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UNIT ONE

READING Reading Comprehension THE IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH British or American, the language is basically the same, and its global stature is backed up by massive English-language training programmes, an international business that in textbooks, language courses, tape cassettes, video programmes and computerized instruction is worth hundreds of millions of pounds or dollars to the economies of the US and the UK. The English language is now one of Britains most reliable exports. In the ironic words of the novelist Malcolm Bradbury, it is an ideal British product, needing no workers and no work, no assembly lines and no assembly, no spare parts and very little servicing, it is used for the most intimate and the most public services everywhere. We call it the English language ... Dr Robert Burchfield, former Chief Editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, has remarked that any literate, educated person on the face of the globe is deprived if he does not know English. The first level of the global sway of English is to be found in those countries, formerly British colonies, in which English as a second language has become accepted as a fact of cultural life that cannot be wished away. In Nigeria, it is an official language; in Zambia, it is recognized as one of the state languages; in Singapore, it is the major language of government, the legal system and education. QUESTIONS Choose a, b or c in each question below! 1. The English Language a. is a good source of money for UK and USA. b. is not a good source of money for UK and USA. c. c. is a good source. 2. The English Language a. has not been accepted in the British colonies. b. has been accepted in the British colonies. c. has become obsolete in the British colonies. 3. The English language is an official language a. in Zambia and Singapore.

b. in Nigeria. c. in Nigeria and Zambia. 4. Dr. Robert Burchfield a. is not a novelist. b. works for the OED. c. worked for the OED. GRAMMAR PUNCTUATAION Punctuation is the system of symbols (. , ! - : etc) that we use to separate sentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. Each symbol is called a "punctuation mark". Summary of Punctuation Marks Mark Name Example(s) I love Polish food. I speak Polish, Russian and English.

. , ; : --

full stop

comma

'World-English', as everyone knows, is the best place to study English. I hate swimming; my girlfriend loves it.

semi-colon

Neither of us spoke; we merely waited in silence to see what would happen. You will need the following: some paper; a pencil; a pen, preferably blue or black; and your coursebook.

colon hyphen

Joanna became a director in just four months: her father was the chief shareholder. He had something of a couldn't-care-less attitude to life. In each country -- Egypt, India and China -- we were able to communicate in English.

dash

The following day we had better luck - but that is another story.

? ! / " ' ( ) [ ] ...

question mark exclamation mark slash quotation marks apostrophe brackets (square) brackets

Where is the railway station in Skwierzyna? "Help!" he cried. "I can't swim!" Please press your browser's Refresh/Reload button. "I think I'm falling in love with you," she said. This is Simon's car. Citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, limes) are rich in vitamin C. The newspaper reported that the hostages [most of them French] had been released. One satisfied customer wrote: "This is the best school ... in which I have ever studied" or in more colloquial speech "This is the best school...that I have ever studied at."

ellipsis

PRACTICE 1 Punctuate the sentences below 1. Sally is my sisters friend 2. What time is it 3. Dont speak to your mother like that 4. Good morning Did you sleep well 5. Oh dear Did he hurt himself 6. Mom asked if I had cleaned my room 7. Help Im falling 8. Could you open a window, please 9. Hes very handsome, isnt he 10. What a lovely day 11. George are you okay 12. Peter David and Susan are playing hide and seek 13. Mom bought meat fish and vegetables at the supermarket 14. Good morning madam 15. What is the time now

ACTIVITY ONE: Family Complete the story below by using the words in the box Lives Has doctor goes married visits plays works reads have

Susans Family
Susan is a ......... She is thirty seven years old. She.......in a small village near Agadir. Her father is Moroccan. Her mother is Egyptian. She........two brothers and one sister. Sara is........ Her husbands name is Khalid. He is a teacher. He.........at a high school. Susan and Khalid.......one son called Hamid. He is three years old. And two daughters, their names are Houda and Khadija. Khadija is eleven and Houda is fourteen. They are students in a preparatory school. At the weekend, Khalid.........to the sport club and.......tennis with his friend Hassan, whereas, Susan......her parents or......newspapers. Its your turn. Write about your family and tell to your friends

