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RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT REPORT NO.

RD 1045

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF GABION WALL

Mainland North Division Drainage Services Department Version no. : 3.0 November 2006

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Table of Content
Page 1. 2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5. 6. Scope and Qualifications General Background Design Considerations of Gabion Wall used in River Embankment Treatment of the Foundation of Gabion Wall Provision of Gabion Aprons Provision of Geotextile Filter Construction of Gabion Wall Packing and Assembly Installation and Filling Gabion Stone Placement Lid Closing Installation of Reno Mattress Sample Particular Specifications, Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress Maintenance Related Considerations and Maintenance Requirements Reference Documents 1 1 2-5 2 2-5 5 6-8 6 6-8 8 8 8-9 9

7. 8.

9-11 11

Appendix A. Typical Layout of Gabion Wall B. Design Calculations for Gabion Wall C. Sample Particular Specifications, Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

1.

Scope and Qualifications

This paper gives technical guidance for the design of gabion wall used in river embankment. It also stipulates the requirements for Reno Mattress against the local scouring at the toe of gabion wall. This paper is not applicable to revetment structures other than the vertical faced gabion wall structures for the protection of river embankment. This paper does not take into consideration wave forces or other hydrodynamic forces arising out of supercritical flow, curvature flow, ship waves etc. acting on the gabion wall. Therefore, the designer should treat the guidance with great caution when using the guidance for the design of gabions used for coastal protection and in engineered channels. If in doubt, the designer should consult engineers with knowledge/experience on hydrodynamics and suppliers of gabion structures. This paper assumes that gabion wall would sit on top of good soil foundation. Before carrying out the design of gabion wall, the designer should ensure that the foundation of the gabion wall should have been properly investigated.

2.

General Background

Gabions are employed for many uses due to their versatility, which includes hydraulic structures in river training works and in protection works for roads and land reclamation. The gabions are steel wire cages that vary in size and are designed to abate the destructive forces of erosion. Gabions are uniquely woven by twisting each pair of wires one and one half turns continuously providing the inherent strength and flexibility required. Gabion cages are normally designed to contain quarry run or river run stones available at the site of erection. Cages are stacked to construct structures of great durability and flexibility. The formed structure is capable of carrying stress in biaxial tension. Gabion cages are not merely containers of stone since each unit is securely connected to each adjacent cage during construction. The wire mesh is monolithic through the structure in three dimensions, from top to bottom, end to end, and from outer face to inner face. It is, therefore, apparent that the wire reinforces the stone filling in tension. Gabions form flexible structures that can deflect and deform to a certain limit in

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

any direction without fracture. It can withstand the movement of ground without inordinate structure deformation. This attribute enables the gabion structure to be built with a minimum foundation preparation. Gabion structures behave as perforated barriers, allowing water to gradually pass through them. This is a valuable characteristic in that hydrostatic pressure never builds up behind or under the structure and cause failure to the gabion design. Gabion structures are regarded as permanent. In the early stages after installation, siltation takes place between the stone fill promoting vegetation and adding to the permanency of the structure. In view of the environmentally friendly nature of the gabion construction as compared to concrete, gabions are becoming more popular in engineering works in river embankments which demand a natural looking environment with growth of vegetation and potential for ecological lives.

3.

Design Considerations of Gabion Wall used in River Embankment

There is currently no universally accepted method for designing gabion walls. However, it is suggested in GEOGUIDE 1 Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition, that gabion walls should be considered as gravity retaining wall for the purpose of design. The detailed design calculations for gabion wall of retaining height ranging from 1m to 4m, used in river embankment are shown in Appendix B.

3.1 Treatment of the Foundation of Gabion Wall


Foundation treatment is important to the stability of gabion wall as weak foundation may result in bearing failure or soil slip. Since it largely depends on the soil conditions which may varies significantly for different locations, designers should consider the requirements of treatment of foundation case by case. If necessary, rockfill and/or other appropriate measures as determined by the designers should be adopted to stabilize the formation before placing gabions.

3.2 Provision of Gabion Aprons


Gabion aprons are commonly used to protect the toe of a gabion retaining wall structure from scour that could cause undermining in channel works applications. It is recommended that the gabion apron in the form of Reno Mattress, (refer to Section

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

5.0) be a minimum of 300 mm in depth. The length of the gabion apron shall extend beyond the toe of the structure a minimum of 2 times the anticipated depth of scour formed under the apron. This will ensure that the gabion apron reaches beyond the outer limit of the anticipated scour hole that may form. For fast-flowing rivers, designers need to determine the exact depth and extension of Reno Mattress case by case with the consideration of scouring at river invert during peak flow. Scour occurs at toe of gabion retaining wall when it obstructs the channel flow. The flow obstructed by the gabions form a horizontal vortex starting at the upstream end of the gabions and running along the toe of the gabions, and a vertical wake vortex at the downstream end of the gabions. In accordance with Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 Evaluating Scour At Bridges, Fourth Edition, Froehlich's live-bed scour equation can be used to obtain the potential depth of scour.
Froehlich's Live-Bed Scour Equation

where: K1 = Coefficient for shape Shape Coefficients Description Vertical-wall Vertical-wall with wing walls Spill-through K1 1.00 0.82 0.55

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Fig. 3.1 Abutment shape

K2 = Coefficient for angle of embankment to flow = ( / 90) 0.13 ( < 90 if wall points downstream > 90 if wall points upstream ) L = Length of active flow obstructed by the wall, m Ae = Flow area of the approach cross section obstructed by the wall, m2 Fr = Froude Number of approach flow upstream of the wall = Ve/(gya)1/2 Ve = Qe/Ae, m/s Qe = Flow obstructed by the wall and approach structure, at peak flow, m3/s ya = Average depth of flow on the floodplain (Ae/L), m L = Length of wall projected normal to the flow, m

ys = Scour depth, m

Fig. 3.2 Orientation of embankment angle, , to the flow

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Fig. 3.3 Determination of length of embankment blocking live flow for abutment scour estimation

Example: Assume K1 = 0.82, K2 = ( 90 / 90) 0.13 = 1 L and ya are the base width and retaining height of the gabion wall as shown in the drawing in Appendix A. Computed Scour Depth, ys as follow: Fr 0.25 2.01 3.78 5.45 7.10 0.5 2.54 4.72 6.74 8.73 0.75 2.97 5.49 7.79 10.06 1 3.35 6.15 8.71 11.22 1.5 4.01 7.32 10.31 13.25 2 4.59 8.34 11.71 15.03

ya 1 2 3 4

L 1.5 2.25 2.75 3.25

3.3 Provision of Geotextile Filter


The gabion apron will require minimal excavation and grade work. Generally the gabion apron and gabion block are placed directly on the ground utilizing a geotextile filter fabric between the gabions and soil interface to prevent leaching of soils underneath the gabions.

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

The drawings in Appendix A show the details of gabion wall of retaining height ranging from 1m to 4m, used in river embankment.

4.

Construction of Gabion Wall

4.1 Packing and Assembly


Packing (i) For ease of handling and shipping, the gabions are bundled folded flat. Assembly (i) (ii) Open the bundle and unfold each unit. Lift the sides, the ends and the diaphragms of each unit into vertical position.

(iii) Attach the sides of four corners together with locking wire fastener or tying wire and the diaphragms to the front and back of the gabion. (iv) The tying operation begins at the top of the cage. The tying wire is laced around the selvedge through each mesh all the way to the bottom of the cage.

4.2 Installation and Filling


Installation (i) Empty gabion baskets shall be assembled individually and placed on the approved surface to the lines and grades as shown or as directed, with the position of all creases and that the tops of all sides are level. All gabion baskets shall be properly staggered horizontally and vertically. Finished gabion structures shall have no gaps along the perimeter of the contact surfaces between adjoining units.

(ii)

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Fig. 4.1 Abutment shape (Courtesy of and adapted from TerraAqua Gabions) (iii) All adjoining empty gabion units shall be connected along the perimeter of their contact surfaces in order to obtain a monolithic structure. All lacing wire terminals shall be securely fastened. (iv) All joining shall be made through selvedge-selvedge wire connection; mesh-mesh wire connection is prohibited unless necessary. Filling (i) The initial line of gabion basket units shall be placed on the prepared filter layer surface and adjoining empty baskets set to line and grade, and common sides with adjacent units thoroughly laced or fastened. They shall be placed in a manner to remove any kinks or bends in the mesh and to uniform alignment. The basket units then shall be partially filled to provide anchorage against deformation and displacement during the filling operation.

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

(ii)

Deformation and bulging of the gabion units, especially on the wall face, shall be corrected prior to additional stone filling. Care shall be taken, when placing the stone by hand or machine, to assure that the PVC coating on the gabions will not be damaged if PVC is utilized. All stone on the exposed face shall be hand placed to ensure a neat compact appearance.

(iii) Gabions shall be uniformly overfilled by about 2540 mm to account for future structural settlements and for additional layers. Gabions can be filled by any kind of earth filling equipment. The maximum height from which the stones may be dropped into the baskets shall be 900 mm.

4.3 Gabion Stone Placement


(i) The stone fill shall be placed into the gabion units in 300 mm lifts. Cells shall be filled to a depth not exceeding 300 mm at a time. The fill layer should never be more than 300 mm higher then any adjoining cell. Connecting wires shall be installed from the front to back and side to side of individual cell at each 300 mm vertical interval for gabions of depth exceeding 500 mm.

(ii)

(iii) The voids shall be minimized by using well-graded stone fill and by hand placement of the facing in order to achieve a dense, compact stone fill.

4.4 Lid Closing


(i) The lids of the gabion units shall be tightly secured along all edges, ends and diaphragms in the same manner as described for assembling.

5.0 Installation of Reno Mattress


Basically, the procedure for installation of reno mattress is similar to the construction of gabion units. Particular attention should be paid to the following : (i) Mattress units should be placed in proper position so that movement of rockfill inside the cage, due to gravity or flowing current, is minimal. Thus, on slopes, Mattresses should be placed with its internal diaphragms at right angles to the direction of the slope. On river beds, position the Mattress with the internal diaphragms at right angles to the direction flow.
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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

(ii)

The Mattresses may be either telescoped or cut to form and tied at required shape when necessary, for example, when Mattresses are laid on a radius. For a sharp curve, it may be necessary to cut the Mattress diagonally into triangular sections and tie the open side securely to an intact side panel.

6.

Sample Particular Specifications, Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall and Reno Mattress

Sample clauses of PS, MM and SoR for gabion wall and Reno Mattress are shown in Appendix C.

7.

Maintenance Related Considerations and Maintenance Requirements

Geoguide 1 (Sections 9.5 and 13) may be referenced for the basis of providing a general guideline on maintenance of gabion walls. Generally speaking, maintenance requirements should be duly considered during both the design stage and during routine inspection after completion of works [Ref. 8.5]. Detailed discussion on the maintenance requirement both in detailed design stage and routine inspection are beyond the scope of this Technical Report. The necessary maintenance requirements should be judged on a case-by-case basis. However, some of the important considerations required to be considered during detailed design stage and routine inspection are listed below. Suggested considerations on maintenance requirements to be looked at during design stage : The water quality of river/stream would affect the durability of the wire used in the basket. The suitability of the gabion structures to be used in such river/stream environment should be within manufacturers recommendation. If necessary, corrosion protection measures should be applied to wires, such as PVC coated galvanized steel wires; Gradation of stone aggregates should be based on gabion thickness and grid size. As a rule of thumb, the size of stone measured in the greatest dimension should range from 150mm to 300mm. In addition, the smallest stone size must generally be larger than the wire mesh openings (usually of
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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

about 100mm); Package of stone aggregates should be manually performed instead of mechanically performed. The mechanically package can cause unwanted stress to the net. However, manually packing of stone aggregates should not be over emphasized. Poorly packed gabions will cause undue movements as well as excessive abrasion to the PVC coating. To allow for the settlement of the stone aggregates, an over fill of about 25-40mm is considered to be adequate; The strength of the stone aggregates should be durable to resist the impact from flood flow particularly if the flood flow is violent. The stress created by the violent flood flow against gabions will lead to the shaking and mutual thrust of stones inside gabions. If the stones are fragile, the stones will start to crush into pieces small enough to fall outside the gabion net; The opening of the gabion net can be torn away by the continuous thrust of materials carried by runoff (e.g. sable, gravel, and rubble) against iron wires. When the net opens, the stone filling it up fall out, and the structure loses all its weight and, consequently, its function; and Gabions structures are generally composed of superimposed layers of gabion baskets. Special attention should be paid on gabion structures with a stepped shape, only a part of the superimposed layer rests on a lower layer of gabions. The remaining part rests directly on the earthfill. In this case, the underlying earthfill has to be compacted carefully, and its adherence to the lower layer of gabions should be ensured before surperimposing the next layer. Suggested considerations on maintenance requirements to be looked at during routine inspection : A gabion structure needs to be inspected annually and after each flood event. However, a newly placed gabion structure is recommended to be inspected for every 3 months or after each rainfall event whichever is the less; Signs of undercutting or other instability should also be checked; Any displacement or shifting of the wire baskets should need to be corrected immediately;
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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Checking on the sign of damage or erosion of the river embankment should be included; and Checking for the wires of panels/cages for any signs of rusting and wear should be included.

8.

Reference Documents

8.1 U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 Evaluating Scour At Bridges, Fourth Edition, May 2001. 8.2 U.S. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water, Water Planning, Stream Guide, Stream Management Guide No. 15 Gabion Revetments 8.3 U.S. Environmental Department of Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Storm Water Best Management Practices Decision Support Tool #129 Gabions

8.4 Tricardi, Watershed Management Use of Gabions in Small Hydraulic Works 8.5 Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering Department, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region, GEOGUIDE 1 Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition, October 2003.

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Appendix A

Typical Layout of Gabion Wall

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Drawing Notes: 1. 2. All dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise specified. Depending on the soil conditions, designers should determine whether any ground treatment for foundation is required in consideration with sliding, bearing or soil slip failures. Determination of Potential Scour Depth by Froehlich's Live-Bed Scour Equation

3.

where: K1 = Coefficient for shape Shape Coefficients Description Vertical-wall Vertical-wall with wing walls Spill-through K1 1.00 0.82 0.55

K2 = Coefficient for angle of embankment to flow = ( / 90) 0.13 ( < 90 if wall points downstream > 90 if wall points upstream ) L = Length of active flow obstructed by the wall, m Ae = Flow area of the approach cross section obstructed by the wall, m2 Fr = Froude Number of approach flow upstream of the wall = Ve/(gya)1/2 Ve = Qe/Ae, m/s Qe = Flow obstructed by the wall and approach structure, at peak flow, m3/s ya = Average depth of flow on the floodplain (Ae/L), m L = Length of wall projected normal to the flow, m ys = Scour depth, m

App. A - 1

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Example: Assume K1 = 0.82, K2 = ( 90 / 90) 0.13 = 1 L and ya are the base width and retaining height of the gabion wall as shown in the sketches in the calculations in Appendix B. Computed Scour Depth, ys as follow: Fr 0.25 2.01 3.78 5.45 7.10 0.5 2.54 4.72 6.74 8.73 0.75 2.97 5.49 7.79 10.06 1 3.35 6.15 8.71 11.22 1.5 4.01 7.32 10.31 13.25 2 4.59 8.34 11.71 15.03

Ya 1 2 3 4

L 1.5 2.25 2.75 3.25

4. Mesh shall be hexagonal double twist and shall not ravel if damaged. The dimensions of the hexagon shall be 80 x 100 mm. 5. The gabion mesh shall be formed with 2.7 mm diameter mild steel wires, hot dip galvanized to BS 443 and further coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 6. The PVC coating shall be dark green in colour, has an average thickness of 0.5 mm and nowhere less than 0.4 mm. 7. The diameter of the mild steel lacing wire and selvedge wire shall be 2.2 mm and 3.0 mm respectively, galvanized and coated with PVC in a similar way to the mesh wire. 8. All wires shall be mild steel to BS 1052. 9. The gabion shall be formed from one continuous piece of mesh which includes the lid. 10. All edges of gabions, diaphragms and end panels shall be mechanically selvedged
App. A - 2

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

in such a way as to prevent ravelling of the mesh and to develop the full strength of the mesh. 11. The gabion shall be divided by diaphragms into cells which length shall not be greater than 1m. 12. Infill to gabion shall be rock fill material of size 150 mm to 300 mm and shall be placed in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. 13. All front and side faces of the gabion wall shall be fixed with hand packed square stones of approximately 300 x 200 x 200 mm in size.

App. A - 3

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

App. A - 4

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Appendix B

Design Calculations for Gabion Wall

Annexes A. B. C. D. Design of 4.5m gabion wall Design of 3.5m gabion wall Design of 2.5m gabion wall Design of 1.5m gabion wall A, A1 A10 B, B1 B8 C, C1 C6 D, D1 D4

Page E. Stone sizes and critical velocities for gabions (courtesy of and adapted from Maccaferri Gabions) E1 E3

Project

Design of 4.5m Gabion Wall

Annex A

Prepared by Checked by Subject

: : :

NG Chun-ling

(AE/TM5)

Design of 4.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement

Reference

Remarks

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall

Design Statement 1. Design Data


(I) Materials (A) Requirements
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1)

Gabion Materials (i) They should not be susceptible to attack by fire and ultraviolet light. (ii) They should be in form of hexagonal woven or square welded. (iii) Hexagonal woven wire mesh is mechanically woven in a continuous sheet. The wires should be twisted together in pairs through three half turns, i.e. 'double-twisted' to form the mesh. (iv) The edges of the mesh should be selvaged with wires of a diameter of about 1.5 times that of the wire-mesh to prevent unravelling.

Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1) & Fig. 47

(v) The gabion base, top and sides should be formed from a piece of mesh. The ends and diaphragms can be attached to this mesh by helical wires or other methods. (vi) The mesh can stretch or contract in two directions in its own plane and thus a rectangular wire-mesh basket filled with rock fragments can deform in any direction. (vii) The wires used for the wire mesh should be mild steel wire to BS 1052 (BSI, 1986b), with a minimum tensile strength of 350 N/mm 2 . (viii) The wires should be at least 2.7mm in diameter and galvanized. (ix) For hexagonal wire-mesh the wires should be galvanized to BS 443 (BSI, 1990b) before weaving. (x) For welded mesh, the mesh panels should be hot dip galvanized to BS 729 (BSI, 1986c) after welding. The making of panels with galvanized wires welded together is not recommended as the welds are left unprotected. (xi) If the soil and water conditions are aggressive, PVC (polyvinylchloride) coating should be provided to the wires. The PVC coating should be at least 0.5mm thick and should meet the requirements of BS 4102 (BSI, 1991c).

Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1)

Infill material (i) Maximum size of rock should not exceed two-thirds the depth of the gabion to be filled or 300mm , whichever is less. (ii) The preferred size is 150mm to 300mm . The smallest dimension of the rock should at least be twice the largest dimension of the mesh aperture .

- Annex A page 1 -

(B) Assumptions Gabion and Infill Materials Block Size


Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.1

The gabions are in modules of 2m x 1m x 1m.

Mesh Size 8cm x 10cm x 2.7mm

Size of Infill Material

= 250mm

Refer to Annex E Maccaferri Gabions

Critical Velocity for water flow

6.4 m/s

Parameter
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.2 (1)

Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill Mobilized angle of wall friction,

= = =

2.6 0.4 0.0

Backfilling Material behind the existing wall The properties of backfilling material are assumed to be
Geoguide 1 Table 8

(a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength, c' (c) Effective friction angle, ' Insitu Soil beneath the wall (foundation material) The properties of insitu soil are assumed to be (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength, c' (c) Effective friction angle, '

= = =

21 kN/m3 0 kPa 35
o

= = =

19 kN/m3 5 kPa 35
o

(II) Loadings Dead loads Self weight of the proposed protection wall, earth pressure and hydrostatic pressure are taken to be dead load for design. The unit weight of water was taken as 9.81 kN/m3. Imposed load
Geoguide 1 Para. 7.2.2 and Table 16

5kPa surcharge was assumed on the land side. (Footpaths isolated from roads, cycle tracks and play areas)

(III) Water level of the pond It is assumed that the most critical situation should be when the channel is completely dry, which is taken to be the design case.

