do 1

juror

20.

What

difference

between
I

arc jrow reason! l<-r conned and lawyert,


(\ s.)
'

mild all juror* endeavour to


mliar
ii.
.

I'tnmn'y. in the
exeetit
!

iioiiym

of general
?

my

tbis opi

in the

07 tli

Line, either

eflnitiom

87.

acqmttml What i* most

to

be

fear-

264
mass of

DUTIES AND
the people.

The

'danger then rests


of jurors
( 9.)
'ra-

Risk.

with the improper 'management

Conduct.

themselves, and the Pardoning Power.

Execu*
Reasonable.

Independent of these, and


ils

many

other

tional

and kind privileges 'allowed by law,

GmnU-d.
Watchful.

criminals,

who

are ever 'vigilant to destroy


its in-

the peace of society, and the lives of

Welfare

nocent members,

'resort to the

most

artful,

"arse.

fraudulent, and untiring


120

means

to get their

(adefkl

friends 'placed on the juries, or they set forth,


in

Put.
Feeling.

the

most

'pathetic appeals

by counsel, or

otherwise, the cruelty of inflicting pain


it

when

Torment,
ised.

cannot restore the 'dead

to

lite,

and by the

'mazes of the law, the conscientious scruples


125

In'ncaciet.

of those

who

lose sight of the 'welfare of the

Good.
Imlulpencc.
Pill

many, and look


devices that

solely to the present 'grati-

fication of the individual, they 'adopt

many

in

roqui-

arc never 'resorted

to

on the

RCftd.

part of the agents of ike innocent.


130

Attor-

(^ 10.)

To
in

such

on ascendency has the


skill

pitch.

'eloquence
'attained

and the

of some lawyers

Orator>'.

that
if
135

it is

some sections of the country, often remarked by the people, that

Reached.
Inhabitant*.

a 'criminal, no matter

how aggravated
Obtain.
Certain.

may
It is

be his crime, can 'secure the services


is

of certain lawyers, he

'sure of

an acquittal.

a happy and just feeling of our nature

Rsrht.

the marginal word for Pardoning Power, when it is neither a definition nor a synonym ? ( 9.) 29. Do criminals resort to any but h'iral means to obtain exemption from punishment? 30. What are some of

the arguments used by those


( 10.) 31. country? 32. Should

felons?

who wish to obtain the acquittal of What is often remarked in some sections of the we generally sympathize with the oppressed find
a person
is

distressed?

33.

When

robbed, or has his dwelling burned

RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
to 'sympathize with the sufferings

265
Feel
for.

and
is,

afflic-

tions of the oppressed.

And

this

per-

Probably.
Rhetorical.

uo haps, the most effective


torical dexterity, to

weapon used
It

in 'ora-

captivate and win the


is

Fascinate.

verdict of an

unreflecting jury.

the

Unreasoning.
Jurist.

business of the

lawyer

to

use every argu-

ment

in

favor of his side of the 'question;

Issue.

MS his pecuniary interest

and

his professional
it.

Monetary.
Require.

reputation,

alike

demand
it is

(11.) If a

party
that
is

is

really guilty,

he,

and not the law

Has

violated

the law.

the oppressor.
suffer.

He, and not the law,

Tyrant.

uld
ioo

lie,

and not the whole comits

Ought

to.

munity, should endure the 'penalty of


lation.

vio-

Privations.

Any
in

one guilty of a revolting crime,


limited

Horrible.

though
as

more 'obscure or

way,

is

Humble.
Assailant.

much

the

usurper of the rights of man,

the oppressor of the innocent, the 'violator


155

Breaker.

and destroyer of law and 'rational


as a Tarquin, a Caligula, or a Nero.
juror, in criminal

liberty,

Reasonable.
Every.
Arraignments.

'Any
allows

prosecutions,

who

the eloquence of

counsel on either side to

Attorneys. Cherishes.

sway
loo

his

better judgment,

who

entertains
for,

prejudice

against,

or false

'sympathy
is

Kindness.
State.

either the prosecution or defence,

throw-

ing his influence against the purity and the


.

I'ourr.

-tity

of the law.

If the

accused

is

guilty,
to

Holiness.
Countenance*.

and a juror by any means contributes


by another,
tains such

his

who
looses,

is

the oppressed, the unfortunate person


or the

who

sus-

such aggressions? 34. Are heinous felons then oppressors, OI arc they oppressed by the law ? 30. Who (11.) 35. Who should goffer when a crime is committed?

one

who commits

37. Is there more for the violation of the law than one authorized way to ipell defence^ in the 1 1st line? 38. What [does every juror who countenances the escape of criminals? 39. Does
?

23

266
165

DUTIES AND

escape, he 'aids the worst of despots,


totally disregards

who

Assists.

'suffering

and oppressed
one

Distressed.

'

innocence; he

is

the actual 'abettor of crime;


in favor of

Ai

ler.

he throws his 'weight

who

InHueii

aims

to 'destroy the

peace and harmony of

Subvert.

no society, and the laws of this free republic.


( 12.)

Country.
Gives.

Any

juror

who

'lends his influence

to set at liberty the 'prowling robber,

and

Plundering.
False.

the midnight murderer,


to his duty, as

is

equally 'recreant
if

he would be

he

'

knowingly

Intentionally

no aided in 'convicting an innocent man,


'saying

the

Condemning.
Aihi-e

which has

filled

so

many

lawyers'

pockets with gold to the 'contrary notwithstanding, "that


it

Opposite.
Pn-ferable.

is

'better that ninety-nine

guilty persons should escape, than that one


iso

Criminal.

innocent person should


this

'sutler."
in

The

fact

is,

ndemned.

saying

originated
is

a 'monarchical

Tyrannical.
Foreign.

country, and
soil

totally 'inapplicable to the


infi-

of a free republic, whose 'laws are

nitely
ie5

more

lenient,

and should be
It

infinitely

Mild.
Certainly.

more
sions

certain to punish.

was 'undoubtedly

'intended to

minister to the unbridled pas-

Designed.

and unhallowed crimes of royal princes,


'carls,

Desecrated.
Counts.

dukes, marquises,

viscounts, and ba-

rons

all

the 'nobility of

England have more

Hereditary
ranks.

wo or less escaped untohipped of justice, from


this saying,

With impunity.

uttered

royal

favor.

( 13.)

by a pampered pet of But where and when

Nourished.
Partiality.

indirectly aids in the escape of criminals contribute to the ruin or the support of our free institutions? ( 12.) 40. Is it right or wrong to aid criminals to escape the penalty of the law?

everyone who

What

41.

are your reasons for this opinion


to this effect
?

42.

What

saying has contri?

buted most

43.

Whence

did this adage originate

( 13.)

RESPONSIBILITIES OF JURORS.
has
it

267
shielded.

ever 'protected poverty and innocence?

'Certainly not in our country, for in cases of


wo doubt, the

surely
rjnoeruintj

law requires the jury


there
is

to
is

acquit,

and the conviction of the innocent


an impossibility; but
potism.it
200

next to
Question,
sustaining.

if

is

no 'doubt,
"

the acquittal of a criminal


is

giving the few

fear not

God, nor 'regard

those man" the


He who

upholding des-

who
Re*m*.
Feast,

privi-

lege to 'revel on the fruits of the labors, and

trample upon the happiness and the lives of


the

many with

impunity.

counte-

Exemption from puniahmeni.

205

nances criminals, the 'enemies of rational freedom, upholds them in 'setting at defiance
the infallible laws of
( 14.)
It
is

opponents.
rutting.

God.
incumbent on
all

The

Deity.

therefore

Especially the duty of.


Greatest.

jurors in the
city
210

Union

to use their

utmost saga-

and discrimination,

alike for the 'plainsuits as well

Prosecution.

tiff

and defendant,
their

in civil

as

Defence.

criminal, to view the cases before them in


all

Examine.
Variations.
Inquire.

bearings, to reason, to think, and

investigate for themselves,

and with an en-

lightened and 'unduped zeal to pursue their


215

undeceived
\

course with unwavering rectitude, ever re-

undeviatm?
Effective.

membering

that they are the

most

'efficient

judicial officers of the

'country, that upon

Lead.

them 'depends the honor and the dignity of Rests, our lenient and humane laws, and the en- [Benevolent.
'

m during glory of our unequalled


livery unjust verdict of an
44.

institutions.

n ro

mr. r bu.

American

jury,

nie^L

Do

45. the innocent in our OOtUttiy stand in aeed of this Faying? 46. What uiili us thp inuo cnt will be puflithad
I

rhe unjust acquittal of criminal! be

rightly

termed

17.

Who

support criminate!

48.

Who

support tyrants!
I
'

'.-juror in the

ft 14,) 49. What is What if the difference

268

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


'suits,

from criminal
'civil

however aggravated,
trifling, is

to

Cases.

suits,

however

the sapper's

Pecuniary.
Base.

blow
225

at the 'foundation

of the

Temple of

'Liberty.

Freedom.

between unjust and illegal in the 221st line? 51. What bad have the unjust verdicts of juries even in trilling pecuniary oai

LESSON XLVI.
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF CIVIL MAGISTRATES.
( 1.)

'civil
r

magistrate*

is

a public

Cmc.
Intrusted.

officer,

'charged

w ith some

executive part

of the government.

In 'treating of'the duties

Discoursing
on.

and
5
this

responsibilities of civil

magistrates in

Rulers.
Allusion.

book,

'

reference will be had solely to


'relation to

their connection with juries, in


'culprits; duties

Respect.
''onvirts.

which

it

is

deemed imporit

tant that every citizen 'throughout the coun-

All over.

try should understand.

In the outset

may

Bepinni ng.
Remitting.

10 be observed, that the

pardoning power of
is

executives in the United States


sive with that of the
in the

'co-exten-

Equallv unlimited.

most 'absolute despot


presidents and go-

rnhmitetl.
Chtef
offiorr*.

world.

( 2.)

The

vernors of these United States, have

now PoMK
Forgive.
Past.

15 the same unlimited power to 'pardon that

was

exercised by kings in 'by-gone centu-

( 1.) 1. Parse duties, in the 7th line. 2. Also which. 3. Where are who, which and what, in the objective case, always placed ? 4. What is always the form of who, in the objective case? ( 2.) 5. What is

the difference

between pardon and forgive,

in the 15th line?

6.

What

of the powers and extent of the judicial, financial, and other incorporated institutions of the United States, is contained in the Citizen's Manual, by Joseph Bartlett Burfull illustration

leigh,

OF CIVIL MAGISTRATES.
rics, when the world was just emerging from barbarian darkness, when hundreds of thousands of 'innocent persons Buffered the

2C9
Issuing.

Gloom.
Unoffending.

20 most revolting tortures for no crime whatever, and were even burned alive at the stake by
the hands of deluded ignorance.*

Abhorrent.

Consume*
Blind.
Past.

Xo

longer

ago than
tury,
it

the middle of the seventeenth cen-

was deemed

a reproach to the 'Turks

Moslems.
Possessed
persons.

25 that they had neither witches nor 'demoniacs

among them, and urged


of the falsity of their

as a 'decisive proof
( 3.)

Conclusive.
Faith.

religion.-)-

How

how incredible, has been the improvement of human society! for in every
wonderful,

Marvellous.
Adrancemont.

30 country where then such savage


humanity, and
the
religion

cruelties,

Land.
Justice.

such horrible excesses against 'reason, against


of the
Bible,

Benevolence
Perpetrated.

were 'committed, the enlightened


of true Christianity are

principles

now

beginning to

Time-honored.

35 bless mankind.
( 4.) It

Man.

must

not,

however, be 'understood

Imagined.
Expulsion.

that the

banishment of those barbarian custo the

toms was 'owing


ity

wisdom and humanworld 'shows,

Due.
Rulers,

of the

'civil

mogistrates of those coun-

10 tries; for the history of the

that
is

wherever man has been found 'incapable

T'lif ripaltlr.

meant by the phrase, "burned alive at the stake,"' in the 21st line? Near the middle of what century are we now living? 8. How 9. Explain do we find the distinctive name of any century? 10. What if the difference between Turks and the reason of thi*. Moslems, in tho 21th line? 11. Is the word demoniacs, in the 25th line,
7.

ly

defined by tb t^rm, postered persons?

the inipr*

was

the banishment

( 3.) 12. What are ( 4.) 13. To what of these barbar.an customs OWlQg ! H- Are those
"'v to
bfl

attribute! to?

estimated tKat upward* of one tssasied to death for witchcraft.


It is

hundred thousand innocent persons have been contranslated from the French, hy

f Eay on Crimes and Punishments

Edward

D. Ingraham.

23

270

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


there
also

of self-government,

has

been

Too.
Clearest.
Unfitness.

exhibited in the 'most glaring


'incapacity to govern others.

light his total

This remark-

45 able improvement in human society has been brought about by the enlightening influence of wide-spread education, and the humane effect of the 'religion of Christ on the minds
of the people.

Intercourse.

Illuminating
Instruction.

Doctrines.

No

'people

have ever maintheir national

Race.
Extent.

50 tained
and

for

any 'length of time

liberties,

who

did not understand the duties

Comprehend
Accountability.

'responsibilities of their civil magistrates.

( 5.)

Even Greece, once

the 'cradle of the

Dwciliog-

and sciences, the fountain of whatever 55 was considered grand and noble among men, by 'withholding proper education from the
arts

Sonrce.
Great.
Iv r:.;nHark

'mass of the people and keeping them ignorant of the 'duties and responsibilities of their
civil 'magistrates, lost its liberty: for the

Hulk.

ise

Dtteafe
Sacrificed.

60 were 'immolated or banished from public, because they were honest, and exposed the follies of the age, whereas those
the re-

Laid hare.

Times.
Flattered.

who

'wheedled and 'cajoled the most, that

they might aggrandize themselves by pleasing

'Deceived.

65 the people, were most 'applauded, and reached It the highest 'posts of honor and power.
'should never be forgotten that our

Commended.

Plan*
Must.

own

coun-

try once 'enjoyed less liberty than England,

Had.
Debarred.

on account of being 'deprived of the

liber-

who are unable to govern themselves fit to rule others? 15. Have an ignorant people ever maintained their liberties for any length of time? ( 5.) 16. Why is cradle, in the 53d line, defined by dwelling-place? 18. 17. What term was used by the Greeks to denote banishment ! For what reason? 19. When did our country enjoy less liberty than

OF CIVIL MAGISTRATES,
70
ties"

271
all

which

the great charter secured to


right
:

mh*<***
inborn,

Englishmen as an inalienable
this

and that

deprivation
( 6.).

caused

the
in

revolutionary

ftndoead.

war.

Our ancestors

England knew
civil

understood
Kuiers.

the duties and responsibilities of

mapis-

75

and when the British governor attempted to take the trial by jury out of the hands of the American pcople,f when he 'pardoned J
tratcs,

King,

Pram
Forgave,
Tools.

his

menials and profligate nobles, for agpeople,

gressions on the

and

'violated the

Invaded.
Declared.

BO Declaration of Rights, he

was 'proclaimed

What
?

is

the
it

meaning of Magna Charta?

21.

From

extorted ? ( 0.) 22. What caused the revolutionary war 23. What did our ancestors know ? 24. What 25. What is meant by the phrase "our ancesshould we understand? 26. Did the patriots of the revolution prize IB England?'* 27. What were some of the liberties of their English ancestors ?

what king of England was

the acts of ancient

Englishmen
.

in favor of liberty?

( 7.) 28. Give a

The

principles of these lil>erties are set forth, often nearly verbatim, in the Declaration of

page 86 ) I X from Magna t'harta. confirmed by Kin? Edward I., in the five-nnd-twentieth year ID., 1297, chap. xxix. " one shall be condemned without trial. Justice shall not be sold -No free ma n shall be taken or imprisoned, or be disseized of his freehold, or bbrrtK-s. <>r free customs, or l>e outlawed, or exiled, or any otherwise destroyed. DOT will we not pass upon luni. nor condemn him. but by lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the NVe will sell to no man, we will not deny, or defer to any man either justice or right." larw. (Also s* American Manual.) nacted the second year of the reign of Edward III.: "In vhnt cases only pardon of felony shall be aranUd Whereas, offenders liave been greatly encouraged, because the charters of pardon have been so easily granted in times oast, of manalaughIt is oraained and enacted, k s. and other trespasses against the peace. - shall not be granted, but only where the king may do it by his oath, that is That to say, where a man slays another in his own defence, or by misfortune. 4 death or man, robberies, and felonies against the peace, divers acts of parliament tbe power of granting Charters of pardons. First, That no soch Charten stall be granted, bat in case where the king inav do it by his oath. Secondly, That no .fers out of Parham* nt, Stat t Edw. 3, c. 13. roll it is said, [for the pease of the land it would be murh "And accordingly in a parliament as be let to mainprize do put in it ices were appointed in every county, if such help. And that no pardon were granted, b'lt by parliament.] r gentlemen kin? hath granted pardons of felorues upon false suggest ions it is prosided, y which shall be granted at the suggestion >f any, the mime >>hall Ik- comprised in the Charter; and if the suggestion be of him that ir i:i t*; disallowed. found untrue, Tie anoenf and constant rule of law. Son jtoUrit rrx aratiam facere cum injuria rt damno ahorum ; quod autem aJienum est, dorr non potest per svam qratxam. \\\ an appeal of death, rob-lenre. Air ., the king cannot paidon the defendant, for the appeal is the suit of the party. I ther the defendant \ns attainted by judgment, 6lc, or by outlawry, the par-art

<

>

:*'

be king shall not discharge him -ays. "These statutes are excellent instructions for a religions and prudent king KB ca^es, Ul summer potestatu Reoia est posse quantum sett sir mmjnitudims est wlie quantum possit. fas it is the highest kingly DCWer to ha able to act what he Wills j so it his rreulness and nobleness to will on! hunt the pardoning power pardoning power solely in the hands ..f monarch* They found it onsafi ma> exercise greater partheir sovereign*, lb that many fb
to
full'
'

"

doning po we

iry kings.


