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ETY OF NEE

CAL,LER NO. DlLITTLETON, COL

ASSESSMENT OF DESIGN AND OPERATION OF GRINDING MILLS USING SIMULATION

V. Voller Research Associate


K.J. Reid Professor & Director
Mineral Resources Research Center University of Minnesota

K.A. Smith Assistant Professor

M. Cross* Visiting Professor *Currently at CHAM Ltd. London, United Kingdom

For presentation at the SME-AIME Fall Meeting and Exhibit Denver, Colorado - November 18-20, 1981

Permission is hereby given to publish with appropriate acknowledgments, excerpts or summaries not to exceed one-fourth of the entire text of the paper. Permission to print in more extended form subsequent to publication by the Institute must be obtained from the Executive Secretary of the Society of Mining Engineers of AIM E. If and when this paper is published by the Society of Mining Engineers of AIME, it may embody certain changes made by agreement between the Technical Publications Committee and the author, so that the form in which it appears here is not necessarily that in which it may be published later. These preptints are available for sale. Mail orders to PREPRINTS, Society of Mining Engineers, Caller No. DlLittleton, Colorado 80123. PREPRINT AVAILABILITY LIST IS PUBLISHED PERIODICALLY IN ' MlNlMG ENGINEERING

A b s t r a c t . A r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e model o f g r i n d i n g which i n c o r p o r a t e s b o t h t h e Bond g r i n d a b i l i t y e q u a t i o n s and t h e p o p u l a t i o n b a l a n c e e q u a t i o n s h a s been e x t e n d e d t o form a comprehensive s i m u l a t i o n package t h a t c a n d e s c r i b e most k i n d s o f conv e n t i o n a l g r i n d i n g c i r c u i t s . The package h a s two programs, w i t h t h e f i r s t c o n s i s t i n g o f a n i n p u t program which h e l p s t h e u s e r t o s p e c i f y t h e p r e s c r i b e d c i r c u i t , w h i l e t h e second program p e r forms t h e a c t u a l s i m u l a t i o n . i) a s a The package s e r v e s two main p u r p o s e s check on m i l l d e s i g n , w i t h t h e o u t p u t p r o v i d i n g n o t only predictions f o r t h e product passing s i z e b u t a l s o of t h e f u l l product s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n , and i i ) a s a means t o a s s e s s t h e l i k e l y e f f e c t s on t h e p r o d u c t s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o p e r a t i n g under d i f f e r e n t sets of c o n d i t i o n s .

i n open c i r c u i t . When t h e g r i n d i n g specified conditions, and Kjos, 1978) have w i t h e q u a t i o n I. I n q u i r e d m i l l power i s ing equation

c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r from t h e s e e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s (Rowland t o be used i n conjunction general, t h e r e f o r e , t h e rec a l c u l a t e d using t h e follow-

Introduction The Bond e q u a t i o n , ( B o n d , 1960, 1961; Rowland and K j o s , 1 9 7 8 ) , i s u s e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r much o f t h e b a l l and r o d m i l l d e s i g n done t o d a y . Although t h e r e have b e e n a number of " p o p u l a t i o n t y p e " models of g r i n d i n g proposed, (Reid, 1965; A u s t i n , 1971; L u c k i e and A u s t i n , 1972; Lynch, 1 9 7 7 ) , t h e r e h a s b e e n some d i f f i c u l t y i n a p p l y i n g them t o t h e p r a c t i c a l t a s k o f m i l l d e s i g n . The e s s e n c e of t h e proposed s i m u l a t i o n package i s t o e x p l o i t t h e method of combining Bond's t h i r d law o f comminution, (Bond, 1960, 1961). w i t h t h e popu l a r i o n balance equation (Austin, 1971). T h i s approach, f i r s t proposed b y C r o s s and Gwst, (1978) h a s been u s e d i n a s t u d y o f t h e c o n t r o l o f c i r c u i t s g r i n d i n g m i x t u r e s o f ores(Holtham, 19781, and h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n m o d i f i e d and v a l i d a t e d by C r o s s (1981). The a d v a n r a g e s of t h i s method i s t h a c a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e g r i n d i n g model 5s used which n o t o n l y p r o v i d e s a q u i c k and i n e x p e n s i v e zkeck on a Bond m i l l d e s i g n , b u t a l s o p r o v i d e s a p r e d i c t i o n f o r t h e p r o d u c t s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n from t h e m i l l , i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e Bond a p p r o a c h t o m i l l d a s i g n d o e s n o t p r o v i d e ( H e r b s t and F u e r s t e n a u , 1980). Background H i l l Selection The f i r s t s t e p i n n i l 1 d e s i g n is t o d e t e r m i n e t h e power needed t o produce t h e d e s i r e d g r i n d i n t h e c h o s e n o r e . The most u s e d e q u a t i o n , f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , i s t h e e m p i r i c a l Bond e q u a t i o n (Bond, 1960, 1961; Rowland and Kjos, 1978). E = 10Wi

where n* i s t h e number o f efficient? f a c t o r s , EFi, u s e d and f i s t h e f e e d r a t e of new o r e t o t h e m i l l . ~ h e O ~ o w e r l c u l a t e d from e q u a t i o n 2 c a n b e ca l o o k e d up i n p u b l i s h e d t a b l e s (Rowland and K j o s , 1978) and t h e c o r r e c t m i l l s i z e and t y p e c a n be selected. Note t h a t any e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s can b e dropped from e q u a t i o n 2 o n s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e work i n d e x , W i , i n e q u a t i o n 1 by a n e f f e c t i v e work i n d e x , w i e where