The groundwater level behind the proposed gabion wall is assumed to be one-third of the retaining height.

- Annex A page 2 -

Geoguide 1 Para. 6.2.2, Table 20 and Figure 13

Proposed retaining walls have no restraint against translation and rotation about the base, hence active state pressure is assumed and compaction-induced lateral pressure is not considered.

2. Design Reference and Codes


Design Code 1. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993), Geoguide 1 - Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition.

Design Methodology In accordance with Geoguide 1, the structures would be designed for both the ultimate limit state (ULS) and the serviceability limit state (SLS).
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6 and Table 7

Partial safety factor approach stipulated under Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4 is adopted. The minimum factors of safety recommended in Geoguide 1 are adopted. Per meter run of the proposed retaining walls is considered for simplicity.

Geoguide 1, clause 9.5.2

Limit state checks would be carried out at selected planes through the gabion wall, ignoring the resistance contributed by the cage material and the connections between the cages. For stepped walls, stability checks would be carried out at each major change in section shape.

3. Checking the Stability of the Protection Wall


4.5m Gabion Wall

- Annex A page 3 -

Ultimate Limit Statement (ULS)


Refer to Annex A1, A3, A5, A7 & A9 para. 1 Step 6

1. Checking Overturning [OK if restoring moment > overturning moment]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 m m m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK!

Refer to Annex A1, A3, A5, A7 & A9 para. 1 Step 7

2. Checking Sliding [OK if resisting force > sliding force]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 m m m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK!

Refer to Annex A1, A3, A5, A7 & A9 para. 1 Step 8

3. Checking Bearing Capacity [OK if bearing capacity > bearing pressure]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 m m m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK!

Serviceability Limit Statement (SLS)


Refer to Annex A2, A4, A6, A8 & A10 para. 1 Step 6

1. Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity [OK if the resultant force acts within the middle third of the wall base]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 m m m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK! OK!

For details of calculations, please refer to the Annex A1 to A10.

- Annex A page 4 -

Construction Aspects
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.4

(i) Horizontal internal bracing wires should be fitted between the outer and inner faces at about 300mm centres in woven mesh gabions which are deeper than 500mm. (ii) The lids of the gabions should meet the top edges of the sides and ends when closed, without leaving any gaps. (iii) The mesh of the lids should be tied down to the tops of any diaphragms provided, as well as to the tops of the sides and ends. (iv) Whenever possible, the vertical joints between the units should be staggered in adjacent courses.

Drainage provisions
Geoguide 1 para. 9.5.5

(i) A geotextile filter would be provided under the base and behind the rear face of the gabion wall to prevent migration of fines from the backfill into the coarse rock infill. (ii) Drainage layers at the rear face are normally not warranted. However, a drainage layer of adequate permeability would be provided at the base of the wall to guard against erosion of the foundation material.

References 1. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993), Geoguide 1 - Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition.
Geoguide 1

- Annex A page 5 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A1

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

W1 Pav 3000 Pa1 Pa2


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

1500

W5

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m3 kN/m


o 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 4.50 1.50 4.2

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1((tan ')/m ))

o cv' 30 Length of wall 100 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1((tan ')/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex A1 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 3.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 3.00 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.50

x x x x x

4.50 21 21 1.50 1.50

x x x /

3.00 1.50 1.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

7.42 31.17 31.17 4.08 11.25 85.08 73.83

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x W5 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.50 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 4.20 4.20

x x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 32.76 -31.50 0.00 146.34

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 7.42 4.50 / 2 Pa2 31.17 3.00 / 3 + 1.50 Pa3 31.17 1.50 / 2 Pa4 4.08 1.50 / 3 Pwh 11.25 1.50 / 3

= = = = =

2.25 2.50 0.75 0.50 0.50 M =

Moment 16.70 77.92 23.37 2.04 5.63 125.65

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 4.2 1.30 W2 30.42 4.2 1.95 W3 41.34 4.2 2.65 W4 53.04 4.2 3.40 W5 32.76 4.2 4.20 Pwv -31.50 4.2 x 2 Pav 0.00 4.2

Arm (m) / / / / / /

2 2 2 2 2 3

= = = = = = =

3.55 3.23 2.88 2.50 2.10 2.80 4.20 M = Mr =

Moment 71.99 98.10 118.85 132.60 68.80 -88.20 0.00 402.15 490.35

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 125.65 + 88.20 Restoring Moment Mr = 490.35 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr

0.00

213.85

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 4.2 = 0.211m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 490.35 Mo ) / 213.85 ) / V 146.34

- Annex A1 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 146.34 kN / m

H =

85.08 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 146.34 x 0.58 = 85.39 kN/m run => OK!

>

Sliding Force Fa = H=

85.08

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.211 m Effective Width B' B = 4.20 = 3.78 = L' = B' = 3.78 H V = m x x 2e 2

x =

0.211 100 377.88 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

85.08 146.34

x x

100 100

= =

8508 kN 14634 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 14634.00 = /

377.88

38.73

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, 2 Nq = exp(tan'f) tan (/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2(
2 tan (

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

x x 1 1

tan tan

'f 30

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.02 s = 1 = 1 = 0.98 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.02

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 3.78 B' x

x x / / / 3.78

B' 3.78 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex A1 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.96 Ki = Qs / ( = 8508 / ( = 0.49

+ + + + Qn 14634

B' B' 3.78 3.78 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 377.88

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.14 ( ( 0.27 iq 0.27 0.22

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.49 Ki 0.49 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.27

mi + 1 2.96

iq

mi 1.96

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0 , all tilt and ground slope factors tq = tc = t = 1 equal 1, i.e. gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.02 x + 0.5 x 9 x 3.78 0.14 x 1 x 1 + x 0.27 x 1 x 1 = 29.50 + 52.76 + 23.17 = 105.42 kPa qult qmax => > = 38.73 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.22 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.98 x

1 x 1.02

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A1 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2

W1 Pav 3000 Pa1 W3


Insitu soil

Pa2

W4 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1500

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 4.50 1.50 4.20

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1((tan ')/m ))

o cv' 30 Length of wall 100 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1((tan ')/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 3.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 3.00 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.50

x x x x x

4.50 21 21 1.50 1.50

x x x /

3.00 1.50 1.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

7.42 31.17 31.17 4.08 11.25 85.08 73.83

- Annex A1 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x W5 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.50 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 4.20 4.20

x x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 32.76 -31.50 0.00 146.34

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 7.42 Pa2 31.17 Pa3 31.17 Pa4 4.08 Pwh 11.25 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 4.50 3.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.50 = = = = = 2.25 2.50 0.75 0.50 0.50 M = Moment 16.70 77.92 23.37 2.04 5.63 125.65

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 4.00 x 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 3.00 x 0.10 W3 41.34 ( 2.00 x 0.10 W4 53.04 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W5 32.76 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -31.50 ( 4.2 x 2 Pav 0.00 4.2

Arm (m) + + + + + /

3.550 3.225 2.875 2.500 2.100 3)

) ) ) ) )

x x x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = = = =

3.93 3.51 3.06 2.59 2.11 2.79 4.20 M = Mr =

Moment 79.71 106.70 126.49 137.22 69.27 -87.76 0.00 431.62 519.39

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 125.65 + 87.76 Restoring Moment Mr = 519.39 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr

0.00

213.41

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 4.2 = 0.009m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 519.39 Mo ) / 213.41 ) / V 146.34

- Annex A1 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 70.03 kN / m 75.69 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 75.69 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

70.03

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface


o = 0.00 Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr =

H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l =

85.08 kN / m 102.89 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 102.89 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

85.08

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.009 m Effective Width B' B = 4.20 = 4.18 = L' = B' = 4.18 H V = m x x 2e 2

x =

0.009 100 418.16 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

85.08 146.34

x x

100 100

= =

8508 kN 14634 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 14634 = /

418.16

35.00

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, 2 Nq = exp(tan'f) tan (/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex A1 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.03 s = 1 = 1 = 0.98 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.02

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 4.18 B' x

x x / / / 4.18

B' 4.18 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.96 Ki = Qs / ( = 8508 / ( = 0.48

+ + + + Qn 14634

B' B' 4.18 4.18 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 418.16

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.14 ( ( 0.27 iq 0.27 0.23

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.48 Ki 0.48 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.27

mi + 1 2.96

iq

mi 1.96

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0 , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = 1 equal 1, i.e. ' 9 4.5

Effective Surcharge q' = = =

x x kPa

0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.03 x + 0.5 x 9 x 4.18 0.14 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.27 x 5.44 x 1 = 175.19 + 332.87 + 130.54 = 638.60 kPa qult qmax => > = 35.00 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.23 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.98 x

1 x 1.02

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A1 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A2

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5

W1 Pav 3000 Pa1 Pa2


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

1500

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 4.50 1.50 4.2

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan ((tan ')/m ))
-1

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1((tan ')/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex A2 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 3.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 3.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.50

x x x x x

4.50 21 21 1.50 1.50

x x x /

3.00 1.50 1.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

6.10 25.61 25.61 3.35 11.25 71.92 60.67

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x W5 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.50 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 4.20 4.20

x x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 32.76 -31.50 0.00 146.34

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 6.10 4.50 / 2 Pa2 25.61 3.00 / 3 + 1.50 Pa3 25.61 1.50 / 2 Pa4 3.35 1.50 / 3 Pwh 11.25 1.50 / 3

= = = = =

2.25 2.50 0.75 0.50 0.50 M =

Moment 13.72 64.02 19.21 1.68 5.63 104.25

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 4.2 1.30 W2 30.42 4.2 1.95 W3 41.34 4.2 2.65 W4 53.04 4.2 3.40 W5 32.76 4.2 4.20 Pwv -31.50 4.2 x 2 Pav 0.00 4.2

Arm (m) / / / / / /

2 2 2 2 2 3

= = = = = = =

3.55 3.23 2.88 2.50 2.10 2.80 4.20 M = Mr =

Moment 71.99 98.10 118.85 132.60 68.80 -88.20 0.00 402.15 490.35

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 104.25 + 88.20 Restoring Moment Mr = 490.35 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 4.2 / 2 - ( 490.35 = 0.064m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 4.2 / 6

0.00

192.45

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 192.45 ) / 0.700m >

V 146.34 0.064m OK! OK!

- Annex A2 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2

W1 Pav 3000 Pa1 W3


Insitu soil

Pa2

W4 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh 1500

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 4.5 1.5 4.2

kN/m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan ((tan ')/m ))
-1

kN/m2

Back batter, =

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1((tan ')/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 3.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 3.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.50

x x x x x

4.50 21 21 1.50 1.50

x x x /

3.00 1.50 1.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

6.10 25.61 25.61 3.35 11.25 71.92 60.67

- Annex A2 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x W5 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.50 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 4.20 4.20

x x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 32.76 -31.50 0.00 146.34

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 6.10 Pa2 25.61 Pa3 25.61 Pa4 3.35 Pwh 11.25 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 4.50 3.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.50 = = = = = 2.25 2.50 0.75 0.50 0.50 M = Moment 13.72 64.02 19.21 1.68 5.63 104.25

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 4.00 x 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 3.00 x 0.10 W3 41.34 ( 2.00 x 0.10 W4 53.04 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W5 32.76 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -31.50 ( 4.2 x 2 Pav 0.00 4.2

Arm (m) + + + + + /

3.550 3.225 2.875 2.500 2.100 3)

) ) ) ) )

x x x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = = = =

3.93 3.51 3.06 2.59 2.11 2.79 4.20 M = Mr =

Moment 79.71 106.70 126.49 137.22 69.27 -87.76 0.00 431.62 519.39

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 104.25 + 87.76 Restoring Moment Mr = 519.39 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 4.2 / 2 - ( 519.39 = -0.137m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 4.2 / 6

0.00

192.01

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 192.01 ) / 0.700m >

V 146.34 -0.137m OK! OK!

- Annex A2 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A3

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

W1 Pav 2667 Pa1


Insitu soil

Pa2 1333 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

W5

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m3 kN/m


o 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 4.00 1.33 3.4

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

o cv' 30 Length of wall 100 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex A3 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 2.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 2.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.33

x x x x x

4.00 21 21 1.33 1.33

x x x /

2.67 1.33 1.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

6.60 24.63 24.63 3.22 8.89 67.96 59.07

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.33 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 3.40

x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 -22.67 0.00 122.41

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 6.60 4.00 / 2 Pa2 24.63 2.67 / 3 + 1.33 Pa3 24.63 1.33 / 2 Pa4 3.22 1.33 / 3 Pwh 8.89 1.33 / 3

= = = = =

2.00 2.22 0.67 0.44 0.44 M =

Moment 13.19 54.72 16.42 1.43 3.95 89.72

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 3.4 1.30 W2 30.42 3.4 1.95 W3 41.34 3.4 2.65 W4 53.04 3.4 3.40 Pwv -22.67 3.4 x 2 Pav 0.00 3.4

Arm (m) / / / / /

2 2 2 2 3

= = = = = =

2.75 2.43 2.08 1.70 2.27 3.40 M = Mr =

Moment 55.77 73.77 85.78 90.17 -51.38 0.00 254.11 305.49

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 89.72 + 51.38 Restoring Moment Mr = 305.49 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr

0.00

141.09

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 3.4 = 0.357m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 305.49 Mo ) / 141.09 ) / V 122.41

- Annex A3 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 122.41 kN / m

H =

67.96 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 122.41 x 0.58 = 71.43 kN/m run => OK!

>

Sliding Force Fa = H=

67.96

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.357 m Effective Width B' B = 3.40 = 2.69 = L' = B' = 2.69 H V = m x x 2e 2

x =

0.357 100 268.59 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

67.96 122.41

x x

100 100

= =

6796 kN 12241 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 12241.33 = /

268.59

45.58

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, 2 Nq = exp(tan'f) tan (/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2(
2 tan (

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

x x 1 1

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.02 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.02

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 2.69 B' x

x x / / / 2.69

B' 2.69 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex A3 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.97 Ki = Qs / ( = 6796 / ( = 0.48

+ + + + Qn 12241

B' B' 2.69 2.69 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 268.59

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.14 ( ( 0.28 iq 0.28 0.23

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.48 Ki 0.48 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.28

mi + 1 2.97

iq

mi 1.97

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0 , all tilt and ground slope factors tq = tc = t = 1 equal 1, i.e. gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.02 x + 0.5 x 9 x 2.69 0.14 x 1 x 1 + x 0.28 x 1 x 1 = 30.60 + 39.85 + 23.84 = 94.29 kPa qult qmax => > = 45.58 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.23 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.02

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A3 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2

W1 Pav 2667 Pa1 W3 W4 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh


Insitu soil

Pa2 1333

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 4.00 1.33 3.40

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

o cv' 30 Length of wall 100 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 2.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 2.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.33

x x x x x

4.00 21 21 1.33 1.33

x x x /

2.67 1.33 1.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

6.60 24.63 24.63 3.22 8.89 67.96 59.07

- Annex A3 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.33 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 3.40

x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 -22.67 0.00 122.41

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 6.60 Pa2 24.63 Pa3 24.63 Pa4 3.22 Pwh 8.89 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 4.00 2.67 1.33 1.33 1.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.33 = = = = = 2.00 2.22 0.67 0.44 0.44 M = Moment 13.19 54.72 16.42 1.43 3.95 89.72

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 3.50 x 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 2.50 x 0.10 W3 41.34 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W4 53.04 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -22.67 ( 3.4 x 2 Pav 0.00 3.4

Arm (m) + + + + /

2.750 2.425 2.075 1.700 3)

) ) ) )

x x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = = =

3.08 2.66 2.21 1.74 2.26 3.40 M = Mr =

Moment 62.56 80.97 91.53 92.36 -51.12 0.00 276.29 327.41

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 89.72 + 51.12 Restoring Moment Mr = 327.41 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr

0.00

140.84

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 3.4 = 0.176m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 327.41 Mo ) / 140.84 ) / V 122.41

- Annex A3 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 55.38 kN / m 63.49 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 63.49 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

55.38

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface


o = 0.00 Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr =

H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l =

67.96 kN / m 85.60 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 85.60 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

67.96

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.176 m Effective Width B' B = 3.40 = 3.05 = L' = B' = 3.05 H V = m x x 2e 2

x =

0.176 100 304.82 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

67.96 122.41

x x

100 100

= =

6796 kN 12241 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 12241 = /

304.82

40.16

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, 2 Nq = exp(tan'f) tan (/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex A3 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.02 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.02

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 3.05 B' x

x x / / / 3.05

B' 3.05 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.97 Ki = Qs / ( = 6796 / ( = 0.47

+ + + + Qn 12241

B' B' 3.05 3.05 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 304.82

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.15 ( ( 0.28 iq 0.28 0.24

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.47 Ki 0.47 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.28

mi + 1 2.97

iq

mi 1.97

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0 , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = 1 equal 1, i.e. Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.02 x + 0.5 x 9 x 3.05 0.15 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.28 x 5.44 x 1 = 182.00 + 258.46 + 134.51 = 574.98 kPa qult qmax => > = 40.16 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.24 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.02

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A3 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A4

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5

W1 Pav 2667 Pa1


Insitu soil

Pa2 1333 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 4.00 1.33 3.4

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan '/m ))
-1

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex A4 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.33

x x x x x

4.00 21 21 1.33 1.33

x x x /

2.67 1.33 1.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

5.42 20.23 20.23 2.65 8.89 57.43 48.54

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.33 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 3.40

x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 -22.67 0.00 122.41

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 5.42 4.00 / 2 Pa2 20.23 2.67 / 3 + 1.33 Pa3 20.23 1.33 / 2 Pa4 2.65 1.33 / 3 Pwh 8.89 1.33 / 3

= = = = =

2.00 2.22 0.67 0.44 0.44 M =

Moment 10.84 44.96 13.49 1.18 3.95 74.42

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 3.4 1.30 W2 30.42 3.4 1.95 W3 41.34 3.4 2.65 W4 53.04 3.4 3.40 Pwv -22.67 3.4 x 2 Pav 0.00 3.4

Arm (m) / / / / /

2 2 2 2 3

= = = = = =

2.75 2.43 2.08 1.70 2.27 3.40 M = Mr =

Moment 55.77 73.77 85.78 90.17 -51.38 0.00 254.11 305.49

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 74.42 + 51.38 Restoring Moment Mr = 305.49 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 3.4 / 2 - ( 305.49 = 0.232m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 3.4 / 6

0.00

125.80

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 125.80 ) / 0.567m >

V 122.41 0.232m OK! OK!

- Annex A4 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2

W1 Pav 2667 Pa1 W3


Insitu soil

Pa2 1333 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

W4

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 4.00 1.33 3.4

kN/m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan '/m ))
-1

kN/m2

Back batter, =

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.33

x x x x x

4.00 21 21 1.33 1.33

x x x /

2.67 1.33 1.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

5.42 20.23 20.23 2.65 8.89 57.43 48.54

- Annex A4 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.33 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 3.40 4.20

x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 53.04 -22.67 0.00 122.41

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 5.42 Pa2 20.23 Pa3 20.23 Pa4 2.65 Pwh 8.89 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 4.00 2.67 1.33 1.33 1.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.33 = = = = = 2.00 2.22 0.67 0.44 0.44 M = Moment 10.84 44.96 13.49 1.18 3.95 74.42

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 3.50 x 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 2.50 x 0.10 W3 41.34 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W4 53.04 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -22.67 ( 3.4 x 2 Pav 0.00 3.4

Arm (m) + + + + /

2.750 2.425 2.075 1.700 3

) ) ) ) )

x x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = = =

3.08 2.66 2.21 1.74 2.26 3.40 M = Mr =

Moment 62.52 80.93 91.49 92.35 -51.12 0.00 276.17 327.29

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 74.42 + 51.12 Restoring Moment Mr = 327.29 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 3.4 / 2 - ( 327.29 = 0.052m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 3.4 / 6

0.00

125.54

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 125.54 ) / 0.567m >

V 122.41 0.052m OK! OK!

- Annex A4 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A5

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 2000


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

1000

W5

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.65

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex A5 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

4.95 13.85 13.85 1.81 5.00 39.46 34.46

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 2.65

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 -13.25 0.00 78.79

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.95 3.00 / 2 Pa2 13.85 2.00 / 3 + 1.00 Pa3 13.85 1.00 / 2 Pa4 1.81 1.00 / 3 Pwh 5.00 1.00 / 3

= = = = =

1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 M =

Moment 7.42 23.09 6.93 0.60 1.67 39.70

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 2.65 1.30 W2 30.42 2.65 1.95 W3 41.34 2.65 2.65 Pwv -13.25 2.65 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.65

Arm (m) / / / /

2 2 2 3

= = = = =

2.00 1.68 1.33 1.77 2.65 M = Mr =

Moment 40.56 50.95 54.78 -23.41 0.00 122.88 146.29

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 39.70 + 23.41 Restoring Moment Mr = 146.29 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

63.11

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.65 = 0.269m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 146.29 Mo ) 63.11 ) / / V 78.79

- Annex A5 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 78.79 kN / m

H =

39.46 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 78.79 x 0.58 = 45.97 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

39.46

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.269 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.65 = 2.11 = L' = B' = 2.11 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.269 100 211.14 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

39.46 78.79

x x

100 100

= =

3946 kN 7879 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 7879.00 = /

211.14

37.32

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 2.11 B' x

x x / / / 2.11

B' 2.11 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex A5 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 3946 / ( = 0.42

+ + + + Qn 7879

B' B' 2.11 2.11 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 211.14

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.20 ( ( 0.34 iq 0.34 0.30

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.42 Ki 0.42 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.34

mi + 1 2.98

iq

mi 1.98

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 2.11 0.20 x 1 x 1 + x 0.34 x 1 x 1 = 39.36 + 43.21 + 29.34 = 111.91 kPa qult qmax => > = 37.32 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.30 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A5 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W3 W4

W1 Pav Pa1
Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

2000 1000

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.65

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

o cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

4.95 13.85 13.85 1.81 5.00 39.46 34.46

- Annex A5 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 2.65

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 -13.25 0.00 78.79

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.95 Pa2 13.85 Pa3 13.85 Pa4 1.81 Pwh 5.00 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.00 = = = = = 1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 M = Moment 7.42 23.09 6.93 0.60 1.67 39.70

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 2.50 x 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W3 41.34 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -13.25 ( 2.65 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.65

Arm (m) + 2.000 ) + 1.675 ) + 1.325 ) / 3)

x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = =

2.24 1.82 1.37 1.76 2.65 M = Mr =

Moment 45.40 55.24 56.56 -23.29 0.00 133.91 157.20

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 39.70 + 23.29 Restoring Moment Mr = 157.20 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

63.00

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.65 = 0.129m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 157.20 Mo ) 63.00 ) / / V 78.79

- Annex A5 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 31.39 kN / m 41.10 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 41.10 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

31.39

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 39.46 kN / m 57.02 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 57.02 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

39.46

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.129 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.65 = 2.39 = L' = B' = 2.39 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.129 100 239.14 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

39.46 78.79

x x

100 100

= =

3946 kN 7879 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 7879

239.14

32.95

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex A5 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 2.39 B' x

x x / / / 2.39

B' 2.39 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 3946 / ( = 0.41

+ + + + Qn 7879

B' B' 2.39 2.39 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 239.14

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.21 ( ( 0.35 iq 0.35 0.31

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.41 Ki 0.41 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.35

mi + 1 2.98

iq

mi 1.98

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 2.39 0.21 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.35 x 5.44 x 1 = 232.59 + 278.44 + 164.91 = 675.94 kPa qult qmax => > = 32.95 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.31 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A5 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A6

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5

W1 Pav Pa1
Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

2000 1000

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.65

kN/m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

kN/m2

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex A6 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

4.06 11.38 11.38 1.49 5.00 33.32 28.32

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 2.65

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 -13.25 0.00 78.79

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.06 3.00 / 2 Pa2 11.38 2.00 / 3 + 1.00 Pa3 11.38 1.00 / 2 Pa4 1.49 1.00 / 3 Pwh 5.00 1.00 / 3

= = = = =

1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 M =

Moment 6.10 18.97 5.69 0.50 1.67 32.92

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 2.65 1.30 W2 30.42 2.65 1.95 W3 41.34 2.65 2.65 Pwv -13.25 2.65 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.65

Arm (m) / / / /

2 2 2 3

= = = = =

2.00 1.68 1.33 1.77 2.65 M = Mr =

Moment 40.56 50.95 54.78 -23.41 0.00 122.88 146.29

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 32.92 + 23.41 Restoring Moment Mr = 146.29 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.65 / 2 - ( 146.29 = 0.183m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2.65 / 6

0.00

56.33

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 56.33 ) / 0.442m >

V 78.79 0.183m OK! OK!

- Annex A6 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

2000 1000

W4

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.65

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan '/m ))
-1

Back batter, =

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

4.06 11.38 11.38 1.49 5.00 33.32 28.32

- Annex A6 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.30 1.95 2.65 4.20

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = V=

20.28 30.42 41.34 -13.25 0.00 78.79

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.06 Pa2 11.38 Pa3 11.38 Pa4 1.49 Pwh 5.00 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.00 = = = = = 1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 M = Moment 6.10 18.97 5.69 0.50 1.67 32.92

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 2.50 x 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W3 41.34 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -13.25 ( 2.65 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.65

Arm (m) + 2.000 ) + 1.675 ) + 1.325 ) / 3 )

x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = =

2.24 1.82 1.37 1.76 2.65 M = Mr =

Moment 45.38 55.22 56.55 -23.29 0.00 133.85 157.15

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 32.92 + 23.29 Restoring Moment Mr = 157.15 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.65 / 2 - ( 157.15 = 0.044m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2.65 / 6

0.00

56.21

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 56.21 ) / 0.442m >

V 78.79 0.044m OK! OK!

- Annex A6 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A7

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

W5

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.95

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex A7 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

3.30 6.16 6.16 0.81 2.22 18.64 16.42

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.30 1.95 1.95

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

20.28 30.42 -6.50 0.00 44.20

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.30 2.00 / 2 Pa2 6.16 1.33 / 3 + 0.67 Pa3 6.16 0.67 / 2 Pa4 0.81 0.67 / 3 Pwh 2.22 0.67 / 3

= = = = =

1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M =

Moment 3.30 6.84 2.05 0.18 0.49 12.86

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 1.95 1.30 W2 30.42 1.95 1.95 Pwv -6.50 1.95 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.95

Arm (m) / / /

2 2 3

= = = =

1.30 0.98 1.30 1.95 M = Mr =

Moment 26.36 29.66 -8.45 0.00 47.57 56.02

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 12.86 + 8.45 Restoring Moment Mr = 56.02 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

21.31

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.95 = 0.190m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 56.02 Mo ) 21.31 ) / / V 44.20

- Annex A7 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 44.20 kN / m

H =

18.64 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 44.20 x 0.58 = 25.79 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

18.64

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.190 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.95 = 1.57 = L' = B' = 1.57 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.190 100 157.06 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

18.64 44.20

x x

100 100

= =

1864 kN 4420 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 4420.00 = /

157.06

28.14

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.57 B' x

x x / / / 1.57

B' 1.57 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex A7 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.34

+ + + + Qn 4420

B' B' 1.57 1.57 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 157.06

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.29 ( ( 0.44 iq 0.44 0.41

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.34 Ki 0.34 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.44

mi + 1 2.98

iq

mi 1.98

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.57 0.29 x 1 x 1 + x 0.44 x 1 x 1 = 53.38 + 48.12 + 38.17 = 139.67 kPa qult qmax => > = 28.14 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.41 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A7 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 W3 W4


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.95

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

o cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

3.30 6.16 6.16 0.81 2.22 18.64 16.42

- Annex A7 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.30 1.95 1.95

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

20.28 30.42 -6.50 0.00 44.20

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.30 Pa2 6.16 Pa3 6.16 Pa4 0.81 Pwh 2.22 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 2.00 1.33 0.67 0.67 0.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.67 = = = = = 1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M = Moment 3.30 6.84 2.05 0.18 0.49 12.86

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -6.50 ( 1.95 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.95

Arm (m) + 1.300 ) + 0.975 ) / 3)

x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = =

1.44 1.02 1.29 1.95 M = Mr =

Moment 29.26 31.03 -8.41 0.00 51.88 60.29

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 12.86 + 8.41 Restoring Moment Mr = 60.29 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

21.27

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.95 = 0.092m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 60.29 Mo ) 21.27 ) / / V 44.20

- Annex A7 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 14.13 kN / m 23.25 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 23.25 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

14.13

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 18.64 kN / m 33.92 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 33.92 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

18.64

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.092 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.95 = 1.77 = L' = B' = 1.77 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.092 100 176.54 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

18.64 44.20

x x

100 100

= =

1864 kN 4420 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 4420

176.54

25.04

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex A7 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.77 B' x

x x / / / 1.77

B' 1.77 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.33

+ + + + Qn 4420

B' B' 1.77 1.77 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 176.54

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.31 ( ( 0.45 iq 0.45 0.42

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.33 Ki 0.33 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.45

mi + 1 2.98

iq

mi 1.98

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.77 0.31 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.45 x 5.44 x 1 = 312.71 + 305.23 + 213.12 = 831.07 kPa qult qmax => > = 25.04 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.42 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A7 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A8

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.95

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan '/m ))
-1

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex A8 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

2.71 5.06 5.06 0.66 2.22 15.71 13.49

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.30 1.95 1.95

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

20.28 30.42 -6.50 0.00 44.20

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.71 2.00 / 2 Pa2 5.06 1.33 / 3 + 0.67 Pa3 5.06 0.67 / 2 Pa4 0.66 0.67 / 3 Pwh 2.22 0.67 / 3

= = = = =

1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M =

Moment 2.71 5.62 1.69 0.15 0.49 10.66

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 1.95 1.30 W2 30.42 1.95 1.95 Pwv -6.50 1.95 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.95

Arm (m) / / /

2 2 3

= = = =

1.30 0.98 1.30 1.95 M = Mr =

Moment 26.36 29.66 -8.45 0.00 47.57 56.02

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 10.66 + 8.45 Restoring Moment Mr = 56.02 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.95 / 2 - ( 56.02 = 0.140m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.95 / 6

0.00

19.11

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 19.11 ) / 0.325m >

V 44.20 0.140m OK! OK!

- Annex A8 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2

1333

667 W3
Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

W4

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.95

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan '/m ))
-1

Back batter, =

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

2.71 5.06 5.06 0.66 2.22 15.71 13.49

- Annex A8 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.30 1.95 4.20

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

20.28 30.42 -6.50 0.00 44.20

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.71 Pa2 5.06 Pa3 5.06 Pa4 0.66 Pwh 2.22 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 2.00 1.33 0.67 0.67 0.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.67 = = = = = 1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M = Moment 2.71 5.62 1.69 0.15 0.49 10.66

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W2 30.42 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -6.50 ( 1.95 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.95

Arm (m) + 1.300 ) + 0.975 ) / 3 )

x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = =

1.44 1.02 1.29 1.95 M = Mr =

Moment 29.25 31.02 -8.41 0.00 51.86 60.26

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 10.66 + 8.41 Restoring Moment Mr = 60.26 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK! ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.95 / 2 - ( 60.26 = 0.043m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.95 / 6

0.00

19.07

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 19.07 ) / 0.325m >

V 44.20 0.043m OK! OK!

- Annex A8 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A9

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 3.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 3.5m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

W5

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex A9 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.65 1.54 1.54 0.20 0.56 5.48 4.93

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.30 1.30

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

20.28 -2.17 0.00 18.11

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.65 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.54 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 Pa3 1.54 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.20 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.56 0.33 / 3

= = = = =

0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M =

Moment 0.82 0.86 0.26 0.02 0.06 2.02

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 1.3 1.30 Pwv -2.17 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.3

Arm (m) / /

2 3

= = =

0.65 0.87 1.30 M = Mr =

Moment 13.18 -1.88 0.00 11.30 13.18

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 2.02 + 1.88 Restoring Moment Mr = 13.18 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

3.90

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.3 = 0.137m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 13.18 Mo ) 3.90 / ) / V 18.11

- Annex A9 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 18.11 kN / m

H =

5.48 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 18.11 x 0.58 = 10.57 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

5.48

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.137 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.30 = 1.03 = L' = B' = 1.03 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.137 100 102.51 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

5.48 18.11

x x

100 100

= =

548 kN 1811 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 1811.33 = /

102.51

17.67

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.03 B' x

x x / / / 1.03

B' 1.03 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex A9 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.22

+ + + + Qn 1811

B' B' 1.03 1.03 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 102.51

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.48 ( ( 0.62 iq 0.62 0.60

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.22 Ki 0.22 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.62

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.03 0.48 x 1 x 1 + x 0.62 x 1 x 1 = 76.85 + 51.77 + 52.94 = 181.56 kPa qult qmax => > = 17.67 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.60 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A9 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 3.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W3 W4

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

o cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.65 1.54 1.54 0.20 0.56 5.48 4.93

- Annex A9 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.30 1.30

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

20.28 -2.17 0.00 18.11

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.65 Pa2 1.54 Pa3 1.54 Pa4 0.20 Pwh 0.56 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.33 = = = = = 0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M = Moment 0.82 0.86 0.26 0.02 0.06 2.02

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -2.17 ( 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.3

Arm (m) + 0.650 ) / 3)

x x

0.995 0.995

= = =

0.70 0.86 1.30 M = Mr =

Moment 14.13 -1.87 0.00 12.26 14.13

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 2.02 + 1.87 Restoring Moment Mr = 14.13 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr

0.00

3.89

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.3 = 0.085m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 14.13 Mo ) 3.89 / ) / V 18.11

- Annex A9 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 3.65 kN / m 9.65 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 9.65 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

3.65

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 5.48 kN / m 15.99 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 15.99 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

5.48

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.085 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.30 = 1.13 = L' = B' = 1.13 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.085 100 113.03 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

5.48 18.11

x x

100 100

= =

548 kN 1811 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 1811

113.03

16.03

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex A9 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.13 B' x

x x / / / 1.13

B' 1.13 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.21

+ + + + Qn 1811

B' B' 1.13 1.13 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 113.03

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.50 ( ( 0.63 iq 0.63 0.61

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.21 Ki 0.21 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.63

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.13 0.50 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.63 x 5.44 x 1 = 444.90 + 317.81 + 292.72 = 1055.43 kPa qult qmax => > = 16.03 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.61 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex A9 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex A10

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

4.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 3.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 3.5m above foundation)

750 800 700

650 1300

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 1000 W4 500 Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv W5

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

= = = = = =

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan '/m ))
-1

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex A10 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

1.35 1.26 1.26 0.17 0.56 4.61 4.05

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.30 1.30

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

20.28 -2.17 0.00 18.11

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.35 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.26 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 Pa3 1.26 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.17 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.56 0.33 / 3

= = = = =

0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M =

Moment 0.68 0.70 0.21 0.02 0.06 1.67

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 1.3 1.30 Pwv -2.17 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.3

Arm (m) / /

2 3

= = =

0.65 0.87 1.30 M = Mr =

Moment 13.18 -1.88 0.00 11.30 13.18

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 1.67 + 1.88 Restoring Moment Mr = 13.18 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.3 / 2 - ( 13.18 = 0.118m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.3 / 6

0.00

3.55

kNm/m run

Mo ) 3.55 0.217m

/ ) / >

V 18.11 0.118m OK! OK!

- Annex A10 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 3.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 750 800 700 650 1300 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 1000 500 W5 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Insitu soil

W4

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4, W5 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.3

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan '/m ))
-1

Back batter, =

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.35 1.26 1.26 0.17 0.56 4.61 4.05

- Annex A10 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.30 4.20

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

20.28 -2.17 0.00 18.11

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.35 Pa2 1.26 Pa3 1.26 Pa4 0.17 Pwh 0.56 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.33 = = = = = 0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M = Moment 0.68 0.70 0.21 0.02 0.06 1.67

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 20.28 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -2.17 ( 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.3

Arm (m) + 0.650 ) / 3 )

x x

0.995 0.995

= = =

0.70 0.86 1.30 M = Mr =

Moment 14.12 -1.87 0.00 12.25 14.12

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 1.67 + 1.87 Restoring Moment Mr = 14.12 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.3 / 2 - ( 14.12 = 0.066m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.3 / 6

0.00

3.54

kNm/m run

Mo ) 3.54 0.217m

/ ) / >

V 18.11 0.066m OK! OK!

- Annex A10 page 4 -

Project

Design of 3.5m Gabion Wall

Annex B

Prepared by Checked by Subject

: : :

NG Chun-ling

(AE/TM5)

Design of 3.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement

Reference

Remarks

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall

Design Statement 1. Design Data


(I) Materials (A) Requirements
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1)

Gabion Materials (i) They should not be susceptible to attack by fire and ultraviolet light. (ii) They should be in form of hexagonal woven or square welded. (iii) Hexagonal woven wire mesh is mechanically woven in a continuous sheet. The wires should be twisted together in pairs through three half turns, i.e. 'double-twisted' to form the mesh. (iv) The edges of the mesh should be selvaged with wires of a diameter of about 1.5 times that of the wire-mesh to prevent unravelling.

Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1) & Fig. 47

(v) The gabion base, top and sides should be formed from a piece of mesh. The ends and diaphragms can be attached to this mesh by helical wires or other methods. (vi) The mesh can stretch or contract in two directions in its own plane and thus a rectangular wire-mesh basket filled with rock fragments can deform in any direction. (vii) The wires used for the wire mesh should be mild steel wire to BS 1052 (BSI, 1986b), with a minimum tensile strength of 350 N/mm 2 . (viii) The wires should be at least 2.7mm in diameter and galvanized. (ix) For hexagonal wire-mesh the wires should be galvanized to BS 443 (BSI, 1990b) before weaving. (x) For welded mesh, the mesh panels should be hot dip galvanized to BS 729 (BSI, 1986c) after welding. The making of panels with galvanized wires welded together is not recommended as the welds are left unprotected. (xi) If the soil and water conditions are aggressive, PVC (polyvinylchloride) coating should be provided to the wires. The PVC coating should be at least 0.5mm thick and should meet the requirements of BS 4102 (BSI, 1991c).

Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1)

Infill material (i) Maximum size of rock should not exceed two-thirds the depth of the gabion to be filled or 300mm , whichever is less. (ii) The preferred size is 150mm to 300mm . The smallest dimension of the rock should at least be twice the largest dimension of the mesh aperture .

- Annex B page 1 -

(B) Assumptions Gabion and Infill Materials Block Size


Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.1

The gabions are in modules of 2m x 1m x 1m.

Mesh Size 8cm x 10cm x 2.7mm

Size of Infill Material

= 250mm

Refer to Annex E Maccaferri Gabions

Critical Velocity for water flow

6.4 m/s

Parameter
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.2 (1)

Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill Mobilized angle of wall friction,

= = =

2.6 0.4 0.0

Backfilling Material behind the existing wall The properties of backfilling material are assumed to be
Geoguide 1 Table 8

(a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength, c' (c) Effective friction angle, ' Insitu Soil beneath the wall (foundation material) The properties of insitu soil are assumed to be (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength, c' (c) Effective friction angle, '

= = =

21 kN/m3 0 kPa 35
o

= = =

19 kN/m3 5 kPa 35
o

(II) Loadings Dead loads Self weight of the proposed protection wall, earth pressure and hydrostatic pressure are taken to be dead load for design. The unit weight of water was taken as 9.81 kN/m3. Imposed load
Geoguide 1 Para. 7.2.2 and Table 16

5kPa surcharge was assumed on the land side. (Footpaths isolated from roads, cycle tracks and play areas)

(III) Water level of the pond It is assumed that the most critical situation should be when the channel is completely dry, which is taken to be the design case.

The groundwater level behind the proposed gabion wall is assumed to be one-third of the retaining height.