272
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

a 'tyrant.*
lish

When

it

was found

that the

Enghim,

Usurper.
Limits.

king would not keep within the 'bounds


to

their English brethren had 'prescribed

Established
for.

they

resolved to shake off this power, as

Determined.
Forefathers.

85

their

ancestors had done.f


It
is

( 7.)

'deemed not inappropriate to

Considered.
Treatise.

give here an extract from Locke's 'Essay on


Civil

Government: "This holds 'true also concerning the supreme 'executor, who hav'trust

Good.
Ruler.

90 ing a double

put in him, both to have

Confidence.
Share.

a 'part in the legislative and the supreme


'execution of the law, acts also against both,

Enforcement
Absolute.

when he
the
'

sets

up

his

own

'arbitrary will as

law of the

society.

He

acts contrary

Regulation.
Usee.

95

to

his trust,

when he 'employs

the force,

'treasure,

and

offices of the society, to cor-

Wealth. Win.
Designs.
Voters.

rupt

tlie

representatives,
:

and gain them


to

to his

'purposes
'electors,
ioo

when he openly pre-engages


and prescribes
their

the

choice

those

whom

he has by 'solicitations, threats,

Entreaties.
In

promises, or 'otherwise,

won

to his designs

any other maimer.

and 'employs them


to
105

to bring in those

who have
candi-

Uses.

'promised beforehand what to vote, and what


enact.
( 8.)

Agreed.
Decree.

Thus

to regulate

dates and electors, and new-model the

ways

Change.

and

29. What is the difference between trust synopsis of section seven ? 30. What is here said of those who confidence, in the 90th line ? pervert to a bad use the power entrusted to them by the people? 31. What bearing have the remarks concerning the abuse of the elective franchise, on the conduct of political parties in the United States'? ( 8.) 32. What is the difference between tear and cut, in the
* See Lesson XXI. page 94.

t By the Magna Charta forced from King John,


reigns.

1215. the

Great Charter made by King Henry

111., and confirmed by Edward 1., various acts of Parliament, and the Revolution of 1688, the principles of liberty "were secured to the people, and acknowledged by all succeeding sove-

OF CIVIL MAGISTRATES.
of election, what
is
it

273
iY..r.

but to 'cut up the

vernment by the
having reserved
properties, could
that they might

roots,

and poison the very

b'oun Int'on.

fountain of public security.


to

For

the peoplej

Sou. re.

themselves the choice of


fence to their
Barmr,
Puifxj.se.

no their representatives, as the

do

it

for no other end, but

always be freely 'chosen;

Si IscSjd,

and so chosen, freely act and advise, as the


necessity
no public

QmdbmL
Need.
Welfare.
Discussion.

commonwealth, and the good, should, upon examination and


of the
to require.

mature debate, be judged


those

This,

who

give their votes before they hear

Are pledged.

the debate,

and have weighed the

reasons
( 9.)

Arguments.
Performing.

on
i*>

all sides,

are not capable of doing.

To prepare such an assembly as this, and endeavor to set up the declared abettors of
his

legislature

Aiders.

own
is

will, for the


'

true representatives of

Faithful.

the people, and the


ciety,

lawmakers of the

so-

Legislators.

certainly as great a breach of trust,


to

Violation.

ns

and as perfect a declaration of a design


subvert the government, as
is

Promulgation.

possible to be

Overthrow.

met with. To which, if one shall add rewards and punishments visibly employed to
the

A person.
Privation^.

same end, and

all

the arts of perverted

mo

law made use of


that stand in the
will

to 'take o/f

and destroy
to

all

Put away.
Plot.

way

of such a 'design, and

not

comply and consent


of their country,
3.

betray the
be

liberties

it

will

past

Certain.

Why
in

of
i

<--ur

trans.-!

ihould the purity of legislation bo an especial pledged representatives unlit to -:ness? What is the difference between ) 35. (

'.'.

trut

ami

faithful,

the
'

122d
38.

li

the
f,

meaning
in

<>f

these wo:
line.
.

the

i~i\\

a person

Give some examples,

(t 10.) 39.

Why

274
doubt
135

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


what
it

is

doing.
in the
to

ought to have
ploy

What 'power they 'society, who thus emwent along


easy to
'see,

Place.

Community.
Against.

'contrary

the trust that

with

it

in its first institution, is

'de-

Settle.

termine; and one cannot but

that he

Observe.
Tried.

who
140

has once 'attempted any such thing as

this,

cannot longer be

'trusted.

Confided
Justices.

in.

(10.) "Again, as to 'judicial ministers,

according to the 'observation made by

*the

Remark.
'Locke.
Post.

Father of Candor,
'station of
145

'

Should any one

in

that

high trust and dignity temporize,


those in power, he must be
it

or ever
'despised

join

Unite with.

by every one, as

is

the power,

Hated.
SoliciU.

not the person, he 'courts.'


( 11.)

"Suppose any man 'base enough,


in the introduction
state.

Unworthy.
Money.

for

a pecuniary satisfaction, or dishonorable


to

150 'title,

concur

of arbi-

Rank.
Commonwealth.
Title.

trary

power

into a free

By what
entertain

'tenure will he hold his illegal acquisitions?

What
155

reasonable

hope can he

Feel.

that his 'posterity will enjoy the acquisition

Descendants.
Pass down.
Occupiers.

which he would transmit?


and acquired 'fortune
?

Will he leave

his children tenants at will to his hereditary


It is said,

the profli-

r.-WNMwllV

gate and the needy have not any reflection


true.
ico

Thought.
Select.

But and

to be the
lives,

will Britons 'make choice of such guardians of their property, their


'

Keepers.

their

liberties ?"

Freedom.

( 12.)

"Liberty receives 'strength

and

Power.

should a minister of the law refrain from interfering in political mat41. What is said of those ( 11.) 40. Repeat section eleven. who, through motives of gain, deliver the liberties of their country into the hands of tyrants? 42. Who are destitute of reflection? 43.
ter-*?

OF CIVIL MAGISTRATES.
vigor by wholesome laws, and
a punctual
An

275
exact.

observance of them
165

not

by contemning or
Justice, equity,
|

Despising.

'treading

them under
all

foot.

Trampling.

and regularity, are


cannot
'subsist

friends to 'liberty: she


;

Freedom.
Exist.

without them

and

in

a word,
friend,

courts Virtue as her 'chief and

bosom

Greatest.
Detests.

and abhors Vice as her greatest enemy.


isi

( 13.)

"When

honors of any

'sort

are

Kind.

'prostituted, they are

marks of infamy and disgrace, and will be looked upon by every honest mind with horror and disinto

changed

Basely used.

Reproach.

Contempt.
Marks,
Slavery.

dain
iT5

they are no longer badges of dignity,

but yokes of servitude; no longer the price

of virtue, but the bribes of vice.

They
and

de-

Inducements
Equipments.
Marks.
Pure.
Traitors.
'Patriots.

generate into the accoutrements of knaves

and

fools,

and become the


3

'signs

tokens

to distinguish the corrupt


i^o

from the incorrupt,

the Catilines from the Catos.

But on the

other hand,

when

honors, as in the days of

Trajan, flow in a pure channel, and spring

Course.

from a fountain that

is

clear and unsullied,

Source.

who
185

is

not glad to approach the stream?'


justly
liberty

Near.
Properly.

(14.) Another writer In governments where

remarks:*
is

held in

Freedom.
Esteem.
Injurious.

regard, creat precaution should be taken that


the

mental, and that


if

power of pardon be not rendered it shall not become a


case?
( 12.) 44.

detriprivi-

May.

thi3 the

What

is

the difference

between

detests

and abhors, in the 169th line? 45. Illustrate the meaning of these words in sentences? ( 13.) 46. To what does the prostitution

47. Why is a course of honesty of honors to base purposes lead? recommended to all public functionaries? 48. What is the difference between badges and marks, in the 174th line? ( 14.) 49. What should

Commentary and review of Montesquiens Spint of the Laws.

276
1:0

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


'certain persons or classes
for the
Particular.

lege to

'perpetration of crimes with impunity, as too


often 'happens in monarchies."
tain,

Commission.
Occurs.
Sustain.

"It

is

cer-

governments which 'support themselves

by
195

false ideas,

do not venture
to

to give their

Spurious.
Substantial.

subjects a very 'solid education; that those

which require

keep certain

'classes in a

Orders.

state of 'degradation

and oppression, do not


;

Wretched-

permit them to obtain 'instruction

and that

Knowledge.
Established

those governments only which are 'founded


aoo

on reason, can
be
'solid,

'desire that education should

Hope.

profound, and generally diffused."


is

Correct

be done in governments where liberty


attention do corrupt

governments pay
!

to

held in regard? 50. What 51. What do education


I

good governments dc-irc

LESSON XL VII.
( 1.)

Such are

the opinions of the ardent

u
unds.
An,.
Fabricators.

friends of liberty of other countries,

and of

other ages; of those

reverenced, and

whom from whom


to

our 'forefathers
the 'framers of
instruction

5 the Constitution derived

much

Received,
Fountains,

and such are the sources


trace the origin of

which we may

From

those 'fountains of
is

some of our best laws. wisdom we may


less

wuet
spring,

learn, that there

less
;

danger from 'vigilance w****


danger
in
'

10 than from lethargy

watching
( 2.) Is

stupor.
Biindiy.

our rulers too closely, than in relying implicitly

on
( 1.)

their patriotism

and

'professions.

Declarations.

1. From what sources did our fathers derive much benefit? Should the people look to more than the mere professions of their rulers? 3. What are your reasons for this opinion? ( 2.) 4. What

2.

OF CIVIL MAGISTRATES.
there no 'danger at the present time
lest
]

277
the
Protecting wall.

law, the rampart 01 our liberties, be

erfo-

15 rated by false sentinels, wlu>, while Working


lor

pecuniary 'benefit and personal aggran-

Gain.

dizement,

may

let in

a torrent o\ vice to over-

Flood.

whelm

the

liberties

of the 'country 1
are,

How

N;i!ion.

man\- secret loop-holes does every years ex-

Apertures.
Trove.
Slip.

20 perience

show

there

through which

the most atrocious criminals 'escape by intrigue, gold, or the

pardoning power of execriminal 'calendar of

Remitting.
Register.

cutives!*

(^-)

The

our country merits the closest 'scrutiny on the

Examination
Citizens.

25

part, not only of juries, but of the 'people of

the

whole country.
states,

If

the

governors of
'term of

Executives.
Period.

several
office,

each

for a single

dreds

may of their own free will pardon hunof 'criminals who have been, by the
able

Forgive.

Culprits.

30 all-protecting care of the law, and against


the skill of

Guardian.
Efficient.

counsel, found guilty

by
law

hundreds of different juries of the 'country,


is

Union.

there not just apprehension that the

Dread.
Silent.

may become
35 disregarded
;

a 'dead
that
it

letter,

and be

totally

will blind the innocent,


to be 'preyed

Unheeded.
Seized.
Guilty.

and render them more likely


upon by the wicked
)

Is

there not reason to 'fear that the


the present time
v. |,y
7

Apprehend.

5. What docs every year's expedoes the criminal calendar of our

conn-

ful

examination 1
Of law 1
human

7.

What do you suppose would


What
has alw:iy> followed
:.
...
.

S.

O^ bv

fall

institution", the

pardoning power
the

a hich
i

ni
'
i

listed
.

luncil
I

In

in

the LeKudature

vmiIi

278
'trial

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


by jury
is

becoming a mere mockery


'

Examination
Expectation. Trespasser.

40

Is

there not a confident


if

hope on the part of

the 'criminal, that

found out, he will not

be 'convicted

if

convicted, he will easily

Pronounced
guilty.

receive a pardon?
that
it

Does he not

feel 'assured

Confident.

is

the 'easiest thing in

the world to
?

Most

facile.

45 obtain the

executive clemency

Is there

Governor's.

no danger that a wholesale pardoning power


will aid practised felons to entrap the
Is
it

Extensive.
Old.

young?
im-

not an 'incentive to crime?

an

Encouragement.
Fairness.

putation on the intelligence and candor of

50 the jury, and 'consequently upon the people


Is

Of course.
!'y

not the

power

'gradually sliding

away
?

degrers.

from the

many

into the

hands of the 'few

llers.

Does it not denote that the sanctity of the law is less revered? (5.) Every unjust 55 pardon or acquittal tends to weaken the 'confidence of the people in the law, tends to 'en-

Respected.
Reliance.
Foster.

courage mob-law, tends

to

make

honest peo-

Upright.
Security.

ple look for 'safety, not to tribunals of justice,

but to weapons of steel and missiles of lead

Bullets.

60 tends

to

encourage 'crime and depress virtue;

Wickedness.
Establish-

tends to

weaken republican institutions, and strengthen despotism. One of the fruitful


sources of the
ruin of other republics has

ments.
Prolific.

Destruction.

been the 'connivance at gilded crime, the de-

Winking.
Governors.

65 generacy and corruption of

'rulers,

and the

'disregard of the public good.


anarchy?
felons ever
just

(4.)

10. Do hardened 9. Give a synopsis of section 4. endeavor to entrap youth ? 11. What are some of your

12. What is the effect of every unWhat has been one of the fruitful sources of the ruin of other republics? 14. What is the difference between ruin and destruction, in the 63d line? ( f>.) 15. What im-

reasons for this opinion?

( 5.)
13.

pardon or acquittal

OF CIVIL MAGISTRATES.
( 6.)

279
Vain.

Let not the delusive hope that moral

'suasion

can take the place of law, be enter-

Exrxwtulalion.

tained, while our country 'numbers nearly a

Contains.

70 million of adult white inhabitants that cannot


read and write
:

Grown
Whole.
Period.

up.

while the aggregate

official

term of

ollice

of the rulers of the Union,

throws upon the people thousands of par-

Multitudes.

doned convicts.
75
is,

Moral

suasion, holy as

it

Reason.
Correcting.

without the certain

chastening hand of

'law, has

no more power over

many hardened
to

Authority.
Strands.
Fire.

and reckless criminals than ropes of tow


bind the raging flames.
( 7.)

What

object

has the pardoning power, which 'seems to be

Appears. Country.
Is it possible.

80 spreading over several


lias
it

states in this 'Union?

come

to this,

that

hundreds of Ameri-

can juries annually render 'erroneous verdicts


?

Wrong.
Law-officers.

Do

the

American judges, during,


office, 'pass

their official

terms of

thousands

Pronounce.

85 of oppressive sentences ? If not, the pardoning power seems imperfect, inasmuch as


it

Judgment*.
Defective.

does Dot include


Tt that
it

all

criminals.

But some

Convicts.

includes only those

who have

Embraces.
Decider.

who is to be the judge of this ! 90 Cannot a person who is guilty of an atrocious crime tell a falsehood? Is a man too good to who is vile enough to wield the
reformed
:

and

revolting.

An

untruth.

Beguile.
Kill.

midnight torch, to rob, and murder


tt

16.
17.

W
Do
r

ally

are thorp to prevent the full power of moral suasion? n many hardened eon ricti 1 (7.) are hundrcls of American juries that annufOO Nip 18. What (h>.-> thi* imply, in the B9tll irben they ptofeM to !>< reformed, it
!

ever be
SI.
It

What

are

your

this

opinion

( 8.)

criminal

bftl really re-

280

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


( 8.) If truly

'reformed,

would not a conthe

..crated.

95

vict

cheerfully

comply with the laws of

Willingly.

land,

which

'assign to certain crimes certain


?

Allot.

'punishments

shall

any one, under feigned or


I

Penalties.

even real reformation, 'evade them


roan 'suffers innocently,
ioo

If a

Shun.
Endures.
Welfare.
!>>vc of country-

may

he not suffer
?

for the

good of

his

country

May
man

there

not be 'patriotism in prison as well as in the


field

of battle?

May
his

not a

receive

Uet.

credit for 'sustaining the majesty of the law,

Upholding.
Cell.

and the honor of


105

country

in the 'former,

as well as in

'the hitter.

(0.)

What

right

War.
Free.

has one

man

to

'pardon without assigning

any

'valid reason, a

few hundred criminals,


all
!

Sound.
Territory.

within his jurisdiction, and not


the pardoning

Was

power 'designed

especially to
Ku-h.
Illiterate.

no protect the wealthy and the intelligent, and not the poor and the ignorant
I

Was

it

de-

signed to favor hypocrisy


sion,

to hire

conver-

Deceit
Price.

by offering the 'reward of freedom, and

the 'revelling on the earnings, and taking the


ii5

Feasting.

lives of others

to free
its

from the confinement

Incarceration

of the prison, and


'reformation?

plain fare, for feigned

Spurious.
'ment.
1

( 10.)

Was

it

designed

to

put the people to 'enormous costs to support


'courts of justice,
120

leavy.

and render

null

and

void,

Tribunals.
Correct.

at the will of executives,

hundreds of
Is the liberty

'right-

eous 'verdicts of juries.


formed, what
22.
is it

of the

reasonable to suppose he ought willingly to comply say of a person who sulfers innocently? 23. What is the duty of every citizen ? ( 9.) 24. What do you suppose was the object of the pardoning power ? 25. What is the difference between illiterate and ignorant, in the 111th line? (10.) 36. Who support courts of justice? 27. What is the object of courts? 28.

with?

What can you


OF CIVIL MAGISTRATES.
vultures to take precedence of the safety of
the doves
?

281
Security.
;iare.

Is

the 'happiness of the

many w

to be sacrificed to the
125

unrestrained inclina-

Licentious.

tions of the few.


to

Let the people look well

Citizens
Reapaot.

the safety, the honor, the 'dignity of the

law, so that no

power can

either

open Pan-

The casket
rain.

of

dorcPs tar, or 'render the verdicts of republican juries a


130

Make.
Reproach.

bye-word and a farce among

the nations of the earth.

World.
Sun-scorch'd
plains.

( 11.)

The
The

lion, o'er his 'wild

domains,

Rules with the

'terror

of his eye;

Fire-glare.

eagle of the 'rock maintains


force his

Crag.

By
135

empire

in the

sky;

Might.
Fell.