VOCABULARY PRACTICE 1 JOBS Match the following statements with the correct pictures 1. This is a person that assists a doctor and patients 2. This is a person that designs buildings. 3. This is a person that gives haircuts and shaves 4. This is a person that puts out or the fire 5. This is a person that teaches students in university 6. This is a person that cooks at a restaurant 7. This is a person that delivers letters 8. This is a person that services food and drink at a restaurant 9. This is a person that repairs cars, buses, etc. 10. This is a person that examines and takes care animals

a)___________

b)_____________

c)______________

d)______________

e)______________

f)____________

g)________________ h)_________________

i)_____________________

j)_______________________

Rewrite each sentence using the correct punctuation. 1. Excuse me Mr. Chen. Could you help me with this question please. 2. I cant speak French very well. 3. Tyler don't you start your new job today? 4. The chicken was greasy cold and messy. 5. Alyssa set the table prepared the dinner and served her parents. 6. Jason is tall dark and handsome. 7. president kennedy was assassinated on november 23, 1963. 8. the u.s. constitution was ratified by the required nine states on june 21, 1788. 9. Her new haircut looks good doesn't it? 10. My mother was born in Isabella Oklahoma. 11. My family went on vacation to Madrid Spain. 12. Lynette's mother was born in Paris France. 13. samantha will go to see the doctor on january 3. 14. my family went skiing in january.

15. Dad had to mow the lawn fix the window and trim the tree on Saturday. Punctuate the following text there are many ways in celebrating New Years Eve in indonesia most people celebrate it with the noise of trumpets firecrackers and fireworks some others celebrate it with their family by having barbeque in their garden or even just gathering with the whole family members watching movies and doing lots of great things to welcome the New Year

UNIT TWO
READING Reading Comprehension

COMPUTERS AND ROBOTS


Computers are machines that can help us in many ways. But they cannot think or do things on their own. Humans have to feed them with information and tell them what to do with it. They cannot come up with any new information. But they can save much time and work. For example, all the information and the office files can be stored in a computer's "memory". If a clerk were to trace any information from a particular file, the computer would only take seconds to find it. It would take a clerk days or even weeks to go through every file if no computers were used. The first computers were huge and costly. They filled up almost the whole floor of large offices. Later, because of the usefulness and demand for computers in business, scientists soon found ways to produce cheaper and smaller computers. They invented chips which made it possible to store more information in less space. Today, computers are not only cheaper, but also more compact. They can just be placed on top of an ordinary writing table. They can even be carried from place to place easily. Computers are not only used in offices by companies, but they are also used at home, by families who can afford them. Robots, on the other hand, are not mechanical people. They are only moving parts controlled by a computer. A robot can do the same work for twenty four hours, and yet, it does not complain or get tired. In the United States robots are computers that tell them where to guard and what to do. These robots are programmed to listen for certain noises and signals for help in case of trouble or danger. In Japan and in some places in America, robots are used in factories to assemble cars. As computers become more common businesses and factories, people fear that tone day computers and computer controlled robots will put human workers out of work. QUESTIONS Choose a, b, c or d in each question below! 1. Why do humans have to feed the computers with information and tell them what to do? a. b. c. d. Because computers can save time and work. Because computers cannot think or do things on their own. Because computers can store office information in their memory. Because computers can help us in many ways.

2. Why did the first computers fill up almost the whole floor? a. b. c. d.

Because they were huge and costly. because of the usefulness and demand for computers in businesses. Because the office floor was small. because they were huge.

3. Find a word in the passage that has the same meaning as more compact. a. b. c. d.

Huge Cheaper Smaller Costly

4. Which of the following statements in NOT TRUE? a. b. c. d.

Robots are controlled by a computer. Robots are mechanical people. Robots do not get tired of working. Robots guard factories and museums in the United States.

5. Humans fear that one day computers and robots


a. b. c. d.

are busier than humans. are cleverer than humans will make humans jobless. will make humans listen to certain noise.

GRAMMAR Demonstratives - This, that, these, those We use demonstratives to points a particular noun. There are four demonstratives in English: the "near" demonstratives this and these, and the "far" demonstratives that and those. Here are the main distinctions:

This modifies or refers to singular nouns that are near to the speaker. That modifies or refers to singular nouns that are far from the speaker. These modifies or refers to plural nouns that are near to the speaker.

Those modifies or refers to plural nouns that are far from the speaker.

Demonstratives Singular Plural Near Far This That These Those -

Examples:

This tastes good. Have you seen this? These are bad times. Can you see those? This is heavier than that. These are bigger than those.

