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Computer Simulation

of

Intelligent Building Facades

By

Duncan E. Wren BSc(Hons) MSc

A Doctorial Thesis

Submittedin partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of:

Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University

October 2000

© by DuncanE. Wren2000

Martha & Josiah

bringing hope through a new generation

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ABSTRACr

Abstract

The economic and environmental benefits secured through the increasedintegration of

photovoltaic (PV) technology into the built environment are undeniable and provide

the principal motivation for this research.

Present delays in the technology transfer of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

can be attributed to the following:

" material cost

" performanceguarantee

" increasedinstallation complexity

" unfamiliar technology

It is well understood that the temperature of a PV material receiving solar irradiation,

will

increase with solar intensity, while reducing in electrical efficiency. It therefore

makes economic sense to minimise the increase in PV material temperature and

maximise electrical energyyield.

Through the addition of a convecting fluid, flowing over the surface of heated PV

material, heat transfer will be induced. With the added benefit of warm air capture

from an integrated photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) collector, the economic benefits are

increased. But, to ensure maximum utilisation of both thermal and electrical energy

production, a significantly more complex control system has to be employed than that

for a PV systemon its own.

Integrating such PVT systems into building facadesbrings with it another important

consideration. The ideal site for such PVT modules on a building facade tends to be at

the locations of light apertures. The reasons for this include considerationsof the basic

construction of the PVT modules, which incorporate a ventilated cavity of similar construction to modem day double-glazing.

Thus, the optimum performance of PVT modules on buildings can only be achieved

through the simultaneousregulation of the following.

" PV electrical output

thermal energy capture

iv

ABSTRACr

solar energygains

All three of these points are strongly dependent on the ratio of opaque PV material to

transparent glass over the facade construction. An optimum facade design will make

considerationof the following points.

" building location

" building design

"

building use

" energy storage facilities and

" budget

Modelling the energy flows within a multifunctional PVT building facade presentsa

problem of considerable complexity. Previous work in this area has centred on

performing finite element analysis of the system in order to find solutions to complex

algorithms. It requires considerablecomputational power to perform these calculations

and often the results producedare much more detailed than required.

Within

this thesis, a fully

operational PVT facade model is presented, giving the

potential for improved multifunctional facadedesign.

This new model has been developed into a software program for use within the TRNSYS environment. By using the TRNSYS software, a detailed building model has

been created and integrated with the new PVT facade model. Simulations were then

undertaken to evaluate the energy transfers between internal and external environments

and the electrical and thermal energy capturing capabilities of the facade. Simulated

results have been evaluated against experimental data taken from a fully operational PVT facade.

The results conclude that the presented model simulates the energy flows around,

through and within the facade (radiative, conductive, convective and electrical) very

well. Performance enhancing development work is due to take place on the operational

facade analysed in this work, very soon. This new facade model will be used as a tool

to evaluate the proposed changesto the building prior to this development work being

undertaken.

V

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Acknowledgements

With respect to the last four years of research,and summarised in this thesis, I would

like to credit the following. Without the help and guidance of whom, it would not have

been possible to complete this work. I am profoundly grateful to them all.

I owe my greatest thanks to EPSRC, without the financial backing from which

(through both payments of course fees and living expenses) it would not have been

possible to undertake this work.

Thanks need also to be given to both of my supervisors; Dr David Infield

who

originally provided me with the opportunity to carry out this research and Professor Victor Hanby whose knowledge of my researcharea hasbeen invaluable.

I've been greatly fortunate to have the opportunity to work within the `Control Group'

department of the University for the majority of my research time at Loughborough.

The endless help and guidanceprovided by both ProfessorRoger Goodall and Dr John

Pearsonhasbeen a great sourceof encouragement.

My final thanks go to my family who have unconditionally supported me throughout

the whole of my sevenyears of University life. I would especially like to acknowledge

my Mum and Dad, who were never given the opportunities that have been made

available to me. In addition, I give thanks to my brother Gyles (who's computing

facilities I have exploited to the full in producing this thesis), my sister Zoe and her husbandTrevor for their help and encouragement throughout.

vi

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

Statement of Originality

This is to certify that I am responsible for the work submitted in this thesis, that the

original work is my own except as specified in acknowledgementsand footnotes, and

that neither the thesis nor the original work contained therein has been submitted to this or any other institution for a higher degree.