P o p u l a t i o n Hodels The p o p u l a t i o n b a l a n c e model o f comminution d i v i d e s t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e range of t h e rough o r e f e e d i n t o a number o f s i z e i n t e r v a l s ( n ) and c a l c u l a t e s t h e r a t e o f change o f t h e w e i g h t f r a c t i o n i n each s i z e i n t e r v a l . (Note t h a t t h e l a r g e s i p a r t i c l e s a r e p l a c e d i n i n t e r v a l 1 and s m a l l n e s t i n i n t e r v a l n ) . O making a d i s c r e t i z a t i o n i n time, t h e population equation can be w r i t t e n i n m a t r i x form ( A u s t i n , 1971; Lynch, 1977; C r o s s , 1981), as:

where

(,$- A) %

kWh/short t o n

(1)

I n t h i s equation, E is the s p e c i f i c energy r e q u i r e d f o r t h e g r i n d , and Fa0 and Pa0 a r e t h e s i z e s i n m i c r o m e t e r s t h a t 80% of t h e w e i g h t p a s s e s of t h e m i l l f e e d and p r o d u c t r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p a r a m e t e r W i , known as t h e work i n d e x of t h e o r e , is o b t a i n e d from b a t c h bench t e s t s f i r s t d e v i s e d by Bond (1961). The power c a l c u l a t e d o n u s i n g e q u a t i o n 1, (Bond, 1961; Rowland and K j o s , 19781, . r e l a t e s to: a r o d m i l l w i t h a d i a m e t e r of 1 ) Rod m i l l i n g 2.44 m e t e r s , i n s i d e new l i n e r s , g r i n d i n g w e t i n open c i r c u i t . a b a l l m i l l with a diameter 2) B a l l m i l l i n g of 2.44 m e t e r s , i n s i d e new l i n e r s , g r i n d i n g wet

E q u a t i o n 4 r e l a t e s t h e w e i g h t f r a c t i o n v e c t o r of a t time ( p + l ) b t t o the grinding m i l l contents, t h e w e i g h t f r a c t i o n v e c t o r a t time p j t . T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n b a l a n c e a p p r o a c h t o comminution may b e r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " u n i t grind operation" formulation, each u n i t grind c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o one t i m e i n t e r v a l 6 t . The m a t r i x [ I ] , i n e q u a t i o n 5 , i s t h e i d e n t i t y m a t r i x , [K] is a d i a g o n a l m a t r i x w i t h e l e m e n t s kj, t h e f r a c t i o n s b r o k e n o u t o f e a c h s i z e i n t e r v a l J i n t i m e 6 t , and [B] is a lower t r i a n g u l a r m a t r i x whose e l e m e n t s a r e bji, t h e p r o p o r t i o n of p a r t i c l e s broken o u t of s i z e ~ n t e r v a li t h a t f a l l i n t o s i z e i n t e r v a l j .

W,

The Cross-Owst Model B e f o r e t h e Cross-Owst model ( C r o s s and Gwst, 1978; Holtham, 1978; C r o s s , 1981) c a n b e u s e d , t h e c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a t i o n of a g r i n d i n g m i l l h a s t o b e approximated by a s e r i e s of s h o r t b a t c h g r i n d s . With t h e t i m e chosen f o r e a c h a p p r o x i m a t i n g b a t c h g r i n d corresponding t o a s p e c i f i c energy i n p u t , e , t o the mill. I f a t time t = 0 t h e 80% p a s s i n g s i z e of t h e

f e e d , Fao, and t h e e f f e c t i v e work i n d e x , w i e , o f t h e o r e i n t h e m i l l a r e known, t h e 80% p a s s i n g s i z e o f t h e p r o d u c t a f t e r one a p p r o x i m a t i n g b a t c h g r i n d , Pa0 can b e found on r e w r i t i n g t h e Bond equation a s

o p e r a t e d f o r a s h o r t t i m e i n t h e b a t c h mode. The MRRC G r i n d i n g H i l l S i m u l a t i o n Package General Description The p h i l o s o p h y i n t h e development o f t h e MRRC g r i n d i n g s i m u l a t i o n package was t o b u i l d i n t e r a c t i v e software t h a t could be used a s an ine x p e n s i v e means o f p r o v i d i n g a s e m i - q u a n t i t a t i v e c h e c k on a g r i n d i n g m i l l d e s i g n . I n a d d i t i o n t h e s o f t w a r e i s d e s i g n e d t o " s l o t i n " t o a gene r a l m i n e r a l p r o c e s s i n g package now u n d e r g o i n g development a t t h e MRRC. The s o f t w a r e , w r i t t e n i n BASIC+, and implemented on a Dec 1 1 / 6 0 computer, c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e main programs: 1 ) i n p u t program: gr dat g r mix 2) w e l l mixed f l o w s i m u l a t i o n : . 3) p l u g f l o w s i m u l a t i o n : g r plug These programs and t h e s i m u l a t i o n a l g o r i t h m s a r e d i s c u s s e d below. Note t h a t i n some g r i n d i n g s i m u l a t i o n s , ( L u c k i e and A u s t i n , 1972; Holtham, 19781, a r e s i d e n c e t i m e d i s t r i b u t i o n model i s used. I n t h e MRRC s i m u l a t i o n p a c k a g e , however, o n l y t h e two e x t r e m e s o f w e l l mixed and p l u g f l o w ( L u c k i e and A u s t i n , 1972) t h r o u g h t h e m i l l a r e c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s a p p r o a c h r e d u c e s t h e amount of i n p u t i n f o r m a t i o n a n d c o m p u t a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n t h e simulation. P r e d i c t i o n s obtained from a simulation a r e f o r the m i l l product s i z e dist r i b u t i o n , t h a t is t h e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n a f t e r grinding but before separation.