Normally we use demonstrative pronouns for things only. But we can use them for people when the person is identified. Look at these examples:

This is Josef speaking. Is that Mary? That sounds like John.

PRACTICE 1 Complete the sentences below with this, these, that, or those 1. Can you pass me _____ book beside you, please? 2. _____ flowers over there are not expensive. 3. _____ workers are more productive than those ones. 4. He doesn't like ____ shoes here. Those ones there appear more like his style. 5. How much is ____ dress here? 6. ____ is my favourite movie, not this one. 7. I want ____ books not these ones. 8. Does he like ____ type of music that is playing now? 9. Which of ____ drinks that I have do you want?
10. Don't paint this room. You can paint _____ room 11. Hello. _______ Patrick. Can I speak to Murray, please?

12. Yes, let's go to the restaurant tonight. _______ a great idea. 13. I need to stop for a coffee. Is ____ all right with you? 14. Look at ____ man over there! He's not wearing any clothes 15. _____ boots she is wearing look very expensive.

Put in the correct form of plural 1. Desk 2. City 3. Garage 4. Bike 5. Boy 6. Box 7. Knife 8. Watch 9. Brush 10. Key 11. Tomato 12. Zoo

UNIT THREE
READING The twins were excited. Finally, after months of cleaning and packing, they were moving into their new home. Boxes lay in a neat pile in the hall of their old home, full of their clothes, toys and books. When the removal van arrived, they helped the big and burly movers carry the lighter boxes to the van. The movers carried the heavy stuff like the sofa and cupboards. Their parents were busy giving instructions to the movers. Finally, they were on their way to the new home. Jim and Jerry loved their new house. Not only did they not have to share a room anymore, the new house also had a small grassy area at the back. They needn't go to the park to have a game of football anymore ! Their new house was just a few blocks away from their school and they could cycle to school every day. That beats having to take the bus, which they had to do before moving into the new house. The boys were sure they would be happy in their new house. QUESTIONS Choose a, b or c in each question below! 1. Jim and Jerry are a. Friends b. Parents c. Brothers d. Neighbors 2. They moved house a. By themselves b. with the help of movers c. with their parents' help d. with their friend's help 3. The twins used to sleep in

Their own room Their parents room One room The hall 4. They normally play football a. at the park b. in the grassy area at the back c. at the stadium d. at their school
a. b. c. d.

5. At their old house, they had to _________ to school a. Cycle b. Walk c. Move d. Take a bus

GRAMMAR Articles We divide articles into "definite" and "indefinite" like this: Articles Definite Indefinite the a, an

We use "definite" to mean sure, certain. "Definite" is particular. We use "indefinite" to mean not sure, not certain. "Indefinite" is general. When we are talking about one thing in particular, we use the. When we are talking about one thing in general, we use a or an. Think of the sky at night. In the sky we see 1 moon and millions of stars. So normally we would say:

I saw the moon last night. I saw a star last night.

Look at these examples: the


a, an The capital of France is Paris. I have found the book that I lost. Have you cleaned the car? There are six eggs in the fridge. Please switch off the TV when you finish.

I was born in a town. John had an omelette for lunch. James Bond ordered a drink.

We can use the or a/an for the same word. It depends on the situation, not the word. Look at these examples:

We want to buy an umbrella. (Any umbrella, not a particular umbrella.) Where is the umbrella? (We already have an umbrella. We are looking for our umbrella, a particular umbrella.)

This little story should help you understand the difference between the and a, an: A man and a woman were walking in Oxford Street. The woman saw a dress that she liked in a shop. She asked the man if he could buy the dress for her. He said: "Do you think the shop will accept a cheque? I don't have a credit card." PRACTICE 1 Read the following passage. Write the correct article in each blank space. If no article is needed, leave the space blank. John lives in ______ apartment with his mom, dad and sister Katy. ______ apartment has three bedrooms, kitchen, bathroom and living room. Johns mom works in ______ office and his dad stays at ______ home and looks after _______ apartment. He spends much of his ______ time in ______ kitchen, preparing meals. John and Katy help their dad with housework. John likes using _______ vacuum cleaner and Katy likes to sweep _____ floor. Dad gives John and Katy ______ money when they help him. They usually spend the money on computer games. VOCABULARY HOBBIES Match the activities with the pictures.

Cooking-playing volleyball-playing basketball-watching TV-gardening-playing golf-skiingplaying computer games-playing guitar-listening to music-playing football-swimmingcycling-jogging-reading-skating-rowing-painting-singing -playing chess

Its your turn. Whats your hobby? EXERCISES

Use A or An 1. Lucy has _______ dog. 2. Let's sing _______ song. 3. Emily needs ________ new desk in her room. 4. I need _______ blue pen. 5. Ben has ________ old bike. 6. Peter has _______ aunt in Berlin. 7. We listen to ______ English CD. 8. She has ________ exercise book in her school bag. 9. The speed of this car was 160 miles ______ hour. 10. They finished _______ unit.

UNIT FOUR
READING Reading comprehension

Kelantan Culture
A state rich in culture and history, Kelantan sees a strong influence from neighboring Thailand and the predominantly Muslim population along its border. Kelantan is renowned for its wonderful handicrafts, especially the skill of its silversmiths, songket weavers and kite makers. Don't forget to pick up some cottage industry products and sample true traditional cuisine such as keropok or budu. In Kelantan, you can expect a rich fusion of traditiona Malay and Thai food, as well as a number of historical sites and architectural wonders worth visiting. The local economy is primarily agricultural, with the production of rice, rubber and tobacco contributing significantly. Often, in between paddy planting seasons, you can see a mass of black smoke on the horizon as farmers clear out what's left behind after the harvest with flame and scythe. QUESTIONS 1. Kelantan culture is mainly influenced by a. only the Thais b. only Muslims c. its neighboring states d. the Thais and the Muslims 2. The word predominantly shows that the Muslim population is a. large b. small c. growing

3.

4.

5.

6.

d. well-known The word renowned as used in the passage means a. called b. known c. located d. attracted Keropok and budu are examples of Kelantanese a. architecture b. handicraft c. history d. food You can do the following interesting things in Kelantan except a. visit historical places b. sample Kelantan food c. visit Kelantan cottages d. watch kite makers at work In between paddy planting seasons, you can see a mass of black smoke because the farmers are a. clearing the rice fields b. harvesting the paddy c. planting the crops d. fogging the fields

GRAMMAR Simple Present Tense Simple Present Tense is used:


to give your opinion - I like ice cream. I don't like spicy food. To tell condition or situation in present time I am a doctor. My brother is a soldier to talk about schedules - The library opens at eight. It doesn't open at 7. to talk about daily habits (routine actions)- Sara eats a cheese for breakfast every day. She doesn't eat cereal. to give facts - The earth circles the sun. The moon doesn't circle the sun.

Examples: James is a taxi driver. He drives a taxi. But on Sundays he doesn't drive his taxi. He stays at home Simple Present Tense Nominal The verb to be is used in Simple Present Tense Nominal. (di dalam kalimatnya tidak ada kata kerjanya (verb) atau tidak ada kegiatan).

Examples: Arika is a student. She is pretty. Her parents are civil servants. They live in a small village. The village is far away from the center of the city. But they are happy. Affirmative forms of the verb to be (positive form) Subject Pronouns Full Form Contracted Form I you he/she/it we you they am are is are are are 'm 're 's 're 're 're

Negative Forms of the verb to be: Subject Pronouns Full Form Contracted Form I you he/she/it we you they am not are not is not are not are not are not 'm not aren't isn't aren't aren't aren't

Interrogative forms of the verb to be: Am I? Are you? Is he/she/it?

Are we?

Are you? Are they?

Examples:

Is Brad Pitt French? No, he isn't. He's American. What about Angelina Joli? Is she American, too? Yes, she is. She is American. Are brad Pitt and Angelina Joli French? No, They aren't. They are American.

Simple Present Tense Verbal (DO NOT USE TO BE) The verb ONE is used in Simple Present Tense Verbal. (di dalam kalimatnya ada kata kerjanya (verb) atau ada kegiatan).
The affirmative form of the simple present: I, you, we, they He, she, it play. plays.

Remember the verbs in the third person singular (he,she and it) always take an "s". For example, "he plays, she sings,it works..." Examples:

Nancy and James speak good German. Nancy works in a restaurant downtown. The children play in the garden every weekend.

The negative form of the simple present: do not I, you, we,they don't He, she, it does not doesn't play.

Examples:

No, I don't speak German. No, she doesn't work in a restaurant downtown

The interrogative form of the simple present: Do I, you, we, they play? Does he, she, it Examples:

Do you speak good German? Does Nancy work in a restaurant downtown?

The spelling of the third person singular form of the simple present: All the verbs take an "s" in the simple present when conjugated in the third person singular (he, she, it) form: Examples:

I visit my parents every summer holiday. But my wife visits her parents every weekend. My brother meets his girlfriend everyday.

So the rule is: He / she / it + Verb + S There are however some special cases. Here are the spelling rules: Silent e Vowel + y Consonant + y Verbs ending in o Verbs ending in s, z, sh, tch, ch miss = misses buzz = buzzes hatch = hatches finish = finishes teach = teaches

close = closes play = plays study = studies go = goes note = notes say = says marry = marries do = does

Examples:

She drives to work every morning. He says he plays football on the weekends

Exception: The verb to have changes its forms as follows: I have two sisters and two brothers. But she has one sister and two brothers. I have = he / she / it has Things to remember about the simple present Verbal: 1. In the interrogative forms, we use "do" or "does".

"Do you like the house?" "Does she go to school?"

2. Verbs never take an "s" in the the negative and interrogative forms.

"Does he speak German?" "Do they play soccer?" She doesn't like ice cream.

3. don't is the short form of "do not". You can say either:

I do not speak Italian, or I don't speak Italian.

4. doesn't is the short form of "does not". you can say either:

He does not listen to jazz music, or He doesn't listen to jazz music.

PRACTICE 1 Fill in the blanks with the right form of to be (am, are or is):
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

______ you the new student? Yes, I ______ . Leila and Nancy _______ students. Nancy ______ Australian. My sister and I _______ students. The girls _______ tired. These women ______ beautiful. The tea _______ delicious.

9. Nadia and Leila ________ friends. 10. The newspaper _______ cheap.

Write the correct answer (positive or negative form to be)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Is Julia Robert French? No, she __________ French. What about Robert de Nero? Is he an American actor? Yes, he ___________ . Are New York and Los Angeles Spanish Cities? No, they _______ Spanish cities. Is Big Ben in Paris? No, it ___________ in Paris. Is Mount Everest in Africa? No, it ____________ in Africa. It ________ in Asia.

PRACTICE 2 Choose the correct form of the following verbs: wake(s) up - open(s) - speak(s) - take(s) - do(es) - cause(s) - live(s) - play(s) - close(s) - live(s)

1. Ann _______ hand ball very well. 2. I never _________ coffee 3. The swimming pool __________ at 7:00 in the morning. 4. It __________ at 9:00 in the evening. 5. Bad driving _________ many accidents. 6. My parents __________ in a very small flat. 7. The Olympic Games ________ place every four years. 8. They are good students. They always _________ their homework. 9. My students __________ a little English. 10. I always ___________ early in the morning. Put the verbs between brackets in the correct form: 1. Jane (not/drink) ____________ tea very often. 2. What time (the banks/open) ____________ in Britain? 3. Where (John/come) ___________ from? 4. It (take) __________ me an hour to get to work.

5. She (not/wake) ______________ up early on Sundays. Choose the right verbs to complete the sentences. Sometimes you need the negative: write - turn - eat - tell - rise 1. The earth ___________ around the sun. 2. The sun ___________ in the east. 3. Vegetarians _________ meat 4. A liar is someone who _________ the truth. 5. A novelist ____________ novels. VOCABULARY

Parts of Body
Write the names of parts of body

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

EXERCISE Put the correct forms of the verbs into the gaps. Use the Simple Present in the statements. Example: We _____ her name. (to shout) Answer: We shout her name.
1. I _____________________________a good mark. (to get) 2. We ___________________________text messages. (to send) 3. We ___________________________our friend. (to call) 4. John and Tom __________________water. (to drink) 5. They __________________________my friends. (to meet) 6. She ______________________________an exercise. (to do) 7. Melisa ______________________her room. (to tidy up) 8. Alex _______________________a new MP3 player. (to buy) 9. Joe _____________________home from school. (to come) 10. My cat ______________________under the tree. (to sit)

Complete the sentences as in the example. Example: Jane ___________ a book. (not/to read) Answer: Jane doesn't read a book.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

I _______________________stamps. (not/to collect) He _________________________songs in the bathroom. (not/to sing) My father _______________________in the garden. (not/to work) She ________________________at home. (not/to sit) My friend ______________________French. (not/to speak) My brother _____________________the car every Saturday. (not/to clean) Sue _____________________TV. (not/to watch)

8. