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.: F. Bompois, Les types montaires de la guerre sociale, Paris, 1873. P. A. Brunt, Italian Manpower 225 b. C. A. D. 14, Oxford, 1971. V. Ilari, Gli italici nelle strutture militari romane, Giuffr, Milano, 1974. D. Ludovico, Dove Italia nacque, ALI ed., Roma, 1961. C. Nicolet, Rome et la conqute du monde. 1. Les


structures de lItalie romaine, Nouvelle Clio, P. U. F., Paris, 1978. A. J. Toynbee, Hannibals Legacy ; the Hannibalic wars effects on Roman life, London, 1965.





Social War (9188 BC)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Date Location Result Territorial changes Belligerents Roman Republic Marsic Group: Marsi, Paeligni, Vestini, Marrucini, Picentes, Frentani, Samnite Group: Hirpini, Pompeii, Venusia, Iapygii, Lucania, Samnium, 9088 BC Italy Roman military victory, although Italian rights guaranteed. Status quo ante bellum

Commanders and leaders Publius Rutilius Lupus, Gaius Marius, Pompeius Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Titus Lucius Porcius Cato Strabo, Didius, See article.

The Allied War ("Social" from socii ("allies"); also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War) was a war waged from 90 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries. Origins The Roman expansion into Italia saw the Roman dominance of Italy resulting in a collection of alliances between Rome and the cities and communities of Italy, on more or less favorable terms depending on whether a given city had voluntarily allied with Rome or been defeated in war. These cities were theoretically independent, but in practice Rome had the right to demand from them tribute money and a certain number of soldiers: by the 2nd century BC the Italian allies contributed between one half and two-thirds of the soldiers in Roman armies. The Roman government also had virtual control ovhbhghdber the allies' foreign policy, including their interaction with one another. The Romans' policy of land distribution had led to great inequality of landownership and wealth.[1] This led to the "Italian race declining little by little into pauperism and paucity of numbers without any hope of remedy."[2] The Social War was in part caused by the assassination of Marcus Livius Drusus in 91 BC. His reforms would have granted the Roman allies Roman citizenship, giving them a greater say in the external policy of the Roman Republic. Most local affairs came under local governance and were not as important to the Romans as, for example, when the alliance would go to war or how they would divide the plunder. After the assassination of Drusus most of his reforms addressing these grievances were declared invalid. This angered the Roman allies greatly, and most of them allied with one another against Rome. The War The Social War began in 90 BC when the Italian allies revolted. Note that none of the Latin allies revolted, remaining loyal to Rome, with the one exception of Venusia. The rebellious allies showed their intentions of not just separating from Rome, but also forming an independent nation, called Italia, and forming a capital at Corfinium (in modern-day Abruzzo) that was renamed Italica. To pay for the troops, they created their own coinage that was used as propaganda against Rome. These coins depict eight warriors taking an oath, probably representing the Marsi, Picentines, Paeligni,


Marrucini, Vestini, Frentani, Samnites and Hirpini.[3] Their soldiers were battlehardened, most of them having served in the Roman armies. The 12 allies of Italia were originally able to field 100,000 men. The Italians divided this force according to their positions within Italy.[4] Quintus Poppaedius Silo had overall command the "Marsic Group", as consul. Gaius Papius Mutilus had overall command the "Samnite Group", as consul. Titus Lafrenius commanded the Marsi in 90 BC, when he was killed in action. He was succeeded by Fraucus. Titus Vettius Scato commanded the Paeligni to 88 BC, when he committed suicide. Gaius Pontidius probably commanded the Vestini, probably at least until 89 BC. Herius Asinius commanded the Marrucini until 89 BC, when he was killed in action. He was succeeded by Obsidius who was also killed in action. Gaius Vidacilius commanded the Picentes until 89 BC, when he committed suicide. Publius Praesentius probably commanded the Frentani, probably throughout the war. Numerius Lucilius probably commanded the Hirpini until 89 BC, when he seems to have been succeeded by Minatus Iegius (or Minius Iegius). Lucius Cluentius commanded the Pompeiani in 89 BC when he was killed in action. Titus Herennius probably commanded the Venusini throughout the war. Trebatius may have commanded the Iapygii throughout the war. Marcus Lamponius commanded the Lucani throughout the war. Marius Egnatius commanded the Samnites until 88 BC when he was killed in action. He was succeeded by Pontius Telesinus who was also killed in action that year. It was necessary for Rome to survive the first onslaught as this would discourage further defections and also they would be able to call on help from their provinces as well as from client kingdoms. One of the two separate theatres of war was assigned to each of the consuls of 90 BC. In the north, the consul Publius Rutilius Lupus was advised by Gaius Marius and Pompeius Strabo; in the south the consul Lucius Julius Caesar had Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Titus Didius. Events in 90 BC: Roman consul Strabo successfully besieged Asculum Rutilius was defeated and killed in Tolenus Valley Quintus Servilius Caepio was defeated and killed by Poppaedius Marius was able to retrieve these losses and was left in sole command Besieged Aesernia a key fortress which covered the communication between the north and south areas forced it to surrender Papius Mutilus burst into southern Campania and won over many towns and held them until defeated by Caesar Other Italian commanders led successful raids into Apulia and Lucania Despite these losses, the Romans managed to stave off total defeat and hang on. In 89 BC, both consuls went to the northern front whilst Sulla took sole command of the southern front. Events in 89 BC: Lucius Porcius Cato (one of the two consuls) defeated and killed


Strabo (other consul) left in sole command decisive engagement defeated Italian Army of 60,000 men after success forces Asculum to surrender Sulla moved to the offensive he defeated a Samnite army Recovered some of the major cities in Campania By 88 BC, the war was largely over except for the Samnites (the old rivals of Rome) who still held out. It is likely that the war would have continued a lot longer had Rome not made concessions to their allies. Roman concessions to the Allies L. Julius Caesar proposed the Lex Julia during his consulship which he carried before his office ended. The law offered full citizenship to all Latin and Italian communities who had not revolted. However, the law offered the option of citizenship to whole communities and not to individuals. This meant that each individual community had to pass the law, most likely by a vote in assembly, before it could take effect. It was also possible under the Lex Julia for citizenship to be granted as a reward for distinguished military service in the field. It is assumed that the Lex Julia was closely followed by a supplementary statute, the Lex Plautia Papiria, which stated that a registered male of an allied state could obtain Roman citizenship by presenting himself to a Roman praetor within 60 days of the passing of the law. This statute enabled inhabitants of towns disqualified by the Lex Julia to apply for citizenship if they desired. Roman citizenship and the right to vote was limited, as always in the ancient world, by the requirement of physical appearance on voting day. After 8 BC, candidates regularly paid the expenses (at least partially) for their supporters to travel to Rome in order to vote. See also Coinage of the Social War References 1. ^ Appian, Civil Wars, p. 1.7. 2. ^ Appian, Civil Wars, p. 1.9. 3. ^ Scullard, HH (1970), From the Gracchi to Nero, London: Methuen & Co. Ltd 4. ^ Salmon, ET (1958), "Notes on the Social War", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association (89): pp. 15984


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Corfinium (Greek: ) was a city in Ancient Italy, on the eastern side of the Apennines, due east of Rome. It is now near the modern Corfinio, in the province of L'Aquila (Abruzzo region). Corfinium was the chief city of the Paeligni, situated in the valley of the Aternus, near the point where that river suddenly makes a sharp angle, and turns from a southeasterly to a northeasterly course, which it pursues from thence to the Adriatic Sea. It was distant 7 miles from Sulmo (modern Sulmona), and 30 from Alba Fucens by the Via Valeria. There can be no doubt that Corfinium was from an early period the capital city of the Paeligni, and one of the chief towns in this part of Italy; but no mention of its name is found in history until the outbreak of the Social War, in 90 BCE, when it was selected by the confederates to be their common capital, and the seat of their government. It was probably to the importance of its situation in a military point of view that it was mainly indebted for this distinction; but the allied nations seem to have destined it to be the permanent capital of Italy, and the rival of Rome, as they changed its name to Italica, and adorned it with a new and spacious forum and senate house, and other public buildings of a style corresponding to its intended greatness.[1] But before the end of the second year of the war they were compelled to abandon their new capital, and transfer the seat of government to Aesernia (modern Isernia).[2] The fate of Corfinium after this is not mentioned, but it probably fell into the hands of the Romans without resistance, and in consequence did not suffer; for we find it at the outbreak of the Civil War between Julius Caesar and Pompey, 49 BCE, still retaining its position as a city of importance and a strong fortress. On this account it was occupied by L. Domitius with 30 cohorts, and was the only place which offered any effectual resistance to the arms of Caesar during his advance through Italy. Nor was it reduced by force, but the disaffection which rapidly spread among his officers compelled Domitius to surrender after a siege of only seven days.[3] Along with the garrison, several important Republican personages were also captured; Caesar released these after obtaining their oaths of loyalty, oaths many promptly broke.[4] From this time we hear but little of Corfinium; but inscriptions attest that it continued to be a flourishing municipal town under the Roman Empire, and its prosperity is proved by the fact that its inhabitants were able to construct two aqueducts for supplying it with water, both of which are in great part hewn in the solid rock, and one of them is carried through a tunnel nearly 5 km in length.[5] A part of the territory of Corfinium had been portioned out to new settlers as early as the time of the Gracchi: it received a fresh body of colonists under Augustus, but never assumed the title of a colony, all inscriptions giving it that of a municipium only.[6] It still appears in the Itineraries as a place of importance,[7] and even seems to have been in the fourth century regarded as the capital of the province of Valeria, and the residence of its Praeses or governor.[8] The period of its destruction is unknown, but it seems to have been still in existence as late as the tenth century. After that time we find a city named Valva, which appears to have succeeded to the site of Corfinium, but has now also disappeared, though the adjoining valley is still called La Pianata di Valva.[4] The ruins of the ancient city, which are very inconsiderable, and consist of little more than shapeless fragments of buildings, are scattered round an ancient church at San Pelino, which was at one time the cathedral of Valva. But the numerous inscriptions discovered on the spot leave no doubt that this is the true site of Corfinium. The bridge over the Aternus, 5 km from the latter city, is mentioned both by Caesar and Strabo, and must always have been a military point of the highest importance. Hence Domitius committed a capital error in neglecting to occupy it in sufficient force when Caesar was advancing upon Corfinium.[9] This bridge must evidently be the same, close to which the modern town


of Popoli has grown up; leading to the erroneous supposition by some authors that Popoli, rather than San Pelino, occupies the site of Corfinium.[10] References 1. ^ Bunbury 1856 cites Strabo v. p. 241; Velleius Paterculus ii. 16; Diodorus xxxvii. Exc. Phot. p. 538. 2. ^ Bunbury 1856 cites Diod. l. c. p. 539. 3. ^ Bunbury 1856 cites Julius Caesar Commentarii de Bello Civili i. 15--23; Appian, B.C. ii. 38; Cicero ad Att. viii. 3, 5, ix. 7; Suetonius Caes. 34; Lucan ii.478--510.) 4. ^ a b Bunbury 1856. 5. ^ Bunbury 1856 cites Romanelli, vol. iii. pp. 149-151; Orell. Inscr. 3695, 3696; Mommsen, Inscr. Neap. 5350, foll. 6. ^ Bunbury 1856 cites Lib. Colon. pp. 228, 255. 7. ^ Bunbury 1856 cites Antonine Itinerary p. 310; Tabula Peutingeriana. 8. ^ Bunbury 1856 cites Ferdinando Ughelli, ap. Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 151. 9. ^ Bunbury 1856 cites Julius Caesar Commentarii de Bello Civili i. 16; Lucan ii.484-504; Strabo v. p. 242. 10. ^ Bunbury 1856 cites Cluverius Ital. p. 758; Romanelli, vol. iii. pp. 148-156; Keppel Richard Craven, Abruzzi, vol. ii. p. 18. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bunbury, Edward Herbert (1854). "Confinium". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 1. London: John Murray. p. 673. http://books.google.com/books?id=9y0BAAAAQAAJ&vq=%22Corfinium&p g=PA673#v=onepage&q=%22Corfinium&f=false. Further reading Ashby, Thomas Almond (1911). "Corfinium". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopdia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 144,145.

Battle of Fucine Lake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Battle of Fucine Lake was fought in 89 BC between a Roman army and a rebel force during the Social War. Lucius Porcius Cato was the leader of the Roman army at this battle. The consul Porcius Cato was defeated and killed while storming a Marsic camp in winter or early spring. There is an unusual archaeological footnote to this battle in a novel inscribed slingshot (Campanelli p154). A lead cone with a small iron ring at the top is interpreted as having had an attached string to make a combined sling (weapon) and bullet, used in this battle. The inscription, in the Venetian alphabet and language that mentions a Floro Decio, attests the presence of Venetian troops at this battle. (Note: the name of Venice is derived from the name of this tribe and has the same adjectival name.) This object is sufficiently unusual, in both its nature and its long inscription, as to suggest that it served some special purpose, e.g. might it have carried a flame over the camp ramparts to set the camp alight? Any speculation must take account of the survival of this object. The current assumption is that this weapon fell in the lake and was only recovered in the 19th century when the Fucine lake was drained. References A. Campanelli (ed.) 2001 Il Tesoro del lago, L'archeologia del Fucino e la collezione Torlonia