The

shark, 'the tyrant of the flood,

Reigns through the deep with 'quenchless rage;


Farent and 'young,

Sateless.

unweaned from

blood,

Child. Alike.

Are

still

'the

same from age

to age.

Of
140

all

that live, 'and move,

and breathe,
;

Change place
Soars above.

Man
He

only

rites o'er his birth

looks 'above, around, beneath,


'heir of
:

On

high.

heaven and earth Force, 'cunning, speed, which Nature gave


At once the

Ward.
Slyness.

The
145

various tribes throughout her plan,

Numerous.
Health.

'Life to enjoy,

from death

to save,

These are the lowest powers of man.


.

Humblest.

150

From strength to strength he "travels on; He leaves the 'lingering brute behind And when a few 'short years are gone, He 'soars, a disembodied mind
:

Journeys.
;

Tardy.
Brief.

Tow*n.

Beyond the
In hi*
I-

'grave, his course sublime,


to run,

Tomb.
Higher.
Bright course

Destined through 'nobler paths


career the end of time
\jmt

eternity

begun.

Immortality

lUppOM WOnW remit from not enforcing the laws 7 What evi Wbm\ do ynu suppose ii ihe object of law? ($11.) 30. Who pos81. To what i- man sesses ascendency Ojei nil floated things? 33. For what end 32. What are the attributes of man? the heir?
|

24

282
155

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
What
guides

him

in his 'high pursuit,

Great.

Opens, illumines, 'cheers his way,


'Discerns the immortal from the brute,

Smoothes.
Descries.

God's 'image from the mould of clay?


'T
160
is

Likeness.

'knowledge

knowledge
roll,

to the soul
;

Leaning.
Potence.
Seasons.

Is 'power,

and

liberty,

and peace

And

while celestial 'ages

The
Hail
to

joys of 'knowledge shall increase.

Wisdom.
Noble.

the 'glorious plan, that spread

165

The 'light with universal beams, And through the human 'desert led
Truth's living, pure, 'perpetual streams.

Dawn.
Barren.
Unfailing:.

Behold a 'new creation

rise,
Ardor.

New
170

'spirit

breathed into the clod.


cr.

Where'er the 'voice of Wisdom

"Man, 'know

thyself,

and

fear tby

God."

Scan.

MoVTfJDMF.RT.
is

he created

(1'2.)

$4.

What

is

the grave?

35.

How

is

knowledge
increase
38.
<>f

the destination of man beyond the guiding star of man 1

there

any

limit to

the

knowledge?

37.

reasons for this opinion?

What

are the teachings of

What are ynur wisdom 1

LESSON XLVIII.
CONCLUDING REMARKS.
(1.)

The most 'renowned

republics*

Fnm "is.
Lost
Warlike.

have 'been deprived af their liberties; they have been first afflicted, either by military
( 1.)
*
1.

How
;

have the most renowned republics of antiquity

lost

generals, haying armies and kingdoms at thpir disposal, wore sensible of their own strength, and Could no looser obey. The soldiers therefore bt'sau to acknowledge no superior but. their general to found their hopes on him only, and to view the city as from a en tance: they were no longer the soldiers of the republic, but of Sylla, of Marios, of Poropey, and of Csesar. The Romans could no longer tell, whether the person who headed an army a province was their general or their enemy. "So long as the people of Home were corrupted by their tribunes only, on whom they could bestow nothing but their power, the st na'e could easily defend themselves, because they acted consistently and with one regular tenor; whereas the coium m people were continually shirting from the extremes of fury io the extremes of cowardice; mit when they were enabled la their favorites with a formidable exterior authority, the whole wisdom of litbaffled, and the commonwealth wns undone! " A wise republic ought not to run any hazard which may expose it to tfood or ill fortune the only happiness the several individuals of it should aspire auer is, to give perpetuity to their state." Monlesqumi's DecUm and Fall of the Roman Einpire.

"The

<

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
despots, or

283
Wicked. Tainted
InresMainn]
Disorder.
Shrltcr.

by degenerate and corrupt

rulers."

who

silently vitiated the majority o\ the peo-

ple:! the most

unbridled crimes went unfirst

punished:
resort

anarchy
its

prevailed, and as a
re-

from
under

horrors, the people took

fuge

despotism.

Should

the

civil

Tyranny.
Nation.

10 magistrates of our

own

'country ever

become

'inscjisiblcto their just responsibilities should

Unmindful of
Forget.

they ever

neglect to sustain, by appeals to

'enlightened reason, the righteous verdicts of


juries,

Dnobsoared.

and the wise decisions of the courts

Judgments.

15 of justice, the people

may

justly

regard the

Law.
Vaunted.
Brink.
Title.

'boasted institutions of the republic as on the

verge

oi

ruin.

( 2.)

We

may

then have,
all

as now, the
evils

name

of a republic, but

the

of despotism will stride through the


Instead of

Horrors.
Stimulating.

20 land.

encouraging the patriot


history, like that

and the philanthropist, our


no cheering hopes
to the

Lover of

man

of the French republic of 1793, will convey

Commonwealth.

oppressed of other

Animating.
Float.

eountries. but will only

transmit the wreck

25 of our temple of
their liberties?
ii

liberty

down

the current

Fane.

2. What usually precedes despotism 3. Can (]rsever exist in an intelligent and virtuous community? 4. Whal may the people justly apprehend when the laws are violated with impunity? (2.) 5. Can a government ever exercise the power of he name of a republic 1 0. What was the power that tyrai 7. Why? existed' in France in 1703 called ( 3.) 8. What does the
?
T

M werp
or mfl
.

now

invited to R.imr by the amhifious. to <]|\mncrrt thf mi'


njrninst
i

dignified wufa the title

irf"

The

time*, thai

il

Much

{eared

of theru." lout.

284

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
Gloomy.
Sagacity.

of time, a mournful and 'melancholy me-

mento of human 'wisdom.


( 3.) It is possible in

a 'republic for mob-

Free country
Continuing.
Correct.
Fact.

law and anarchy

to prevail

during the adrulers,

30 ministration of 'virtuous and wise


but whenever such
is

the 'case,

it

infallibly

denotes previous 'mal-administration.


rulers

Good

Bad government.
Sustain.
Pious.

countenance and

'support wise and

'virtuous laws.

Good
Bad
( 4.)
is
it

rulers raise nations to

35 the 'palmiest heights of prosperity, power,

Loftiest.

and happiness.

rulers depress

them

to

Sink.

the lowest depths of corruption, depravity,

Vilcness.

and 'misery.

In our country, then,

how
lect

'important

that the people should that they

LWnt.aL
Correctly.

40 be thoroughly educated,

may

se-

good

rulers,

and 'cause wise laws


;

to be
is it

Occasion.
Ma.l.v

'enacted and sustained

how

important

then for every one to 'understand the ele-

Comprehend.
i

ments of

political

science, and

possess a

menu

al.

45 knowledge of the laws which arc 'designed


alike to 'govern

Intended.

and protect the rich and the


" Sine lege,

Contn.l
People.

poor, the 'ruled and the rulers.


est sine

ratione,
to

modo, ordine."*
of
civil

'Every

Lach.
Should.

one 'ought

know something

of the duties

50 and

'responsibilities

magistrates, to
in

Powers. Weight.
Intelligence.

know whether

their 'influence be exerted

favor of 'learning and virtue, or whether they are the 'abettors of vice and crime.
existence of
10.

Encourage rs

mob law denote? What by wicked rulers?


(4.)
*

9.

11.

What What

is
is

produced by good rulers?


requisite to secure good

rulers?

12.

cal science?

13.

Why should every one know Why should all understand the
is

something of

politi-

duties of civil ma-

"To

be without law,

to

be without reason, order, and safety."

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
(5.)

285
Newspapers.

The

chronicles of the day disclose

55 the existence of 'crime, and violations of the laws to an alarming extent in our beloved
country: frauds, breaches of public
thefts,

Wickedness

trust,

(\>nfulrnc.

incendiarism, 'mobs, robberies, mur-

Tumults.
Horrible.

ders,

and other revolting deeds have arrived


pitch, at

BO

to a

which

all

patriots

may be

justly

iinsht.

alarmed.
that

We

are perhaps
is

all

too certain

Frightened.
Speedily.

our country

rapidly advancing to

power and 'renown too insensible of the accumulating growth of ignorance and 05 immorality too indifferent to the gradual but silent progress they are making towards sapping the 'foundation of our laws, and overwhelming the institutions of the republic let us awake and be vigilant ( 6.) 70 At the present day a contest is 'commencing, the mightier than ever before was waged
;

Glory.
Increasing:.

Vice.

Insidious.
Basis.

Overfh rowin?.

Watchful.
Beginning.

Vaster
Contest.

'

strife

of reason against error

the

contest

of the friends of republican liberty against


the benighted

Advocates.
Selfish.

and interested friends of here'nobles.

75 ditary kings and

Our
fight

forefathers

Lords.

fought with perishable steel for the liberty


of a single country;
rishable reason to

Contended.
lruh-Mructible.

we

with 'impe-

sustain

what they won,


whole
rulers,

Uphold.
Kntire.

and

for the

rational liberty of the

SO world.

Let correct education pervade our


the people, legislators,

Permeate,
[.aw-makers.

1 let
'

and

1.

nil

What may justly alarm all good citizens 1 if>. 10. What ere gradually probably Boo oertain
!

try
|

($
rlicl

".).

it.

Whmi

ii

rorn-

F<

arbal

bat

do we

Wbatwill

our forefather! fight ? correct education pro

286
bestow upon
in

CONCLUDING RKMAkKS.
it

their

utmost

aid,

and tyranny
'give

Support.
Yield.

every part of the world will

place to

wise laws and 'enduring 85


all to

liberty,

and enable

Permanent.

attain the Christian's highest 'reward.

Recompense.
RBverberatum.

( 7.)

The

'echo of the voice of liberty


in

has reached every monarchy

the world.

Kmgd

>m.

The 'embers
lics,

of the ruins of former repubarts

Cinders.

'consumed by the
still

and arms of dessoil.

Desolated.

90 potism, are

'glowing on European

Burning.
Sovereigns.
Underlings.
Privilege*

All the 'potentates of the earth, their nobles,


their 'menials,

and

their tools, see in the pro'rights

mulgation of sound education and the

of man, their utter ruin, and their irretrievable 95 'ignominy. Europe may boast of her splendid cities, her stately palaces, her magnificent temples.

TotaL

Shame.

Tow<

The Pyramids,
to

all

the gigantic

udous.

monuments of
of
too

the East, the herculean

works
few

Alridean.
I'xU.SMlL'SV
Results.

art,

remain alike
'effects

show

their

inutility,

and the

of despotism

how the

may

gradually possess supreme power, and


the

Enjoy.
Slavish.
Oriental world.

make

many

their 'subservient tools.

The

monuments of
105

the

'East are the


( 8.)

despots and tyrants.


is

works of But in America

Oppressors.

reared a 'mightier

monument than has


Wonder.
Mind.
Cons'
it

ever before claimed the 'admiration of man.


It is

the

monument of

the 'intellect, the

work

of patriots and philanthropists, the charter


duce?
22.

What

( 7.) 21. What has reached every monarchy in the world? will inevitably follow the promulgation of sound education
23.

and the rights of man? what may the East boast?

25.

Of what may Europe boast? What is meant by the East?

24.

Of

26. What has been reared in America? 27. What is out to all industrious citizens in America? 28. What secures this privilege? 29. Among what classes were most of the frainers of

( 8.) constantly held

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
of rational liberty.
It

287
inStimulant.

holds out a constant


it

no centive to merit, tor

guarantees equal

pri-

Secures.

vileges to all:

its

framers rose Groin the inof


the
citizens

Formers.
Ranks.

dustrious

'classes

of

the

country.
racters in
n> career,

The two most prominent


its

chaearly
the

Kminent.
Foundation.

origin

were

both, in their
the

numbered among
(0.)

mass of

Ufa
Working.
Means.
Young-.
Public.

laboring people.

The

first,
life,

possessing
inferior to

limited 'advantages in early

those enjoyed by the

youth of the present


schools,

day

at

our

common
old,

was, when

twenty years

without classic knowledge,

Of

age.

'laboring at days'

works

in

the wilderness,

Toiling.

common

surveyor of land.

He

had no
than an

Measurer.

badge, DO claim

to distinction, other

Honor.

honest heart, and a sincere desire to promote

Open.
Franklin.

the welfare of his fellow-men.


at the

The

other,

age of twenty-four, was

'toiling at the

Laboring.
Occasionally.

printer's press, in Philadelphia,

and 'some-

times working at the 'wheelbarrow in the


ets.
130

Go-cart.

Public ways.

( 10.)

Who

then would have 'thought,


these

Imagined.
Laborers.

that the

names of

young 'men would


'limits of their

have been known out of the

Bounds.
Vicinity.

own neighborhood, and even


brief period
?

there but for a

Yet, by unwearied industry,


exertions, they outlived the

Short.
Efforts.

by well-meant

What were
?
i

the
?

early
32.

advantages
!

31.

How

did he
'

improve them
has he
jTou
t<>
I

lie u

What claim
Franklin

our

What claim had regard 'U What

men

other distinguished touted largely in framing the Constitution 1 36. Are


I

name any

advent suppose people looke<


jroor

\\\><>n

r> (^ l<) :;7. How do y<>n young Washington end Franklin 1 38.

1288

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
all

opposition incident to

'meritorious efforts.

Deserving.

Their names
ness,

will

when

the

glow with perennial brightnames of the 'kingly officethe


'robes

Ever-blooming.

RoyaL
Panoply.
For'otful-

holders, those
]4o

clothed with

of

power
But

in their day, will

moulder

in oblivion.

let it

not be 'supposed that they gained

Presumed.

their 'fame, or reared those

enduring mental

Renown.
Generations
Lance.

monuments
145

that will bless the latest 'posterity,


( 11.)

without 'opposition.
'bitterly

Washington was denounced, as being unfit to com-

Turroly.
Party.

mand
racter.

the

organized

American army, a 'faction was fame and blast his ChaFranklin was hurled from office,
to ruin his

Reputation.
Ejected.
*

and more than once 'seemed


150

to

be on the
'comfort

Appeared.
Verge.

'brink of ruin.

Yet

for their

country they

forgot their personal ease and

Enjoyment.
Adulations.

they sought not the praises of men, but the

path of 'duty, and the sanction of an approving conscience.


155

Rectitude.

Let every one 'study well


philanthropy, the piety

Examine.
Benevolence
Epochs.

the patriotism, the

of past 'ages, not only of our own, but of


other countries, that 'actuated by those pure

Moved.
Borne up.
viat-

examples, each

may

be 'sustained

in

pursu-

ing 'unwaveringly, through every change of


loo

mgly.
Uprightness.
Benefit.

fortune, the path of rectitude,

and zealously

labor for the good of the country, the welfare of


to

mankind, and the

'noblest of

all

means

Most eflinent

advance the cause of true

'religion.

What did they do when surrounded by difficulties? 30. Was their cause just ? 40. Should everyone strive to be engaged in a good call 41. What should yon do when encompassed by opposition? ingl ( 11.) 42. What can you say of some of the difficulties Washington encountered? 43. What obstacles did Franklin encounter? 44. What did they do when surrounded by troubles ? 45. Do all persons encoun-

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
work shall tend in the slightest degree to awaken the dormant talent of the land if it shall in any manner call to the 'safety o\ the Union some rineinnatns m the plough, some Sherman, Franklin,
( 1*2.) If this
:

289
Book.
Arouse.

Mi

Summon.
Stvui.ty.

Husbandry.

or
1:0

Washington from manual labor, to the affairs o\ state and the eanse of 'education,
object of the
if

Labor of the
hands.
Instruction.

the

author will be realized.

Design.

And

the

'plan of this

most remote
of the
ns the

way

tend to

work shall, in the awaken the minds


education of the
shall, in the small-

Arrangement
Distant.

community

to the 'superior subject of

Paramount.
Adequate.
Country.
Extent.

sound and

'efficient
if
it

lalesofthe land;
.

call attention to the fact, that the

invisible iniluence of
all

woman

is

paramount

to

Unseon.

others

that she truly " wields the Archi-

Moves.
Prop.

ll

i&5

whose 'fulcrum is childhood, whose length is all time, whose weight is the world, and whose sweep is 'eternity,- the object will be more than realized. ( 13.) Let w<>man be soundly educated; let no art, however skilful, no science, however intricate, no knowledge, however profound, be
median
lever,
'

Extent.

Endless existence.

Attained.

Thoroughly
Difficult.

Attainment.
Kept.

withheld from her grasp

let

woman

be pro-

perly educated, and enlisted in the cause of

Engaged.
General.
Directors.

rmon
and
all

school education.

Let the natural


to the rescue,

liners of the

young come

will be 'safe.

The

portentous cloud

Secure.
Error.

of ignorance and of delusion, that


ir

now

over-

country, will 'disappear like


at

Vanish.

tcr

t;

16

Wi

should
-

all

do1
}:>..

c
( ,

12

47. If

is

of

What

-.'.oman exert
in

ace

between fulc

the

180th

~25

290

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
'Education

mist before the rising sun.


195

may
will

Knowledge.
Extended
to.

then be 'placed within reach ofa\\

man

learn his 'duty to himself, his fellow-creatures,

Obligation.

and

his

Creator.

The powerful

will
ti-

Maker.
Spring.

not 'pounce
gers,
200

upon the

defenceless, like

nor marshal armies and

ravage the

Desolate.
Starving.

earth, like

famished wolves.

Men

will

no

longer fawn like spaniels in the courts of


kings, nor crawl in the dust like serpents,
but, led

Palaces.

Creep.
Influence.

by the hands of gentleness and of


in

kindness
205

childhood, to the perennial founts

Erer gushing
Maturity.

of literature, they will attain 'manhood with


the purest 'relish for knowledge, and raised

Taste.
Holiest.

and honored by the


will

'purest

moral education,

become

the

'fit

recipients,

and the

effi-

Suitable.

cient 'protectors of civil and religious liberty.


(13.) 50. Why should the substance of section nine.
line?

Guardians.

woman

be educated?