Furthermore. t h e e n e r g y i n p u t , e , w i l l c o r r e s p o n d t o a number ( q ) o f u n i t g r i n d s i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n equation. Therefore, i f t h e weight d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e m i l l a t time t * 0 ( i . e . , W(0)) is known, che w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n a f t e r one a p p r o x i m a t i n g batch g r i n d of time 6 t is

where t h e 80% p a s s i n g s i z e of t h e p r o d u c t in by e q u a t i o n 6. Hence, i f t h e enand t h e i n i t i a l w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e m i l l a r e known, t h e v a l u e s o f q , which may n o t be i n t e g e r s , ( C r o s s , 1981) and t h e w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n s , W, a f t e r e a c h a p p r o x i m a t i n g b a t c h g r i n d may b e c a l c u l a t e d on r e p e a t e d u s e o f equat i o n s 6 and 7 . I n t h i s way, ( w i t h some f u r t h e r m a n i p u l a t i o n descri.bed l a t e r ) , i f t h e w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n in t h e m i l l f e e d i s known, t h e w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a continuously operating grinding m i l l a t d i s c r e t e points i n time csn be calculated, where e a c h t i m e s t e p c o r r e s p o n d s t o o n e b a t c h g riad T h e r e a r e t h r e e f u r t h e r p o i n t s t o b e made conc e r n i n g t h e Cross-Owst model: 1 ) I n most f o r m u l a t i o n s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n b a l a n c e model, t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e [K] a n d / o r [B] m a t r i c e s a r e c a r e f u l l y e s t i m a t e d from a s e r i e s o f l a b o r a t a r y e x p e r i m e n t s ( H e r b s t , e t a l . , 1971; A u s t i n and L u c k i e , i 9 7 1 / 7 2 ; Gardner and S u k a n j n a j t e e , 1972) I n t h e Cross-Owst a p p r o a c h , ( C r o s s and Owst, 1978; Holtham, 1978; C r o s s , 1981) however, s i m p l e e x p r e s s i o n s a r e u t i l i z e d . The components of [B] a r e e v a l u a t e d from a p o p u l a r form of t h e c u m u l a t i v e b r e a k a g e f u n c t i o n , ( A u s t i n , 1971) i . e . , W(6 t i -r g y) i n s ugt ,i v e n e p e,

The I n p u t Program I n p u t i s r e q u e s t e d f r o m t h e u s e r by t h e program g r d a t . T h i s program r u n s i n a n i n t e r a c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l mode; i n c l u d e s o n l i n e document a t i o n , and c h e c k s t h a t t h e i n p u t i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t and o f t h e c o r r e c t form. The r e q u i r e d i n p u t i n f o r m a t i o n i s summarized i n T a b l e 1. Note that: 1 ) R e s u l t s o f a Bond m i l l d e s i g n a r e needed before t h e r e q u i r e d i n p u t information i s complete. 2) The work i n d e x o f t h e o r e i s n o t r e q u e s t e d by t h e program g r d a t . I n s t e a d t h e e f f e c t i v e work i n d e x i s c a l c u l a t e d , u s i n g t h e known m i l l power, by t h e Bond e q u a t i o n . I n t h i s way t h e work i n d e x used i n s u b s e q u e n t programs o f t h e simulation corresponds t o t h e m i l l i n question and n o t t h e 2.44 m e t e r d i a m e t e r m i l l t o which t h e Bond work i n d e x c o r r e s p o n d s . 3) The nominal s i z e o f s e p a r a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o a c l a s s i f i e r which o p e r a t e s w i t h 100% e f f i ciency. Well Mived Flow The d e t a i l s o f t h e a l g o r i t h m s u s e d in t h e program g r mix c a n b e s t b e u n d e r s t o o d by f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g a g r i n d i n g m i l l , i n which f l o w i s p e r f e c t l y mixed, r u n n i n g i n a c o n t i n u o u s c l o s e d c i r c u i t . In a d d i t i o n l e t t h e d i s c h a r g e from t h e m i l l b e c o n t r o l l e d by a n o v e r f l o w w e i r . The necessary modifications t o the algorithms f o r the c a s e s o f an open c i r c u i t and g r a t e d i s c h a r g e w i l l b e o u t l i n e d a t t h e end of t h i s s e c t i o n . The t i m e , 6 t , f o r e a c h of t h e a p p r o x i m t i n g b a t c h g r i n d s is chosen s o t h a t

while the breakage r a t e parameters a r e estimated from

where a and m a r e p a r a m e t e r s and d j i s some repr e s e n t a t i v e measure f o r t h e s i z e o f p a r t i c l e s i n i n t e r v a l j . The Cross-Owst model i s n o t depenand a u s e r c a n d e n t on t h e forms of B(x,y) and k f o r these $<nctions. s u b s t i t u t e o t h e r fo2 ) As a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e Bond g r i n d i n g law, r e p r e s e n t e d by e q u a t i o n s 1 and 6, B i t t e n g e r s o r K i c k s laws (Lynch, 1977) may b e u s e d i n t h e CrossOwst f o r m u l a t i o n . 3 ) Two m a j o r a s s u m p t i o n s a r e made i n u s i n g t h e Cross-Owst model. Assumption 1: t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g ground i s homogeneous, i . e . , t h e work i n d e x i s a c o n s t a n t f o r a l l p r o d u c t s i z e s (Bond, 1 9 6 1 ) . Asslimption 2: t h e Bond e q u a t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e t o Eke c o n t e n t s of a g r i n d i n g sill when t h e m i l l i s