Battle of Asculum (89 BC)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Battle of Asculum was fought in 89 BC during the Social War between Rome and its former Italian allies. The Romans were led by C. Pompeius Strabo, and were victorious over the rebels.[1] The future Consul Publius Ventidius was said to have been captured as a youth at this battle and displayed in a Triumph at Rome.[2] References 1. ^ Gill, N.S.. "A Table of Roman Battles". http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/romebattles/a/102610-Roman-Battles.htm. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 2. ^ Fields, Nic (28 February 2010). Warlords of Republican Rome: Caesar Against Pompey. Havertown: Casemate Publishers. pp. 227. http://books.google.com/books?id=dVtuQidyB0sC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227 &dq=Publius+Ventidius+at+battle+of+asculum&source=bl&ots=e2hZwi5Gu u&sig=devXNlMXbfkYKORPrirlH8e3h7M&hl=en&sa=X&ei=yDUYULLA LOrY0QGE2oA4&ved=0CFkQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=asculum&f=false.

Battle of the Colline Gate (82 BC)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Date Location Result Lucius Cornelius Sulla Marcus Licinius Crassus November 82 BC Rome, Italy Decisive Optimate victory Pontius Telesinus Gaius Marcius Censorinus Marcus Lamponius

The Battle of the Colline Gate, fought in November of 82 BC, was the final battle by which Sulla secured control of Rome following the civil war against his rivals. The Samnites led by Pontius Telesinus attacked Sulla's army at the Colline Gate (Porta Collina) on the northeastern wall, and fought all night before being routed. As well as closing out the civil war the battle signaled the end of the ambitions of the socii, so ending the Social War. In this battle Marcus Licinius Crassus won considerable note by defeating the enemy on his wing and ultimately won Sulla the battle. The battle was swiftly followed by the execution of the Samnite prisoners within earshot of the senate house before Sulla addressed the senate (this was the last serious action ever fought by Samnite forces). The Samnites and Populares were slaughtered in the Villa Publica, in which the five year census was conducted, and their bodies were tossed into the Tiber River. The leaders were all decapitated and their heads sent to Preneste to intimidate the army of Gaius Marius the Younger. As a result many of Marius' army deserted.[1][2] References 1. ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 1, 90. 2. ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 1, 92-93



Coinage of the Social War (9188 BC)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Denarius The family of Social War Laureate head of Italia left, Helmeted soldier standing coinage include all the Oscan retrograde legend front, head right, holding coins issued by the Italic right UILETIV [vteli = inverted spear, right foot on allies of the Marsic Italia][1] (Roman?) standard; left confederation, Marsi, foot on uncertain object; Peligni, Piceni, Vestini, recumbent bull to his right, Samnites, Frentani, Oscan "A" in exergue. Marrucini, and Lucani, AR, 3,60 g during the Social War (9188 BC), their last struggle for independence against the hegemony of Rome. Inspired by the Roman denarius, their circulation (and, perhaps, their release) continued even after the conflict ended, contemporary and promiscuously with their republican models. Types They consist chiefly of silver coins of the weight of the contemporary Roman denarius, and they are thought to have been issued from the mints of Corfinium and Aesernia. This coinage, without any doubt, belong to the crucial years of the revolt against Rome (90-89 BC), but coins of the same family may have struck until later, although there is no firm evidence of this. Certainly they circulated in parallel and promiscuously with the Roman denarii of the same weight,.[2] Furthermore, some isolated exemplar come from stratigraphic contexts much more recent than the insurrection against Rome.[2] The unique gold stater There is also in the Paris Collection a isolated gold stater of Attic weight, beautifully preserved.[3] The unique known exemplar has a weight of 8.47 gr. (a b/w picture of this coin can be seen here. A drawing is in [1] ) and its first appearance dates back to 1827,[4] although Julius Friedlnder reported 1930:[5] Obverse: head of young Dionysos right, crowned with ivy wreath. Reverse: Cista mystica adorned with three wreaths and with a wolf (or panther) skin on the top; thyrsos with ribbons; in exergue, Oscan retrograde legend mi.ieis.mi, (a certain and otherwise unknown Minatius Jegius, Minatii f. (?)). But the authenticity of this coin is disputed. The genuineness of the piece was supported by Julius Friedlnder in his fundamental work about Oscan coinage[6] with a very strong argument based on the perfect accuracy of the legend when compared with the poor knowledge of the Oscan alphabet and language at the time the coin first appeared (in 1830, according to him, but, really, in 1827), that is, before the pioneering works of Klenze (1839),[7] Mommsen (1845)[8] and Lepsius (1841).[9] The coin, in particular, shows a perfect distinction between i and stressed (the difference, in Oscan script, is the addiction of a little line[10]), a thinness that none was aware of before the work of Klenze.[10] Unfavorable arguments come from Secondina Lorenza Cesano[11] and Alberto Campana, who, on the other hand, follows very closely Cesano reasoning.[12] Iconography Some of the iconographic themes were original, others were borrowed from the Roman coinage. In any case, the borrowed themes acquired new meanings or resonances: thus, for example, the heads on the obverse was usually a personification of Italia depicted as a goddess with a helmet, which replaced the head of Rome, accompanied by a legend


reproducing his name, ITALIA, in the Latin alphabet or VITELIU (vteli = Italia) in Oscan alphabet[1] (there is a unique copy, actually in the de Blacas collection, known to report the double LVITELLIU [vtelli]).[13] Inscriptions The inscriptions were partly in Oscan, partly in Latin characters, the pieces being struck by a central mint, with two different and synchronous issues, one for the Oscanspeaking and one for the Latin-speaking insurgents. Legends often record the names of the chief leaders of the Revolt: Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Gaius Papius Mutilus, with his title Imperator, an unknown Numerius Lucius (?), and others. See also Social War (9188 BC) Roman Republican currency Ancient Greek coinage References 1. ^ a b For the phonetic transcription from Oscan to Latin alphabet see, for example, this page or this one. Please note that, all the Oscan monetary legends are retrograde, as the one running clockwise on the copy reproduced in the margin 2. ^ a b Alberto Campana, La monetazione degli insorti italici durante la Guerra Sociale (91-87 a.C.), p. 37 3. ^ Robert Seymour Conway, The Italic Dialects, Cambridge University Press, 1897, P. 216 4. ^ See the descriprion of the coin in Francesco De Dominicis, Repertorio numismatico: per conoscere qualunque moneta greca tanto urbica che dei re, e la loro respettiva stima, Tome II, p. 417, Tipografia di Mattia, Naples, 1827 5. ^ Die oskischen Mnzen, Lipsia, 1850, p. 73 6. ^ Julius Friedlnder, Die oskischen Mnzen, Lipsia, 1850, pp. 73-75 7. ^ Philologischen Abhandlungen von Clemens August Carl Klenze (1795 1838), dited by his friend Karl Lachmann, published posthumous in Berlin, 1839 8. ^ Theodor Mommsen, Oskische Studien, Berlin, 1845 9. ^ Karl Richard Lepsius, Inscriptiones Umbricae et Oscae, Leipzig, 1841 10. ^ a b Karl Richard Lepsius, Inscriptiones Umbricae et Oscae, p. 142 11. ^ Secondina Lorenza Cesano, Di Uranio Antonino e di altre falsificazioni (About Uranius Antoninus and other falsifications), in Rivista Italiana di Numismatica e Scienze Affini, pp. 35-69 12. ^ Alberto Campana, La monetazione degli insorti italici durante la Guerra Sociale (91-87 a.C.) (The coinage of the Italic insurgents during the Social War (91-87 BC)), p. 135-138 13. ^ Theodor Mommsen, Histoire de la monnaie romaine, (trad. by Louis de Blacas), Paris, 1865-1875, p. 531 Sources (Italian) Alberto Campana, La monetazione degli insorti italici durante la Guerra Sociale (91-87 a.C.), Apparuti edizioni, Soliera, 1987 (Italian) Secondina Lorenza Cesano, Di Uranio Antonino e di altre falsificazioni (About Uranius Antoninus and other falsifications), in Rivista Italiana di Numismatica e Scienze Affini, pp. 3569 (German) Julius Friedlnder, Die oskischen Mnzen, Lipsia, 1850 (French) Theodor Mommsen, Louis de Blacas, Histoire de la monnaie romaine, Paris, 18651875 This article incorporates text from:


Barclay Vincent Head (18441914), Historia Numorum, a Manual of Greek Numismatics, Oxford: 1887; 2 ed. London, 1911, pp. 2930 (online version from snible.org) a publication now in the public domain (Latin) Karl Richard Lepsius, Inscriptiones Umbricae et Oscae quotquot adhuc repertae sunt omnes, Leipzig, 1841 External links o Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Coins of the Social War (9188 BC) Roman Republic Coinage of the family Marsic Confederation from wildwinds.com Marsic coinage from coinarchives.com


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