51.

Repeat

LESSON XLIX.
FINAL.
AN EXTENSION OF THE AUTHOR'S SYSTEM OF MARGINAL
EXKRCISES.
Curious.

( 1.)

Unique as the pages of


to

Singular.

Seemed.
Glanced
at.

this

book must have 'appeared

Looked.
Perceived.
Certainly.

the reader

when he*

first

'saw them,
is

Undoubtedly
Bizarre.

the one he

now

beholds

'surely

Need/ul.

the

much more 'so. At this stage of work it can hardly be neces-

Outre.
Requisite.

( 1.) 1. How must the pages of this book have appeared to the reader when first seen? 2.1s the present page still more so? 3.
* Supply the corresponding feminine pronoun,

when

needed,

in all

such

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
Ddate.

291
Enlarge.
Multitudinous.

sary for the author to

expatiate

Cerujo.
Procure.
Stir up.

upon the many advantages of the marginal exercises, and their in10 evitable tendency to secure
attention from, and

Sure.

marked
pupil.
to

Ob* am.
Incite.

excite intense

Siudr.
Ulefl.

thought
It

id

the

mind o( the

RrnVcliou.

only

remains for him here


system.

Exhibit

display and explain an extension of

Show.
Plan.

15 his
Gran>J.
Employing.
Expression
Relation.

own
of

With

the privi-

lege already accorded to the reader,

Given.

giving
in

either

the

marked
its

Dans.

'word

the

body of

the page,

Term.
Connection.

relative in the margin, or a

word

Adrmncioc.
<x:.rcat:
-n

20 of

own, nearly approaching in sense to both or either, it might be


his

Approximating.

Meaning.

'supposed

that the variety of ex-

Thought. Reached.

pression thereby attained would be


I

Inapt Mat

'sufficient

for all

educational pur-

Ample.
Particularly.

TV

MM M 25

poses, especially since the learner

Frame.

would naturally be
every
;

led to

form

for

Make.
Phrasal
Sort.

himself corresponding examples of


Kind.

description,

when
is

the idea

iMBd

had once entered


30
(2.)
fied

his

mind.
not satis-

Taken
in.

root

But the writer

OoBll !ivd.

with

having 'discovered and


through the

Pound.
tut.

opened a new road


sharp rocks

and tangled under-

Amr'iUr.
'omprise.

brush, which 'constitute so


No*
:-,

much

35 of what
is

is

to

tyro the hither

Bppinner.

4. What only rethe work 7 5. What privilege bai been accorded to author to ilol 7. Would be Mifletairi the r* li toon pi the learner be likely 10 form for bimeelf example* OU the mod.'l of those in this book? ( 2Lj 8. With what is the- writer not patiefied ?

What

DIITM

main*

for the


292
Division.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
'portion of the unexplored region of
Part.

Convinced.

learning;
that, take

for,
it

being fully

aware

Assured.
Path.

Road.
Tiresome.
Halt.
Rectilinear.

as

we

will, the

way

is

long and 'toilsome enough, he can-

Weary.
Stop.
Direct.

40 not

'rest

without making

it,

so far

as in

Practicable.

Once.
Desirous.

him lies, as 'straight, smooth, level, and perfect as 'possible. Having 'already acted as pioneer,
is

Can

te.

Before.
Solicitous.

he

now

'anxious to leave nothing


in

Amended.
Succeed.
Relation.

45

to

be bettered,

the

or system, by those

way of plan who may 'folof his ma-

Improved
uj>on.

Coot

after.

low him.
tion,

With

'respect to execu-

Regard.

Cognizant.
Benefit.

he

is

fully 'sensible

Aware.
Utility.

nifold deficiencies.

However.

Clearness.
Principal.

50 fulness and perspicuity having been his 'main objects, he can scarcely
be 'censured for want of elegance
in style,

Plainness.

Blamed.
Ascertained.

Cnmlrmned.
Understood.

when

it

is

'known

that he

Adorned.
Usual.

did not aim at the ornate.

He

has

Ornamental.

55 availed

himself of the

'common
Examining.
Standard
books.
Matters.

Searching.

privilege of 'consulting the various

Authors.
Affairs.

law and other


'subjects of

authorities,

on the
treated,

which he has
'

Avowal.
Specification.

and deems this a sullicicnt acknowG0 lodgement, without particularization.*

Admission.

Enumeration
Rhythmical.

Versified.

For

the

'

metrical

scraps

10. fields of learning difficult for a tyro to explore? 11. Does he wish to leave any the design of the author? thing in the way of his peculiar plan fbr others to improve upon ?
9.

Are the
is

What

* The Author has spoken freely of threatening evils in our republican institution*, yet he hopes none will consider that he entertains the le;ist feeling of disregard towards those of his fellow citizens who are members of the standing army, or hold military or civil offices under the general or state governments. Those lush officers are o:ten chosen" from the ranks of the ablest men in the Union; and the Author believes that no one among them would be so inconsiderate its to take offence at remarks which are necessary for a full discussion of the political institutions of our country he has spoken not of the office-holders, but of the system. The evil is not the work of the standing army and of the civil magistrates, but is upheld by and includes the whole community The Author would further observe, that he h:is endeavored to sav nothing that would in any manner whatever conflict with the sound opinions of any political party or Christian sect in the Union.
;

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
Spread.

293
is
Dispersed.
Late.

scattered through this work, he

Quondam.
Scholar.

indebted to his friend and 'former


pupil, Charles J.

Lukens.

Student.
Idea.

Thought.
List.

65

(3.)
line of

The

notion of a second
left

marginal words, on the


that

Column.
Leaf

Folia

of the

page, to correspond with

The row.
Perhaps.

and balance

on

the
to
:

right

The

file.

would
thought

probably occur,
this

many

Likely.

Work.
Pre-repreaented.

70 persons on seeing
is

'book

such
The

Volume.
Foreshown.

here anticipated.

Pass on.

author will

now

'proceed to explain

Go

on.

Secondary.

and
75 the

illustrate the
line in

use of the 'sup-

Additional.

MfaftMl
Pristine.

plementary

connection with
It is

Conjunction.

'original one.

obvious that

Primary.

Methods.

we have two
which
tions
to

distinct

'ways from

Modes.
Pick.

Select
Elucidations.

choose, as the marked


either

word may
80 words
the
in

Pointed.

have two 'definior synonyms, or two 'marked


one
line

Explanations
Designated.
Singly.

Sere rally.
Equivalent
Place.

may have

a definition or

synonym
in

'each

that of
left

Like term.

word

first

order on the

Rank.
Succeeding.
First.

Following.
Precedinf.

of the page, and that of the second

word on
usual

the right.

In the former
is

Example.
Point*.

85 case but one mark


;

needed, as

Instance.

torn

two 'marks are which must be 'unlike each other. Both 'methods will
in the latter,

Characters.
Dissimilar
Plans.
to.

required,

Npfatod

now
1

be

described at length, pre-

Represented.

jects?

Of what is h* fully sensible ? 13. What have been bis main ob15. Of I. Can ho be censored f<r want of elegance in style? what has he availed hittiselfl 16. What ii ni<] of the metrical scraps to be found in this l>o<>k (3-) 17 What notion would probably
12.
?
-

10. What is- to be exoccur to many persons? 18. Is it anticipated 21. Particularize plained and illustrated? 90. What il ofefjousl them ? 22. Can both these methods be used in one page? ( -1.) 23.
?

294
Connectedly.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
90 mising that they
ther in the
( 4.)

may be
if

used togedesirable.
Wifched.
Desire.

N oadtfd
Want.
Unit.

same page

If

we wish

to

define the

same word twice,


[ ],
'

the simple

one

Pnme.
Answer.

Do.

as before used, will suffice, and

Therefore.
In case.

95

this

character has been accordingly


;

selected

but

if

two words
It

in

each
is

Wheu.
Defined.

Used.
Proposed.
Allude.
Confine.

line are to

be taken, the matter

not quite so clear.


that
ioo

might be said

Affirmed.
Direct.

should

refer to the left


;

hand
but
it

'margin, and 2, to the right

Border.

Borne in mind.
Special.

must be

remembered

that 2 has

Design.
Off.

already been used for a 'specific 'purpose in connection with the


'right

margin, and
be

that

it

would

Second.
Yet.
All.

After

all.

105 'still

needed
in

there.

( 5.)
1

On
and

The

two.

the Whole,

both cases the

Permitted.
Staiions.

2 have been 'suffered to keep their


old 'positions, and to the period
is

A lowed.
i

[]

Post*.

Committed.
Strait.

'deputed the task of guarding the DstagtM

no

left

margin.

In a page so
first

narrow
general,
it

Extension.
Fix.

as this, the

plan

is,

in

Project.

much
'will

the easier to 'arrange, for


it

Order.

Can.

be seen at a glance, that


'difficult

is

May.
Hard.
Single.

Troublesome
Lone.

rather a
ii5

thing to find

two

words

in

Reach.
Description.

sent 'length,

any one line of the prewhich may each be


a -definition or 'synothe -great pre-

Extent.

supplied

w ith
T

Eqni ralent

Large.

nym, on account of
it

Outweighing

will answer if the same word is to be twice defined ? been selected? 25. What might be said if two words in one line are to be defined ? 26. Would this be correct? (5.) 27. What has been done on the whole ? 28. Which of the two plans is 30. the easier to arrange on a narrow page? 29. On what account? What must be done in a book written with such double margins?
24.

What mark
Has

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
ponderance of -small
Words.
Wholly.
Aj st om.

295
L*iiin'<rpretut.le

undefioable

Hi -particles;

therefore, a book written

'

uHy.

entirely with

double

the second -plan,

margins on must have comIt

Two.
\

vly.

Broad.

paratively -wide pages.

may

be

Leates.
If.

Questioned.

doubted, indeed, 'whether such se125

One.

cond -extension would be 'more than the -single margin 'under a


different

Better.
In.

Changed.
Pi unary.

garb; every long

line re-

Dress.
Lines.

presenting two of the -original 'ones.

Drain.

To
ISO

-exhaust the 'subject,

it

is

as

Matter.

Appropriate.

well to say, that as


lines

many marginal

Observe.
Placed.

Can.
Contain.

-may be 'used on each side as the page will -hold, and that 'they

The margins.
Intrude.

Permitted.

may
135

be -allowed to 'encroach upon


itself, till

Text
Simple.

the -story
to a
in

that

is

narrowed
and

Decreased.

-mere thread, with 'every word


-defined

Each.

Explained.
I

menis.

it

and

're-defined,

Explained
over.

Ye-

having -provision for 'extra notes


at "top

Further.
Foot.
Interest.

Head.

and bottom.
'

Would.
Leaf.
Point*.

(6.) It

may

be an advantage to
re-

mo

have a page prepared without

Provided

ference marks, to exercise the judg-

Employ.
Showing.
Bordering.
Narrative.

Learner.
Cfcaawcatoa

ment of

the scholar in designating

the correspondence of the marginal

rent*
Hard.

words with those


145

in the

text;

and
but

this is not

such a

difficult task

Thing.
Doa*.

um
Cfttaaawaeen

that

it

can even be accomplished


will

by beginners, who

take

the

Have.
Explaining.

same pleasure
31.

in

it

as in solving a

What may be doubted 1 32. How may -ill poa What might be an advents ied for? difficult tai Could what reason 1 '' W
ild

it

Poi be ac( 7.)

'

complishe<l by beginners

they take pleasure

in it?

296
Charade.
Pointers.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
riddle.
150

This section

is left

without

Printed.

the references as a specimen. ( 7.)

Sample.
Further.
Stopping,
Design.

Preceding.

The *above remark


to

will 'also apply-

Intended.
Like*

an

-entire

omission of 'punctua-

tion for a 'similar purpose but only

Higher.
Suitahle

advanced
155

scholars should be
fill

're-

Asked.
Stops.

quired to

in

the -proper 'points


it

When.
Accurately.

and

-after

they shall have 'done

Finished.
Desired.
Practicable.

correctly they should be 'instructed


to -vary the points in

Change.

every 'possible

Way.
Alteration.

manner they
ino

will thereby learn the

Thence.

great -change
sioned

of meaning 'occa'mis'in-

Want.
Apparently.
Thine??.

by the -omission or

Wrong
tion.

posi-

placement of such -seemingly


significant -characters

Trifling.

When

'dis-

Tontrntions.
violent

Concerning.

putes -about pointing ran high years Were


ifi5

singular.

Complete.
Put.

Five or

six.

ago -an eccentric individual published a -whole book without 'stops and -placed at the end by way of appendix -several pages of 'commas
semicolons

Personage.
Dots.

Close.

colons "periods marks


T T
T
?

ito

of -exclamation and interrogation


parentheses and so forth quaintly

()

()

n-*t
Peruser.
Matter.

t 5

Remarking.
Punctuate.
Liked.
Division.

observing that the

reader

was

at

liberty to -pepper the 'hash as he

pleased
175

The punctuation

is

vvant-

Omitted.

ing in this -section and in both this

Tin present
fprtion.

Foregoing.

and the -preceding the reader

'will

Must.

To what will the remark in section six apply? 39. What sort of scholars should be required to fill the vacancies? 40. What should they be instructed to do afterwards? 41. What will this teach them ? 42. What anecdote can you relate of a certain eccentric person? 43. What is wanting in this section? 44. What will be the condition of the reader of this and the preceding section, unless he shall take the
38.

proper measures beforehand?

( 8.) 45.

What

is

unlikely?

46.


COM CI A' DING REMARKS
A
loss.

297
Proper ehai

be at -sea until he shall 'stop and


supply the points
( 8.)
It
is

Furnish.
Probable.

not -likely that

any
the

livery.

us one should

-fully

comprehend

Understand.
Plan.

varied beauties of the


Exhibited.
Attaching.

system here
effect
it

presented,

and the happy


in

KebUlt.

must have
190

-giving
to the

copiousness
style of
it,

Amplitude.

Accuracy.
tfqr.

and 'precision
previous
It

such

Manner.
Taught.

as -shall be 'drilled by

without
use.

Pnor.
Give*.
"'.

acquaintance and

Knowledge.
But.

-affords us three

separate, 'yet

>*.;.

very -nearly connected


in

narratives
if

Account*.

Thread*.
Can.

one

three -strands,

the

ex-

Mode

of

im pression

MtmL
Make.
Complete.
Should.
Said.
sou

-may be allowed, which, go to form, and do -form, one strong and homogeneous cord a -perfect tria
by -continual interweaving

Permitted.

Tend.
Sound.

Three joined

one.

juncta

in uno.

It
it

-may likewise be
gives 'opportunity
of
phrases,

Also.

-remarked, that
for

ch. nice.

Use.

the 'employment
in

Sentences.
Signification.

ttiafc
T:.e

totally -distinct

meaning from
if

Hi

those they supply,


rately, but
205

taken

sepa-

Apart.
Properly.

Pertain.

which -belong

'naturally

Matter.

to the -subject in

hand, and do not

EaaenUally.

materially alter the context: the reader

meaning of the

bMgfe,

may have
(^
!>.)

'ob-

served -many such instances

in the

body of the

work.

At

the

Book.
Author.

line -time the

writer will say, that


17.

.does this system afford ua?


18.

What

i>

the
\

meaning of
I

the
in

She

in

of tautology jroor opinion


H !

be remark
r

'
I

have

at


298
Deems.
Equal
Reason.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
he 'considers the one marginal
cially
line
Border.

adequate to most 'purposes, espe-

Ends.

on -account of the 'great


it

Vast
Concerned.
Printing.

Throws.
Writing.

labor
215

-entails

upon

all

'connected

with the -composing and 'compositing of a -book of this


fact,

Volume.
Truth.
Prolix.

kind.

In

Description.
Idea.

the public can have no con-

ception

of the -tedious

and 'ha-

Fatiguing.

Character.

rassing -nature of the 'service re220

Duty.
Persona.
Off.

For

quired;

-and even

those used to
far 'short of

Come.
Reality.

publishing would
the -truth in

-fall

making an

estimate.

Estimation.

Conceded.
Gainsay.

This being -granted, no 'one will deny that a double 'margin must
225

Person.

Edge
Kmbarraa*.
IiirnLv

Augment.
Verily.
i'leasod.

'increase the difficulties


half:

more than
is

-indeed, the writer

'truly

Really.

delighted to find himself thus near

Mgk
Si If Treated.

Termination.

the -end of his 'self-imposed "task

and
PI arid.

'Labors.
all,

So -gentle 'readers

of sexes both and ov'ry

ftge,

Hrarrrs.
Stnfe.

Unyielding.

From

this

time forth -unerasing 'war with error

may you wage


Darkness
fell

May

ignorance your 'presence

flee,

Xearnem
As

Heap

up.

And may you


books,

'gather, 'like the bee,


in

Blossoms.

Sweets from the thought-flow'rs 'found

Grown.

Bitter.

Stow.
Crannies.

The -poison 'leave behind, And honey -store in 'ready nooks And -corners 'of the mind.

Let.

Open.
In.

Sedu'ous.

On

'careful 'retrospection

you will

find,

Retnu
Tnaks.

Tracked.

That

we have

-traced the 'progress of

mankind

to most purposes? 53. Is much unusual labor connected with getting out a book of this description ? 54. Of what can the public have no proper conception? 55. Does a double margin increase the difficulties? 56. Why is the writer truly delighted? 57. What is desired for all his readers? 58. What
is

deemed adequate
upon
all

entailed

CONCLl'DING REMARKS.
Pobty.

299
Karly.
Lot.
Principles.
:

In -government, e'en from

its

'very birth

Current.

Up

to its -present

state

upon the Earth

Rough.
Hemp.
Darker.
Last.

Its first

-rude 'elements

we've seen resolved

and involved. The -complex partsof which have their solution


Into a -mass of codes 'crude

Harsh.

Rearh.
Great.
Finished.

At -length within our

own

'free Constitution.

Right.

Of

-course not 'perfect, yet so near perfection,

That Past lime.

The Bygone well

may

'pardon

this

reflection,
;

Sleep on.
Proffers.

Now

here.

Coming.
Lesser.