where n i s a n i n t e g e r > 1 and r t i s t h e r e s i d e n c e t i m e of t h e o r e in t h e m i l l . The r e s i d e n c e t i m e and l i k e w i s e 6 t depends on t h e f u l l m i l l f e e d r a t e (i.e., f r e s h feed p l u s c i r c u l a t i n g load). The t i m e s t e p , 6 t , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an e n e r g y input t o t h e m i l l , v i a t h e f r e s h feed. I n i t i a l l y , i . e . , when t h e c i r c u l a t i n g l o a d i s z e r o , t h i s energy i n p u t i s

where

is t h e energy supplied t o t h e
of f r e s h feed.

mill

i n kWh p e r t o n rti/n (i.e.,

A f t e r time t =

f
A- A
a-7

a f t e r j approximating batch grinds), i f r is t h e proportion of c i r c u l a t i n g load i n t h e f u l l m i l l . feed, t h e energy i n p u t f o r t h e n e x t batch grind is

The a l g o r i t h m i s i n i t i a l i z e d o n p u t t i n g = and u s i n g t h e e n e r g y i n p u t , e o , 07 t h e f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i n g b a t c h g r i n d . The s t e p s o u t l i n e d a b o v e a r e t h e n r e p e a t e d u n t i l convergence, i . e . , u n t i l t h e v e c t o r pewm a i n s unchanged f o r re each approximating batch grind. khen t h e d i s c h a r g e from t h e p i l l is c o n t r o l l e d by a g r a t e , l / n t h of t h e m i l l c o n t e n t s is s t i l l removed a t t h e end o f e a c h b a t c h g r i n d , b u t now t h e r e i s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t t h e s i z e of m a t e r i a l removed must b e below t h e g r a t e s i z e . T h i s app r o a c h d e v i a t e s f r o m p e r f e c t l y mixed f l o w b e c a u s e a n y p a r t i c l e i n t h e m i l l f e e d w i t h s i z e above t h e g r a t e o p e n i n g s i z e must r e m a i n i n t h e m i l l f o r a minimum t i m e , i . e . , u n t i l t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e h a s been r e d u c e d t o t h e g r a t e s i z e . Note, however, t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n does not necessarily negate t h e assumption t h a t t h e m i l l c o n t e n t s a r e p e r f e c t l y mixed a t a l l t i m e s . With a g r a t e d i s c h a r g e c h a n g e s n e e d t o b e made t o t h e e q u a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d above. The w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n in t h e m i l l i s no longer equal t o t h e weight d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e m i l l product. Therefore, i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e m i l l r e t u r n , equation 14, is replaced b y P i , where

wnew -

wield

Note t h a t , t h i s e n e r g y i n p u t r e f l e c t s t h e change in t h e r e s i d e n c e t i m e o f t h e m i l l . At t h e end o f any e n e r g y i n p u t , i.e., any approximating b a t c h g r i n d , t h e following s t e p s a r e t a k e n i n g r m i x . Time i s ' f r o z e n ' and l / n t h of t h e m i l l c o n t e n t s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e ' r e moved', a s t h e m i l l p r o d u c t . The w e l l mixed f l o w assumption implies t h a t t h e m i l l c o n t e n t s a r e p e r f e c t l y mixed. Hence, e weight d i s t r i b u t i o n i.e., t h e weight i n t h e m i l l product is d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the m i l l contents a t the point t i m e is f r o z e n . The w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e c i r c u l a t i n g l o a d a t t i m e t , r , i s found from t h e m i l l p r o d u c t w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n on w r i t i n g old i=l i<s

0 Pi =
Wi

icg (17) old

/ nw

i>_g

w is t h e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e m i l l c o n t e n t s s m a l l e r t h a n t h e g r a t e s i z e , and g i s t h e f i r s t s i z e i n t e r v a l with a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i z e l e s s than t h e g r a t e opening. Further, t h e weight d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e m i l l a t t h e s t a r t of a new e n e r g y i n p u t i s


- .>.
-

--

given O y

where t h e upper bound on t h e p a r t i c l e s i n s i z e i n t e r v a l , s , is t h e ' n o m i n a l ' s i z e of s e p a r a t i o n ( a t p r e s e n t , a c l a s s i f i e r model i s b e i n g d e v e l oped a n d i n t h e meantime c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s cons i d e r e d t o b e p e r f e c t ) . The w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the f u l l feed f o r t h e next energy i n p u t then f o l l o w s from

as opposed t o e q u a t i o n 1 6 i n t h e c a s e of a n o v e r flow discharge. When t h e m i l l is r u n n i n g i n open c i r c u i t t h e r e t u r n p o r t i o n , r , and t h e r e t u r n w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n , a r e always z e r o ; t h e m i l l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of a l l b a t c h g r i n d s ; and t h e , energy i n p u t t o each batch g r i n d is e o .
P l u g Flow I n t h e program g r p l u g , p l u g f l o w t h r o u g h t h e m i l l i s modeled by assuming t h e m i l l c o n t e n t s t o c o n s i s t o f n mass segments, e a c h of which c o n t a i n l / n t h of t h e m i l l ' s mass c a p a c i t y , c . Then a s g r i n d i n g p r o c e e d s , t h e o r e moves down t h e m i l l such t h a t

where f i s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e rough m i l l f e e d . -ithe f e e d f r e p l a c e s t h e l / n t h of t h e m i l l c o n t e n t s removed from t h e m i l l . T h i s m o d i f i e s t h e w e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n in t h e m i l l , s o t h a t