- Annex B page 2 -

Geoguide 1 Para. 6.2.2, Table 20 and Figure 13

Proposed retaining walls have no restraint against translation and rotation about the base, hence active state pressure is assumed and compaction-induced lateral pressure is not considered.

2. Design Reference and Codes


Design Code 1. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993), Geoguide 1 - Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition.

Design Methodology In accordance with Geoguide 1, the structures would be designed for both the ultimate limit state (ULS) and the serviceability limit state (SLS).
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6 and Table 7

Partial safety factor approach stipulated under Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4 is adopted. The minimum factors of safety recommended in Geoguide 1 are adopted. Per meter run of the proposed retaining walls is considered for simplicity.

Geoguide 1, clause 9.5.2

Limit state checks would be carried out at selected planes through the gabion wall, ignoring the resistance contributed by the cage material and the connections between the cages. For stepped walls, stability checks would be carried out at each major change in section shape.

3. Checking the Stability of the Protection Wall


3.5m Gabion Wall

- Annex B page 3 -

Ultimate Limit Statement (ULS)


Refer to Annex B1, B3, B5 & B7 para. 1 Step 6

1. Checking Overturning [OK if restoring moment > overturning moment]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 m m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK!

Refer to Annex B1, B3, B5 & B7 para. 1 Step 7

2. Checking Sliding [OK if resisting force > sliding force]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 m m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK!

Refer to Annex B1, B3, B5 & B7 para. 1 Step 8

3. Checking Bearing Capacity [OK if bearing capacity > bearing pressure]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 m m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK!

Serviceability Limit Statement (SLS)


Refer to Annex B2, B4, B6 & B8 para. 1 Step 6

1. Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity [OK if the resultant force acts within the middle third of the wall base]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 m m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK! OK!

For details of calculations, please refer to the Appendix B1 to B8.

- Annex B page 4 -

Construction Aspects
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.4

(i) Horizontal internal bracing wires should be fitted between the outer and inner faces at about 300mm centres in woven mesh gabions which are deeper than 500mm. (ii) The lids of the gabions should meet the top edges of the sides and ends when closed, without leaving any gaps. (iii) The mesh of the lids should be tied down to the tops of any diaphragms provided, as well as to the tops of the sides and ends. (iv) Whenever possible, the vertical joints between the units should be staggered in adjacent courses.

Drainage provisions
Geoguide 1 para. 9.5.5

(i) A geotextile filter would be provided under the base and behind the rear face of the gabion wall to prevent migration of fines from the backfill into the coarse rock infill. (ii) Drainage layers at the rear face are normally not warranted. However, a drainage layer of adequate permeability would be provided at the base of the wall to guard against erosion of the foundation material.

References 1. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993), Geoguide 1 - Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition.
Geoguide 1

- Annex B page 5 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex B1

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation)

650 600

600 1100

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4

W1 Pav 2333 Pa1


Insitu soil

Pa2 1167 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 3.50 1.17 2.95

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex B1 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 2.33 Pa3 = 0.330 x 2.33 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.17

x x x x x

3.50 21 21 1.17 1.17

x x x /

2.33 1.17 1.17 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

5.77 18.85 18.85 2.47 6.81 52.75 45.95

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.17 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.95 2.95

x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = = V=

17.16 26.52 35.88 92.04 -17.21 0.00 154.39

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 5.77 3.50 / 2 Pa2 18.85 2.33 / 3 + 1.17 Pa3 18.85 1.17 / 2 Pa4 2.47 1.17 / 3 Pwh 6.81 1.17 / 3

= = = = =

1.75 1.94 0.58 0.39 0.39 M =

Moment 10.10 36.66 11.00 0.96 2.65 61.36

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 2.95 1.10 W2 26.52 2.95 1.70 W3 35.88 2.95 2.30 W4 92.04 2.95 2.95 Pwv -17.21 2.95 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.95

Arm (m) / / / / /

2 2 2 2 3

= = = = = =

2.40 2.10 1.80 1.48 1.97 2.95 M = Mr =

Moment 41.18 55.69 64.58 135.76 -33.84 0.00 263.38 297.22

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 61.36 + 33.84 Restoring Moment Mr = 297.22 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

95.21

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.95 = 0.167m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 297.22 Mo ) 95.21 ) / / V 154.39

- Annex B1 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 154.39 kN / m

H =

52.75 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 154.39 x 0.58 = 90.09 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

52.75

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.167 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.95 = 2.62 = L' = B' = 2.62 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.167 100 261.69 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

52.75 154.39

x x

100 100

= =

5275 kN 15439 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 15439.17 = /

261.69

59.00

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan ( x x 1 1
2

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.02 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.02

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 2.62 B' x

x x / / / 2.62

B' 2.62 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex B1 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.97 Ki = Qs / ( = 5275 / ( = 0.30

+ + + + Qn 15439

B' B' 2.62 2.62 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 261.69

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.34 ( ( 0.49 iq 0.49 0.46

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.30 Ki 0.30 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.49

mi + 1 2.97

iq

mi 1.97

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.02 x + 0.5 x 9 x 2.62 0.34 x 1 x 1 + x 0.49 x 1 x 1 = 59.86 + 92.06 + 42.26 = 194.17 kPa qult qmax => > = 59.00 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.46 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.02

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex B1 page 5 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 500 W2

W1 Pav 2333 Pa1 W3 W4 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh


Insitu soil

Pa2 1167

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 3.50 1.17 2.95

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 2.33 Pa3 = 0.330 x 2.33 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.17

x x x x x

3.50 21 21 1.17 1.17

x x x /

2.33 1.17 1.17 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

5.77 18.85 18.85 2.47 6.81 52.75 45.95

- Annex B1 page 6 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.17 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.95 2.95

x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = = V=

17.16 26.52 35.88 23.01 -17.21 0.00 85.36

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 5.77 Pa2 18.85 Pa3 18.85 Pa4 2.47 Pwh 6.81 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 3.50 2.33 1.17 1.17 1.17 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.17 = = = = = 1.75 1.94 0.58 0.39 0.39 M = Moment 10.10 36.66 11.00 0.96 2.65 61.36

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 ( 3.00 x 0.10 W2 26.52 ( 2.00 x 0.10 W3 35.88 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W4 23.01 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -17.21 ( 2.95 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.95

Arm (m) + + + + /

2.400 2.100 1.800 1.475 3)

) ) ) )

x x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = = =

2.69 2.29 1.89 1.49 1.96 2.95 M = Mr =

Moment 46.10 60.69 67.83 34.34 -33.68 0.00 175.30 208.97

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 61.36 + 33.68 Restoring Moment Mr = 208.97 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

95.04

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.95 = 0.140m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 208.97 Mo ) 95.04 ) / / V 85.36

- Annex B1 page 7 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 43.96 kN / m 43.98 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 43.98 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

43.96

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 52.75 kN / m 62.10 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 62.10 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

52.75

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.140 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.95 = 2.67 = L' = B' = 2.67 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.140 100 266.94 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

52.75 85.36

x x

100 100

= =

5275 kN 8536 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 8536

266.94

31.98

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex B1 page 8 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.02 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.02

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 2.67 B' x

x x / / / 2.67

B' 2.67 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.97 Ki = Qs / ( = 5275 / ( = 0.51

+ + + + Qn 8536

B' B' 2.67 2.67 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 266.94

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.12 ( ( 0.25 iq 0.25 0.21

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.51 Ki 0.51 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.25

mi + 1 2.97

iq

mi 1.97

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.02 x + 0.5 x 9 x 2.67 0.12 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.25 x 5.44 x 1 = 153.86 + 185.79 + 117.53 = 457.18 kPa qult qmax => > = 31.98 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.21 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.02

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex B1 page 9 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex B2

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation)

650 600

600 1100

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4

W1 Pav 2333 Pa1


Insitu soil

Pa2 1167 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 3.50 1.17 2.95

kN/m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

kN/m2

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex B2 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.33 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.33 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.17

x x x x x

3.50 21 21 1.17 1.17

x x x /

2.33 1.17 1.17 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

4.74 15.49 15.49 2.03 6.81 44.56 37.75

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.17 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.95 2.95

x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = = V=

17.16 26.52 35.88 92.04 -17.21 0.00 154.39

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.74 3.50 / 2 Pa2 15.49 2.33 / 3 + 1.17 Pa3 15.49 1.17 / 2 Pa4 2.03 1.17 / 3 Pwh 6.81 1.17 / 3

= = = = =

1.75 1.94 0.58 0.39 0.39 M =

Moment 8.30 30.12 9.04 0.79 2.65 50.89

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 2.95 1.10 W2 26.52 2.95 1.70 W3 35.88 2.95 2.30 W4 92.04 2.95 2.95 Pwv -17.21 2.95 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.95

Arm (m) / / / / /

2 2 2 2 3

= = = = = =

2.40 2.10 1.80 1.48 1.97 2.95 M = Mr =

Moment 41.18 55.69 64.58 135.76 -33.84 0.00 263.38 297.22

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 50.89 + 33.84 Restoring Moment Mr = 297.22 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.95 / 2 - ( 297.22 = 0.099m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2.95 / 6

0.00

84.74

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 84.74 ) / 0.492m >

V 154.39 0.099m OK! OK!

- Annex B2 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 500 W2

W1 Pav 2333 Pa1 W3


Insitu soil

Pa2 1167 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

W4

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 3.50 1.17 2.95

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) Back batter, = 1 :

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.33 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.33 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.17

x x x x x

3.50 21 21 1.17 1.17

x x x /

2.33 1.17 1.17 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

4.74 15.49 15.49 2.03 6.81 44.56 37.75

- Annex B2 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x W4 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.17 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.95 2.95

x x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = = V=

17.16 26.52 35.88 92.04 -17.21 0.00 154.39

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.74 Pa2 15.49 Pa3 15.49 Pa4 2.03 Pwh 6.81 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 3.50 2.33 1.17 1.17 1.17 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.17 = = = = = 1.75 1.94 0.58 0.39 0.39 M = Moment 8.30 30.12 9.04 0.79 2.65 50.89

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 ( 3.00 x 0.10 W2 26.52 ( 2.00 x 0.10 W3 35.88 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W4 92.04 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -17.21 ( 2.95 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.95

Arm (m) + + + + /

2.400 2.100 1.800 1.475 3

) ) ) ) )

x x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = = =

2.69 2.29 1.89 1.49 1.96 2.95 M = Mr =

Moment 46.08 60.67 67.82 137.36 -33.68 0.00 278.25 311.92

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 50.89 + 33.68 Restoring Moment Mr = 311.92 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.95 / 2 - ( 311.92 = 0.002m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2.95 / 6

0.00

84.57

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 84.57 ) / 0.492m >

V 154.39 0.002m OK! OK!

- Annex B2 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex B3

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

650 600

600 1100

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 2000


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

1000

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex B3 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

4.95 13.85 13.85 1.81 5.00 39.46 34.46

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.30

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = V=

17.16 26.52 35.88 -11.50 0.00 68.06

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.95 3.00 / 2 Pa2 13.85 2.00 / 3 + 1.00 Pa3 13.85 1.00 / 2 Pa4 1.81 1.00 / 3 Pwh 5.00 1.00 / 3

= = = = =

1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 M =

Moment 7.42 23.09 6.93 0.60 1.67 39.70

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 2.3 1.10 W2 26.52 2.3 1.70 W3 35.88 2.3 2.30 Pwv -11.50 2.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.3

Arm (m) / / / /

2 2 2 3

= = = = =

1.75 1.45 1.15 1.53 2.30 M = Mr =

Moment 30.03 38.45 41.26 -17.63 0.00 92.11 109.75

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 39.70 + 17.63 Restoring Moment Mr = 109.75 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

57.34

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.3 = 0.380m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 109.75 Mo ) 57.34 ) / / V 68.06

- Annex B3 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 68.06 kN / m

H =

39.46 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 68.06 x 0.58 = 39.71 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

39.46

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.380 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.30 = 1.54 = L' = B' = 1.54 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.380 100 154.01 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

39.46 68.06

x x

100 100

= =

3946 kN 6806 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 6806.00 = /

154.01

44.19

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.54 B' x

x x / / / 1.54

B' 1.54 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex B3 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 3946 / ( = 0.50

+ + + + Qn 6806

B' B' 1.54 1.54 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 154.01

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.13 ( ( 0.25 iq 0.25 0.21

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.50 Ki 0.50 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.25

mi + 1 2.98

iq

mi 1.98

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.54 0.13 x 1 x 1 + x 0.25 x 1 x 1 = 27.43 + 20.37 + 21.82 = 69.62 kPa qult qmax => > = 44.19 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.21 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex B3 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W3 W4

W1 Pav Pa1
Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

2000 1000

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

4.95 13.85 13.85 1.81 5.00 39.46 34.46

- Annex B3 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.30

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = V=

17.16 26.52 35.88 -11.50 0.00 68.06

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.95 Pa2 13.85 Pa3 13.85 Pa4 1.81 Pwh 5.00 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.00 = = = = = 1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 M = Moment 7.42 23.09 6.93 0.60 1.67 39.70

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 ( 2.50 x 0.10 W2 26.52 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W3 35.88 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -11.50 ( 2.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.3

Arm (m) + 1.750 ) + 1.450 ) + 1.150 ) / 3)

x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = =

1.99 1.59 1.19 1.53 2.30 M = Mr =

Moment 34.15 42.22 42.84 -17.55 0.00 101.67 119.21

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 39.70 + 17.55 Restoring Moment Mr = 119.21 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

57.25

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2.3 = 0.240m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 119.21 Mo ) 57.25 ) / / V 68.06

- Annex B3 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 32.46 kN / m 35.21 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 35.21 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

32.46

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 39.46 kN / m 49.30 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 49.30 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

39.46

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.240 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.30 = 1.82 = L' = B' = 1.82 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.240 100 182.09 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

39.46 68.06

x x

100 100

= =

3946 kN 6806 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 6806

182.09

37.38

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex B3 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.82 B' x

x x / / / 1.82

B' 1.82 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 3946 / ( = 0.49

+ + + + Qn 6806

B' B' 1.82 1.82 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 182.09

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.14 ( ( 0.27 iq 0.27 0.23

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.49 Ki 0.49 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.27

mi + 1 2.98

iq

mi 1.98

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.82 0.14 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.27 x 5.44 x 1 = 166.41 + 140.94 + 124.99 = 432.34 kPa qult qmax => > = 37.38 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.23 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex B3 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex B4

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

650 600

600 1100

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4

W1 Pav Pa1
Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

2000 1000

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan '/m ))
-1

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex B4 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

4.06 11.38 11.38 1.49 5.00 33.32 28.32

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.30

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = V=

17.16 26.52 35.88 -11.50 0.00 68.06

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.06 3.00 / 2 Pa2 11.38 2.00 / 3 + 1.00 Pa3 11.38 1.00 / 2 Pa4 1.49 1.00 / 3 Pwh 5.00 1.00 / 3

= = = = =

1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 M =

Moment 6.10 18.97 5.69 0.50 1.67 32.92

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 2.3 1.10 W2 26.52 2.3 1.70 W3 35.88 2.3 2.30 Pwv -11.50 2.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.3

Arm (m) / / / /

2 2 2 3

= = = = =

1.75 1.45 1.15 1.53 2.30 M = Mr =

Moment 30.03 38.45 41.26 -17.63 0.00 92.11 109.75

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 32.92 + 17.63 Restoring Moment Mr = 109.75 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.3 / 2 - ( 109.75 = 0.280m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2.3 / 6

0.00

50.55

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 50.55 ) / 0.383m >

V 68.06 0.280m OK! OK!

- Annex B4 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

2000 1000

W4

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 3.00 1.00 2.3

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) Back batter, = 1 :

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 2.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 1.00

x x x x x

3.00 21 21 1.00 1.00

x x x /

2.00 1.00 1.00 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

4.06 11.38 11.38 1.49 5.00 33.32 28.32

- Annex B4 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1.00 x

1.10 1.70 2.30 2.95

x x x /

1.00 1.00 1.00 2

= = = = = V=

17.16 26.52 35.88 -11.50 0.00 68.06

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.06 Pa2 11.38 Pa3 11.38 Pa4 1.49 Pwh 5.00 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 1.00 = = = = = 1.50 1.67 0.50 0.33 0.33 M = Moment 6.10 18.97 5.69 0.50 1.67 32.92

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 ( 2.50 x 0.10 W2 26.52 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W3 35.88 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -11.50 ( 2.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 2.3

Arm (m) + 1.750 ) + 1.450 ) + 1.150 ) / 3 )

x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = =

1.99 1.59 1.19 1.53 2.30 M = Mr =

Moment 34.13 42.20 42.83 -17.55 0.00 101.62 119.16

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 32.92 + 17.55 Restoring Moment Mr = 119.16 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2.3 / 2 - ( 119.16 = 0.141m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2.3 / 6

0.00

50.47

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 50.47 ) / 0.383m >

V 68.06 0.141m OK! OK!

- Annex B4 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex B5

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation)

650 600

600 1100

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.70

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex B5 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

3.30 6.16 6.16 0.81 2.22 18.64 16.42

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.10 1.70 1.70

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

17.16 26.52 -5.67 0.00 38.01

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.30 2.00 / 2 Pa2 6.16 1.33 / 3 + 0.67 Pa3 6.16 0.67 / 2 Pa4 0.81 0.67 / 3 Pwh 2.22 0.67 / 3

= = = = =

1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M =

Moment 3.30 6.84 2.05 0.18 0.49 12.86

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 1.7 1.10 W2 26.52 1.7 1.70 Pwv -5.67 1.7 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.7

Arm (m) / / /

2 2 3

= = = =

1.15 0.85 1.13 1.70 M = Mr =

Moment 19.73 22.54 -6.42 0.00 35.85 42.28

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 12.86 + 6.42 Restoring Moment Mr = 42.28 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

19.29

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.7 = 0.245m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 42.28 Mo ) 19.29 ) / / V 38.01

- Annex B5 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 38.01 kN / m

H =

18.64 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 38.01 x 0.58 = 22.18 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

18.64

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.245 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.70 = 1.21 = L' = B' = 1.21 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.245 100 120.96 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

18.64 38.01

x x

100 100

= =

1864 kN 3801 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 3801.33 = /

120.96

31.43

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.21 B' x

x x / / / 1.21

B' 1.21 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex B5 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.40

+ + + + Qn 3801

B' B' 1.21 1.21 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 120.96

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.22 ( ( 0.36 iq 0.36 0.33

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.40 Ki 0.40 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.36

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.21 0.22 x 1 x 1 + x 0.36 x 1 x 1 = 42.29 + 27.49 + 31.17 = 100.94 kPa qult qmax => > = 31.43 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.33 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex B5 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 500 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 W3 W4


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.70

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

3.30 6.16 6.16 0.81 2.22 18.64 16.42

- Annex B5 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.10 1.70 1.70

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

17.16 26.52 -5.67 0.00 38.01

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.30 Pa2 6.16 Pa3 6.16 Pa4 0.81 Pwh 2.22 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 2.00 1.33 0.67 0.67 0.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.67 = = = = = 1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M = Moment 3.30 6.84 2.05 0.18 0.49 12.86

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W2 26.52 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -5.67 ( 1.7 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.7

Arm (m) + 1.150 ) + 0.850 ) / 3)

x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = =

1.29 0.90 1.13 1.70 M = Mr =

Moment 22.20 23.75 -6.39 0.00 39.56 45.95

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 12.86 + 6.39 Restoring Moment Mr = 45.95 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

19.25

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.7 = 0.148m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 45.95 Mo ) 19.25 ) / / V 38.01

- Annex B5 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 14.75 kN / m 19.85 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 19.85 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

14.75

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 18.64 kN / m 29.26 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 29.26 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

18.64

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.148 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.70 = 1.40 = L' = B' = 1.40 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.148 100 140.44 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

18.64 38.01

x x

100 100

= =

1864 kN 3801 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 3801

140.44

27.07

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex B5 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.40 B' x

x x / / / 1.40

B' 1.40 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.39

+ + + + Qn 3801

B' B' 1.40 1.40 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 140.44

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.23 ( ( 0.38 iq 0.38 0.34

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.39 Ki 0.39 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.38

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.40 0.23 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.38 x 5.44 x 1 = 251.91 + 183.78 + 176.46 = 612.14 kPa qult qmax => > = 27.07 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.34 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex B5 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex B6

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation)

650 600

600 1100

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.70

kN/m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

kN/m2

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex B6 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

2.71 5.06 5.06 0.66 2.22 15.71 13.49

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.10 1.70 1.70

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

17.16 26.52 -5.67 0.00 38.01

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.71 2.00 / 2 Pa2 5.06 1.33 / 3 + 0.67 Pa3 5.06 0.67 / 2 Pa4 0.66 0.67 / 3 Pwh 2.22 0.67 / 3

= = = = =

1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M =

Moment 2.71 5.62 1.69 0.15 0.49 10.66

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 1.7 1.10 W2 26.52 1.7 1.70 Pwv -5.67 1.7 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.7

Arm (m) / / /

2 2 3

= = = =

1.15 0.85 1.13 1.70 M = Mr =

Moment 19.73 22.54 -6.42 0.00 35.85 42.28

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 10.66 + 6.42 Restoring Moment Mr = 42.28 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.7 / 2 - ( 42.28 = 0.187m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.7 / 6

0.00

17.08

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 17.08 ) / 0.283m >

V 38.01 0.187m OK! OK!

- Annex B6 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 500 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2

1333

667 W3
Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

W4

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.7

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) Back batter, = 1 :

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

2.71 5.06 5.06 0.66 2.22 15.71 13.49

- Annex B6 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.10 1.70 2.95

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

17.16 26.52 -5.67 0.00 38.01

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.71 Pa2 5.06 Pa3 5.06 Pa4 0.66 Pwh 2.22 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 2.00 1.33 0.67 0.67 0.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.67 = = = = = 1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M = Moment 2.71 5.62 1.69 0.15 0.49 10.66

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W2 26.52 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -5.67 ( 1.7 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.7

Arm (m) + 1.150 ) + 0.850 ) / 3 )

x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = =

1.29 0.90 1.13 1.70 M = Mr =

Moment 22.18 23.74 -6.39 0.00 39.54 45.93

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 10.66 + 6.39 Restoring Moment Mr = 45.93 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK! ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.7 / 2 - ( 45.93 = 0.090m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.7 / 6

0.00

17.05

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 17.05 ) / 0.283m >

V 38.01 0.090m OK! OK!

- Annex B6 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex B7

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation)

650 600

600 1100

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.10

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex B7 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.65 1.54 1.54 0.20 0.56 5.48 4.93

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.10 1.10

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

17.16 -1.83 0.00 15.33

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.65 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.54 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 Pa3 1.54 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.20 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.56 0.33 / 3

= = = = =

0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M =

Moment 0.82 0.86 0.26 0.02 0.06 2.02

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 1.1 1.10 Pwv -1.83 1.1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.1

Arm (m) / /

2 3

= = =

0.55 0.73 1.10 M = Mr =

Moment 9.44 -1.34 0.00 8.09 9.44

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 2.02 + 1.34 Restoring Moment Mr = 9.44 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

3.36

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.1 = 0.154m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 9.44 Mo ) 3.36 / ) / V 15.33

- Annex B7 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 15.33 kN / m

H =

5.48 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 15.33 x 0.58 = 8.94 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

5.48

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.154 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.10 = 0.79 = L' = B' = 0.79 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.154 100 79.25 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

5.48 15.33

x x

100 100

= =

548 kN 1533 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 1532.67 = /

79.25

19.34

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.00 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.00

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 0.79 B' x

x x / / / 0.79

B' 0.79 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex B7 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.26

+ + + + Qn 1533

B' B' 0.79 0.79 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 79.25

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.40 ( ( 0.55 iq 0.55 0.52

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.26 Ki 0.26 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.55

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.00 x + 0.5 x 9 x 0.79 0.40 x 1 x 1 + x 0.55 x 1 x 1 = 67.24 + 33.46 + 46.88 = 147.58 kPa qult qmax => > = 19.34 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.52 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.00

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex B7 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W3 W4

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.10

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.65 1.54 1.54 0.20 0.56 5.48 4.93

- Annex B7 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.10 1.10

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

17.16 -1.83 0.00 15.33

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.65 Pa2 1.54 Pa3 1.54 Pa4 0.20 Pwh 0.56 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.33 = = = = = 0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M = Moment 0.82 0.86 0.26 0.02 0.06 2.02

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -1.83 ( 1.1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.1

Arm (m) + 0.550 ) / 3)

x x

0.995 0.995

= = =

0.60 0.73 1.10 M = Mr =

Moment 10.24 -1.34 0.00 8.91 10.24

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 2.02 + 1.34 Restoring Moment Mr = 10.24 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr

0.00

3.36

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.1 = 0.101m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 10.24 Mo ) 3.36 / ) / V 15.33

- Annex B7 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 3.92 kN / m 8.12 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 8.12 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

3.92

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 5.48 kN / m 13.53 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 13.53 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

5.48

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.101 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.10 = 0.90 = L' = B' = 0.90 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.101 100 89.87 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

5.48 15.33

x x

100 100

= =

548 kN 1533 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 1533

89.87

17.05

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex B7 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 0.90 B' x

x x / / / 0.90

B' 0.90 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.25

+ + + + Qn 1533

B' B' 0.90 0.90 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 89.87

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.42 ( ( 0.56 iq 0.56 0.54

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.25 Ki 0.25 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.56

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 0.90 0.42 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.56 x 5.44 x 1 = 393.18 + 214.04 + 261.54 = 868.76 kPa qult qmax => > = 17.05 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.54 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex B7 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex B8

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

3.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation)

650 600

600 1100

kPa

1000 1000 W2 1000 W3 500 W4

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.10

kN/m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

kN/m2

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex B8 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

1.35 1.26 1.26 0.17 0.56 4.61 4.05

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.10 1.10

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

17.16 -1.83 0.00 15.33

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.35 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.26 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 Pa3 1.26 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.17 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.56 0.33 / 3

= = = = =

0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M =

Moment 0.68 0.70 0.21 0.02 0.06 1.67

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 1.1 1.10 Pwv -1.83 1.1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.1

Arm (m) / /

2 3

= = =

0.55 0.73 1.10 M = Mr =

Moment 9.44 -1.34 0.00 8.09 9.44

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 1.67 + 1.34 Restoring Moment Mr = 9.44 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.1 / 2 - ( 9.44 = 0.131m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.1 / 6

0.00

3.02

kNm/m run

Mo ) 3.02 0.183m

/ ) / >

V 15.33 0.131m OK! OK!

- Annex B8 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 2.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 650 600 600 1100 5 kPa

1000 1000 1000 500 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Insitu soil

W4

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3, W4 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.1

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) Back batter, = 1 :

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.35 1.26 1.26 0.17 0.56 4.61 4.05

- Annex B8 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.10 2.95

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

17.16 -1.83 0.00 15.33

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.35 Pa2 1.26 Pa3 1.26 Pa4 0.17 Pwh 0.56 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.33 = = = = = 0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M = Moment 0.68 0.70 0.21 0.02 0.06 1.67

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 17.16 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -1.83 ( 1.1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.1

Arm (m) + 0.550 ) / 3 )

x x

0.995 0.995

= = =

0.60 0.73 1.10 M = Mr =

Moment 10.24 -1.34 0.00 8.90 10.24

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 1.67 + 1.34 Restoring Moment Mr = 10.24 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.1 / 2 - ( 10.24 = 0.078m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.1 / 6

0.00

3.01

kNm/m run

Mo ) 3.01 0.183m

/ ) / >

V 15.33 0.078m OK! OK!

- Annex B8 page 4 -

Project

Design of 2.5m Gabion Wall

Annex C

Prepared by Checked by Subject

: : :

NG Chun-ling

(AE/TM5)

Design of 2.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement

Reference

Remarks

Design of

2.5m Gabion Wall

Design Statement 1. Design Data


(I) Materials (A) Requirements
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1)

Gabion Materials (i) They should not be susceptible to attack by fire and ultraviolet light. (ii) They should be in form of hexagonal woven or square welded. (iii) Hexagonal woven wire mesh is mechanically woven in a continuous sheet. The wires should be twisted together in pairs through three half turns, i.e. 'double-twisted' to form the mesh. (iv) The edges of the mesh should be selvaged with wires of a diameter of about 1.5 times that of the wire-mesh to prevent unravelling.

Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1) & Fig. 47

(v) The gabion base, top and sides should be formed from a piece of mesh. The ends and diaphragms can be attached to this mesh by helical wires or other methods. (vi) The mesh can stretch or contract in two directions in its own plane and thus a rectangular wire-mesh basket filled with rock fragments can deform in any direction. (vii) The wires used for the wire mesh should be mild steel wire to BS 1052 (BSI, 1986b), with a minimum tensile strength of 350 N/mm 2 . (viii) The wires should be at least 2.7mm in diameter and galvanized. (ix) For hexagonal wire-mesh the wires should be galvanized to BS 443 (BSI, 1990b) before weaving. (x) For welded mesh, the mesh panels should be hot dip galvanized to BS 729 (BSI, 1986c) after welding. The making of panels with galvanized wires welded together is not recommended as the welds are left unprotected. (xi) If the soil and water conditions are aggressive, PVC (polyvinylchloride) coating should be provided to the wires. The PVC coating should be at least 0.5mm thick and should meet the requirements of BS 4102 (BSI, 1991c).

Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1)

Infill material (i) Maximum size of rock should not exceed two-thirds the depth of the gabion to be filled or 300mm , whichever is less. (ii) The preferred size is 150mm to 300mm . The smallest dimension of the rock should at least be twice the largest dimension of the mesh aperture .

- Annex C page 1 -

(B) Assumptions Gabion and Infill Materials Block Size


Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.1

The gabions are in modules of 2m x 1m x 1m.

Mesh Size 8cm x 10cm x 2.7mm

Size of Infill Material

= 250mm

Refer to Annex E Maccaferri Gabions

Critical Velocity for water flow

6.4 m/s

Parameter
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.2 (1)

Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill Mobilized angle of wall friction,

= = =

2.6 0.4 0.0

Backfilling Material behind the existing wall The properties of backfilling material are assumed to be
Geoguide 1 Table 8

(a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength, c' (c) Effective friction angle, ' Insitu Soil beneath the wall (foundation material) The properties of insitu soil are assumed to be (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength, c' (c) Effective friction angle, '

= = =

21 kN/m3 0 kPa 35
o

= = =

19 kN/m3 5 kPa 35
o

(II) Loadings Dead loads Self weight of the proposed protection wall, earth pressure and hydrostatic pressure are taken to be dead load for design. The unit weight of water was taken as 9.81 kN/m3. Imposed load
Geoguide 1 Para. 7.2.2 and Table 16

5kPa surcharge was assumed on the land side. (Footpaths isolated from roads, cycle tracks and play areas)

(III) Water level of the pond It is assumed that the most critical situation should be when the channel is completely dry, which is taken to be the design case.

The groundwater level behind the proposed gabion wall is assumed to be one-third of the retaining height.

- Annex C page 2 -

Geoguide 1 Para. 6.2.2, Table 20 and Figure 13

Proposed retaining walls have no restraint against translation and rotation about the base, hence active state pressure is assumed and compaction-induced lateral pressure is not considered.

2. Design Reference and Codes


Design Code 1. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993), Geoguide 1 - Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition.

Design Methodology In accordance with Geoguide 1, the structures would be designed for both the ultimate limit state (ULS) and the serviceability limit state (SLS).
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6 and Table 7

Partial safety factor approach stipulated under Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4 is adopted. The minimum factors of safety recommended in Geoguide 1 are adopted. Per meter run of the proposed retaining walls is considered for simplicity.

Geoguide 1, clause 9.5.2

Limit state checks would be carried out at selected planes through the gabion wall, ignoring the resistance contributed by the cage material and the connections between the cages. For stepped walls, stability checks would be carried out at each major change in section shape.

3. Checking the Stability of the Protection Wall


2.5m Gabion Wall

- Annex C page 3 -

Ultimate Limit Statement (ULS)


Refer to Annex C1, C3, & C5 para. 1 Step 6

1. Checking Overturning [OK if restoring moment > overturning moment]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK!

Refer to Annex C1, C3, & C5 para. 1 Step 7

2. Checking Sliding [OK if resisting force > sliding force]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK!

Refer to Annex C1, C3, & C5 para. 1 Step 8

3. Checking Bearing Capacity [OK if bearing capacity > bearing pressure]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK!

Serviceability Limit Statement (SLS)


Refer to Annex C2, C4, & C6 para. 1 Step 6

1. Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity [OK if the resultant force acts within the middle third of the wall base]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 1.5 m m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK! OK!

For details of calculations, please refer to the Appendix C1 to C6.

- Annex C page 4 -

Construction Aspects
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.4

(i) Horizontal internal bracing wires should be fitted between the outer and inner faces at about 300mm centres in woven mesh gabions which are deeper than 500mm. (ii) The lids of the gabions should meet the top edges of the sides and ends when closed, without leaving any gaps. (iii) The mesh of the lids should be tied down to the tops of any diaphragms provided, as well as to the tops of the sides and ends. (iv) Whenever possible, the vertical joints between the units should be staggered in adjacent courses.

Drainage provisions
Geoguide 1 para. 9.5.5

(i) A geotextile filter would be provided under the base and behind the rear face of the gabion wall to prevent migration of fines from the backfill into the coarse rock infill. (ii) Drainage layers at the rear face are normally not warranted. However, a drainage layer of adequate permeability would be provided at the base of the wall to guard against erosion of the foundation material.

References 1. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993), Geoguide 1 - Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition.
Geoguide 1

- Annex C page 5 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex C1

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

2.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation)

500 500 1000

kPa

1000 1000 W2 500 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1667


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

833

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 2.50 0.83 2.00

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

o cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex C1 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.83

x x x x x

2.50 21 21 0.83 0.83

x x x /

1.67 0.83 0.83 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

4.12 9.62 9.62 1.26 3.47 28.09 24.62

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.83 x

1.00 1.50 2.00 2.00

x x x /

1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = V=

15.60 23.40 62.40 -8.33 0.00 93.07

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.12 2.50 / 2 Pa2 9.62 1.67 / 3 + 0.83 Pa3 9.62 0.83 / 2 Pa4 1.26 0.83 / 3 Pwh 3.47 0.83 / 3

= = = = =

1.25 1.39 0.42 0.28 0.28 M =

Moment 5.15 13.36 4.01 0.35 0.96 23.84

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 2 1.00 W2 23.40 2 1.50 W3 62.40 2 2.00 Pwv -8.33 2 x 2 Pav 0.00 2

Arm (m) / / / /

2 2 2 3

= = = = =

1.50 1.25 1.00 1.33 2.00 M = Mr =

Moment 23.40 29.25 62.40 -11.11 0.00 103.94 115.05

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 23.84 + 11.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 115.05 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

34.95

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2 = 0.139m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 115.05 Mo ) 34.95 ) / / V 93.07

- Annex C1 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 93.07 kN / m

H =

28.09 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 93.07 x 0.58 = 54.30 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

28.09

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.139 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.00 = 1.72 = L' = B' = 1.72 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.139 100 172.14 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

28.09 93.07

x x

100 100

= =

2809 kN 9307 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 9306.67 = /

172.14

54.06

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.72 B' x

x x / / / 1.72

B' 1.72 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex C1 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 2809 / ( = 0.27

+ + + + Qn 9307

B' B' 1.72 1.72 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 172.14

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.40 ( ( 0.54 iq 0.54 0.52

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.27 Ki 0.27 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.54

mi + 1 2.98

iq

mi 1.98

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.72 0.40 x 1 x 1 + x 0.54 x 1 x 1 = 66.76 + 71.05 + 46.59 = 184.41 kPa qult qmax => > = 54.06 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.52 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex C1 page 5 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa

1000 1000 500 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1
Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

1667 833

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m3 kN/m


o 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 2.50 0.83 2.00

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.83

x x x x x

2.50 21 21 0.83 0.83

x x x /

1.67 0.83 0.83 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

4.12 9.62 9.62 1.26 3.47 28.09 24.62

- Annex C1 page 6 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.83 x

1.00 1.50 2.00 2.00

x x x /

1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = V=

15.60 23.40 15.60 -8.33 0.00 46.27

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 4.12 Pa2 9.62 Pa3 9.62 Pa4 1.26 Pwh 3.47 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 2.50 1.67 0.83 0.83 0.83 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.83 = = = = = 1.25 1.39 0.42 0.28 0.28 M = Moment 5.15 13.36 4.01 0.35 0.96 23.84

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 2.00 x 0.10 W2 23.40 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W3 15.60 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -8.33 ( 2 x 2 Pav 0.00 2

Arm (m) + 1.500 ) + 1.250 ) + 1.000 ) / 3)

x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = =

1.69 1.34 1.02 1.33 2.00 M = Mr =

Moment 26.39 31.43 15.91 -11.06 0.00 62.68 73.73

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 23.84 + 11.06 Restoring Moment Mr = 73.73 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

34.89

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 2 = 0.161m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 73.73 Mo ) 34.89 ) / / V 46.27

- Annex C1 page 7 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 23.33 kN / m 23.86 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 23.86 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

23.33

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 28.09 kN / m 35.33 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 35.33 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

28.09

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.161 m Effective Width B' = B = 2.00 = 1.68 = L' = B' = 1.68 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.161 100 167.90 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

28.09 46.27

x x

100 100

= =

2809 kN 4627 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 4627

167.90

27.56

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex C1 page 8 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 0.99 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.68 B' x

x x / / / 1.68

B' 1.68 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.98 Ki = Qs / ( = 2809 / ( = 0.48

+ + + + Qn 4627

B' B' 1.68 1.68 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 167.90

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.14 ( ( 0.27 iq 0.27 0.23

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.48 Ki 0.48 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.27

mi + 1 2.98

iq

mi 1.98

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.68 0.14 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.27 x 5.44 x 1 = 169.78 + 133.43 + 127.01 = 430.22 kPa qult qmax => > = 27.56 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.23 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 0.99 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex C1 page 9 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex C2

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

2.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation)

500 500 1000

kPa

1000 1000 W2 500 W3

W1 Pav Pa1
Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa3 Pa4 Pwh

1667 833

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 2.50 0.83 2.00

kN/m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

kN/m2

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex C2 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.83

x x x x x

2.50 21 21 0.83 0.83

x x x /

1.67 0.83 0.83 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

3.39 7.90 7.90 1.04 3.47 23.70 20.23

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.83 x

1.00 1.50 2.00 2.00

x x x /

1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = V=

15.60 23.40 62.40 -8.33 0.00 93.07

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.39 2.50 / 2 Pa2 7.90 1.67 / 3 + 0.83 Pa3 7.90 0.83 / 2 Pa4 1.04 0.83 / 3 Pwh 3.47 0.83 / 3

= = = = =

1.25 1.39 0.42 0.28 0.28 M =

Moment 4.23 10.98 3.29 0.29 0.96 19.76

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 2 1.00 W2 23.40 2 1.50 W3 62.40 2 2.00 Pwv -8.33 2 x 2 Pav 0.00 2

Arm (m) / / / /

2 2 2 3

= = = = =

1.50 1.25 1.00 1.33 2.00 M = Mr =

Moment 23.40 29.25 62.40 -11.11 0.00 103.94 115.05

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 19.76 + 11.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 115.05 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2 / 2 - ( 115.05 = 0.095m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2 / 6

0.00

30.87

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 30.87 ) / 0.333m >

V 93.07 0.095m OK! OK!

- Annex C2 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa

1000 1000 500 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

1667 833

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 2.50 0.83 2

kN/m2 kN/m m m m
2

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan (tan '/m ))
-1

Back batter, =

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.83

x x x x x

2.50 21 21 0.83 0.83

x x x /

1.67 0.83 0.83 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

3.39 7.90 7.90 1.04 3.47 23.70 20.23

- Annex C2 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift W1 = 26 x W2 = 26 x W3 = 26 x Pwv = 10 x Pav = 0.00

kN/m - run 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.83 x

1.00 1.50 2.00 2.00

x x x /

1.00 1.00 0.50 2

= = = = = V=

15.60 23.40 62.40 -8.33 0.00 93.07

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.39 Pa2 7.90 Pa3 7.90 Pa4 1.04 Pwh 3.47 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 2.50 1.67 0.83 0.83 0.83 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.83 = = = = = 1.25 1.39 0.42 0.28 0.28 M = Moment 4.23 10.98 3.29 0.29 0.96 19.76

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 2.00 x 0.10 W2 23.40 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W3 62.40 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -8.33 ( 2 x 2 Pav 0.00 2

Arm (m) + 1.500 ) + 1.250 ) + 1.000 ) / 3 )

x x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = = =

1.69 1.34 1.02 1.33 2.00 M = Mr =

Moment 26.37 31.42 63.63 -11.06 0.00 110.37 121.43

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 19.76 + 11.06 Restoring Moment Mr = 121.43 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 2 / 2 - ( 121.43 = 0.026m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 2 / 6

0.00

30.81

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 30.81 ) / 0.333m >

V 93.07 0.026m OK! OK!

- Annex C2 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex C3

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

2.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

500 500 1000

kPa

1000 1000 W2 500 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.50

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

o cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex C3 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

3.30 6.16 6.16 0.81 2.22 18.64 16.42

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.50 1.50

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

15.60 23.40 -5.00 0.00 34.00

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.30 2.00 / 2 Pa2 6.16 1.33 / 3 + 0.67 Pa3 6.16 0.67 / 2 Pa4 0.81 0.67 / 3 Pwh 2.22 0.67 / 3

= = = = =

1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M =

Moment 3.30 6.84 2.05 0.18 0.49 12.86

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 1.5 1.00 W2 23.40 1.5 1.50 Pwv -5.00 1.5 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.5

Arm (m) / / /

2 2 3

= = = =

1.00 0.75 1.00 1.50 M = Mr =

Moment 15.60 17.55 -5.00 0.00 28.15 33.15

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 12.86 + 5.00 Restoring Moment Mr = 33.15 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

17.86

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.5 = 0.300m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 33.15 Mo ) 17.86 ) / / V 34.00

- Annex C3 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 34.00 kN / m

H =

18.64 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 34.00 x 0.58 = 19.84 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

18.64

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.300 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.50 = 0.90 = L' = B' = 0.90 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.300 100 89.92 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

18.64 34.00

x x

100 100

= =

1864 kN 3400 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 3400.00 = /

89.92

37.81

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan ( x x 1 1
2

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 0.90 B' x

x x / / / 0.90

B' 0.90 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex C3 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.46

+ + + + Qn 3400

B' B' 0.90 0.90 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 89.92

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.16 ( ( 0.29 iq 0.29 0.25

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.46 Ki 0.46 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.29

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 0.90 0.16 x 1 x 1 + x 0.29 x 1 x 1 = 32.57 + 14.78 + 25.05 = 72.40 kPa qult qmax => > = 37.81 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.25 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex C3 page 5 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa

1000 1000 500 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667 W3


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m3 kN/m


o 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.50

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

3.30 6.16 6.16 0.81 2.22 18.64 16.42

- Annex C3 page 6 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.50 1.50

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

15.60 23.40 -5.00 0.00 34.00

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 3.30 Pa2 6.16 Pa3 6.16 Pa4 0.81 Pwh 2.22 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 2.00 1.33 0.67 0.67 0.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.67 = = = = = 1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M = Moment 3.30 6.84 2.05 0.18 0.49 12.86

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W2 23.40 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -5.00 ( 1.5 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.5

Arm (m) + 1.000 ) + 0.750 ) / 3)

x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = =

1.14 0.80 1.00 1.50 M = Mr =

Moment 17.85 18.63 -4.98 0.00 31.50 36.48

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 12.86 + 4.98 Restoring Moment Mr = 36.48 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

17.84

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.5 = 0.202m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 36.48 Mo ) 17.84 ) / / V 34.00

- Annex C3 page 7 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 15.15 kN / m 17.65 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 17.65 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

15.15

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 18.64 kN / m 26.09 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 26.09 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

18.64

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.202 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.50 = 1.10 = L' = B' = 1.10 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.202 100 109.64 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

18.64 34.00

x x

100 100

= =

1864 kN 3400 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 3400

109.64

31.01

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex C3 page 8 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.10 B' x

x x / / / 1.10

B' 1.10 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1864 / ( = 0.45

+ + + + Qn 3400

B' B' 1.10 1.10 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 109.64

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.17 ( ( 0.31 iq 0.31 0.27

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.45 Ki 0.45 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.31

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.10 0.17 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.31 x 5.44 x 1 = 198.88 + 106.74 + 144.48 = 450.10 kPa qult qmax => > = 31.01 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.27 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex C3 page 9 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex C4

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

2.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

500 500 1000

kPa

1000 1000 W2 500 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1333 667


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.50

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex C4 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

2.71 5.06 5.06 0.66 2.22 15.71 13.49

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.50 1.50

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

15.60 23.40 -5.00 0.00 34.00

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.71 2.00 / 2 Pa2 5.06 1.33 / 3 + 0.67 Pa3 5.06 0.67 / 2 Pa4 0.66 0.67 / 3 Pwh 2.22 0.67 / 3

= = = = =

1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M =

Moment 2.71 5.62 1.69 0.15 0.49 10.66

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 1.5 1.00 W2 23.40 1.5 1.50 Pwv -5.00 1.5 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.5

Arm (m) / / /

2 2 3

= = = =

1.00 0.75 1.00 1.50 M = Mr =

Moment 15.60 17.55 -5.00 0.00 28.15 33.15

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 10.66 + 5.00 Restoring Moment Mr = 33.15 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.5 / 2 - ( 33.15 = 0.236m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.5 / 6

0.00

15.66

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 15.66 ) / 0.250m >

V 34.00 0.236m OK! OK!

- Annex C4 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa

1000 1000 500 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2

1333

667 W3
Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 2.00 0.67 1.5

kN/m2 kN/m m m m
2

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) Back batter, = 1 :

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.33 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.67

x x x x x

2.00 21 21 0.67 0.67

x x x /

1.33 0.67 0.67 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

2.71 5.06 5.06 0.66 2.22 15.71 13.49

- Annex C4 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.67 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.50 2.00

x x /

1.00 1.00 2

= = = = V=

15.60 23.40 -5.00 0.00 34.00

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.71 Pa2 5.06 Pa3 5.06 Pa4 0.66 Pwh 2.22 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 2.00 1.33 0.67 0.67 0.67 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.67 = = = = = 1.00 1.11 0.33 0.22 0.22 M = Moment 2.71 5.62 1.69 0.15 0.49 10.66

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 1.50 x 0.10 W2 23.40 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -5.00 ( 1.5 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.5

Arm (m) + 1.000 ) + 0.750 ) / 3 )

x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = =

1.14 0.80 1.00 1.50 M = Mr =

Moment 17.84 18.62 -4.98 0.00 31.49 36.46

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 10.66 + 4.98 Restoring Moment Mr = 36.46 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK! ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.5 / 2 - ( 36.46 = 0.137m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.5 / 6

0.00

15.63

kNm/m run

Mo ) / 15.63 ) / 0.250m >

V 34.00 0.137m OK! OK!

- Annex C4 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex C5

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

2.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation)

500 500 1000

kPa

1000 1000 W2 500 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.00

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

o cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex C5 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.65 1.54 1.54 0.20 0.56 5.48 4.93

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.00

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

15.60 -1.67 0.00 13.93

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.65 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.54 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 Pa3 1.54 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.20 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.56 0.33 / 3

= = = = =

0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M =

Moment 0.82 0.86 0.26 0.02 0.06 2.02

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 1 1.00 Pwv -1.67 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1

Arm (m) / /

2 3

= = =

0.50 0.67 1.00 M = Mr =

Moment 7.80 -1.11 0.00 6.69 7.80

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 2.02 + 1.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 7.80 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

3.13

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1 = 0.165m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 7.80 Mo ) 3.13 / ) / V 13.93

- Annex C5 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 13.93 kN / m

H =

5.48 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 13.93 x 0.58 = 8.13 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

5.48

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.165 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.00 = 0.67 = L' = B' = 0.67 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.165 100 67.01 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

5.48 13.93

x x

100 100

= =

548 kN 1393 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 1393.33 = /

67.01

20.79

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.00 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.00

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 0.67 B' x

x x / / / 0.67

B' 0.67 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex C5 page 4 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.29

+ + + + Qn 1393

B' B' 0.67 0.67 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 67.01

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.35 ( ( 0.50 iq 0.50 0.47

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.29 Ki 0.29 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.50

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.00 x + 0.5 x 9 x 0.67 0.35 x 1 x 1 + x 0.50 x 1 x 1 = 60.95 + 24.82 + 42.92 = 128.68 kPa qult qmax => > = 20.79 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.47 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.00

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex C5 page 5 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa

1000 1000 500 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m3 kN/m


o 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.00

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.65 1.54 1.54 0.20 0.56 5.48 4.93

- Annex C5 page 6 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.00

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

15.60 -1.67 0.00 13.93

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.65 Pa2 1.54 Pa3 1.54 Pa4 0.20 Pwh 0.56 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.33 = = = = = 0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M = Moment 0.82 0.86 0.26 0.02 0.06 2.02

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -1.67 ( 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1

Arm (m) + 0.500 ) / 3)

x x

0.995 0.995

= = =

0.55 0.66 1.00 M = Mr =

Moment 8.54 -1.11 0.00 7.43 8.54

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 2.02 + 1.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 8.54 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr

0.00

3.13

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1 = 0.112m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 8.54 Mo ) 3.13 / ) / V 13.93

- Annex C5 page 7 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 4.06 kN / m 7.35 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 7.35 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

4.06

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 5.48 kN / m 12.30 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 12.30 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

5.48

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.112 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.00 = 0.78 = L' = B' = 0.78 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.112 100 77.68 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

5.48 13.93

x x

100 100

= =

548 kN 1393 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 1393

77.68

17.94

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex C5 page 8 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.00 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.00

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 0.78 B' x

x x / / / 0.78

B' 0.78 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.28

+ + + + Qn 1393

B' B' 0.78 0.78 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 77.68

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.37 ( ( 0.52 iq 0.52 0.49

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.28 Ki 0.28 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.52

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.00 x + 0.5 x 9 x 0.78 0.37 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.52 x 5.44 x 1 = 359.54 + 164.16 + 241.26 = 764.96 kPa qult qmax => > = 17.94 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.49 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.00

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex C5 page 9 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex C6

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

2.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation)

500 500 1000

kPa

1000 1000 W2 500 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.00

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex C6 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

1.35 1.26 1.26 0.17 0.56 4.61 4.05

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.00

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

15.60 -1.67 0.00 13.93

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.35 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.26 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 Pa3 1.26 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.17 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.56 0.33 / 3

= = = = =

0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M =

Moment 0.68 0.70 0.21 0.02 0.06 1.67

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 1 1.00 Pwv -1.67 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1

Arm (m) / /

2 3

= = =

0.50 0.67 1.00 M = Mr =

Moment 7.80 -1.11 0.00 6.69 7.80

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 1.67 + 1.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 7.80 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1 / 2 - ( 7.80 = 0.140m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1 / 6

0.00

2.78

kNm/m run

Mo ) 2.78 0.167m

/ ) / >

V 13.93 0.140m OK! OK!

- Annex C6 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 1.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 500 500 1000 5 kPa

1000 1000 500 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Insitu soil

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.00 0.33 1

kN/m2 kN/m m m m
2

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) Back batter, = 1 :

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.35 1.26 1.26 0.17 0.56 4.61 4.05

- Annex C6 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 2.00

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

15.60 -1.67 0.00 13.93

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.35 Pa2 1.26 Pa3 1.26 Pa4 0.17 Pwh 0.56 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.33 = = = = = 0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M = Moment 0.68 0.70 0.21 0.02 0.06 1.67

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -1.67 ( 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1

Arm (m) + 0.500 ) / 3 )

x x

0.995 0.995

= = =

0.55 0.66 1.00 M = Mr =

Moment 8.53 -1.11 0.00 7.43 8.53

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 1.67 + 1.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 8.53 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1 / 2 - ( 8.53 = 0.087m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1 / 6

0.00

2.78

kNm/m run

Mo ) 2.78 0.167m

/ ) / >

V 13.93 0.087m OK! OK!

- Annex C6 page 4 -

Project

Design of 1.5m Gabion Wall

Annex D

Prepared by Checked by Subject

: : :

NG Chun-ling

(AE/TM5)

Design of 1.5m Gabion Wall Design Statement

Reference

Remarks

Design of

1.5m Gabion Wall

Design Statement 1. Design Data


(I) Materials (A) Requirements
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1)

Gabion Materials (i) They should not be susceptible to attack by fire and ultraviolet light. (ii) They should be in form of hexagonal woven or square welded. (iii) Hexagonal woven wire mesh is mechanically woven in a continuous sheet. The wires should be twisted together in pairs through three half turns, i.e. 'double-twisted' to form the mesh. (iv) The edges of the mesh should be selvaged with wires of a diameter of about 1.5 times that of the wire-mesh to prevent unravelling.

Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1) & Fig. 47

(v) The gabion base, top and sides should be formed from a piece of mesh. The ends and diaphragms can be attached to this mesh by helical wires or other methods. (vi) The mesh can stretch or contract in two directions in its own plane and thus a rectangular wire-mesh basket filled with rock fragments can deform in any direction. (vii) The wires used for the wire mesh should be mild steel wire to BS 1052 (BSI, 1986b), with a minimum tensile strength of 350 N/mm 2 . (viii) The wires should be at least 2.7mm in diameter and galvanized. (ix) For hexagonal wire-mesh the wires should be galvanized to BS 443 (BSI, 1990b) before weaving. (x) For welded mesh, the mesh panels should be hot dip galvanized to BS 729 (BSI, 1986c) after welding. The making of panels with galvanized wires welded together is not recommended as the welds are left unprotected. (xi) If the soil and water conditions are aggressive, PVC (polyvinylchloride) coating should be provided to the wires. The PVC coating should be at least 0.5mm thick and should meet the requirements of BS 4102 (BSI, 1991c).

Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.3 (1)

Infill material (i) Maximum size of rock should not exceed two-thirds the depth of the gabion to be filled or 300mm , whichever is less. (ii) The preferred size is 150mm to 300mm . The smallest dimension of the rock should at least be twice the largest dimension of the mesh aperture .

- Annex D page 1 -

(B) Assumptions Gabion and Infill Materials Block Size


Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.1

The gabions are in modules of 2m x 1m x 1m.

Mesh Size 8cm x 10cm x 2.7mm

Size of Infill Material

= 250mm

Refer to Annex E Maccaferri Gabions

Critical Velocity for water flow

6.4 m/s

Parameter
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.2 (1)

Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill Mobilized angle of wall friction,

= = =

2.6 0.4 0.0

Backfilling Material behind the existing wall The properties of backfilling material are assumed to be
Geoguide 1 Table 8

(a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength, c' (c) Effective friction angle, ' Insitu Soil beneath the wall (foundation material) The properties of insitu soil are assumed to be (a) Unit weight (b) Effective shear strength, c' (c) Effective friction angle, '

= = =

21 kN/m3 0 kPa 35
o

= = =

19 kN/m3 5 kPa 35
o

(II) Loadings Dead loads Self weight of the proposed protection wall, earth pressure and hydrostatic pressure are taken to be dead load for design. The unit weight of water was taken as 9.81 kN/m3. Imposed load
Geoguide 1 Para. 7.2.2 and Table 16

5kPa surcharge was assumed on the land side. (Footpaths isolated from roads, cycle tracks and play areas)

(III) Water level of the pond It is assumed that the most critical situation should be when the channel is completely dry, which is taken to be the design case.

The groundwater level behind the proposed gabion wall is assumed to be one-third of the retaining height.

- Annex D page 2 -

Geoguide 1 Para. 6.2.2, Table 20 and Figure 13

Proposed retaining walls have no restraint against translation and rotation about the base, hence active state pressure is assumed and compaction-induced lateral pressure is not considered.

2. Design Reference and Codes


Design Code 1. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993), Geoguide 1 - Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition.

Design Methodology In accordance with Geoguide 1, the structures would be designed for both the ultimate limit state (ULS) and the serviceability limit state (SLS).
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6 and Table 7

Partial safety factor approach stipulated under Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4 is adopted. The minimum factors of safety recommended in Geoguide 1 are adopted. Per meter run of the proposed retaining walls is considered for simplicity.

Geoguide 1, clause 9.5.2

Limit state checks would be carried out at selected planes through the gabion wall, ignoring the resistance contributed by the cage material and the connections between the cages. For stepped walls, stability checks would be carried out at each major change in section shape.

3. Checking the Stability of the Protection Wall


1.5m Gabion Wall

- Annex D page 3 -

Ultimate Limit Statement (ULS)


Refer to Annex D1 & D3 para. 1 Step 6

1. Checking Overturning [OK if restoring moment > overturning moment]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK!

Refer to Annex D1 & D3 para. 1 Step 7

2. Checking Sliding [OK if resisting force > sliding force]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK!

Refer to Annex D1 & D3 para. 1 Step 8

3. Checking Bearing Capacity [OK if bearing capacity > bearing pressure]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK!

Serviceability Limit Statement (SLS)


Refer to Annex D2 & D4 para. 1 Step 6

1. Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity [OK if the resultant force acts within the middle third of the wall base]

Height of Toe above foundation 0.0 0.5 m m

Stability (without back batter) OK! OK!

Stability (with back batter) OK! OK!

For details of calculations, please refer to the Appendix D1 to D6.

- Annex D page 4 -

Construction Aspects
Geoguide 1 Para. 9.5.4

(i) Horizontal internal bracing wires should be fitted between the outer and inner faces at about 300mm centres in woven mesh gabions which are deeper than 500mm. (ii) The lids of the gabions should meet the top edges of the sides and ends when closed, without leaving any gaps. (iii) The mesh of the lids should be tied down to the tops of any diaphragms provided, as well as to the tops of the sides and ends. (iv) Whenever possible, the vertical joints between the units should be staggered in adjacent courses.

Drainage provisions
Geoguide 1 para. 9.5.5

(i) A geotextile filter would be provided under the base and behind the rear face of the gabion wall to prevent migration of fines from the backfill into the coarse rock infill. (ii) Drainage layers at the rear face are normally not warranted. However, a drainage layer of adequate permeability would be provided at the base of the wall to guard against erosion of the foundation material.

References 1. Geotechnical Engineering Office (1993), Geoguide 1 - Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition.
Geoguide 1

- Annex D page 5 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex D1

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

1.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation)

300 1000

kPa

1000 500 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1000 500


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 1.50 0.50 1.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

o cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex D1 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.00 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.50

x x x x x

1.50 21 21 0.50 0.50

x x x /

1.00 0.50 0.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

2.47 3.46 3.46 0.45 1.25 11.10 9.85

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.50 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.30 1.30

x x /

1.00 0.50 2

= = = = V=

15.60 40.56 -3.25 0.00 52.91

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.47 1.50 / 2 Pa2 3.46 1.00 / 3 + 0.50 Pa3 3.46 0.50 / 2 Pa4 0.45 0.50 / 3 Pwh 1.25 0.50 / 3

= = = = =

0.75 0.83 0.25 0.17 0.17 M =

Moment 1.86 2.89 0.87 0.08 0.21 5.89

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 1.3 1.00 W2 40.56 1.3 1.30 Pwv -3.25 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.3

Arm (m) / / /

2 2 3

= = = =

0.80 0.65 0.87 1.30 M = Mr =

Moment 12.48 26.36 -2.82 0.00 36.03 38.84

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 5.89 + 2.82 Restoring Moment Mr = 38.84 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

8.71

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.3 = 0.080m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 38.84 Mo ) 8.71 / ) / V 52.91

- Annex D1 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 52.91 kN / m

H =

11.10 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 52.91 x 0.58 = 30.87 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

11.10

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.080 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.30 = 1.14 = L' = B' = 1.14 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.080 100 113.92 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

11.10 52.91

x x

100 100

= =

1110 kN 5291 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 5291.00 = /

113.92

46.45

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.14 B' x

x x / / / 1.14

B' 1.14 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex D1 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1110 / ( = 0.18

+ + + + Qn 5291

B' B' 1.14 1.14 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 113.92

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.55 ( ( 0.67 iq 0.67 0.65

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.18 Ki 0.18 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.67

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.14 0.55 x 1 x 1 + x 0.67 x 1 x 1 = 84.28 + 65.24 + 57.62 = 207.14 kPa qult qmax => > = 46.45 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.65 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex D1 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 300 0 1000 5 kPa

1000 500 0 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1000 500 W3


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m3 kN/m


o 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 1.50 0.50 1.30

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 1.00 Pa3 = 0.330 x 1.00 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.50

x x x x x

1.50 21 21 0.50 0.50

x x x /

1.00 0.50 0.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

2.47 3.46 3.46 0.45 1.25 11.10 9.85

- Annex D1 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.50 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.30 1.30

x x /

1.00 0.50 2

= = = = V=

15.60 10.14 -3.25 0.00 22.49

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.47 Pa2 3.46 Pa3 3.46 Pa4 0.45 Pwh 1.25 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.50 = = = = = 0.75 0.83 0.25 0.17 0.17 M = Moment 1.86 2.89 0.87 0.08 0.21 5.89

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W2 10.14 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -3.25 ( 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.3

Arm (m) + 0.800 ) + 0.650 ) / 3)

x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = =

0.90 0.67 0.86 1.30 M = Mr =

Moment 13.97 6.81 -2.80 0.00 17.98 20.78

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 5.89 + 2.80 Restoring Moment Mr = 20.78 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

8.69

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1.3 = 0.113m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 20.78 Mo ) 8.69 / ) / V 22.49

- Annex D1 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 8.80 kN / m 11.74 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 11.74 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

8.80

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 11.10 kN / m 18.54 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 18.54 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

11.10

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.113 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.30 = 1.07 = L' = B' = 1.07 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.113 100 107.49 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

11.10 22.49

x x

100 100

= =

1110 kN 2249 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 2249

107.49

20.92

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex D1 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.01 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.01

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 1.07 B' x

x x / / / 1.07

B' 1.07 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 1110 / ( = 0.37

+ + + + Qn 2249

B' B' 1.07 1.07 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 107.49

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.25 ( ( 0.40 iq 0.40 0.37

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.37 Ki 0.37 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.40

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.01 x + 0.5 x 9 x 1.07 0.25 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.40 x 5.44 x 1 = 270.13 + 154.76 + 187.41 = 612.30 kPa qult qmax => > = 20.92 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.37 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.01

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex D1 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex D2

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

1.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation)

300 1000

kPa

1000 500 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2 1000 500


Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.50 0.50 1.30

kN/m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

kN/m2

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex D2 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.50

x x x x x

1.50 21 21 0.50 0.50

x x x /

1.00 0.50 0.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

2.03 2.85 2.85 0.37 1.25 9.35 8.10

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.50 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.30 1.30

x x /

1.00 0.50 2

= = = = V=

15.60 40.56 -3.25 0.00 52.91

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.03 1.50 / 2 Pa2 2.85 1.00 / 3 + 0.50 Pa3 2.85 0.50 / 2 Pa4 0.37 0.50 / 3 Pwh 1.25 0.50 / 3

= = = = =

0.75 0.83 0.25 0.17 0.17 M =

Moment 1.52 2.37 0.71 0.06 0.21 4.88

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 1.3 1.00 W2 40.56 1.3 1.30 Pwv -3.25 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.3

Arm (m) / / /

2 2 3

= = = =

0.80 0.65 0.87 1.30 M = Mr =

Moment 12.48 26.36 -2.82 0.00 36.03 38.84

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 4.88 + 2.82 Restoring Moment Mr = 38.84 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.3 / 2 - ( 38.84 = 0.061m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.3 / 6

0.00

7.69

kNm/m run

Mo ) 7.69 0.217m

/ ) / >

V 52.91 0.061m OK! OK!

- Annex D2 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 300 0 1000 5 kPa

1000 500 0 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa2

1000

500 W3
Insitu soil

Pa3

Pa4

Pwh

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.50 0.50 1.3

kN/m2 kN/m m m m
2

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) Back batter, = 1 :

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 1.00 Pa3 = 0.271 x 1.00 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.50

x x x x x

1.50 21 21 0.50 0.50

x x x /

1.00 0.50 0.50 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

2.03 2.85 2.85 0.37 1.25 9.35 8.10

- Annex D2 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x W2 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.50 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.30 1.30

x x /

1.00 0.50 2

= = = = V=

15.60 40.56 -3.25 0.00 52.91

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 2.03 Pa2 2.85 Pa3 2.85 Pa4 0.37 Pwh 1.25 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.50 = = = = = 0.75 0.83 0.25 0.17 0.17 M = Moment 1.52 2.37 0.71 0.06 0.21 4.88

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 1.00 x 0.10 W2 40.56 ( 0.25 x 0.10 Pwv -3.25 ( 1.3 x 2 Pav 0.00 1.3

Arm (m) + 0.800 ) + 0.650 ) / 3 )

x x x

0.995 0.995 0.995

= = = =

0.90 0.67 0.86 1.30 M = Mr =

Moment 13.96 27.24 -2.80 0.00 38.40 41.20

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 4.88 + 2.80 Restoring Moment Mr = 41.20 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK! ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1.3 / 2 - ( 41.20 = 0.016m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1.3 / 6

0.00

7.68

kNm/m run

Mo ) 7.68 0.217m

/ ) / >

V 52.91 0.016m OK! OK!

- Annex D2 page 4 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex D3

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

1.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

300 1000

kPa

1000 500 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.00

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m

o cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 (Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan b/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

- Annex D3 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.65 1.54 1.54 0.20 0.56 5.48 4.93

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.00

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

15.60 -1.67 0.00 13.93

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.65 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.54 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 Pa3 1.54 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.20 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.56 0.33 / 3

= = = = =

0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M =

Moment 0.82 0.86 0.26 0.02 0.06 2.02

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 1 1.00 Pwv -1.67 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1

Arm (m) / /

2 3

= = =

0.50 0.67 1.00 M = Mr =

Moment 7.80 -1.11 0.00 6.69 7.80

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 2.02 + 1.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 7.80 kNm/m run Mo => Mr > => OK!

0.00

3.13

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1 = 0.165m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 7.80 Mo ) 3.13 / ) / V 13.93

- Annex D3 page 2 -

Step 7 Check Sliding Sliding Force Fa = V= 13.93 kN / m

H =

5.48 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding Fr = tan 'f = Ns x = 13.93 x 0.58 = 8.13 kN/m run > => OK!

Sliding Force Fa = H=

5.48

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.165 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.00 = 0.67 = L' = B' = 0.67 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.165 100 67.01 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

5.48 13.93

x x

100 100

= =

548 kN 1393 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' 1393.33 = /

67.01

20.79

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

/4 0.785 cot cot ) )

+ + 'f 30.3 x x

'f 30.3

/2 /2

) )

tan tan

'f 30.3

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.00 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.00

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 0.67 B' x

x x / / / 0.67

B' 0.67 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

- Annex D3 page 3 -

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.29

+ + + + Qn 1393

B' B' 0.67 0.67 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 67.01

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.35 ( ( 0.50 iq 0.50 0.47

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.29 Ki 0.29 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.50

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since tilting of wall and inclination of ground slope both equal 0o , all tilt and ground slope factors tc = tq = t = equal 1, i.e. 1 gc = g = gq = 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.00 x + 0.5 x 9 x 0.67 0.35 x 1 x 1 + x 0.50 x 1 x 1 = 60.95 + 24.82 + 42.92 = 128.68 kPa qult qmax => > = 20.79 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.47 x 1 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.00

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex D3 page 4 -

2. Checking of Ultimate Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 300 0 1000 5 kPa

1000 500 0 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

= = = = = = Unit

Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Value 21 0 35 1.2 30.3


o o

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f kN/m3 kN/m


o 2

Surcharge behind the wall Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.00

kN/m2 kN/m2 m m m m = 0.10

cv' Length of wall 100 30 Kah 0.330 Back batter, = 1 : 10 (Note: gm is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.) Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

c' ' cv' b m 'f c f'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1.2 30.3 4.2 24.1 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill

2.6 0.4

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) ( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

kN/m2
o

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

(Note: m is taken to be 1.2 so as to cater for the unknown ground condition.)

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.330 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.330 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.330 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.65 1.54 1.54 0.20 0.56 5.48 4.93

- Annex D3 page 5 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (P av) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.00

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

15.60 -1.67 0.00 13.93

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.65 Pa2 1.54 Pa3 1.54 Pa4 0.20 Pwh 0.56 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.33 = = = = = 0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M = Moment 0.82 0.86 0.26 0.02 0.06 2.02

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -1.67 ( 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1

Arm (m) + 0.500 ) / 3)

x x

0.995 0.995

= = =

0.55 0.66 1.00 M = Mr =

Moment 8.54 -1.11 0.00 7.43 8.54

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 2.02 + 1.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 8.54 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr

0.00

3.13

kNm/m run

OK! Eccentricity e = B = 1 = 0.112m / / 2 2 ( Mr - ( 8.54 Mo ) 3.13 / ) / V 13.93

- Annex D3 page 6 -

Step 7 Check Sliding


Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 1

Sliding along soil/structure interface Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan b = 4.06 kN / m 7.35 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 7.35 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

4.06

kN / m

Geoguide 1, Clause 9.2.3, Figure 41 Mechanism 2

Sliding along a foundation soil surface = 0.00 o Activating force Fa = Resisting force Fr = H x cos - V x sin = (V x cos - H x sin ) x tan ' + c' l = 5.48 kN / m 12.30 kN / m

Resisting Force against Sliding, Fr = = 12.30 kN/m run > => OK!

Activating Force Fa =

5.48

kN / m

OK!

Step 8 Check Bearing Capacity From above, Eccentricity e = 0.112 m Effective Width B' = B = 1.00 = 0.78 = L' = B' = 0.78 H V m x x 2e 2

x =

0.112 100 77.68 m m2

Effective Length L' Effective Area A'

L' 100 =

Sliding Force Qs = Normal Force Qn =

x x

L' L'

= =

5.48 13.93

x x

100 100

= =

548 kN 1393 kN

Thus, at the level just below 500mm rock fill, Bearing Pressure qmax = Qn / A' = / 1393

77.68

17.94

kPa

To calculate Bearing Capacity qult , qult = cf' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g

q' Nq sq iq tq gq

For Bearing Capacity Factors, Nq = exp(tan'f) tan2(/4+'f/2) = = = Nc = = = N = = = exp ( exp ( 18.96 ( ( 30.78 2 2 23.30 3.14 Nq 18.96 x x x x ( ( tan'f 0.584 1 1 Nq 18.96 ) x ) x ) ) + + tan2( tan2( x x 1 1 /4 0.785 cot cot ) ) + + 'f 30.3 x x tan tan 'f 30.3 'f 30.3 /2 /2 ) )

- Annex D3 page 7 -

For Shape Factors, sc = 1 = 1 = 1.00 s = 1 = 1 = 1.00 sq = 1 = 1 = 1.00

+ + + +

Nq 18.96 0.4 0.4 tan 'f tan

/ / x x x 30.3

Nc 30.78 B' 0.78 B' x

x x / / / 0.78

B' 0.78 L' 100 L' /

/ /

L' 100

100

For Inclination Factors, mi = ( 2 ( 1 = ( 2 ( 1 = 1.99 Ki = Qs / ( = 548 / ( = 0.28

+ + + + Qn 1393

B' B' 0.78 0.78 + +

/ / / / cf ' 4.2

L' L' 100 100 x x

) ) ) ) A' 77.68

/ /

x x

cot cot

'f 30.3

) )

= = = = = = = = =

( ( 0.37 ( ( 0.52 iq 0.52 0.49

1 1 1 1 - ( - (

1 1

Ki 0.28 Ki 0.28 -

) ) ) ) iq 0.52

mi + 1 2.99

iq

mi 1.99

ic

) / ( ) / (

Nc 30.78

x x

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

For Tilt Factors, tc = tq 5.44 5.69 t = ( = tq = = ( 5.44 t 5.44

- ( - ( 1 1

1 1 -

5.71

tq 5.44 tan tan

) / ( ) / ( 'f 30.3

Nc 30.78 ) )

x x
2 2

tan tan

'f 30.3

) )

Since inclination of ground slope equal 0o , all ground slope factors gc = g = gq = equal 1, i.e. 1 Effective Surcharge q' = = = ' 9 4.5 x x kPa 0.5 0.5

As a result, Bearing Capacity qult = cf ' Nc sc ic tc gc + 0.5 ' B' N s i t g = 4.17 x 30.78 x 1.00 x + 0.5 x 9 x 0.78 0.37 x 5.44 x 1 + x 0.52 x 5.44 x 1 = 359.54 + 164.16 + 241.26 = 764.96 kPa qult qmax => > = 17.94 kPa

+ q' Nq sq iq tq gq 0.49 x 5.69 x 23.30 x 4.5 x 18.96

x 1.00 x

1 x 1.00

=>

OK!

OK!

- Annex D3 page 8 -

Project

Design of Gabion Wall


NG Chun-ling (AE/TM5)

Annex D4

Prepared by : Checked by Subject : :

Design of

1.5m Gabion Wall


Remarks

Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) Reference 1. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation)

300 1000

kPa

1000 500 W2

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3


Insitu soil

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Toe Pwv W1, W2 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.00 0.33 1.00

kN/m m m m

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))

kN/m2

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85cv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

- Annex D4 page 1 -

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =
Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

= = = = = = Pai =

1.35 1.26 1.26 0.17 0.56 4.61 4.05

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.00

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

15.60 -1.67 0.00 13.93

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe Arm (m) Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.35 1.00 / 2 Pa2 1.26 0.67 / 3 + 0.33 Pa3 1.26 0.33 / 2 Pa4 0.17 0.33 / 3 Pwh 0.56 0.33 / 3

= = = = =

0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M =

Moment 0.68 0.70 0.21 0.02 0.06 1.67

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 1 1.00 Pwv -1.67 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1

Arm (m) / /

2 3

= = =

0.50 0.67 1.00 M = Mr =

Moment 7.80 -1.11 0.00 6.69 7.80

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 1.67 + 1.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 7.80 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1 / 2 - ( 7.80 = 0.140m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1 / 6

0.00

2.78

kNm/m run

Mo ) 2.78 0.167m

/ ) / >

V 13.93 0.140m OK! OK!

- Annex D4 page 2 -

2. Checking of Serviceability Limit State (toe at 0.5m above foundation) (with back batter 1:10) 300 0 1000 5 kPa

1000 500 0 W2 W3

W1 Pav Pa1 Pa3

Pa2 Pa4 Pwh

667 333

Insitu soil

Toe Pwv W1, W2, W3 Pa1 Pav Pa2, Pa3, Pa4 Pwh Pwv = = = = = = Self-weight of the proposed protection wall Lateral pressure due to surcharge Vertical component of active earth pressure Horizontal component of active earth pressure Lateral pressure due to groundwater Upthrust

Abbreviation
Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Value 21 0 35 1 35.0 30 0.271


o o

Unit Surcharge behind the wall kN/m kN/m


o 3 2

Fill (Behind the Wall) c' ' m 'f cv' Kah

5 0 1.00 0.33 1

kN/m2 kN/m m m m
2

Surcharge at the wall Height of R.W. Water level (from bottom) Base width of wall ( = tan-1(tan '/m )) Back batter, = 1 :

10

0.10

Insitu Soil (Beneath the Wall)


Geoguide 1, clause 4.3.4, Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8

Gabions and Infill materials Specific gravity of the rock, Gs Porosity of the infill 2.6 0.4

c' ' cv' b m 'f cf'

19 5 35 34 28.9 1 35.0 5.0 28.9 3.610

kN/m3 kN/m2
o o o

(= 0.85fcv' ) ( = tan-1(tan '/m ))


2

kN/m
o

( = c' / m ) ( = b / m ) (/ = 0 / = 0)

Geoguide 1, clause 5.12 Geoguide 1, clause 6.6 Fig. 19

bf Kp

Step 1 Sliding Force (kN/m - run) Pa1 = 0.271 x 5.00 Pa2 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa3 = 0.271 x 0.67 Pa4 = 0.271 x 11 Pwh = 10 x 0.33

x x x x x

1.00 21 21 0.33 0.33

x x x /

0.67 0.33 0.33 2

/ /

2 2

Pah =

= = = = = = Pai =

1.35 1.26 1.26 0.17 0.56 4.61 4.05

- Annex D4 page 3 -

Geoguide 1, Clause 5.11.2, Table 14

Step 2 Vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) Based on the design assumption, the mobilised angle of wall friction, is taken as 0. Thus, the vertical component of earth pressure (Pav) acting on the proposed protection wall is considered as = 0.00 kN/m - run

Step 3 Wt. of wall + water uplift kN/m - run W1 = 26 x 0.6 x Pwv = 10 x 0.33 x Pav = 0.00

1.00 1.30

x /

1.00 2

= = = V=

15.60 -1.67 0.00 13.93

Step 4 Overturning moment of earth pressure about Toe cos = 0.995 Force (kN/ m) Pa1 1.35 Pa2 1.26 Pa3 1.26 Pa4 0.17 Pwh 0.56 tan = 0.100 Arm (m) 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 / / / / / 2 3 2 3 3 + 0.33 = = = = = 0.50 0.56 0.17 0.11 0.11 M = Moment 0.68 0.70 0.21 0.02 0.06 1.67

(kNm/m run)

Step 5 Moment of Vertical Force about Toe Force (kN/ m) W1 15.60 ( 0.50 x 0.10 Pwv -1.67 ( 1 x 2 Pav 0.00 1

Arm (m) + 0.500 ) / 3 )

x x

0.995 0.995

= = =

0.55 0.66 1.00 M = Mr =

Moment 8.53 -1.11 0.00 7.43 8.53

(kNm/m run) (kNm/m run)

Geoguide 1 Clause 9.2.4

Step 6 Check Overturning and Determine Eccentricity Overturning Moment Mo = 1.67 + 1.11 Restoring Moment Mr = 8.53 kNm/m run Mo > => OK! => Mr ( Mr Eccentricity e = B / 2 = 1 / 2 - ( 8.53 = 0.087m By Middle-third Rule, B/6 = 1 / 6

0.00

2.78

kNm/m run

Mo ) 2.78 0.167m

/ ) / >

V 13.93 0.087m OK! OK!

- Annex D4 page 4 -

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

1.

Scope and Qualifications

This paper gives technical guidance for the design of gabion wall used in river embankment. It also stipulates the requirements for Reno Mattress against the local scouring at the toe of gabion wall. This paper is not applicable to revetment structures other than the vertical faced gabion wall structures for the protection of river embankment. This paper does not take into consideration wave forces or other hydrodynamic forces arising out of supercritical flow, curvature flow, ship waves etc. acting on the gabion wall. Therefore, the designer should treat the guidance with great caution when using the guidance for the design of gabions used for coastal protection and in engineered channels. If in doubt, the designer should consult engineers with knowledge/experience on hydrodynamics and suppliers of gabion structures. This paper assumes that gabion wall would sit on top of good soil foundation. Before carrying out the design of gabion wall, the designer should ensure that the foundation of the gabion wall should have been properly investigated.

2.

General Background

Gabions are employed for many uses due to their versatility, which includes hydraulic structures in river training works and in protection works for roads and land reclamation. The gabions are steel wire cages that vary in size and are designed to abate the destructive forces of erosion. Gabions are uniquely woven by twisting each pair of wires one and one half turns continuously providing the inherent strength and flexibility required. Gabion cages are normally designed to contain quarry run or river run stones available at the site of erection. Cages are stacked to construct structures of great durability and flexibility. The formed structure is capable of carrying stress in biaxial tension. Gabion cages are not merely containers of stone since each unit is securely connected to each adjacent cage during construction. The wire mesh is monolithic through the structure in three dimensions, from top to bottom, end to end, and from outer face to inner face. It is, therefore, apparent that the wire reinforces the stone filling in tension. Gabions form flexible structures that can deflect and deform to a certain limit in

Date: November 2006

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

any direction without fracture. It can withstand the movement of ground without inordinate structure deformation. This attribute enables the gabion structure to be built with a minimum foundation preparation. Gabion structures behave as perforated barriers, allowing water to gradually pass through them. This is a valuable characteristic in that hydrostatic pressure never builds up behind or under the structure and cause failure to the gabion design. Gabion structures are regarded as permanent. In the early stages after installation, siltation takes place between the stone fill promoting vegetation and adding to the permanency of the structure. In view of the environmentally friendly nature of the gabion construction as compared to concrete, gabions are becoming more popular in engineering works in river embankments which demand a natural looking environment with growth of vegetation and potential for ecological lives.

3.

Design Considerations of Gabion Wall used in River Embankment

There is currently no universally accepted method for designing gabion walls. However, it is suggested in GEOGUIDE 1 Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition, that gabion walls should be considered as gravity retaining wall for the purpose of design. The detailed design calculations for gabion wall of retaining height ranging from 1m to 4m, used in river embankment are shown in Appendix B.

3.1 Treatment of the Foundation of Gabion Wall


Foundation treatment is important to the stability of gabion wall as weak foundation may result in bearing failure or soil slip. Since it largely depends on the soil conditions which may varies significantly for different locations, designers should consider the requirements of treatment of foundation case by case. If necessary, rockfill and/or other appropriate measures as determined by the designers should be adopted to stabilize the formation before placing gabions.

3.2 Provision of Gabion Aprons


Gabion aprons are commonly used to protect the toe of a gabion retaining wall structure from scour that could cause undermining in channel works applications. It is recommended that the gabion apron in the form of Reno Mattress, (refer to Section

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

5.0) be a minimum of 300 mm in depth. The length of the gabion apron shall extend beyond the toe of the structure a minimum of 2 times the anticipated depth of scour formed under the apron. This will ensure that the gabion apron reaches beyond the outer limit of the anticipated scour hole that may form. For fast-flowing rivers, designers need to determine the exact depth and extension of Reno Mattress case by case with the consideration of scouring at river invert during peak flow. Scour occurs at toe of gabion retaining wall when it obstructs the channel flow. The flow obstructed by the gabions form a horizontal vortex starting at the upstream end of the gabions and running along the toe of the gabions, and a vertical wake vortex at the downstream end of the gabions. In accordance with Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 Evaluating Scour At Bridges, Fourth Edition, Froehlich's live-bed scour equation can be used to obtain the potential depth of scour.
Froehlich's Live-Bed Scour Equation

where: K1 = Coefficient for shape Shape Coefficients Description Vertical-wall Vertical-wall with wing walls Spill-through K1 1.00 0.82 0.55

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Fig. 3.1 Abutment shape

K2 = Coefficient for angle of embankment to flow = ( / 90) 0.13 ( < 90 if wall points downstream > 90 if wall points upstream ) L = Length of active flow obstructed by the wall, m Ae = Flow area of the approach cross section obstructed by the wall, m2 Fr = Froude Number of approach flow upstream of the wall = Ve/(gya)1/2 Ve = Qe/Ae, m/s Qe = Flow obstructed by the wall and approach structure, at peak flow, m3/s ya = Average depth of flow on the floodplain (Ae/L), m L = Length of wall projected normal to the flow, m

ys = Scour depth, m

Fig. 3.2 Orientation of embankment angle, , to the flow

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Fig. 3.3 Determination of length of embankment blocking live flow for abutment scour estimation

Example: Assume K1 = 0.82, K2 = ( 90 / 90) 0.13 = 1 L and ya are the base width and retaining height of the gabion wall as shown in the drawing in Appendix A. Computed Scour Depth, ys as follow: Fr 0.25 2.01 3.78 5.45 7.10 0.5 2.54 4.72 6.74 8.73 0.75 2.97 5.49 7.79 10.06 1 3.35 6.15 8.71 11.22 1.5 4.01 7.32 10.31 13.25 2 4.59 8.34 11.71 15.03

ya 1 2 3 4

L 1.5 2.25 2.75 3.25

3.3 Provision of Geotextile Filter


The gabion apron will require minimal excavation and grade work. Generally the gabion apron and gabion block are placed directly on the ground utilizing a geotextile filter fabric between the gabions and soil interface to prevent leaching of soils underneath the gabions.

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

The drawings in Appendix A show the details of gabion wall of retaining height ranging from 1m to 4m, used in river embankment.

4.

Construction of Gabion Wall

4.1 Packing and Assembly


Packing (i) For ease of handling and shipping, the gabions are bundled folded flat. Assembly (i) (ii) Open the bundle and unfold each unit. Lift the sides, the ends and the diaphragms of each unit into vertical position.

(iii) Attach the sides of four corners together with locking wire fastener or tying wire and the diaphragms to the front and back of the gabion. (iv) The tying operation begins at the top of the cage. The tying wire is laced around the selvedge through each mesh all the way to the bottom of the cage.

4.2 Installation and Filling


Installation (i) Empty gabion baskets shall be assembled individually and placed on the approved surface to the lines and grades as shown or as directed, with the position of all creases and that the tops of all sides are level. All gabion baskets shall be properly staggered horizontally and vertically. Finished gabion structures shall have no gaps along the perimeter of the contact surfaces between adjoining units.

(ii)

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Fig. 4.1 Abutment shape (Courtesy of and adapted from TerraAqua Gabions) (iii) All adjoining empty gabion units shall be connected along the perimeter of their contact surfaces in order to obtain a monolithic structure. All lacing wire terminals shall be securely fastened. (iv) All joining shall be made through selvedge-selvedge wire connection; mesh-mesh wire connection is prohibited unless necessary. Filling (i) The initial line of gabion basket units shall be placed on the prepared filter layer surface and adjoining empty baskets set to line and grade, and common sides with adjacent units thoroughly laced or fastened. They shall be placed in a manner to remove any kinks or bends in the mesh and to uniform alignment. The basket units then shall be partially filled to provide anchorage against deformation and displacement during the filling operation.

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

(ii)

Deformation and bulging of the gabion units, especially on the wall face, shall be corrected prior to additional stone filling. Care shall be taken, when placing the stone by hand or machine, to assure that the PVC coating on the gabions will not be damaged if PVC is utilized. All stone on the exposed face shall be hand placed to ensure a neat compact appearance.

(iii) Gabions shall be uniformly overfilled by about 2540 mm to account for future structural settlements and for additional layers. Gabions can be filled by any kind of earth filling equipment. The maximum height from which the stones may be dropped into the baskets shall be 900 mm.

4.3 Gabion Stone Placement


(i) The stone fill shall be placed into the gabion units in 300 mm lifts. Cells shall be filled to a depth not exceeding 300 mm at a time. The fill layer should never be more than 300 mm higher then any adjoining cell. Connecting wires shall be installed from the front to back and side to side of individual cell at each 300 mm vertical interval for gabions of depth exceeding 500 mm.

(ii)

(iii) The voids shall be minimized by using well-graded stone fill and by hand placement of the facing in order to achieve a dense, compact stone fill.

4.4 Lid Closing


(i) The lids of the gabion units shall be tightly secured along all edges, ends and diaphragms in the same manner as described for assembling.

5.0 Installation of Reno Mattress


Basically, the procedure for installation of reno mattress is similar to the construction of gabion units. Particular attention should be paid to the following : (i) Mattress units should be placed in proper position so that movement of rockfill inside the cage, due to gravity or flowing current, is minimal. Thus, on slopes, Mattresses should be placed with its internal diaphragms at right angles to the direction of the slope. On river beds, position the Mattress with the internal diaphragms at right angles to the direction flow.
Page 8-

Date: November 2006

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

(ii)

The Mattresses may be either telescoped or cut to form and tied at required shape when necessary, for example, when Mattresses are laid on a radius. For a sharp curve, it may be necessary to cut the Mattress diagonally into triangular sections and tie the open side securely to an intact side panel.

6.

Sample Particular Specifications, Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall and Reno Mattress

Sample clauses of PS, MM and SoR for gabion wall and Reno Mattress are shown in Appendix C.

7.

Maintenance Related Considerations and Maintenance Requirements

Geoguide 1 (Sections 9.5 and 13) may be referenced for the basis of providing a general guideline on maintenance of gabion walls. Generally speaking, maintenance requirements should be duly considered during both the design stage and during routine inspection after completion of works [Ref. 8.5]. Detailed discussion on the maintenance requirement both in detailed design stage and routine inspection are beyond the scope of this Technical Report. The necessary maintenance requirements should be judged on a case-by-case basis. However, some of the important considerations required to be considered during detailed design stage and routine inspection are listed below. Suggested considerations on maintenance requirements to be looked at during design stage : The water quality of river/stream would affect the durability of the wire used in the basket. The suitability of the gabion structures to be used in such river/stream environment should be within manufacturers recommendation. If necessary, corrosion protection measures should be applied to wires, such as PVC coated galvanized steel wires; Gradation of stone aggregates should be based on gabion thickness and grid size. As a rule of thumb, the size of stone measured in the greatest dimension should range from 150mm to 300mm. In addition, the smallest stone size must generally be larger than the wire mesh openings (usually of
Date: November 2006 Page 9-

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

about 100mm); Package of stone aggregates should be manually performed instead of mechanically performed. The mechanically package can cause unwanted stress to the net. However, manually packing of stone aggregates should not be over emphasized. Poorly packed gabions will cause undue movements as well as excessive abrasion to the PVC coating. To allow for the settlement of the stone aggregates, an over fill of about 25-40mm is considered to be adequate; The strength of the stone aggregates should be durable to resist the impact from flood flow particularly if the flood flow is violent. The stress created by the violent flood flow against gabions will lead to the shaking and mutual thrust of stones inside gabions. If the stones are fragile, the stones will start to crush into pieces small enough to fall outside the gabion net; The opening of the gabion net can be torn away by the continuous thrust of materials carried by runoff (e.g. sable, gravel, and rubble) against iron wires. When the net opens, the stone filling it up fall out, and the structure loses all its weight and, consequently, its function; and Gabions structures are generally composed of superimposed layers of gabion baskets. Special attention should be paid on gabion structures with a stepped shape, only a part of the superimposed layer rests on a lower layer of gabions. The remaining part rests directly on the earthfill. In this case, the underlying earthfill has to be compacted carefully, and its adherence to the lower layer of gabions should be ensured before surperimposing the next layer. Suggested considerations on maintenance requirements to be looked at during routine inspection : A gabion structure needs to be inspected annually and after each flood event. However, a newly placed gabion structure is recommended to be inspected for every 3 months or after each rainfall event whichever is the less; Signs of undercutting or other instability should also be checked; Any displacement or shifting of the wire baskets should need to be corrected immediately;
Date: November 2006 Page 10-

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Checking on the sign of damage or erosion of the river embankment should be included; and Checking for the wires of panels/cages for any signs of rusting and wear should be included.

8.

Reference Documents

8.1 U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 Evaluating Scour At Bridges, Fourth Edition, May 2001. 8.2 U.S. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water, Water Planning, Stream Guide, Stream Management Guide No. 15 Gabion Revetments 8.3 U.S. Environmental Department of Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Storm Water Best Management Practices Decision Support Tool #129 Gabions

8.4 Tricardi, Watershed Management Use of Gabions in Small Hydraulic Works 8.5 Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering Department, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region, GEOGUIDE 1 Guide to Retaining Wall Design, Second Edition, October 2003.

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Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Date: November 2006

Page 12-

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Drawing Notes: 1. 2. All dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise specified. Depending on the soil conditions, designers should determine whether any ground treatment for foundation is required in consideration with sliding, bearing or soil slip failures. Determination of Potential Scour Depth by Froehlich's Live-Bed Scour Equation

3.

where: K1 = Coefficient for shape Shape Coefficients Description Vertical-wall Vertical-wall with wing walls Spill-through K1 1.00 0.82 0.55

K2 = Coefficient for angle of embankment to flow = ( / 90) 0.13 ( < 90 if wall points downstream > 90 if wall points upstream ) L = Length of active flow obstructed by the wall, m Ae = Flow area of the approach cross section obstructed by the wall, m2 Fr = Froude Number of approach flow upstream of the wall = Ve/(gya)1/2 Ve = Qe/Ae, m/s Qe = Flow obstructed by the wall and approach structure, at peak flow, m3/s ya = Average depth of flow on the floodplain (Ae/L), m L = Length of wall projected normal to the flow, m ys = Scour depth, m

App. A - 1

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Example: Assume K1 = 0.82, K2 = ( 90 / 90) 0.13 = 1 L and ya are the base width and retaining height of the gabion wall as shown in the sketches in the calculations in Appendix B. Computed Scour Depth, ys as follow: Fr 0.25 2.01 3.78 5.45 7.10 0.5 2.54 4.72 6.74 8.73 0.75 2.97 5.49 7.79 10.06 1 3.35 6.15 8.71 11.22 1.5 4.01 7.32 10.31 13.25 2 4.59 8.34 11.71 15.03

Ya 1 2 3 4

L 1.5 2.25 2.75 3.25

4. Mesh shall be hexagonal double twist and shall not ravel if damaged. The dimensions of the hexagon shall be 80 x 100 mm. 5. The gabion mesh shall be formed with 2.7 mm diameter mild steel wires, hot dip galvanized to BS 443 and further coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 6. The PVC coating shall be dark green in colour, has an average thickness of 0.5 mm and nowhere less than 0.4 mm. 7. The diameter of the mild steel lacing wire and selvedge wire shall be 2.2 mm and 3.0 mm respectively, galvanized and coated with PVC in a similar way to the mesh wire. 8. All wires shall be mild steel to BS 1052. 9. The gabion shall be formed from one continuous piece of mesh which includes the lid. 10. All edges of gabions, diaphragms and end panels shall be mechanically selvedged
App. A - 2

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

in such a way as to prevent ravelling of the mesh and to develop the full strength of the mesh. 11. The gabion shall be divided by diaphragms into cells which length shall not be greater than 1m. 12. Infill to gabion shall be rock fill material of size 150 mm to 300 mm and shall be placed in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. 13. All front and side faces of the gabion wall shall be fixed with hand packed square stones of approximately 300 x 200 x 200 mm in size.

App. A - 3

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

App. A - 4

Annex E page 1

Annex E page 2

Annex E page 3

Design of Gabion Wall Used in River Embankment

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Appendix C

Sample Particular Specifications, Method of Measurement and Schedule of Rates for Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Particular Specifications Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress 7.45 Submissions of Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress (1) The following particulars of the proposed material together with the method of construction shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval at least 14 days before first delivery of gabion mesh and Reno Mattress mesh to site: (a) manufacturers literature for the gabion mesh and Reno Mattress mesh, including details of: - types of material employed; and - recommendations of handling, storage, placing, jointing, fixing and infilling with rocks. (b) a certificate for the material showing the manufacturers name, the date and place of manufacture and details showing that the material complies with the requirements stated in the Contract, including results of tests required in accordance with the Contract. 7.46 Gabion mesh (1) The mesh used in fabricating gabion shall be of a proprietary type approved by the Engineer. (2) Mesh shall be hexagonal double twist and shall not ravel if damaged. The dimensions of the hexagon shall be 80 x 100 mm. (3) The gabion mesh shall be formed with 2.7 mm diameter mild steel wires, hot dip galvanized to BS 443 and further coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The PVC coating shall be dark green in colour, has an average thickness of 0.5 mm and nowhere less than 0.4 mm. The diameter of the mild steel lacing wire and selvedge wire shall be 2.2 mm and 3.0 mm respectively, galvanized and coated with PVC in a similar way to the mesh wire. All wires shall be mild steel to BS 1052. (4) The PVC coating shall conform to the following requirements: tensile strength shall not be less than 210 kg/cm2 in accordance with ASTM D412-75;
App. C - 1

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

elongation shall not be less than 200% and not greater than 280% in accordance with ASTM D412-75; and resistance to abrasion shall not be greater than 0.19g in accordance with ASTM D1242-56(75).

7.47Construction of Gabion Wall (1) The gabion shall be formed from one continuous piece of mesh which includes the lid. Tying of mesh shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturers recommendation. (2) The gabion shall be divided by diaphragms into cells which length shall not be greater than 1m. (3) All edges of gabions, diaphragms and end panels shall be mechanically selvedged in such a way as to prevent ravelling of the mesh and to develop the full strength of the mesh. (4) Infill to gabion shall be rock fill material of size 150 mm to 300 mm and shall be placed in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. (5) All front and side faces of the gabion wall shall be fixed with hand packed square stones of approximately 300 x 200 x 200 mm in size. 7.48Reno Mattress mesh (1) The mesh used in fabricating Reno Mattress shall be of a proprietary type approved by the Engineer. (2) Mesh shall be hexagonal double twist and shall not ravel if damaged. The least nominal dimension of the hexagon opening shall be 64 mm. (3) The gabion mesh shall be formed with 2.2 mm diameter mild steel wires, hot dip galvanized to BS 443 and further coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The PVC coating shall be dark green in colour, has an average thickness of 0.5 mm and nowhere less than 0.4 mm. The diameter of the mild steel lacing wire and selvedge wire shall be 2.2 mm and 2.7 mm respectively, galvanized and coated with PVC in a similar way to the mesh wire. All wires shall be mild
App. C - 2

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

steel to BS 1052. (4) The PVC coating shall conform to the following requirements: tensile strength shall not be less than 210 kg/cm2 in accordance with ASTM D412-75; elongation shall not be less than 200% and not greater than 280% in accordance with ASTM D412-75; and resistance to abrasion shall not be greater than 0.19g in accordance with ASTM D1242-56(75).

7.49Construction of Reno Mattress (1) The Reno Mattress shall be formed from one continuous piece of mesh excluding the lid. The lid shall be a separate piece made of same type mesh as basket. Tying of mesh shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturers recommendation. (2) The Reno Mattress shall be uniformly partitioned by diaphragms into internal cells. The diaphragms shall be secured in position to the base and shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturers recommendation. (3) All edges of Reno mattress, diaphragms and end panels shall be mechanically selvedged in such a way as to prevent unravelling of the mesh and to develop the full strength of the mesh. (4) Infill to Reno Mattress shall be rock fill material of size 75 mm to 200 mm depending on the height of Reno Mattress and shall be placed in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. The size of rock fill shall be such that a minimum of two layers of rock must be achieved when filling the mattress.

App. C - 3

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Method of Measurement Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress 7.82 Item Description 7.83 Measurement Gabion wall and Reno Mattress The unit of measurement shall be in cubic metre. The measurement of gabion wall and Reno Mattress shall be the volume calculated by multiplying the crosssectional area of the gabion unit by the height as shown on Drawings or ordered by the Engineer. 7.84 Item Coverage The items for gabion wall shall include for: (5) levelling and preparation including but not limited to blinding concrete and/or rockfill; (6) assembling, placing and typing together in position; (7) staking, tensioning and jointing the units together; (8) providing and fabricating the gabion unit including cutting and folding mesh to form special units and shapes; (9) providing, packing and compacting rubble filling; (10) overfilling to allow for settlement; (11) bracing wires and wiring lids after fillings; (12) square stone facing; (13) in the case of watercourses and ponds, work in and/or dealing with the flow of water; (14) placing additional steel wire mesh on the face of the gabions; (15) all necessary tests including submitting results to the Engineer.

App. C - 4

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD

Schedule of Rates 0720 Gabion Wall & Reno Mattress Item No. 072001 072002 Description Gabion wall Reno Mattress Unit m3 m3 Schedule Rate
To be assessed when incorporating into contract SOR

App. C - 5

Geotechnical Design of Gabion Wall

RD 1045 Mainland North Division, DSD