To which the -Present "offers no objection And If the -Future should 'propose rejection Of -minor 'portions of our glorious laws,
Care must be taken
So that they
'd

Desire.

Clauses.

Should.
Larger.

that, in

'mending flaws,

Helping.
Chauce-like.
Use.

Greater mistakes are 'haply not committed,

By

it.

-thereby be for 'good unfitted.

Cifxen's.

voter's 'obligations

have been

told,

Bonrxlen d cities.

Ballot-box
11.

tn

Mind.

And all our suffrage-holders 'fully warned To -see that freedom is not 'lightly sold,
For, once
lost, 'fruitlessly

Rightlj
Freely.
Uselessly.

Gone.

will

it

be mourn'd.

Advice
Weigh with
care.

is

'given to our
all

jurymen
that they

Offered.

To
Bring

.ponder well
in a

'facts, so

may

Truths.

Render.

righteous 'verdict ever,

when
'error stay.

Judgment.
Falsehood.

Sworn.
:"
I

Called to determine truth,

and

-.

AlUcked.
Indeed.

0*
Vile culpnt.

The right executive to 'pardon crimes Has been -opposed, and all its 'evils shown In fact, 'amelioration of the times Can be accomplished in one 'way alone.
Let the offender
Is

Free from.
Mischiefs.

hetter posture.

Plan.

feel that
-in

punishment

Learn.

Fast.

sure to follow
shall our

the 'steps of guilt;

Track.
True.
Pine.

Work

out.

Then

laws

-effect their 'full intent,

Green.

And

flourish -fair,

where now they 'droop

and
Perjured en-

wilt.
to

Our -magistrates are 'counselled

beware

Warned here
Fine.

Of

testimony false

in

short, to sift

All cases to the 'bottom, taking care

Utmost.
Clear.

To guard with
people's
will be found
gift.

conscience

'whole the

59. Into what have we seen the first 60. Where do the comof government resolved plexities of old codes find their solution? 61. What may be pardoned

on retrospection?
-


300
Women.
The more
uupnss**ul.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.
The claim of 'females' to 'good education Has been 'insisted on, 'because our youth
Receive of them
first
'fall

Sound
For that.

Obtain.
Soar.

'lessons;

and the nation

Teachjngs.
Sink.

Must
Or
-error

ri>e

or

as they are taught the

truth
Falsehood.
As.

for their

'power reaches
still

far,

Influence

squads.
Daughter*.

And
To
-end

like the

mothers

the 'children are.

Close.

let

ev'ry 'reader

now

suppose,

Person.

Writer.

That here the author takes with 'trembling grasp

Quiv'nng.

Palm. Give and take

His, or her -hand, 'anxious before he goes

Yearning.
Hearty.

To

-interchange
clasp
;

with

each

'friendly

'Mongst.
Since.

For -midst the living Time remorseless mows.

Rcpurdlew.
Join.

And,

as they ne'er

may

'meet again, with

gasp
Of sorrow.
Livers.

'Convulsive hear him falter

feebly forth

Faintly.
Of.

To -dwellers

'in

the East, W">t, South,


still

and North.

Sound.

That 'word which


throat,

will 'linger in the

Halt within.

Enounced.
Round.

'PronOUOCed
Adieu, or

in

any form, abroad,


frank

at

home,

Way.

'Good-bye, which most

God speed.

we
Heart.

note
:

For

-truth

but

still,

within 'another tome

A
In

second.

Companion.
Paths.

They may encounter, and 'together roam The -fields of knowledge yet, if all should
float

concert

W "isdom.

Buoyant.

Lightly

upon
swell

life's sea,

nor 'sink beneath the

Fall.

Raging.

Of trouble's -stormy waves Farewkll.

So now

'at length,

kind.

by the Pas t? G2. When must care be taken? G3. What have voters been warn ed to see? 01. What should jurymen ponder ? 65. How only can the condition of society be made more safe ? CO. What should be guarded by magistrates? G7. What does the author say in
conclusion
tions? ther?
71
?

G8.

What

is

alliteration?
70.

GO. Point out the instances of

alliteration in section nine.


.

73

What words What is the

are
?

What words on page 300 are definisynonyms ? 72. What words are neiof gaining

object

knowledge?

74.

How

should eac ;h one strive

to live

STATISTICAL TABLES.

301

TABLE
tions

I. Exhibiting the term of Office, the Salary and the Qualificafor Governor in each of the different States in the Union : also, the requisite Qualijirathns of a Citiztn to Vote for any ]>oli(ical purpose tcha'erer within the Jurisdiction of the several States.

x
Qualifications of the Goirrnors. Qualifications of Voters.

resident, 30 years of age.

21

N.H.
I

<

ir>

resident

m the

vears Stage,

y.-ar

;i

nm&WL
6

r,
i'

ma

in

the

tin'

place

vt.

ur.

KM*
K.
I.

V.

Pa.
Del.

Fa.

Ala. Muss.
La.

Ark.

Ml.

Iowa.

resident in the state. of a voter 21 ys of ag< 2ya. raa tax-payer. - e, 6 months resident, $7 21 vs. Ofage, 6 mo a res $7 t'reeh or yearly income. a tax-payer, subj to military duty. years a resident, aj21 fa. of age, m' place freeholder. tax-payer, subject to milit'v duty. Negroes, 3 ye. res 250 freehold ure. 20 ys. in U. S., 7 in state. 21 ys. of age, 1 state. 5 m. in place. 21 ys. of ape. 1 y r. tax -payer, luds. p rs a resident. 1,333 *' mi the I' 22 years of age. 1 year a resident,! tax payer. 1 m. raa. m the place. 6a tall be in Del. 21 ys of age, tax-paver, ly st ,b*m. pi. 21 years of age. a freeholder, housers a resident. holder, and tax-paver. a resident, 21 vs. of aire. 1 v a res., a tax-paver. s freeh .* tax-p'r. been 21 ys. i 12 in the 6 months a resident, a tax-payer. prop y or 500 ac land 1,5003 21 ys. of a:e. 2 ys res. in the state, 6 10 years res. in the 1 mo. in the county, subj. to mil d'y. which 5 shad be in Florida ientin the state. 21 ys. ofage, 1 year res., 3 m. in place. 21 ys. of ape, 1 year res 4 m. in place. n state. ill. S., 15 m the state 21 ys of age, tax-payer. 2 ys. st., 1 y. pi. 21 ys. of a^e, 1 y. m state. 6 m. in place. lent. rn in the U. S., i 21 years of age, 6 months a resident, the state, 21 years of age, 6 months a resident, trs a resident. 21 ys. of age, 2 ys. in state. 1 y. in place. b vears residence. in the st 21 ys. of age, 1 y. res, liable to pay tax. S ,5 in the state 21 years of atre. 1 year a resident. n I years of age. the state 21 years of age, 6 months residence. 21 ys. of age,] y. in state, 3 in. in place. 1,000,30 years of age, 2 vs. res. of the state 21 ys of age [kuota. msaneor infamous persons excepted.) a resident of the state 6 mo., of t he co. 20 days.
1

21 ys. of age, 21 vs. ot age,


.

y raa

of good behavt*. Hate, 6 m.oi place.


,
. ,

se

'

vs.

of age, 5 in the U.

S..

2 inthest.

21 years of age, 6

months a

resident.

snbb for the next 3 years.


*

Not
Not

Not sierbh
-lieible for
:

in* in 9.

eligible for igible for

more than 8 years more than 6 feats


l

in 12.

in 8.

in 6.

Not

eligible for the eligible more than

year-, in 8.

the immediate govern nvnt of

>

'.

art of iryland

term

is

the

envemor

of

Jific ti oas

are

rnor of this S
v.-rnor of tins
left

;..
-

njliaritv

M
STfeaMMI
thrr arr

of

jearv

.ass

be advai

OS may

KVrt~4
<*a>

fcy

IW

hg Wm
>

la

all

ru

tb* crfb-r Saira. la nlro- I - .m\ttt of totn U arcarc

bi elrrttoa. lb* tegtaLatmr* tbra

rWct aooM

uM

26

302
TABLE
II.

STATISTICAL TABLES.

Synopsis of the Constitutions of the several States, ar-

ranged in Geographical Order, exhibiting the number of State Senators and Representatives, their respective Terms of Office, and requisite Qualifications.

's
r

>*
..

States

, u

'<

'

Qualifications of Senators.

Qualifications of RrprcsenuUives.

^ h
Me.,
31
12
1

N.H..
Vt.,

1
1

286
231'

30
10 31

Mass.,
R.
[.,

1
1

356 72

Conn.,
N. Y.,

21

5 years citizen of U. S., 1 year in the stale, and .1 months ID the town. 7ys. res., freehold in t lie state of 200/ 2 ys. resident of the state, 1 y. town. 5 vs. res of st., dwelling in dist. rep years resident of the stale Resident of the state, freehold of 40 shillings, or 40/ personal estate.
i

N.

J.,

Pa..

Del.,

32 2 IB 3 33 3 9 I
21

1<>0

21

Md..
Va., N.tfV,

S.C.,

82 6 32 i 131 60 2 120 46 t 121 2 30

21 5 years ntizen of U S 1 year in the state, 3 months in the town 21 2ys res., Hl/ half freeh. dist. 21 2 ys res. io town. 21 1 y. res. of the town repn 21 2 years resident of the K 21 Resident nf the state, freeh. of 10 ingS, or lOi personal 21 2 years resident of the al 6 years resident of the 2 ys. nt. of the state, 1 y i ys. citizen of state, 1 y. of county vs. citizen of state, l y. of district 1 A vs. cit. of state, 1 y. of i us citizen of the M 3 ys. cit. of state, 1 y. of Oou year of the county freeh., OT any estate of 1000/ A ys resident of the stale or county 21 1 year in the sta'e and county freeh. of pla< Res. freeholder of dist repn res.,] 300 acres in fee in dirt rep 21 ahold t >
,

'

iion

readout,
('

Ga.,
Fa., Ala.,

17

9 ys.
UK) LOO

cit

17

3
i

Mi*.,
La.,

32 33 17
1)1

dist. of 500 acres und 10 negi residents, freehold <: 3ys state. 1 y county. 21 7 ys cit. V ,] y eo'ty 21 2 yes souoty. of the district
i

loooZ.

l 1

vs

cit

of U. S.,res

y
1

in district

Texas,
Ark.,

Tenn.
Ky,, Ohi>,
Ind.,
111.,

Mo., Iowa, Wis., Mirh., 0. T. M. T. .\. T.

county ly inty 1 y. iie state, es. Of stale. y <>f district 30 Citizen of the 17. 3., resident of the 25 it of state and U 8,1 y oiimy. and a tax-p coontv or district 2 md co .tax-p'r. a 3 100 1 '25 Cit, of U.S., 2 ys res. st 1 y. in dist 21 Cit. 1 ind <*> tax-p'r. u i 36 2 25 it U S 1 v IfJB. st A dist tax-p'r 21 dt. 21 Cit. 100 2 : it. 1" S 33 .1 dist. 1 y. res. of state, 30 days of district. 21 1 y. i< 36 13 2 26 bounty. 33 2 100 Qualified elector, res. of the district. 21 Qualified U
3f
31
1

'\ 60 |0ya cit. IS., res msi Voter; res. :tvs instate, 90 v., Of ditt at 3a i 100 of 81 I 99 2 30 Voter; res. of state 3 vs., EC 2
i

y ..dist 1 y v district

Lriafa

y.

21

VoU

district
inty.

election.
.

LOO

72

<

<

1. TIow many Senators has this State ! 3. What is the term 2 How many Representatives 7 5. of office of a Senator of this State 4 What is tlir term of office of a Representative? How old must a Senator he 0. How long a resident of the State? 7. Of n B How 10. A resident of the much property must he own 9. How old must a Representative he ? State now lone? 11. Of his town, (or township.) county, or district, how lone 7 12. What amount of property must he own 13. What is the proportion of Senato 15. Are in this State ? 1 1. What is the excess of Representatives over Senators in these numbers always the same ? 16. What is the reason of this ? 17 Which S Greatest number of Senators? 18. Which State has the least number of Senators 19. Which State has ihe greatest number of Representatives 20 Which State has the least nun Representatives? 21. In which State, or States, is the Senators' term of years the Inn 22. In which State, or States, is the Senators' term of years the shortest 23. In whicl is the Representatives' term of office the longest 24. In which State is their t. 25 In your opinion, which State has the most advantageous representation with regard to pro portional number? 26. Which State has the most advantageous term of service purposes ?
'

<

'

* This is increased to 33 by the governor of the State, who lieutenant-governor, who presides in the governor's absence,

is

presiding officer, and bv the

t Representatives are called


tutions

'

Commons'

in this State.

The largest number of State Senators and Representatives allowed by the respective Constiis here given. The State Legislatures are liable to variation on account of peculiar municipal regulations, and contingent circumstances.

STATISTICAL TABLES.

303

TABLE

III.

Exhibiting the

Manner

in

or Elected in the respective States

their

which the Judges ere Appointed

Term of

Office,

S-r.

rnor and Council, ami hold office daring good


r.
1

hf

jih;..

ted by the
:'

Governor and Council,


70.

aiul

hold office dur-

kiure,

pointed by the

Governotnnd Council, and hold

office

during

md.
Conttecticvt.

The judges The j

-r

Courts

ii

d behaviour
.

are appointed annually by the General Assembly, tinted by the G ably ; these orthe Supreme Court Id g u>,h1 behaviour, but no! over the age of ~o r snd judges are appointed by the Governor, with the coneenl of the : touts hold office during - ah] Judges oi County Courta, or Courts of Common Pleas,
I

;'(:'

the tenn

*y.

.*-!

t".<r

Appointed by tlie Governor, by and with the advice and eonseut of the Senate The five judgea r and judges of the Supreme Cowl hold office for ? years - are cln *< a by join! ballot of the Legislature, one ev< ry year, inted by the Governor, with consent of the Senate judgea of the Supreme 15 years; presiding judges of Courts ofGommon Pleas and other courts of record
;

for

'ininon Pleas lot 6

DtUncr Um
each
j
'

he Governor, and hold office during good behaviour; ivernor on an address o( two-thirds of ail the members o( mbly. gee are sppoiuled by the Governor and Senate, and hold office during good
appointed by

by joint vote of both houses of the General Assembly, and


.

1 helmviour.

lie

judei

mo
South Carolina.
Georyut.
Floru:.
1

-erne and Superior Courts are elected

by joint ballot

hold offia
i
j

behaviour.
d

are appointed by joint ballot of the Senate and

behaviour

Ju

nted bj the Legislature for 6 years, Justicesof peace, are e ected by the people for 4 years. ated bj the Legislature a! first tor 5 years; alter that term, during
ijr

t<ehaviour.

Alabama
fiasnasj

chancellors and judges of the

Supreme and
to

Circ
f

it

Courts are elected by joint

<\

"

udcesaien ected by th 9 people ;


.

is

the High Court of Errors and also the chancellor; thosi of Circuit Courts for 4 years, and those
p

<ars.

Lowjain
advxi

Supren*

minted by the Governor, by and with the


se ol the lower courts for 6 years rnor with the advice and consent oi two-thirds
Ls are chosen by the General Assembly of the peace are elected 1>> the people for

of the S

Tentu>
liferent

ouses
courts and jus
join;
ici

ol

the Genera]
'

Assembly
r

U
s

of the.pl
..i tl

nled by the (...vi ntfioe dunnq ir*nd behaviour.

t.\

ballot of the General Assembly, pointed by tti


j

Courts, Use
L'tntji*

residue

All hold oft


Bjbly,

and hold

ionr.
<

<"oiirt

nre

rnor and S

i,

v. r ir

fl

Jirrht-.

end Senate

for 7 fears

in

v hat

manner
1

.tie

do Hi-

'

I'.li

ol

304
TABLE
IV.
time when,

STATISTICAL TABLES.
and

Exhibiting the origin of the first settlers of each Slate, the the year in the place where, the first settlement was made the syvarc mdes which the several States were admitted into the Union population to the square mile population of each State, according to the census of 1840, and estimated population of tine Territories, <., in 184S.

3>i
States

Origin r* Place of first ofJirsl


,

Jj

S'/unre
miles.

Whites.

Total
Blacks

settlement.

sclltrrs

Pop.

Me.,

16.10

N.H.,
Vt.,

Providence, Conn., 1633 Windsor, N.Y., Kill Albany, N. J., 1624 Bemea, 1682 Philadelphia. Pa.,
Del.,

1623 1724 Mass., 1620 R. L, 1636

York, Dover,
Ft.

Bug.
uff. Enff' EllR.

120
1791

35.000
9. 191
8,i

15 30
;r

Dummer,

hw

600,438 284/136 291,218


10 ."..5-7

1.35."

537
:

B
5
17
671 61

Plymouth,

7.81 K)

9b
65 62 46

8.66!)

Lug. Bag. Dutch.

4,76
47.1 KM

301356
351^88
1,676,115

8. 105 50,027

Danes
Lug.

HJJu
2.100

271.687

1627 C. HeoIopeB,
163
St.

37

Md.,
D. C, Va.,

Mary's,

Enff.
Enff. Enff.

9,356

50
121 .336

1607

Jamestown,
Albemarle.

N.C.,
S.

5U(i

15

C,

Ga.,
Fa., Ala.. Miss., La.,

1670 Pi.rt Koval, L733 Savannali.


156.'

Enff.
^t.'.Ul

64,764

st

Augustine
ir

Mobile, Fr.
Fr.

1845 1819

12 vr.

1716 Natchez,

195311
1811 14,808

1699 Iberville,

Fr.
Fr.

rn.,
16R Arkans. Post. Tenn. 1756 Fort Loudon.
Ark.,

1845
Enff.
l'.fW l'.'J

330.000

300,1)1)11

32*000

77.174 6IH.TJ-

465

Ky., Ohio,

1775 1788 Ind., 1690 L683 111., 1763 Mo., Iowa, 1833 Wis., Mich., 1670

Boonaboro',

Mai utla, Vincennee, Kaskaskia.