Wext, time is ' u n f r o z e n ' and a new b a t c h g r i n d is s i m u l a t e d . The 80% p a s s i n g s i z e of t h i s b a t c h g r i n d p r o d u c t i s found u s i n g e q u a t i o n s 6 , 7 and 1 3 . This v a l u e i s needed i n o r d e r t o implement t h e C r o s s - O ~ s t model, and h e n c e d e t e r m i n e t h e change i n t h e m i l l w e l g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n a f t e r t h e grind.

where f i s t h e f e e d r a t e t o t h e m i l l , and dmi/dt i s t h e r a t e a t which o r e l e a v e s segment i. The time f o r e a c h b a t c h g r i n d is c h o s e n s o t h a t

(cf. e q u a t i o n 1 0 ) .

Then i n e a c h b a t c h g r i n d , a l l

t h e o r e o r i g i n a l l y i n segment i h a s moved t o segment i + 1, t h e o r e o r i g i n a l l y i n segment 1 h a s been r e p l a c e d by new feed, and t h e o r e o r i g i n a l l y i n segment n has l e f t t h e m i l l . As i n t h e w e l l mixed model, t h e b a t c h g r i n d can b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an energy i n p u t . I n i t i a l l y t h e energy i n p u t is e o ( s e e e q u a t i o n l l ) , a f t e r time t t h e energy input i s

Results The T e s t Examples Before t h e MRRC package can b e used, a Bond des i g n e x e r c i s e must b e completed. A wet b a l l m i l l w i t h 40% v o l u m e t r i c l o a d i n g and 2.44 m e t e r s diame t e r i n s i d e l i n e r s was chosen a s a t e s t m i l l . T h i s c h o i c e means t h a t t h e o n l y e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r which i s non-unity w i l l b e f o r t h e m i l l i n open c i r c u i t and t h i s f a c t o r i s e q u a l t o 1.2 (Rowland and Kjos, 1978). The s i z e i n micrometers t h a t 80% of t h e weight of t h e f e e d and product p a s s e s , Fa0 and P80, were k e p t c o n s t a n t f o r each g r i n d i n g s i m u l a t i o n a t 1200 and 175 micrometers respect i v e l y . The f e e d r a t e was v a r i e d i n each simul a t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t t h e power p r e d i c t e d from e q u a t i o n 1 corresponded t o t h e 2.44 meter d i a m e t e r t e s t b a l l m i l l . A number of s i m u l a t i o n s c o r r e sponding t o d i f f e r i n g o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e t e s t b a l l m i l l have been c a r r i e d o u t . These a r e summarized i n T a b l e 2. With t h e p r e d i c t e d r e s u l t s , t h e e f f e c t of t h e f o l l o w i n g o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s on t h e m i l l product s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n can be t e s t e d : 1 ) comparison of w e l l mixed flow and plug flow, 2) comparison of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s of s e p a r a t i o n , 3) e f f e c t s of d i s c h a r g e g r a t e s i z e , 4 ) e f f e c t s of o p e r a t i n g t h e m i l l under "nondesign" conditions. The weight d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e f r e s h f e e d t o t h e m i l l , &, is given i n Table 3 , T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n h a s been chosen a r b i t r a r i l y . Discussion Study of t h e r e s u l F s p r e d i c t e d from t h e plug flow s i m u l a t i o n of t h e t e s t m i l l w i t h overflow d i s c h a r g e i l l u s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e MRRC g r i n d i n g s i m u l a t i o n package. Figure 1 shows s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n d a t a f o r t h e f e e d and f o r t h e produ c t s of t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r t h e m i l l , Note t h a t t h e s e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e of t h e m i l l product b e f o r e i t i s s e p a r a t e d , and of t h e hydrocyclone p r o d u c t s assuming 100% e f f i c i e n c y a t t h e nominal s i z e of s e p a r a t i o n . Curve 2 i s t h e p r e d i c t e d s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n when t h e m i l l is ope r a t e d i n an open c i r c u i t . T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n g i v e s a product w i t h a 80% p a s s i n g s i z e of 177 micrometers, which p r o v i d e s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e res u l t s of t h e MRRC g r i n d i n g models. The e f f e c t s of d i f f e r i n g s i z e s of s e p a r a t i o n may be s t u d i e d by comparing curves 3 and 4 i n F i g u r e 1 and t h e c i r c u l a t i n g l o a d v a l u e s i n Table 4 , F i r s t i t may be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e g r i n d becomes c o a r s e r when t h e nominal s i z e of s e p a r a t i o n i s changed from 250 t o 125 micrometers (80% p a s s i n g s i z e of 389 micrometers f o r a 125 micrometer s e p a r a t i o n a s opposed t o an 80% p a s s i n g s i z e of 250 micrometers w i t h a 250 micrometer s e p a r a t i o n ) . T h i s c o a r s e r g r i n d might be expected because, w i t h t h e s h a l l e r s i z e of s e p a r a t i o n , t h e c i r c u l a t i n g l o a d i s l a r g e r , and hence, t h e r e s i d e n c e time of t h e o r e i n the m i l l i s shorter, In addition, with t h e 125 micrometer s e p a r a t i o n , t h e p r e d i c t e d weight d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the separator feed is l e s s dispersed, ( c f . t h e g r a d i e n t s i n s t r a i g h t l i n e p a r t s of c u r v e s 3 and 4 ) , which is a d e s i r e d a t t r i b u t e i f t h e n e x t s t a g e of p r o c e s s i n g i s f l o t a t i o n . The s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n p l o t s and c i r c u l a t i n g l o a d s f o r t h e same m i l l u s i n g t h e well-mixed s i m u l a t i o n a r e shown i n F i g u r e 2 and T a b l e 4,