Signed

`

26thOctober 2000

Mr Duncan E. Wren

INDEX

Index

NOMENCLATURE

I OUTLINE OF RESEARCH

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 PROJECTPROGRAM

1.3 THESIS STRUCTURE

1.4 UTILISED RESEARCH SOFTWARE

1.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY

2 CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER

2.1 INTRODUCTION

»

2.2 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

2.3 ANALYSIS BY EXACT MATHEMATICAL SOLUTIONS

2.4 APPROXIMATE INTEGRAL ANALYSIS METHOD

2.5 ANALYSIS BY HEAT, MASS & MOMENTUM TRANSFER

2.6 CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER FROM FLAT PLATES

2.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY

3 THERMAL

MODELLING

3.1 INTRODUCTION

OF A PV VENTILATED

3.2 THE MODELLING PROCEDURE

3.3 NATURAL CONVECTION

3.4 FORCEDCONVECTION

FACADE

3.5 WIND DRIVEN PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS

3.6 BIBLIOGRAPHY

4 EXPERIMENTAL

4.1 INTRODUCTION

& THEORETICAL

ASSESSMENT

OF WIND

LOADING

4.2 AIR FLOW THEORY

4.3 DETAILS OF BUILDING UNDER INVESTIGATION

4.4 WIND LOADING EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION

4.5 DISCUSSION

4.6 CONCLUSIONS

4.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY

5 VALIDATION

OF FACADE MODEL

5.1 INTRODUCTION

XI

1

1

2

4

5

7

8

8

11

12

16

19

22

35

37

37

39

49

54

57

58

59

59

60

64

71

76

87

88

89

89

INDEX

5.2 FACADE DESCRIPTION

5.3 MODEL DESIGN

5.4 FACADE DYNAMIC RESPONSE

5.5 PROGRAM CONSTRUCTION

5.6 MODEL VALIDATION

5.7 VALIDATION AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL DATA

5.8 DISCUSSION

5.9 BIBLIOGRAPHY

6 THE MATARO LIBRARY & ITS FACADE

91

94

105

109

115

124

129

132

133

6.1 INTRODUCTION

133

6.2 INTERIOR DESIGN

135

6.3 FACADE MULTIFUNCTIONALITY

137

6.4 ELECTRICAL ENERGY CAPTURE

139

6.5 THERMAL ENERGY CAPTURE

141

6.6 GRID CONNECTION

143

6.7 DATA LOGGING & RETRIEVAL

145

6.8 BIBLIOGRAPHY

146

7 BUILDING

MODELLING

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 BUILDING LAYOUT

7.3 SCHEDULES

7.4 GAINS

RESULTS

7.5 INFILTRATION & VENTILATION

7.6 COOLING & HEATING

7.7 BUILDING WALL CONSTRUCTIONS

7.8 THE BUILDING-FACADE INTERFACE

7.9 SIMULATION APPROXIMATIONS

7.10 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

7.11 DISCUSSION

7.12 BIBLIOGRAPHY

8 CONCLUSIONS ON RESEARCH

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 ATTRIBUTES OF BUILDING MODEL

8.3 ATTRIBUTES OF FACADE MODEL

8.4 DEVELOPMENT WORK

8.5 RESEARCHASSESSMENT

8.6 BIBLIOGRAPHY

A ANALYSIS BY EXACT MATHEMATICAL

SOLUTIONS

ix

147

147

148

150

152

155

157

158

160

164

168

198

208

209

209

211

213

215

218

219

220

INDEX

Al

THE VELOCITY BOUNDARY LAYER

220

A2

THE THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER

224

A3 CONVECTION FROM A FLAT PLATE

227

B APPROXIMATE

INTEGRAL

ANALYSIS

METHOD

231

BI

THE VELOCITY BOUNDARY LAYER

231

B2

THE THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER

235

C HEAT, MASS & MOMENTUM ANALYSIS METHOD

239

CI

THE VELOCITY BOUNDARY LAYER

239

C2

THE THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER

242

C3 NUSSELT NUMBER EVALUATION

244

D DERIVATION OF SIMULATION MODEL EQUATIONS

247

D1 ENERGY BALANCE EQUATIONS

247

D2 FACADE GLAZING TEMPERATURES

249

D3 CAVITY AIR USEFUL HEAT GAIN

250

D4 FACADE COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY FACTOR AND HEAT LOSS COEFFICIENT

252

D5 FACADE CAVITY AIR OUT TEMPERATURE

253

D6 CAVITY MEAN AIR TEMPERATURE

255

E THE FIRST ORDER HAMMERSTEIN

PARADIGM

256

El DERIVATION OF HAMMERSTEINEXPRESSION

256

F RADIATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN BUILDING SURFACES

FI

WALL

HEAT

FLUXES

F2 AIR NODE & SURFACETEMPERATURES

258

258

261

G GRAPHICAL RESULTS FROM CIIAPTER 4.4

264

H PREDICTED RESPONSEOF FACADE MODEL

273

X

Nomenclature

A

a, g

B

C

cf

C

-Y

d

e

E

F

F'