St. Genevieve

17,342
Fr. Fr. Fr.

36.40
331
I

58,210
l-fi
i

60^86
43.119

Bujlinffton
Detroit,

r
Fr.

s.

200,000 100,000
1836

30,748 211,560

11

1
30,000

tO. T.

M.T.
N. T. Cal.
1115,000

30,000
I

2.500
1,915,565

Total,

1.616,t.i

In the naval

6.im

Grand Total.
2 Whence came the first and where was the firNt settlement made in tins S';it*1, many square miles has this State 1. What was the population 3. settlers of this State tin> many white iuhabitanU 5. to the square mile iu this State in 18401 many black inhabitants were tlirre 1840 ? 7 What wis tbi State in 18401 6. Una Stab B. Whal is the probable number of militia 1840 Population of this State low many citizens of the United States were engaged in the naval service, according census of "1810? 10. Which State has the greatest number uf militia? 11 Which Si smallest number? 12. What is tin: probable number of militia in the United Slates? 13. Which and when was it settled? 15. Winch w was the earliest settled Slate? It. Uv 16. French ? 17. What State did the Dutch settle first English settlement? 18 Dam many States were settled by the English? 21. The French ? Swedes and Finns? 20.

When

How

How

How

whom

'

How

22.

Which

State has the greatest

number

of square
is

miles?

21.

Greatest

population

tion?

Greatest, population to the square mile? 25. Which 27. Fewest, inhabitants to the square mile?
?

Free blacks? 30. Slaves? 31. Winch Mates have 3'3. How the population of the United States in 1840

the smallest in extent ? 26. In popula28. Tlie greatest Dumber of vrhi'ei more slaves than wliites? 32. Wta

many

States the size of

Kentucky would

Texas make
* The

original States that declared their independence, July 4th. 177S.


is

fin 1848.

+ Minesota Territory

north of Iowa, anJ west of the Mississippi River.

Nebnska Territory is west of Iowa and the northern part of Mi.-snuri, and extends to the went, on the south to the Indian Territory, and was formerly a part of Missouri Territory.
51

Rocky Mountains on the


||

See

Militia, in the Glossary, latter part of this book.

Indians.

STATISTICAL TABLES.

305
the States,

tABLE

V.

Exhibiting: in

Geographical

Order

their

Seats of Government, the Tunes Of the Election of State ()[];cers. and the Meeting of the several Legislatures, with the amount of the at State Debts.
S

Total
11<
'.

nunt.
2d 3d

Moa
i

in

September,
iu

2d

Wednesday
in

p$hire

Tuesday

in ui

May. June.

fl.142,700

Vermont.

m
in

None.

September,
January.
in

Rhode

Island.
>rt.

1st

November, Wedn. in Apr i. J

eiay
Last
1st

May
I

Hartfd* N Ha*
Albany,
!

1st 1st

Monday

in April.

Monday in Wednesday
lay in

162,719

iu

May.

None.

Mon

in

November.

rm

on,

Tu
1st

mi. 1st

Moii. in
in

Nov

1 1

3d Tnesdaj 3d Tues. in

October,

Is:

Tuesday Tuesday
in

m
in
I

January. January. January.

November,
I
I

Jan. fifvmrii'i/.
,

None
None.

Wedu.

in

ast

Richmond,
Una,
S

4th

Thursday

in April,

1st

3d

Commonly in August, Monday in October, 1st Monday in


I 1

3d
ith
1st

Mon in >*r bmm. Monday in December. Mon in Not. tnmnmUy.

A lata ma.
na,
1st

Mon. in November. Mon. in Nov.. bitnn. October, 1st Mon. m November. day i;i August, 1st Mon. in Pro., birnn. BndTu m Nov 1st Mon. in Jan., Man*. Mon 3d Mon. in Jan.. birnn. January
in
in
1st

7,271,707

9349,007
3,617,227 3,373.416

Areaaaaa,

l>t

Monday

1st

Than
Monday Monday Monday Monday
Tues.

1st
1st

3d Tot anay
Is'

m
in

October;

1st
Is'

Mon in Nov.. birnn. Mon in Oct., tienn. Monday in December. Monday m December.
Monday
Mon.
in

Decerabi

r.

1st
1st

1st

August, in August, in August,


in

1st
1st

in Dec., bitnn.

Mon
Mon.

15,784,940 11.042.718
68-1,997

Nov.. bitnn.

Isl
1st

in

Dec,
in

binxn.

1st
I.

in

November.

Monday

January.

2J328.201

* T.

Total,

2m.fl 1.534

rernmeul of Maine

At what time is tlif election held in Maine 7 the amount of iti d 1-t ? 5. Whal is the m at of a hat time is its election held ? ?. When does its legis9 Whal isthi nmentofVerh ire a public debt 1
?

2.

is

the

13

What

is

Id 11. When doea its legislature meet the seat of erovernmenl of Massachusetts 1
;.
?

'

12
14.

Whal

When
19.

What

is

the

amount
*

of" its

At

21
1
1

What
is

if

eovernment of

New

York

'

25.

23.

When

hi n
I

n held ? tin scat

'

29.

W hi
of gOVI llii legislature meet

map

m
'.'.

'

35

Whal
if

is tiir

37. v\

hen
12

hut
ni
is

1^

hi
r.

semi of
re inia
'

government
el
I

of
Ital

i:.<

Mary-

of

n w
of
i1 '

heu
19

is

its

1^ the election

it

the

amount

it

is

Wheu
1

d
is
'

arulina

hen
.

its

l.t

51

71

Which

What

ebt of all of the State*

26

306
TABLE
several States

STATISTICAL TABLES.
VI. Exhibiting

number of Representatives in Congress the number of the number of Scholars at Academies, Grammar. Presidential Electors Primary and Common Schools, and the number of white Persons 01 84U years of age who could not read and write, according to the Census of 1
the

the

Busiyiess of the

active Inhabitants

in the

:--

AgriculStates,
SfC.

ture.

C 5

H'8 I 5
S "?

!**
539 198 le 372 238
431

c .

111!
_

Maine,

New Hamp.
Vermont, Maw.,
R. Island,

101,630 77,919
73,

21.879 17,826
13,174

2,921 1,303 8^)63


i.3i-

1,889
1,563 3.804

36
13

WO

4.113

82.117

87,837

85.176

Conn.,

New

York,

N. Jersey, Penn'a.,

21.271 96,965 27,932 456.954 173,193 56.701 27.01M

L6V6T

467
1 .ti .7
(

499 35
151
1.898

16746

511
1,637 1,815

10.161

34,715

14.452

I0S83
16.013 89JB51
1,090 21,325

Delaware, Maryland,
Hist, of Col.

401
1,647

5 313

Virginia.

N. Carolina, S. Carolina, Georgia,


Florida,

384 318,77 217,096

203
54.147

80
1.995 51 15

1369
ll.OKt

6361

3,866

7,9Ht
12,117
177,l3'i

352
181

20.615 30,717
5.0 J M

1377
7,195
4,151

201

Alabama,
Mississippi,

2,212

i.mi
1,566 1.018 5,66

768
33
2 12
ii liil

96J
li

139,

2.553

Louisiana, Ohio,

Kentucky, Tennessee, Michigan,


Indiana,
Illinois,

197,738

227,739
56,521

66,265 23,217 17,815


6.8!*)

3^23

3,448

2,48'

701 331

21,641

728
3,076

9tH

21

20,590
92*408
7.(U7 10/169
11,

255:
S3

627

40 213

Missouri, Ark. minus,

13,185 loo
1,173

310
41

215

301

300

2.13

Wisconsin, Iowa, Texas,

l.Ht
369

U
13

1,937

78

21

Oregon Ter.
Miuesota

Nebraska T.
U. California

Indian Ter.
Total.
3,717,7561791,545
117..

census of

theology, law ing! 8. How

in this in agriculture; according 3. In manufacturing and the mechanic arts! A In In mercantile business ? 1 5 In navigating the ocean 1 6 lu nangaiing nretal 7 In minmauy represJtotat many senators doea this State send to Congress 1 9 ? How many bcltolai 10. How many Presidential Electors is this State allowed 11 at academics" and grammar-schools in this State, according to the census ol 1840.! 12. Horn many at primary schools ? 13. Which State employed the greatest number in agriculture ? 14 In mercantile business ? 15. In manufacturing- and the mechanic arts 16. In iheolos and medicine! 17. In navigating the ocean! 18 In navigating rivers? 19 In mining Which State sends the largest number of representatives to Congress 21 Whir titled to the largest nuniber of Presidential Electors ? 22. In what business ;number of people in the U. S. employed < 23. inch State employs the greatest number in
1.

How many
IS 10
'

inhabitants
2.

were there

and medicine

How

'.

teaching! 24. Winch State has the greatest number of scholars 1 25. What was the total number of persons engaged in agriculture in the United States 26. How many were engaged in the manufacturing and mechanic arts in the United Sates? 27. How mnuv we mercantile business in the United States 28. How many wen- engaged iu theology, medicine, in the United States ? 29. What was the total number engaged in nocean 30. What, was the total number engaged iu navigating rivers A]. Whal Dumber engaged m mining? 32. What was the total number of scholars at a< grammar-schools 33. What was the total number at primary and common schools A, many persons were there iu this State who could not read and write I
!
i

Note. The U. S. Senators and Representatives are allowed e zht dollars per day d iring the session of Congress, and Ibtty cents for every mile they travel iu going to and from \\ ashington.

STATISTICAL TABLES.

307

TABLE
Sheep,

VII. Exhibiting the number of Homes and Mules. Xeat Cattle, and Swine, and the value of Poultry also, the quantity of Wool. Hay, and Potatoes, raised in the Cnited Bfafci, according to the Census
.-

of IS
WOOL, H n. ami roi

STATES.
i 5

I
$123,171

196 107
378,2261
143,231

941.906
911^973

90,146

Connect. cu;.

34,650
1.91

1JU

3,127,047
1,311.643

22.483

200,712

Maryl
'

.:

Virginia,
I

24,618
13,718 171

Qootgift,

Alabama.
llcasssappt,
6t

175,196
"6,969

24.651
1,904,370

1,786317
551.193

88,306

IjOASgOBfi

5305,021
2.fr25^J20

619.990,

,
S

586
7,285

293,608

706
Total.

92,680 51.383 104.899 4,673

6,~~
16,529

130,805 LI930.938 17 953


1.331

707

419,603 234.063 12.035

ua&jm
the

19.311.37i 26^01,293 9.311,410,35,802.111 ln.2l8.ltB? 108,296,060

1.

Waal was

number of

horses ami mules in


ie

thifl

ling to the

census of Mad iho greatest number


in this state
1

'

number of neat cattle


e
te hi<l t:ie

had the greatest uiubIm


greatest
this
a

'.be

smallest n

tan suudlosC

number

'

n Wmv was

the

number

of swine

afc

number 13 Which U What was ih< Which


7
'

'

lint

<1

value the
in

How many pounds


tau
t

produced
i

uijin-

Dumber
Mate*
I

2a How many runs of liav of tons produced in the United

idoced
I

ta* umallest numb*- r


i

How many

"ore produoed in
as
'

tin-

uber "f hus

31

Whic

imallea
hual

IW
earii ludirni
.

many
.>

twenty millions]
a
<

How

mail)
h

sHone does
I

<

.,

..n

'

'

,:,.-, i.ir -

'

v.

ti;:

"...

difference

between
i
i

..., it

by the

t*

rui

neat callle

''
I

'>'

Hie

308
TABLE

STATISTICAL TABLES.

Exhibiting the quantity of Wheat, Barley, Oats, Rye, VIII. Buckwheat, Indian Corn, Tobacco and Bice, raised in the United States, according to the Census of 1840.
CERSAL GRAINS.
TOBACCO AND
RICK.

STATES.

3 J

Is*
Maine,
N. Hampshire,

HlH.piH 422.12

355,161

l.OT.i.MV)

137,911
53.1,011
:il.:'-Ji

30

1.2H, 111

Massachusetts,

isi&a
B7.009

Rhode

Island,

1,319.680 171,517

Connecticut,

737,421

Vermont,

2^22,581
12^86,419
r.,2i:ni7
20,64

585

New
\:\V

V..rk,
j

Pennsylvania,

,819

325,018

Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia,

315,135
3,591

3,531.211

10,109,716

North Carolina, South Carolina


Georgia,
1

6100JO
'

Alabama,
Mississippi,
1,654

Louisiana,

Tennes: Kentucky,
Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois,

212 110
i.di'Vi'

Missouri,

180 50

Arkansas, Michigan,
Florida,

2,157,1

6
30
I

Wisconsin, Iowa, Dist. of Coltun


Total,

212.11b
12,11

2M
219,163 319 80,6

many bushels of wheat were raised in tins Mate, aceor nsus of 1H:0' 1. How 2 Whal was tin* total number of bushels raised in the I nib r II. >w 1. W lueh many bushels of barh the smallest quan'ity the largest quantity raised in this State ( 6 What was tin- lotal nuiuher of l.mh- Is raised "in the UniU Which state raised the largest quantity ? 8 Which the smallest quantity? 9. Mow main 10 What was the total quantity els of oata were raised in this state 1 12. Which tiir smallest 13 How many bush 11. Which state produced the largest quantity It. What was the total quantity raised m the United els of rye were raised m this state? 16. Which the smallest q Slates?" 15. Which stale raised the largest quantity]
?
'
.

>

'

is. What \\ jnanti y How many bushels <>l" buckwheat were raised in this state j9. What state produced the lair, s' quant produi el in the United Suites the smallest? 21. low many hnsliels of Indian corn were produced in this State ? 22 Uow many in the United States 1 23. Which state produced the greatest number of bushels! 2t 25. How ninny [touuds of tol Which State the smallest number of Im-diels 26. What was the total number of pounds produced in the Uniti in this state ! Which state prod iced the greatest number of pounds ? 2rt Which statg prodnc
'

'

est

number of pounds

29. Is

any rice produced


?

in tln> state

30.

What was

thi

31. Which state produced the greatest nun; of pounds produced in the UnitedISta'es pounds? 32 Which state the next greatest number ? 33. Which sia'e produced number of pounds ? 31. Which sta'e the next smallest number? 35. To what section of the country is the cultivation of rice particularly confined ? 36 How many of the states produced more than one million of pounds? 37. What four states produced more than ten mill bushels of wheat each? 38. What five States produced more than one million of huthehi 39. What two States produced more than two mil ions of bushels of buck each 40. How many states produced more than thirty millions of bushels of ndian corn each ? U How many produced between twenty and thirty millions of jj. How many between ten and twenty mill oas of bushels each ? 4'A How many prodnc -d more ihan than ten null ons ? 14. What live states produced more than ten mil. ions uf pounds of tobacco each? 45. What three states produced be' wean one and ten millions of pounds e
?
'

i<

STATISTICAL
FA RLE

TAI1I.ES.

309

Cocmtu raised number of Cord* of Wood the vaiut of the product* of Dcnne* oud Orchards the number of do. is of [Tine made with tht Home-mad* and Woollen
I

IX.

he ijuanti.",

the

Goods

in the

United States, according

<

',

nsu* of 1st

>.

..

B \u. |

-.

*4
STATES.

fi

era

III
N. Hamp.,
.

P
.

hi 1
211

J
I!

^1

1!
257,464

|44a
1338343

11 ii
2,236

ar'S.S

31kS
8804,397

-^

s 2 a

205,011 SI. 496.902 SI 49.384

<ao
-

14623*
579,227 90 51.761

M
193

$412366
8*2,172

1,741

Conn..
.

48.660 159.062

32398
94 6,799 9,416

538303 231342 51J80


226,162

2,494313

_
.

_
.

674348 201326 1303393


62,116

1331353
140,710 2.319,061 104,700
147,792

.
.

l t70133fi

N. Jersev,

60
1.159

3l0.6t2

1328.032

46 4.01 16,

2365.755 ---

14326
113328
105.740

322

Maryland,

36266
403390
17.16:*

176360
13311
2.441.672

386,006
171.451

1,413342
930,703
8.647 171 12
1,467,630 1.656.119

3.900
1.1KNI

>

Owalhea
*<*-...
:>.
ir. i.

cie-.nr.u.

Airman. a.

156.122 55.2 4(i

33OO
-

y
1

11&423
317 119.947.72ii 217 258,073 737 6363,386 4,317
1

359^85
153.069 472,141 931-363

1,456

ei.m sv"-.
691,456
.

104.01

Kentucky,
.ml. ana.IDtmam,

264,222
183,712

11.7b9 367,105 4*4,935

2384
11524 10365
474

682,945 65.190

653 2.886,661
2,209 2,622,462

11290
151.246 685,757

180
1,150J

L848369 742369
428.175 100*432 59.205 301,052 23,094

475^71
110,055 126,756 90.878 10,680 16.(05
1,035

1.853337 1389,802

399.813

134349
81,981

58367
9.540 13,750 129 9,734

Hawaii,

hxkmmm,

6#S42
12. 1 10,533

95 266
125
-

R2ST

isamsra, Iowa,

542 1329.784 275.317 135,283 41,450


1

78.9 54,498
9.953 22.9in

993367 22 1,149344
489,750

1H.955
:

35377
23,609

37

20305 12367
25.966

800

Dwt

Col.,

651

7^04 1387

50

5366

3307

25

MOB
20396366

Total.

61352

155.1 10,8095,088,801 '33,787.006 7,2o6,904 l 124,734 29,102338(1

therr any cotton raised in this State ? 2 Which State produced the larsrr^t cpianti'v of '' mrh the next lanrest quantity ? 4 V\ hat w .s the total number of pounds - the growing rained in thf <>f cotton prinT How many poondl of silk OOOOOHS: won raised in 'his Slae 7 Which cipally Confined 6 -er of poandal 8. Whal was tin; total number of pounds pounds of .siu.ir were m;ide in this State in. In raised >W which mher of pounds made? ]1. What was the total nuinher of prmid made if WO"d were sold m this State' -' nund>er of cords sold u How many cords were gold in the value of the products of the dairy in thil State 16 li W bat was the total M of tne pr 8 What was the value of the [>roproducta of the orchard of 20, what was th total value of the product* <f the orchard in the United n this State ? 22 Which State produced is the total Dumber of gallon produced in 'he value of home-made, or family goods, in this State? 25. were homo madci, or family foods, produced to the greateal amount m value u uuderstand >y the term the orchard hreadth, and height
1. Is
:

'

BUf

'

'

'

<

W
the
L

hat

niU-d State.-, in 1&40

38. lu

what

Slate was the value

*1* the greatest

310
TABLE
X.
quarried, with
the

STATISTICAL TABLES.
Exhibitiyig the

value of Granite, Marble, and other Stone* the number of brick and v Capital invested togt Houses built, with the value of constructing or budding them with the value of Lumber, Brick. Lime, Hardware, ixc, and Machinery, produced in the United States, according to the Census of 1840.

GRAN ITU MARHI.U ami OTHKH


4

LIMBER. BRICKS |H\R.W\K

una
c

C~
^

STATES.

*|fe|
4t

1
u
5 5

F
16.008
17,H(K

- ~ C C

e
$160,360
68.1.

^1.674
134

|I*J
$'
-

gl* Jill
$621 JS

JTT^ N Hampshire,
Massachusetts,

34 90

69,752

Rhode

Island,

Connecticut,

313 169

6 95 72
1,2-13
:i..-i

1,111.725

New New

York,
Jersey,
I-..

Pennsylvania,

Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia,

00

/..(Ml

c
102
111

101
2.<l

19,290

North Carolina, South Carolina,


Georgia,

WfiO
3,000

BOO soo
IOJ00Q

193*408

IlljOtt
_

Alabama,
Mississippi,
_
.

it;

Louisiana,

218
3U.VM)
ti.JU
36,021
1.1

m;i.K.Vi
1,098

po.noo

Tennessi

Kentucky,
Ohio, Indiana,
1

'llllOIS,

Missouri,

28,110
-

IbflX
_
.

11

<

Arkansas, Michigan,
Florida,

Jl

1.141,174
.

2,700

3,000

39
7

i.r*>
.
.

Wisconsin,
301

609

11

Dist of Colutu.
Total.
3,695,884 240,lfiO
8.421)

33
l.'M7.101

en.300
0,451.967 10.9&I5H1

1 What was the value of the products of granite or other quarries in tins State, accord ins census of 18401 2. WhichState produced the largest amount ? 3 Whal was value in the United States? of capital was invested in work l. What amount What other quarries in this State 1 5. in which State was tin- greatest amount was the total amount invested in the tinted States 7. How many bn< Were buill in this State? 8. How many wooden houses? 9 In whal SI 1". In what state was the Ian; si number at number nl brick and stoue hous< s hu ill houses built 11 What was the total number of brick and stone houses built in tin States! 12. What was the total number of wooden houses built in the Uniti What was the value of constructing or building houses in this S'ate 14. in w

to the

15. Wha' was the total amount expended in the ? the value of the lumber produced in tins State ? 17. Winch in value IS. What was the total value of lumber produced in Hie UuiU was the value of bricks and lime manufactured in this State? 20. In what value of bricks and lime manufactured the greatest 12i. What was the total value ol and lime manufactured in the United States? 22. What was the value of bar.! &c, manufactured in this State ? 23. In whal State was hardware, Xc, manufactured to the greatest amount in value 21 What was the total value of hardware. .Vc. manufactured m the Udi ted States? 25 What was the value of machinery manufactured in thi> Si In which State was machinery manufactured to the greatest amount in v the tola! value of inaehiuety manufactured m the Lulled Stales hH] by the term machinery? 5i9. What do you understand by the term hardwa . is the meaning of the term cutlery? 31 Is there an v difference between hardware and 32. What do you understand by the term lumber? 33. Can you tell whether granite or marble quarries in tins State, and, if any. where they are situated 1 tell to what uses granite and marble are mostly pul ?

the largest
16.
!

amount expended

What was

!>

<

<

STATISTICAL TABLES.

31J

TABLE
Mills

XI.
the

Exhibiting the number of Fkm number of Barrel* 0/ Flour manufactured

'.

Saw and

the

Product* of the Mills, with the atnemhi if Capital inverted the Vaiue of Ships and other Vessel* buill andthe Valw oj Furniture manufactured.

Oil Value of (he

and Capital employed

in the sen

ing

to the

Census

oj

L840.

FURNITURE,

STATES
S

<
IfaUllOi

s ~

5
1.

81
1.1

ipshire, rj
1.7:1.

I'M

Klnnle Island,
"

141

123
l.o-l.

15*410
727.440

121.131

unit.

338
3.446
"

1,971.771

341.210
i 1

569i
16,

UJ
IW
1

3U*M
141.320
5"

5 181,66
G0.U0C1

980

28.1
}

133,600
18.430 28,610

1.01

34,450
1.020
8.H6S,

1.310,195
1,931.021

22 522 85/
39,200

576050 30^50
273,350 761,146
211.IS1 84 110
1

19,295

9tf

610
292

1.249 78

2.417.

2J077.018 ,117,618

534,317 91,022
6J.22.1

3301

500
2.4G.20)
10,500 n. 101 7,159

491

20.293 22,491
6,015
1,600

7.S10 28*050

65
121

L89

WJ
125,872
,555,405((

to

5,7 ui

Iowa,
4

75
1

95 183;

1,350

98, ',1
-,;T(i

20.2 V
7,016.091

85,000

Total.

I.

What was the number Which State had


I

of Una ring mills in this State, according to the census


I

<>(

18401

of flour were barrels ?


7.

imberl 3. What was the total number in the United Si manufactured in tins State 5. \N hicb State ruanufiuttHred 6. What was the total number of barrels manufactured in
enst mills were
11.

^ates'
great*-''

How many
'

in

this

State?

8.

Which
I

State

h;il

the

the total

number in the United States 1 10 What was the Which State had the greatest aumb rl 12. Whal was How many nil mills w< re in Which ]>. iat w.ls tin.- total number in tin United Statesi
1.

tiir

manufactun

ite T

17. In

What was th<


'

manufactures
in

of rap tal

the

<li

1'iTfiit

nulls in tins

in

or ')tii<;r built in this State 26 iial W 1* am uul rl


'

amount
*

';'

furniture

in

nil

33.

low

lillioo
;

of

flour

each

312
TABLE

STATISTICAL TABLES.

Exhibiting the value of Carnages and Wagons manufacXII. the value of various Manufactures not spetured in the United Slates
cifically

amount of Capital invested m their manufacture the value of Drugs, fyc, the value of the precious and other Metals and the total Capital invested in the Manufacturing Business, acc^i

named

the

to the

Census of 18

1".

CARRl UJKS AND WA<.

VARIOl S MAMKAI. tvuta,

PRKDOIS AMI OTHKR MKTAL3.


3
I

If
= =
:

STATES.

I
Maine,
*-i7i.:n(i

IIS
11.042927

>

Sill
ii.~7t.io;
10.IMI.

1 150.749
^oH.'JKi

356,5! 2

New

Hampshire, MnoPThTiinrn.
Island,

2<2,2i0 nh; 99

1383*
92,045
19v.lt*'

331.660
36,661

Rhode

820,450
.

Connecticut,

5Ui n
182,09:
2.:t*ii.ic

New New

Vermont, York,
Jereejr,

101,570
1,1K-Virj.i

1,397

DM

Pennsylvania,

644.966 560,681
26.1511

ii.JiO.lin
:i.:**
i

Delaware, Mai viand,


Virginia,

i!',n;
r.jT.Hi.--,

o. :i.ji7

n
4i.lr2

Off)

North Carolina, South Carolina,


Georgia,

801,601
1>v.'j:ii

249,066
19,074

Alabama,
Mississippi,

139,411

34^46
23*350
15,780

144,347
42.(100
I

Louisiana,

Tennessee, Kentucky,
Ohio, Indiana,
lllli'OIS,

163,135 144.362

78

11-.

208,919

2.1MI

Missouri,

Arkansas, Michigan,
Florida,

20,07:'.

11.000 14100

13,150 5JBO0
1,480

3,112.240

Wisconsin,
le a. District of

61.612 31,446
It

26.162

3.500

500

Colum.
10,897,887

19.000

Total,

5^1,632

31,785,3:. .,

.726,579

- to the 1. What was the value of carriages and wagons manufactured in this Sta imount 2. Which State manufactured carriages and wagons to census of 18:0 the 3. What was the total value of lie manufactured carriages and wagons in in value 1 What amount of Capita] was invested in the manufacture of I United States? 6 v. wagons in this State? 5. In which State was the greatest amount invested 7 What was the value of the val total amount invested in the United States tures, not particularly specified, in tins State' 8. In which State was their value gr< 9. What was their total value in the United States 10 What annum' of capital was in their manufacture in this State ? 11 In which State was the largest capital invested in their manufacture? 12 What was the total amount invested in their manufacture in the United States? 13. What was the value of the precious metals manufactured in this Slate U. In which State were the precious metals manufactured to the greatest amount in value? 19 What was the total value of their manufacture in the United States 16 What was tb< of the various metals not specifically named in tins State 17 In which v greatest] 18 What was their total value in the Uuited Slates ? 19 What was the medicinal drugs. Ac., manufactured in this State? 20 In which State was their greatest? 21. What was their total value in the United States ? 22 What was the total amount of capital invested in manufactures in the tinted States ? 23 What a amount invested in manufactures in this State 21 Which State had 'he largest amount invested in manufactures? 25 Which State had the smallest amount of capital invested in manufactures? 20. In how many of the States were there more than ten millions of do!! vested in manufactures? 27. What do you understand by the term precious metaU What is meant l.y the term various metals ? 29. Can you state which uui ul I is pro duced in this State to the greatest extent ?
>.

'

'

STATISTICAL TABLES.
rABLE
Houses
A.

313

XIII.
:

Exhibiting
f

//.--

mmerciul and Commission

Dry C
ipers
(i>ui

'sand
I

other

Store*

with

tin

Capital invested in each


Is,

Lumber
to

Yurds.

also the

according

number of the C

of 18

10,

PH nun.;.

*
51

-9

- =

S 1

5
-

c
1 i

!
-

111

<
%
51.1 JN

<-T

ti

$.n;it.'

m
ii

M
1<U
:
i
(

.11

57

16

105 IS

K>
"

13

...
.

u
in
13.24"}
-

ark.
ki.ui.
.

2,691.17(1

110.570 2,24104(1
l
'

m
Igno
GO

40
B 49 56
Jl

.
"

22
Iti

4.

lit-

31
:rolina.

iiasm
11

41
4
.'

UK

i,l

X HI

16

26
101
h

tji
11

31

121

1,495,100

ft.7W

11

Keattti

53
Indiana,

24,1

E
'

95 78 37 39 45
9

31

37 56 4G
113

3V3.2t

69
52
4<1
(.KMI

Artea*
.

10
.
_

612
16
-

9 28 10 4

33
10

1
-

14

21,

IN
_
'

14,100
.
.

3
11

*.lum.

4 17

119.205.3*7

1,793 9.8(8 307


'

1.

How

man-.

engaend in fon imher 3 \\


:;
'

sordine
hai
in

What wns
lUil

thf

number of commission

ii

uriil.tr

Hie United

in
.

commercial

Hive-

fi\

Uuw

iii.miv
2.

What
ti

%%:is
r:

:i

(he total nan dry gooda

<

ii

retail

in

retail

dry
in

;i

number
.

Bted
:

in
1

lumber yards.
j

,Vc

in

tins

In

miiiIkt

Wli.it

What

How
I

iuveL<

il

Ki

'

nil

II

314

STATISTICAL TABLES.

TABLE OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE UNITED STATES.


ARRANGED
This Table
is

IN

THE GEOGRAPHICAL ORDER OF STATES


f

believed to be more complete ami accura e than any heretofore published. It is designed to revise it as often as occasion requires, and ;is far a* practicable to keep it correct. the rudiments. The southern and western institutions generallv include students

5w
Name.
1
Place.

| ^

t i

Comnv ncem.' nt

'.

!^_
7

*
182

Bowdoia.1
\'v

Bi xnansjck,

.Me.

1794

i>t

ed. in Seotaeabei

2
;

;.ic vdle,2

Waterville,

7.IKK

2d
1st

Wednesday
Thursday Wedneadaj
liureday

m km
in July. in Au.
;ii

3 Dartmouth, 1 ,:.' isitv of Vt.,


1

Hanover,
Burlington,

N.H.
Vt.
337 126 10.000]

i.a>t

",

Maldlehury, Middlebury.i 'Norwicii Quivers.,* Norwich, Cambridge, Harvard I'm

180
**

August.

1834
3.942 107 1.371 176 n

July.

Mass.
"

B
1

dlmms.i
<
i

Wdliamsiown,
v\ mi-,-.

AllllMTSt.l

21
bU
r.

11

J 15JJO0 2d
56,000

Wednesday in August. Wednesday m Auj

li

Holy

130
R.
<

1)
i

Br IWI1 l'nivcrsity,2
Yale."
!

Providence.

I.

176|
V,

613

l.

New Haven.
Fiartftird,

nn.

Thursday in August. September 16th. 1st Wed in September U.500 3U Tharsday in Ittfrnat
i
;

13 Tritiity vi It Fin
1"
1-

nivera.1

Columbia,"
1'tnoii.

Middletown, New York, n Y Schenectady, "


Clintim,
"

I20U0
1764(13 1.170 111
\-\: 10
1
i

low

13JXO
10.000
in 111

th

n Hamilton,
18 Miidi.sou University,* r
i
I

Wednesday eh Wednesday

in July.
in

July.

Hamilton,

Geneva,

niversity ol N.

2] SI

Johns.*

New York. Ford ham,

10 1341 10.000 2d or 3d

Princeton, N.J. N. Brunswick. a t'niversi jrof Penn'a, Philadelphia, Penn 2>" 'i.r.ir.l " Philadelphia, nkinson,? 2 Carlisle",
r'olleee of
J. ,8
1

Wed. preceding 'h of July. week in Julv. 11.600 last Wednesday in June. 9/J00 Hi Wednesday in Julv. le 15th, 16th or l?Xh of July.
!

>

Thursday

in July.

mi. h

Canonsburg,

2 Washington, J! Uleghahy,?

nshingtou,
.

"

lav in June. inSepti mber.

a
3]

I'iMiiisv!v:im:i,3
i

Gettyabu
Ills',
.11.

tte,

"
"

3d Wei], in Sept.
Last
\\
i

Merrersburg, 32 Marshall," 33 West, ["niv of Penn. Pittsburg,


31
3*>

1819 5

11

til
I

nst

Delaware."
St.
St,

Newark,
Wilmington,
Baltimore,
llllltll'tsllll.l.'.

Del
Md.

ith

Wni.

u.

September.
February.
li

Ma;

36 SI John's,!
:r,

Mary'

38 Mount St VCaryV 39 St. .IrunrsV.''' 'niv.TMfy. to NewttM


t

"
"n."

Near lagenl
1

Baltimore,

1830 12 1842 10
I

:i<i Last

218

M
1.200 2d
:,\*<>

Tuesday in Jo r. week in don in An.?. Thursday in December.

41

Feorgetown,* olumbiun.a William ftnd Mary,* lampden-Stdney, li ! Washington. 9 16 timers, of Virginia.


12
13
i i

Georgetown,

D.C

171

Julv.

Charlottesville, *

Washington), Williamsburg, Va. ' Prince I'd. oo., Lezingt


'i
.

loi
1

25 98

U ednesdav
oh

in July.

July

126 136

8.000 nil Wed in 2.700 Last Thursday in June.


16,000, July Ith.

4? Rundulph-Maooni
IS

BoydUm,
" "

77
123

2d
2.800
1

Wednesday
of Julv.

Kinory and Henry,? Glade serine:. Rector," Harrison CO., 6>' il thany College, Bethanv, 51 University of .N. C. f Chanel Hill,
19

Jane. o in Ji.ne.
in

SO
l

VC
"
S. c.

"

I'll

171

IhuiMlay
31
11
it

in

June.

62 Davidson, 63 Wake Forest,* 61 Charleston, 66 South Carolina, SJ Franklin. 67 Oglethorpe,

Mooklenb'gco., 44

Wake

Forest,

24

1,150 lasl Thursday in June. i.thi kl Thuraday in June.

Charleston,

Columbia,
Athens.

Ga

10 3.000 61 151 5JJO0 528 116 13.000

Tues after 4th Mon in Mar. 1st Mondav in Hccemher 1st Wedueedsyin Am
',on

5H
59.

Kuonv
Mercer Fniversitv.s

Midway.
Oxford.
Penfield,
i

8
li
71

Nov.

((H'ln-ist Col.<fcEp.Ihs.

62. 1'nivers.

'L

63|

Monlpclier 1838 Florida of Alabama; Tuscaloosn, Ala. 1828 9 La Grauge,' I .a Grange, " I83l( 3

35
11
SI

101

6.000

Wed.

after 2d

Mon.

in

Aut.

10b l 2.2H0* Early in June.

STATISTICAL TABLES.

315
Ctmtimuei.

TABLE OF COLLEGES,

&
j

..

IN
3

THE

0. S.

fill!, 6

Spring
I

1
I

Oakland,
la.

Lsl

I'lmrMiav

in April.

sday in June. member.

Grand
b'ranklui,

Cofc

f
-

November.
September.
in

73

Arkansas,
nville,

Greenvill.
i

11
!

Wed m

Nashville

i)

1st

Wednesday
uuisdav

October.

;vi'de,"
1

KiKtlviile.

1st

ubertend

dm.,

Wednesday in Angnst
i

llhlHIMI.

I84t
;

in Juiy.

Columbia.
e

Danville,

u n<l Wednesday in July. U First Amrusr. *> Thiirs. after 3d Wed 1'hars after 1st Wed iaAog.
i

noraday

in J one.

u tuber.

Ohio.
tens,
i

1st

w ednesdaj
nraday
in
in

in k\

Au
nber.