( c f . e q u a t i o n 1 2 ) , where r is now t h e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e o r e i n t h e l a s t segment t o l e a v e t h e m i l l which has a s i z e l a r g e r than t h e nominal s i z e of s e p a r a t i o n . A t t h e end of an energy i n p u t , t h e weight d i s t r i b u t i o n 2 is c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g equad t i o n 14. Now, however, ~ l i s r e p l a c e d by l&O1d, t h e weight d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e nth mass segment. The d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e f u l l m i l l feed, which w i l l a l s o be t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e f i r s t m i l l segment a t t h e beginning of a new energy input, ( i . e . , b a t c h grind), is c a l c u l a t e d from equat i o n 15. I n o r d e r t o s h o r t e n t h e computer usage, ins t e a d of g r i n d i n g each segment f o r each energy i n p u t only t h e o r e i n t h e l a s t segment i s ground. The g r i n d i n g energy in t h i s c a s e becomes

where e i w a s t h e energy i n p u t c a l c u l a t e d from equation 21 when t h e o r e in segment i w a s f i r s t f e d t o t h e m i l l . This is p u r e l y a mathematical concept of t h e flow of o r e i n a g r i n d i n g m i l l . The computational advantage of t h i s method i s t h a t a s a "plug" of o r e moves down t h e m i l l from segment t o segment t h e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n remains e q u a l t o i t s i n i t i a l s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n f. Res u l t s u s i n g t h i s " s i n g l e g r i n d i n g " approach a r e i d e n t i c a l t o r e s u l t s obtained i n applying t h e g r i n d i n g energy i n p u t , e i , t o each segment f o r each approximating b a t c h g r i n d . A t time t = 0 t h e r e a r e no previous energy inputs. Therefore i n order t o i n i t i a l i z e t h e s o l u t i o n t h e g r i n d i n g energy is given by:

Then E is updated a t t h e end of every time s t e p by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e energy i n p u t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e segment t h a t l e a v e s t h e m i l l , and adding on t h e energy i n p u t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e new segment c r e a t e d by t h e m i l l feed. I f t h e m i l l i s i n c l o s e d c i r c u i t , t h e above rocedures a r e r e p e a t e d u n t i l the distribution remains unchanged. I n open c i r c u i t f and E w i l l remain unchanged i n time, hence, only one o p e r a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r convergence. A m i l l w i t h a g r a t e d i s c h a r g e cannot be s i m u l a t e d using a plug flow approximation. I n fac:, a m i l l with a g r a t e discharge w i l l automatically i n t r o d u c e mixing, i n t h a t l a r g e p a r t i c l e s a r r i v i n g a t t h e d i s c h a r g e w i l l remain i n t h e m i l l , thereby i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r r e s i d e n c e time above t h e r e q u i r e d plug flow r e s i d e n c e time of c / f .

%'Id

r e s p e c t i v e l y . The behavior of t h e s e p l o t s ind i c a t e t h a t w i t h w e l l mixed flow, changes in t h e m i l l o p e r a t i o n have t h e same e f f e c t s on t h e produ c t weight d i s t r i b u t i o n s , a s w i t h p l u g flow. However, t h e p r e d i c t e d m i l l p r o d u c t s a r e much c o a r s e r i n open c i r c u i t , e.g., t h e 80% p a s s i n g s i z e i s 550 micrometers compared t o an 804 passi n g s i z e of 177 micrometers in t h e product pred i c t e d u s i n g t h e plug flow s i m u l a t i o n . The reason f o r t h i s i s in t h e n a t u r e of t h e w e l l mixed f l o w assumption. I f t h e flow through t h e m i l l i s assumed w e l l mixed, p a r t i c l e s i n t h e f e e d can e x i t from t h e m i l l i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y . Theref o r e , t h e r e d u c t i o n in t h e s i z e of some of t h e f e e d p a r t i c l e s may be minimal, thereby l e a d i n g t o a c o a r s e product g r i n d . On comparing t h e r e s u l t s i n F i g u r e s 1 and 2, i t appears, a t l e a s t f o r t h e c a s e of a b a l l m i l l w i t h a n overflow d i s c h a r g e , a plug flow approximation i s c l o s e r t o t h e t r u e n a t u r e of flow through t h e m i l l . T h i s i s reasona b l e on s t u d y i n g r e s i d e n c e time distribution d a t a which o f t e n e x h i b i t f a i r l y s h a r p peaks (Luckie and Austin, 1972; Holtham, 1978) When a g r a t e c o n t r o l s t h e d i s c h a r g e from t h e m i l l , a l t h o u g h t h e assumption t h a t t h e m i l l cont e n t s a r e p e r f e c t l y mixed a t a l l times can b e a p p l i e d , t h e product i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i c a l t o the m i l l contents, since feed p a r t i c l e s l a r g e r than t h e g r a t e s i z e cannot e x i t i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y . Hence, a g r a t e d i s c h a r g e n o t only g i v e s c o n t r o l over t h e m i l l product b u t i t may a l s o i n t r o d u c e a d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s i d e n c e times i n t o t h e simul a t i o n . The e f f e c t of changing t h e g r a t e openi n g s i z e on t h e product weight d i s t r i b u t i o n s from t h e t e s t b a l l m i l l i n open c i r c u i t may be observed i n Figure 3 w i t h t h e e - q e c t e d r e s u l t t h a t the smaller the g r a t e s i z e the f i n e r the g r i n d . I n f a c t , t h e product of a m i l l w i t h 250 micrometer g r a t e i s f i n e r than t h e product from t h e same m i l l w i t h an overflow d i s c h a r g e . A u s e f u l f e a t u r e of t h e MRRC g r i n d i n g simul a t i o n package is t h a t t h e e f f e c t s of non-design o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s can be e a s i l y t e s t e d . When t h e t e s t b a l l m i l l i s r u n i n open c i r c u i t t h e des i g n f e e d r a t e i s 27.42 tonnes/hour. F i g u r e 4 compares t h e p r e d i c t e d s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s from t h e open c i r c u i t b a l l m i l l w i t h f e e d r a t e s of 20.0, 27.62 and 35.0 tonnes/hour r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s might be expected, t h e l a r g e r t h e f e e d r a t e t h e c o a r s e r t h e g r i n d i n g m i l l d i s c h a r g e product.

F u r t h e r Work There a r e a number of s t a g e s of f u r t h e r work t o b e accomplished b e f o r e t h e MRRC model w i l l b e ready f o r more g e n e r a l use. These i n c l u d e : i n o r d e r t o make t h e op1) Documentation e r a t i o n of t h e package c l e a r and e a s y 2) V a l i d a t i o n t h a t is, a d e t a i l e d t e s t i n g of t h e model w i t h t h e p r e d i c t e d r e s u l t s checked a g a i n s t experiments 3) C l a s s i f i e r model t h i s i s needed so t h a t t h e g r i n d i n g package can be included i n t o t h e g e n e r a l m i n e r a l p r o c e s s i n g package now under development a t t h e HRRC. 4) User d e f i n e d f u n c t i o n s in o r d e r f o r a u s e r t o e a s i l y s u b s t i t u t e d e s i r e d forms of t h e f u n c t i o n s B(x,y) and k j i n t o t h e g r i n d i n g simul a t i o n programs g r mix and g r plug.

Acknowledgments The a u t h o r s would l i k e t o thank t h e T i t l e I11 Program of t h e Mineral I n s t i t u t e s Act f o r funding t h i s p r o j e c t and Xr. Steven Riemer f o r c o l l e c t * a g t h e g r i n d i n g s i m u l a t i o n d a t a and f o r c r i t i c a l l y r e a d i n g t h e manuscript. References

Conclusions Summary

An i n t e r a c t i v e computer package t o s i m u l a t e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r i n d i n g h a s been o u t l i n e d . The package may s e r v e t h r e e main purposes: I ) a s a check on m i l l d e s i g n 2) a s a means t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s of d i f f e r i n g o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s on t h e m i l l product 3) a s a t e a c h i n g and demonstration a i d . The v e r s a t i l i t y of t h e package has been demo n s t r a t e d by s i m u l a t i n g a b a l l m i l l i n n i n e d i f f e r e n t configurations. Preliminary r e s u l t s a r e of t h e c o r r e c t n a t u r e and i l l u s t r a t e t h e expected t r a i t s when o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e changed.

1. A u s t i n , L.G., 1971, "A Review I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Mathematical D e s c r i p t i o n of Grindine a s a R a t e P r o c e s s , " Powder Tech., Vol. 5 , p. 1. 2. A u s t i n , L.G., and Luckie, P.T., 1971-1972, "?lethods f o r t h e Determination of Breakage D i s t r i b u t i o n Parameters , I 1 Powder Tech. , Vol. 5.. DO. 215-222. Bond, F.C., 1960, "Confirmation of t h e h i r d Theory," A M Trans., Vol. 217, p. 139. Bond, F . C . , 1961, "Crushing and Grinding C a l c u l a t i o n s , P a r t s 1 and 2 ," A l l i s - C h a l m e r s report. C r o s s , M . , 1981, "A Method f o r E x t r a c t i n g Product S i z e D i s t r i b u t i o n s from Empirical Comminution Models," U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, Mimeographed r e p o r t , Powder Tech., c u r r e n t l y i n press. Cross, )I., and O w s t , A.P., 1978, "Computer Simulation of t h e Comminution of Mixtures KC of H a t e r i a l , " IPC 1978, Proc. U S Con. on Computer Simulation, p. 107. Gardner, R.P., and S u k a n j n a j t e e , K., 1972, "A Combined T r a c e r and Back-Calculation Method f o r Determining P a r t i c u l a t e Breekage Functions i n B a l l M l l i n g . P a r t I , R a t i o n a l e and D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Proposed Method," Powder Tech., Vol. 6 , pp. 65-74. H e r b s t , J.A., and Fuerstenau, D.W., 1980, "Scale up Procedures f o r Continuous Grinding M i l l Design Using P o p u l a t i o n Balance Hodels," I n t . J. Hiner. P r o c e s s , Vol. 7, pp 1-31. H e r b s t , J . A . , e t a l . , 1971, "An Approach t o t h e E s t i m a t i o n of t h e Parameters of Lumped Parameter Grinding Models from On-Line Measurements,'' Z e r k l e i n e r n . DECFEIlA Monogr, Vol. 69.. D D . 475-514. .. 10. Holtham, P.N., 1978, "Simulation, Modeling and C o n t r o l of a Closed Loop B a l l Grinding C i r c u i t , ' I M. Sc. T h e s i s , UMIST. 1 . Luckie, P.T., and A u s t i n , L.G., 1972, "A Re1 view I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e S o l u t i o n of t h e Grinding Equations by D i g i t a l Computation," X i n e r a l S c i . Enmg., Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 24.

