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# Assignment No.

:- 2
Submitted by:-

## Submitted To:Mr. Anand

Q.1. I have send a binary signal over 12-Khz channel whose signal to noise ratio is 10 dB, what should my maximum achievable rate ? Ans.:- we known that Capacity=bandwidth*log2(1+SNR) Here, Bandwidth is the bandwidth of channel. SNR is signal to noise ratio. Put the value Capacity=12*log2(1+10) = 12 * log2(11) = 12 * 3.4596 = 41. 5152 kbps

Q.2. Demodulator part of the modem and modulator part of the codec , both convert an analog signal to the digital ones , if there is any difference ? Justify your answer. Ans.:- A modem is a piece of hardware. It is an electronic device that communicates over a digital or analog medium (line) to transmit data. This data is coded (digitalized) and then converted to fit the medium it is transmitted through (analog or digital) so the information is received on the other end by another modem and is then interpreted. A codec is software, it is a program 'key' of sorts that tell the computer how to 'translate' the digital information of a file and present it in an understandable manner. It does not necessarily mean that it is a security measure, but it is the 'dictionary' with which the information is written. Some codecs are contained in chips but that nonetheless is a small 'computer' that contain the instructions so it is still a piece of programming.

Q.3. in the constellation diagram, all the points lie on a circle centered on the origin. What kind of modulation is used and why? Ans.:- If all the points are equidistant from the origin, they all have the same amplitude, so amplitude modulation is not being used. Frequency modulation is never used in constellation diagrams, so the encoding is pure phase shift keying.

Q.4. How receiver detect that which is information signal and which is carrier signal and how it separate both at destination? Ans.:- According to the definition of Modulation since the work of demodulator is to demodulate high frequency carrier signal, so in its recovery circuit it employs a circuit which does not allow high frequency signals to pass , but passes the low frequency signal. Where the high frequency is carrier signal & information being the lower frequency.

Q.5. If you are given with Ip address, how would you calculate the number of computer attached? Illustrate by giving example. Ans.:- IP addresses are written in "dotted decimal" notation, which is four sets of numbers separated by decimal points; for example, 204.171.64.2. Instead of the domain name of a Web site, the actual IP address can be entered into the browser. However, the Domain Name System (DNS) exists so users can enter computerlanguage.com instead of an IP address, and the domain (the URL) computerlanguage.com is converted to the numeric IP address (see DNS). Although the next version of the IP protocol offers essentially an unlimited number of unique IP addresses (see IPv6), the traditional IP addressing system (IPv4) uses a smaller 32-bit number that is split between the network and host (client, server, etc.). The host part can be further divided into subnetworks

Class A, B and C:- Based on the split of the 32 bits, an IP address is either Class A, B or C, the most common of which is Class C. More than two million Class C addresses are assigned, quite often in large blocks to network access providers for use by their customers. The fewest are Class A networks, which are reserved for government agencies and huge companies.

Q.6. how long a station 's' have to wait in the worst case before it can start transmitting its frame over lan that uses the basic bit map protocol? Ans.:- The worst case would be when a station wants to transmit (just after its bit slot is passed), and all of the other stations are transmitting. Then, on the next pass all the stations are transmitting again, and station, s, is the very last station on the map. So first it has to wait for (N-1) frame slot, then entire N bitslot (contention period), and another (N-1) frame slot, so total waiting time is N+2(N-1)d bit slots.

Q.7. A cable tv system has 100 commercial channels all of them alternating programs with advertizing , is this more like TDM or FDM ? Justify your answer. Ans.:- A cable tv system has 100 commercial channels all of them alternating programs with advertizing, is like FDM (frequency division multiplexing). In FDM, several small frequencies are multiplexed over a big carrier frequency which are transmitted on the network. In FDM, We also provide a fixed bandwidth to every channel and a band guards are provided between each frequency to avoid overlapping of signal. In case of cable transmission we provided a band guard of 6 MHz to every channel. Thus FDM is the most suitable technique for transmission as compare to TDM.