FR

g

G

gg

Gr

H

h

i

1

aspectratio,

area

terrain dependent constants

building width

constant,

cavitychannelcircumference

friction coefficient

specific heat,

'

.

pressurecoefficient zeroair displacementheight

internal thermal energyper unit mass

energy

friction factor

collector efficiency factor

heat removal factor

gravitational acceleration

direct solar Insolation, mass flow rate per unit areaof facade

dimensional conversion factor

Grashof number

facade cavity total height

height, heat transfer coefficient

enthalpyperunit mass total solar insolation

xi

m2

_

m

m

+ob

_

m

Jkg-'

j&

Wm2

_

ms2

Wm 2

kgs'lm2

KgmN1s 2

m

m

Wm2K7'

Jkg'

Wm2

NOMENCLATURE

k

K

ke

I

L

n

Nu

p

Pr

Q, q

Q.

Ra

Re

Rt

thermal conductivity, extinction coefficient

constant

eddy conductivity

length

facade cavity spacing, characteristic length of system

refractive index

local Nusselt number

pressure

Prandtl number

heat

useful heat gain

Rayleigh number

Reynolds number

thermal resistance

Wm lKa

Wm'Ic'

m

m

m

Nm2

W

Wlm2K

T

t

temperature

time

K

s

U

u, v

V

W

x

thermal losses

componentsof velocity

velocity

facade cavity width

thickness

x, y

componentsof length

X, Y

body forces

z

reference height

Wm zK'

ms2

ms-I

m

m

m

Nm3

m

NOMENCLATURE

Greek Symbols

8

ß

v

0

a

µ

P

a

n

E

µf

EH

S, h

Ä

velocity boundary layer height

volumetric thermal expansioncoefficient

kinematic viscosity

dimensionless temperature, time, angle

Stefan-Boltsman constant

absoluteviscosity

reflectance,

density

transmittance, sheerstress, time constant

solar absorptance, thermal diffusivity

efficiency, similarity variable

emittance

dynamic viscosity

eddy diffusivity

thermal boundary layer height

difference

m

K'

m2s',

-

s

degrees

Wm 2K4

Kgs'm 1

- Kgm 3

Nm2

m2s''

%

NsmZ

mZs''

m

NOMENCLATURE

Subscripts

00

a

T

1,2,3,4,5

a

A,B,C,D,E,F, G,H

bottom

c

cav2

e

eqv

ext

f

infinite time,

free stream fluid flow

absorbed, ground roughness

transmitted

facade glazing reference

air

facade glazing surfacereference

reverse (back side) of collector

critical

point,

convection

inner facade air cavity

eddy flow

equivalent

external

fluid

g

h

i

glazing

height up facade

insulation

int

internal

PV

photovoltaic material

r

radiative

s

surface

STC

standard test conditions

t

top

thermal

front (cover side) of collector

xiv

1 OUTLINE OF RESEARCH

1.1 Introduction

The work undertakenwithin this thesis centreson the design of a theoretical model to

simulate the operation of a building integrated solar photovoltaic/thermal (PVT)

collector. The chosen design was required to provide accurate calculations of the

thermal and electrical energy flows from and through a ventilated facade.

The PVT

collector model design was constructed by updating a proven thermal

collector model. The original collector model was improved through the addition of up

to date published research material and consideration of

processes.

previously un-modelled

The performance of the presented PVT model has been evaluatedagainst experimental data taken from a monitored full-scale PVT facade. Based on the findings from this

be developed to improve the design and control of such

analysis, guidelines will

building integratedPVT facadesin future installations.

1

CHAPTER I. OVCLRJE OF RESEARCH

1.2 Project Program

The PVT technology development work contained in this thesis form part of the

JOULE-II

Matar6 library project supported by the European Community (JOU2-

CT92-0046) which is conducted under the collaboration of the following contributing

partners.

" Loughborough University, UK [project co-ordinators]

" FachhochschuleStuttgart, Hochschulefür Technik (HfT), Germany

Teuladesi FasanesMultifuncionals S.A. (TFM), Spain

" GRAMMER GmbH, Germany

The Matarö library project objectives are centred on theoretical and experimental investigations of the integrated PVT facade on the library building. The complete

program of activities to be undertakenwithin this project is outlined in Table 1.2.1.

Table 1.2.1 Description of Project Activities21

Activity

1

2

3

4

5

Description

Solar thermal collector design

Laboratory experiments & environmental testing

Matar6library experimentalevaluation

Completebuilding modelling

Development of guideline design

The work contained in this thesis is entirely encompassedunder Activity

4 of Table

1.2.1.The individual tasks contained in Activity 4 above,are shown in Table 1.2.2.

Table I. Z2 Description of Activity TasksJ21

Task

4.1

4.2

Description

Develop simulation model of PVT facade

Evaluate facade cavity air temperaturefluctuations under varying operating conditions

2

CHAPTER 1. OUPLINE OF RESEARCH

4 .3*1

4.4*2

4.5*3

4.6*4

4.7*5

4.8*6

4.9

4.10

Compare the zone heating characteristics from facadeheat capture and thermal storagereclamation

Study the effect of the control systemon energy captureand delivery

Model electrical performance of PV array

Develop thermal storagemodel for integration with facade/building model

Develop zone lightingload model

Simulate modifications to facade performanceafter the addition of the solar air heating elementon the facade

Develop simulationmodelof building

Validate simulationmodelsagainstexperimental datefrom Matar6

*' & *4 Aspects of the thermal energy storageelement of the Matarb library simulation model

have yet to be finalised and as such storage is not in a position to be modelled at present.

*2 This task will

be jointly

undertaken between Loughborough University and GRAMMER,

external to this presentresearch

*3 A full investigation of the PV array performance of the building has been carried out using

the FACPV software by Aceves et alW'W

*S Construction of a lighting load model for the library is to be undertaken by HfT, external to

this presentresearch

*6 A discussion on this modification to the facadeis given later in this thesis

Of the tasks listed in Table 1.2.2, those fully or partly addressedwithin this thesis are

Tasks 4.1,4.2,4.9

and 4.10.

3

CHAPTER 1. OUTLINE OF RESEARCH

1.3 Thesis Structure

This thesis has been arranged into 8 chapters,each of which are described briefly in Table 1.3.1.

Table 1.3.1 Arrangement & Description of Thesis Chapters

Chapter

Number

2

3

Title & Description

ConvectiveHeat Transfer

Reviews

published

convection

coefficient

expressions

of

particular

relevance to the operation of a PVT fagade

Thermal Modelling of a PV Ventilated Facade

Outlines the mathematical description of an existing solar thermal collector model adapted for this new fagade model

4

5

Experimental & Theoretical Assessment of Wind Loading

Provides an evaluation of the effects of external air flow

operation

Validation of Facade Model

on the fagade

Validates fagade model againstexperimental data

6

The Matarö Library & Its Facade

Describesthe Matarö library constructionand the interactionbetweenits

ventilated fagade and the internal building volume

7

8

Building Modelling Results

Presents resultsof simulationsusing

combined Matarö library and fagade

models for comparisonwith recordedperformance data from the library

Conclusions on Research

Reviews the simulated results of chapter 7 and assessesthe potential of the

fagade& building models to be a true representationof the Matarö building

4

CHAPTER 1. OWIJNE

OF RESEARCH

1.4 Utilised Research Software

1.4.1 Visual Fortran 5.0 & Microsoft PowerStation (version 4.0)

Microsof °

PowerStation 4.0

is

a 32-bit

complement to

the

16-bit FORTRAN

programming language.It supports all the features of the 16-bit product but is able to

in

a Windows

run

applications.

environment and is able to

produce executables for

32-bit

Within this research, Microsoft© PowerStation has been utilised extensively for the

composition

and debugging of

custom FORTRAN

subroutines for

use within

TRNSYS. This is achieved primarily through the creation of a Dynamic Link Library

(TRNLIB32. DLL) with the FORTRAN object code.

1.4.2 TRNSYS with IISIBAT

TRNSYS is a transient systems simulation program with a modular structure and

whose common languageis FORTRAN. It recognisesa system description languagein

which the user specifies the components that constitute the system and the manner in

which they are connected.

TRNSYS makes use of a library of the prewritten components commonly found in

thermal energy systems, as well as component routines which handle the input of

weather data or other time-dependent forcing functions and the output of simulation

results.

The modular nature, in which TRNSYS has been written, provides the opportunity for

the creation of additional mathematical models not included in the standard TRNSYS library.

IISiBat, which can be roughly translated from French as "Intelligent Interface for the

Simulation of Buildings," is a general simulation environment program that has been

adapted to house the TRNSYS simulation software.

5

CHAPTER 1. OUTLINE OF RESEARCH

By way of its flexible nature, many tools and utility programs can be controlled from

the

IISiBat

shell,

such that

a

complete simulation

containing

many

modular

componentscan be incorporated into one environment program.

1.4.3 PREBID & BID

PREBID is an interactive interface through which the user is able to create a file containing the complete building description in the BID language.This file containsall the information required to fully describe the complete building construction and all its

operational characteristicssuchas gains,ventilation etc.

The completed building description file is then converted by BID into files required by

the TRNSYS TYPE56 multi-zone building component.

1.4.4 METEONORM Edition 97

METEONORM is described as being a comprehensiveclimatological databasefor use within solar energy applications. Its primary function is to calculate the magnitudes of solar radiation on arbitrarily orientated surfacesat any desired location, but it is also a useful tool for the generatingof other meteorological data such as ambient temperature and rainfall etc.

The process by which it does this can either be by extracting relevant information from a meteorological database of climatological data, taken from all points on the globe or through climatological calculations.

6

CHAPTER 1. OUTLINE OF RESEARCH

1.5 Bibliography

2

O.Aceves,

L. Sabata, M.Chantant,

J.M. Servant,

Ph.

Ragot,

J.C.Aguillon,

M. Gurard,

Multifunctional

Conference,Nice, France,23-27 October 1995.

A. Lloret,

Modules",

"Design

13`h

and

and

European

Performance

Photovoltaic

Assessment

of

Solar

Energy

Loughborough University, "Design Study &

Integrated Solar Facade", (Joule-11Project Report for Matarö Library Project,

Experimental Evaluation of an

JOU2-CT92-0046), 1997.

7

2 CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER

2.1 Introduction

An accurate evaluation of heat transfer between the thermal collector plate and

working fluid in any solar thermal collector system is of paramount importance. The

more effective a collector construction is at transferring its absorbed heat to the

working fluid, the more efficient its performancewill be.

Where the fluid makes contact with its bounding surface, both velocity and thermal

is

boundary layers are formed within

fluid.

The

boundary layer

the

velocity

characterised by the presence of velocity gradients and sheer stresses,whereas the

thermal boundary layer is characterised by the temperaturegradient and heat transfer.

At the boundary surface, the fluid velocity will

be zero and heat transfer will

be

achieved solely through conduction. Away from the surface, bulk fluid motion and

heat transfer originate from the fluid velocity and thermal boundary layers, which

grow with increasingfluid flow path length.

It is the condition of both the velocity and thermal boundary layers, which determine

the magnitude of convective heat transfer; both of which

following: -

" surfacegeometry (roughness)

" the natureof fluid motion

" fluid thermodynamic and transport properties

are influenced by the

The nature of fluid motion can be classified under either, or both of forced and natural

convection. Natural

convection describes a

in

turn

fluid

flow

density

induced

through

solely

buoyancy

temperature variations in the fluid. Forced convection, on the other hand, describes a

forces, which

differences

caused by

arise through

fluid flowing by way of an externalmeans.

8

CHAPTER 2. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER

Regardless of

the particular nature of

the convective heat transfer process, the

appropriate expressionquantifying the heat flow between fluid and bounding surface is

given by Newton's Law of cooling, shown by Equation 2.1.1.

qq= k(T, -Tf)

where

Equation 2.1.1

q, = convective heat flux [Wm-']

T, =surface temperature[K]

Tf =fluid

temperature[K]

k=

convective heat transfer coefficient [W mK] '2

The convective heat transfer coefficient h,, encompasseseach of the three influencing

factors listed above in such a way that any study of heat convection ultimately reduces

to a study of the means by which h, may be determined.

An evaluation of h, for a specified systemcan be achieved through considerationof the

interaction between the fluid and its bounding surfaceat the point of contact.

At the bounding surface there is no fluid motion and energy transfer occurs solely by

conduction. The heat flux at any distance x from the leading edge may be obtained by

applying Fourier's law of conduction atj-0.

4: =-kf 9aTf

ayy.

where

o

Equation 2.1.2

q, = heatflux at surface [Wm'2]

y=

kf=

distancefrom bounding surface into fluid [m]

fluid conductivity [Wm''K'' ]

Combining Equations2.1.1 & 2.1.2 gives the following relation for h, where qs=qc.

-k

ýTT

aTf

ly.

0

fax

T, -

Tf

Equation 2.1.3

Hence conditions in the thermal boundary layer, which strongly influence the wall

temperature gradient dT/öy(, _o, determine the rate of heat transfer across the boundary

layer.

9

CHAPTER 2. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER

There are four generalmethodsavailable for evaluating the convective heat transfer coefficients, h,, as follows:

1. Dimensional analysiscombinedwith experiments

2. Exact mathematicalsolutions of the boundary-layer equations

3. Analyses of the boundary layer by integral methods

4. Analogy betweenheat, massand momentum transfer

All four of thesetechniques have contributed to the understanding of convective heat-

transfer. Yet, no single method can solve all possible problems because each method

haslimitations, restricting its scopeof application.

10

CHAPTER 2. CoNvECTIvEE HEAT TRANSFER

2.2 Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional analysis is a mathematically simple process, which has found a wide

range of application. The chief limitation of this method is that results obtained by it

are incomplete and quite uselesswithout experimental data. It contributes little to our understanding of the transfer process, but facilitates the interpretation and extends the

range of application of experimental data by its correlation in terms of dimensionless

groups.

Dimensional analysis differs from other methods of approach in that it does not yield

equations that can be solved. Instead, it combines several variables (such as the Nusselt number) into dimensionless groups, which facilitate the interpretation and

extend the range of application of experimental data. In practice, convective heat-

transfer coefficients are generally calculated from empirical equations obtained by

correlating experimental data with the aid of dimensional analysis.

The method is limited in its use becauseit provides no information about the nature of

the phenomenon. In

fact, to apply dimensional analysis it

is necessary to know

beforehand what variables influence the phenomenon,and the successor failure of the

method depends on the proper selection of these variables. It is therefore important to

have at least a preliminary theory or a thorough physical understanding of a

phenomenon before dimensional analysis can be applied. However, once the pertinent

variables are known, dimensional analysis can be applied to most problems by a

routine procedure.

After

some consideration of

the physical quantities involved

in

the analysis of

convective heat transfer, dimensionless groups can be derivedI'1 and functional

relationships defined for the convective heat transfer, such as that shown below.

Nu = f(Rex, Pr)

Which states that the average Nusselt number in a convective system is a function of both the Reynolds number Re and Prandtl number Pr.

11

CHAPTER 2. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER

2.3 Analysis

by Exact Mathematical Solutions

This approach requires the simultaneous solution of both the equations describing the

fluid motion and the transfer of energy in the moving fluid. Assumptions are made that

the physical mechanismsof the fluid flow are known and that these can be described

completely by mathematical equations. In reality, this has only been successfully

achieved for simple casesunder laminar flow (e. g. for fluid flow over a flat plate or

circular cylinder).

Even for laminar flow, the equations are seen to be quite complicated, but the further

development of the electronic computer has assureda continual increase in the range

of solvable problems. The mathematicalprocedure is outlined in Appendix A.

Figure 2.3.1 demonstrates the simultaneous development of thermal and velocity

boundary layers in a fluid as it flows along a bounding surface, which is at a higher

temperature than the fluid. Equations 2.3.1,2.3.2 and 2.3.3, which have been taken

directly from Appendix A, describe completely the physical processesthat influence

conditions in steady, two dimensional velocity boundary layers. By solving these

equations, the velocity field in the boundary layer may be determined.

au

P u-+v- ax

av

uax+vay

au

ay

av

=-

a(pu)

ax

+ a(PV)

ay

=o

ap

+-

a

ax

ax

µ

au 2 (au av

ax

3

-+-

ax

ay

2--

+ a4

ay

2p+

a

ayay

av

au

av

a

+ax

µ

_2

tL2Ji1

ay

3

ax+ay

12

Equation 2.3.1

au av

-+ ay

ax

+X

Equation 2.3.2

au

av

ay+ax

+Y

Equation 2.3.3

CHAPTER 2. CONVECTIVE

HEAT TRANSFER

where

u=

v=

p=

p=

p=

X=x

Y=v

mass average fluid velocty in x direction

[ms-']

mass average fluid velocity in y direction [ms-']

fluid pressure [Nm-']

fluid mass density [Kgm-3] fluid viscosity [Kgs-'m-']

component of body force per unit volume [Nm-3 ]

component of body force per unit volume [ Nm"3]

Thermal

boundary

layer

Velocity

boundary

layer

Figure 2.3.1. The Velocity and Thermal Boundary Layers

Equation 2.3.1 is also known

as the continuity

equation which

of