..

12. 13. 14.

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-

TABLE 1.
FEED INFORMATION

INPUT IXFORMATION REQUESTED B GR DAT Y


--

U n i t s o f mss measurement ( k g , t o n n e , l o n g t o n o r s h o r t t o n ) 802 p a s s i n g s i z e o f t h e f e e d 80% p a s s i n g s i z e o f t h e p r o d u c t ( a s p r e d i c t e d b y Bond e q u a t i o n ) Feed r a t e of f r e s h o r e Number o f s i z e i n t e r v a l s Sieve s i z e s t o d e f i n e s i z e i n t e r v a l s Weight d i s t r i b u t i o n i n f e e d S t a t e of f e e d ( w e t o r d r y )

Z s o l i d s by w e i g h t i n p u l p ( i f a p p l i c a b l e )
D e n s i t y of f e e d o r e

CIRCUIT AhXl OPERATION

X i 1 1 type (rod o r b a l l )
C i r c u i t (open o r c l o s e d ) O u t l e t c o n t r o l (dam o r g r a t e ) Flow in m i l l ( p l u g o r dam) Nominal s i z e o f s e p a r a t i o n ( w h e r e a p p l i c a b l e ) S i z e of g r a t e o p e n i n g (where a p p l i c a b l e )

NILL SIZE Length Diameter


% volume o c c u p i e d by g r i n d i n g media

T h i s i n f o m a t i o n i s combined v i t h p r e v i o u s i n p u t a n d t h e ills o r e w e i g h t c a p a c i t y c a l c u l a t e d and o u t p u t f o r t h e i n f o r i n a t i o n of the u s e r .

POWER U n i t s o f power ( h p o r kW)

.Xi11 power

TABLE 2. CONFIGURATIONS OF TEST BALL MILL Circuit Separation Discharge Simulation Type

kW -

Pwer

&
266 266 266 266

Feed Rate tonneslhour 27.42 27.42 20.00 35.00

open

overflow

mixed (11-25) plug(n=lO) plug(n=lO) plug(n=lO)

198 198 198 198

Closed Open

250 um 125 um

overflow grate 707 um 500 " mixed(na25)

NOTE THAT: i)

The value of l/n in all well mixed simulacbns refers to the portion of the mill contents removed, the value of n in the plug flow simulationscorresponds to the number of approximating mass segments. ii) The power drawn by a mill with grate discharge is larger than that of a mill with a dam overflow (Rowland and Kjos, 1978). h n iii) The elements of : e matrix[K], i all simulations are derived Erom kj = 1/2 where xi is the largest sized particle in the size interval [ x + X,-~)/~X~]+, ( i(c3. equation 9 .)

TABLE 3. FEED WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION

-.

- . )P I

SIZE INTERVAL

X WEIGHT RETAINED

+ 1410 micrometers +
1000 micrometers

+ + +

707 micrometers 500 micrometers


354 micrometers

+ 250 micrometers + 125 micrometers

88 micrometers
63 micrometers

+
+

44 micrometers
44 micrometers

TABLE 4.

CLOSED CIRCUIT GRI3DIXG MATERIAL KOKS

WELL-L-MXED FLOW SIWIATION SIZE OF FRESH CIRCULATING LOAD (TPH) (X) TOTAL FEED (TPH)

PLUG FLOW SLXUUTION

32.9

56.2

171

c u r a s 3:

Closed C i r c u i t bll X i l l D i a c b t q e (Em). h s l f i a r O n r f l w (COT). m d C C L u s i f i a r Uodarflav (CW) Closed C i r c u i c B , COP, and CT2 W (123 uu r e p a r a t i o n )

C u m a 4:

I
~i-

44
f

q3

88 I

125
I

177
I

250
I

351

500
I

707
I

1000
I

la10
I

P a r c i c l e Size (microns) 1 Slrc d i s t r i b u t i o n of t n e t e e d and pmduczs Era. a b a l l n i l 1 with o v s r f l w d i s c h a r g e (plug flw s i m l a r i a n )

Cmr.

1 :
2:

Opm C l r c u i c 9 3

Cune.

C l m c d C l r c u i c StQ, (250 e n s.peraclon)

COF a d C'JP

Cutves 3:

Closed CLe:ufc BXD, COP and C T J (125 un separation)

Sasd r a m as in Figure 1.

iiyrc 2

Size d i s t r i b u r i a n cf p r a i u c r s fro8 a b a l l n i l 1 w i t h o v e r f l w d i s c h a r g e
[bell-aixed f l c r siaulation)

Curve 1:

Grace s i r e 250 n i c r o n s Grace s i z e 500 n i c r o n s G r a t e s i t e TO7 microns

Curve 2: Curve
j:

P r r r i c l e S i z e (nicrons)

Figure 5

S i z e d i s r r i b u t i o n of p r o d u c t s from an open c i r c u ~ cb a l l m i l l w i t h grace discharge

Cunee I: Curve 2: Curve 5:

Feed Rate 20.1) long :ons/hour Feed Rate 2T.l: long t o n s l h o u r

Feed R x e 55.0 long rons/hour

JJ

65
I

38
I

125
I

177
I

250
I

2
I

500
I

9 I

1000
1

ILL0
1

P a r t i c l e Slzc ( n i c r o n s )

Flgur? A

S1:e d i s t r i b u t i o n o i product3 f r o n a b a l l > i l l . ~ c h o . i e r i l o u d i a c h a r p c as a funcclon or' iced r a c e (plug f l c u s i - u l a t i o n )

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