Reserve,
Ganibier, Granville. Marietta,
1*06
**
1

M
1st

Thursday

Aujrnst

Wednesday in August. 2d Wednesday in August. Last Wednesday in July.


I

Oberlm.
;.

"

ast

Monday

in June.

Cincinnati,
.

1st

Thursday

in July.

uversity,

JBloomii.-' S.'U h Hanover,"


1833
isUe,

Last

ctl

m September, nesday iu July.


in

"
III

1th

Wednesday

JUiy.

[Jacksonville,

1829
.

in

June.

Thursday
\\

in in

Lebanon.
Si

;,l

eduesday
in S

3d

Wed.
si

ucsdaj

iu

A
in in a

Thursday
luraday

Cape Id
uereity. Columbia,

ratty,

837
liJp's*
....lint*.

die.
>p i!i. in.

r.utli.

Old

Want

ar* the k

IB a ft;.

BIOGRAPHICAL TABLE OF SOME OF THE DISTINGUISHED DECEASED AMERICANS


STATESMEN AND JURISTS '
John CarverJohn Smith -

msCBLLAKEOCS.
John Robinson
-

MIS' EIXA.NEOUS.
-

A. D.

1621

Georgre Calvert-

John Winthrop-

Edward Winslow

William Bradford Theophilus Eaton John Endicott - Leonard ('alvert William Coddington William Phipps- -

1632 1632 16:9 1656 1657 ias7

Francis HiggBuam

1625 1630
161} I6t7

John Ledyard
isiaei Pot

nam

John Harvard - William Brewster Thomas Hooker Thomas Shepard John Tottcn
Nathaniel Ward nndish John Norton Richard Mather John Davenport Charles Chauncy
S

Joseph Bellamy
Frederick Wm. SatSJbssi John Withers;"

1649

Ezra Stiles John Sullivan Francis Marion Anthony Wayne


David Rjttennoi

1 1

William I'rnn William Burnet Ehsha Williams J;nnc;s Delanev -

1670
Iff!
I

Jeremiah Belknap John Clarke


Patrick

Henry

i
i

John ChambertRorer Wolooti William Shirley William Johnson Richard Peteia -

1755 1760 1765 1767


1771 1774

Edward Johnson John Mason - I'rian

Winslow Onkes
i

1673 1680
[683

1
i

Roger Williams Nathaniel Morton

Samuel G
John
Eliol
i

irton
-

John l^miifv - Peyton Randolph


i
1

Daniel Gookia

Artemai Ward - George K. Miaot John Ewing Samuel Hopkins Philip Schuyler William MoultrieHenry Knox - Horatio Galea - -

Edward Preble
L7IM
i?or

1807

Robort Livingston

William

lubbard

William Eatonii
.

1 1

Joseph Murray William Smith

%
-

Samuel Willard
!'..

1KI7

John Penn

ii

Beverly 'hureh
( 1

1716 1718
1

.
-

.
-

Brown
-

i
1

Samuel WellesJohn Chandler ohviT Partridge Richard WibirdMesheck Wears Henry Sherburne
William Pitkin Martin Howard
Isaac Norrifl
-

^
i

Mather Cotton Mather- Jonathan Rirkmssn


.

Benjamin Lineala
tennis

utou
Joel

'

olman
-

Barlow

DavKJ B ainerd

\-

n
Theonhil Zebufon M. Pi

1812 1812 1812 1812


181
i

i i i
i

John Cullender

Thomas Godfrey
William Stita James Logan
-

1749
1751

James

l.-iwrence

1813

1 1

Benjamin Tasker

William Heath Samuel Dexter


.''"/i
-

ISM
1815 1815 1815 1615 1815 1815 1815
1817

Abraham Harms
Button Gwinnet

Prince

!' -111:1111111

17

William PeppereU

...
.

2 3 2 3
3

2 3
1

John Morton pinup Livingston Joseph (ewes - George Ross - - Theodore Atkinson
i

IT
1779
1779
1

Samuel Davies - Gilbert Tenneal Jonathan Maj hew


Zabdiel Boylston
-

1781
raj I

. -

S Barton

Henry

B.

MohU
,

Thomas

'lap

,i

Thomas

Lynoh,jr.

3
3 a

John Hart - Richard Stockton George Taylor -

8
2 a
*
i

James

Otis

...
-

Cesser Rodney Joseph R>,,i *

.
1

s 3

3 s 4
i

Stephen Hopkins William Whipple Arthur Mkldleton Thomas Stone jhn Peso - ThiKs. Hutchinson
Thos. Nelson, jr. Benjamin Franklin David Brearley Metcalf Rowler
-

735

Samuel Johnson John Mitchell - John ClavtiNi - Joseph v\ arrssj Richard Mootg John Thomas - Cadwallnder Cofalen Hugh Mercer - David Wooster- John Bartram - i;io:i/ar

Theodore k -h >n Timothv Dwight


I

Irthur

St.

flair
-

[star

Samuel S Suulh
-

leton

1819

Joseph Lathrop Benjamin Trumlmll Oliver H. Berry Stephen Deeatur -

1787 1789

WheeloeJi

3
i

3 4

1790 1790

SHenrvWard2 2 2

David Rowland

John Crusert William Bayard

Count Pulaski - - Thomas Hutchinson Jonathan Carver - Charles Lee ham Alexander Anthony Henezet - Nathaniel Creene ihartes "hauncy Mather Byles - - (

1779 1779
I78t.

Benjamin West Samuel \\ ore* st^r John Stark

-----

1784

1788
its:*

Ethan Allen

Thomas TruXtOfl - Samuel Heckewelder Divie Bethune - - Samuel Campbell - Ehsha Whitney - James Wilkinson - Thomas Macdouough Lindley Murray

* Th e m s f all the signers of the Articles of Confederation will be found attached to A those Articles. Appendix, pase 44. t Writer of the Bill of Rights. ) denotes that the year is not ascertained. J The dash ( The Bill of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution of the United states, were signed only by part of the members appointed to frame those enduring monuments. Members of the Congress that met at Albany, 1754. J 2 Signers of the Declaration of Rights. Signers of the Articles of Confer s feigners of the Declaration of Independence. 5 Signers of the Constitution.
*i

BIOGRAPHICAL TABLE.
JTRISTS
S

317
Pocahontas-

Jeriediah Moi
-

Iriok

Finer
.it'll

1517
164
I

Arabella Johnson-

rh<miaa Puickuey

*
-

Thomas Ringgold
Thomas
Li

M
G
Stewart
-

chinaon rv Dyer - Bradstrei


l

Anne

buck.

Timothy Pickering
-

William
1790

ill

3
3

Friu f ,vm:in Hull

M Mason lenn Hohart


-

Hannah Duston
HIT wards
I

Benjamin Harrison George Bryan -

Stephen John D.

Elliott

J. ini-i

Mr
Eliza

r -a

Godmaa
L.

Wright
1831

Ann

IH -

Samuel
John
1791 1791 1794
11

2
'

John

tl ui'-

Mitchell Rice - I

Susanna Anthony Mary WoLstoncraA

irgnretta V,

Faugeree
i

Ricbanl Henry Lee


ih Bnrtleit
-

Thomas Sumter John II. Ashman


Warren
S
Robert C Sands Toll) urn

Martha Washing
Elizabeth Ferg

Tucker
-

1832

Braxton

PUebe H Abbot Mary White Martin 1. RaJD Harriet Newell


Sarin Smitll Judith S. Grant Mercy Warreu -

1810

L8U
-

1812

root Ijpe

William Bainbridge
:.l

1833
-

fiiu
1816
1818 1819 1830

>n
I

rter lell-

1834

man

Whitfield

Isabella Graham^ Mary J. GroerenOT Mary Dwighl - -

Thomas Say - David Howack- Thomas S Grimke


B;.ker
-

Pfaebe Phillips Abigail Adams


1831

Judith Murray

1SU
1831

Sarah Hoffman
Catharine
P.

Wm
nxgtm

William Wirt - H. Crawford


.

Brown

Susan Huntington
1834

Nathan P;me

Anna

P.

Cantield
-

P:ira
.
.

1799 1799

Lutlier Martin

. .

.
.

John Emory William Nevins William White

1835

Elizabeth Gray Lucia Knox- -

1823 1823 1823


1824

Susan Rowaon

im Blount*
i

David Crockett

Maria Puvidsou Eleanor Davis - 1836 1837

1825
L826

John
" flin-

John Lowell
!

1800

1803

Edward Lirii Philip Syng Phyaick Nathaniel Bowditch William M. Stone Samuel L. KnappJohn Kodsjers Thomas Cooper Hezekiah Nilea William Sullivan Jesse Buel - Aaron Bancroft
.burn Wilbor Piske Ntden
inIy
-

Ann H. JudaonSarah Hull


Anna Bates
-

838

Dorothy Scott E Ana B Morel

Maraa

Hall
-

Maria M Allen Sarah Hall

1829

Lhiughan]

inns

Martha Derby Maria Van Neaa

Hannah Adams
Sarah

18*9

V Hayne
'

Smith Elizabeth B DwightJudith s Holly- - -

P.

1840

PInlip P
.

Bam
Flnii
-

-1. ir.
\

J
3

1311
i'

irnsh

1841 1841

tn

ler

icomb

knW
v

Changing

wa

'

318
STATESMEN AKO JlRfSTS'
5 5
3 8

BIOGRAPHICAL TABLK.
M ISC EL
1821 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829
1831
I

A. -

I)

tlSTZHGUISHED K.M

W MM

Charies Pinckney Cha's C. Pinckney

[saac Huil

John Adams
Tncnnas
J<j?i

David Porter Asabel Netileton


is

1813

rson
-

Biddle
-

5 6

Rnfus Km? William Few Joan Jiy - Janus Monroe Charles CarroU John Marshnll James Madison

Levi

Hedge-

John Sanderson
Wilhrini

Stone

Peter S Dupooceau
H.

1832 1831

A.Mnhlen
-

1844 1-11

Abel P Upshur

1MJ
1844

H. Harrison Jottph Story - -

Wm

W. Gilmer
IM1
1*11 1845

Erastus Root

John B Nicholson
McClellan
i

Andrrw Jacteon Silas Wright- -

I8l6 1847

Thomas lewson
1847 1848
t!

James h'< nt - - John Qtsincf) lifuwi


1.

John Jacob Aator


Richanl
i'<

lers-

3.

In the I9th1 l. Who v.. 17th ceidury ? 5. in the 18th J 6. In Ihe rished in the 17th century f 8. In \ ii that flourished in h- 17th century, Ac. 12. Between a general and n comrnan a jurist? [Many teachers will he un man Itbiooi want of suitable district school libraries sioner, mid wealthy
I
i

Who

were suno of

-id

commanders

that flourished in the of the divines thai flou-

'

stee.scl

commis.in the

importance den not in the Table 15. Kor whai w catalogue .i statesmen and juntg1

which

its

died
I,

nieu whosi

third, lotirtl

it.

Wnai
nt

mn
of

the mi* of ladies, distinguished 1 Ifi ii*. What should be oar object
6i(. in

human
20,

ki

iu

ii

What

mm
I

constantly

reincmU

The above Table cootsins all the names >f the members of the Congress of 17! Declarat of Independence, and the s of the Declaration of of the oust it n! ion of the United States Bui it should !> l*>rne. in mind, that it contain men that tin a few of the names of distinguished deceased Amerinui ladi a mull itude w h<> were eminently prominent as divines, statesmen, pi physicians, patrons and friends of learning, pcrs with numberless philanthropists nnd Chi tinue sustain the institutions of the Republic, though their names may ale biographj It is to be hoped that more attention will hen living. the gentleness, the meekness, the piety of American ladies, ma) be blended ism and wisdom, so that the young of both sexes may surrey the bv< before them and. animated by reason, fortified by piety, they may. like Elisha of old, the mantle ff their virtues free fnun the f>>lln s incident to humanity, and be inspired wi newed zeal in the cause of letters ami of true WMSBStt.
(
.

t.

APPENDIX.

'us

work

of varied att
usual.'}/
t

most

difficult arc invain-t


:i

which
will be

contains

from 8

T:ns hley has

to

merely arbitrary divisions, an

young,
.

lonientous o; those

tion

of

gut

upon the duties


this arrangement,

ordmg
ThOCheTS may,
turn
IP I'i fit

to

utmost

may

bt

>

ijicrn

mm
narpuKd exert
o

for com)

umphfying
awl moral poir-rs
u

pits to intustr:

tlto deveiope thoroughly

w >ri\ word Buc, and


!
I

IS

tram lentous duties and


'o

th
;

rcsyons'i

await

tliein in

the future.

ik-binder,
-.

LESSON
1.

I.

hookish. buok-

To margins
Id ninny, as follows
is

2.

1st.

Book The
is
,

irorh

-learned,
*,

well

LaborHe

book-madu
-uill,

3d.

Man

-The
l*x>kstand,
friction.

principle

salvation. works Well,


liqtl

6th.

Foment

Malt

By
out of
:

motion thp

plasl

possess
of parpeee.
3.

s change
10

have an

mice than v. < of tins f the Mail


.

EmbroiderYoung

hv-

dist

"li-se or writing.

the Key.

immediab

i,

who

hav.
that
in the

It
.-

moreover. kmWt I ioud M


is.

rabie

margin

"i

n
ui

never

that they Ik

n
Hut
'

own

skill

and research
.*

:,

that all rfforU on the pai

;ulc

in"

i-

commendatuyt
beitic

mended
.

merely

man

d made of the earth, after Ins

-<

->.;_

to eJ'i
.<# sectio!

(1)

2
9.

APPENDIX.
Bv
B'finiiimi
fa* her
(

10.

the voice unwritten. description of a wo d by its properties; as. patunai pertaining to a

7,

The metropolis
There
i

of France.

6.

is

9.

Synotq/m-explaiia'.ion by a word

10.

There is. By s connection with the subject


ciissi
)ii.

in dis-

11.
12.

13.
11.

Patei nai fatherly. generally irksome and useless, and engenders the most pernicious habits. Improvement in literature, science, sentiments, morals, manners, &c. Disjunctive conjunction. Or is a noun when made the subject of discourse; as, "or" connects words or sen.f

tUe

same meaning.
is

No;

it

11.

Ground being more expensive, the requisite amount of room is sought in a e< surface to make room for large families without covering much ground, a few square feet of which is sosoetraw

as

tences.
15.
16.

It is

sometimes spelled with a sometimes without it.


Richardson's,

final

e,

and

many acres m the country niodate men in the varied pursuits of trade, &c, without requiring them to travel over surfaceoccasionally to make more
ll

Johnson's, Walker's. Kenrick's, Hem's. Bowl's, and W ^rooster's, unabridged Dictionaries have been consulted, but when these differed the author has generally fo, lowed tionary, of 1818.

display of wealth obtain purer air and the 2d. often to accommodate families od, 4th stories, 6u ., when the first occupied as a stand for some kind of bu-

Webstert unabridged

Dic-

12.

That which best qualities us for the dis-

17.

The sentence would then aver that any oneui my cousins read the work; it now
avers ft of them
all.

LE3SON
1.

II.

charge of our various duties; and inasmuch as the proper trainiug m reading has B better and a more powerful influence over the moral and intellectual facilities than anyotherstudy.it must conbe paramount to any other branch Off edu*

2.

on

of the utmost importance. failure of my exertions ooneult my teacher, or some one capable of informing
It is

with n or
<

r.

j.

Aii orattrt

who

is

3.

mc

presumed to principles of
te

inn properly directed,

it is

of the utmost
i

in
;

rhetlocution. perceiving by the

combine

>n

benefit.
4.

Improvement of the understanding and the u of the work heart upon ;.


read. Pupil in tin School. Scholar, scholastic, scholarship, and
|

moral m of the mind n virtue and vie*-.


.

An
le

inttl-

ti'tual
10.
18.

man may
faculties.

tl-

a very

tmvidral cuursr.

Menal
It

5.

6
7.

many

.am etimes has


verb.
i

m or wn prefixed, in which

compound words,
8.

as,

room, school-books, dec. Resolving into originaJ eh menta, as simple


sentences, phrases, adjunct
inir

1st. Command His (tensive with ln^ empire. 2d.

their se|

9.

10.

Words. Because an means the MBA as the article r a, and is used instead <>f e. an agreeable sound or euphony, when the next word begins with a rowel or rowel sound The article a mOtfl be U*ed before all words beginning with u Umg, a consonant, and a consonant sound; av, a unit, a and the article an must he hoy, a oneness used btoie all words beginning with vow, except soofa as begin with the sound an must u long or I OOUeouaUl sound also i>e used before words beginning with a silent a as, an hour, an heir; a words where the I w not silent, if thsmcccut is not on the first syllaiile. a>, an heroic action, an historical accoun'
i<
i

faculty
l.'ui

n lu> By
t

hul
his

mind.

lH>werso(
tn is

mieht depend in:: on


Fotssr

may

also include
-

prisoner

('

.!.

bill

ll!^

the walls until the sheriff recer


tty to lib*

rale hint.

t"

m
1

iv.

Pupil
to the subject of the reading less Ihi-ilnpina. expanding, opening. ening. establishing, making firm.

2.

Whole, an adjective, relating

entire

3.

LESSON
1.

III.

Antic means, pertaining to Italy, n apkind of inclining plied particularly to type, tirst used by Italian prater*. Hen -e
I

4.

Italics

means

letters

first

Used

Italy,

and
6. 7.

The in,/, raisin.' up. making lofty. "trengthdeveloped the intel i. /lis if. rns it. and Inherent powers of the mind, tin t on, the judgment, and the striae npauy of arbiters between litiI
;

2.
3. 4.

which stand inclining; they are used to distinguish words for emphasis, importance, antithesis, <V.c. The words emphasis, &.C., are printed in italics. * 8th line, when you substitute tuition for ediccal'on, an should be omitted. Extended or general sense. Scholars. Features; namely, articulation, pause, inflection, accent, emphasis, <tc.
Feature.

gant p

8.

ft

10.

5.

6.

That particular

feature.

11.

Generally twelve or twentf-fimr. Two; grtmd jury and pi fit jury. To decide the subject of litigation submi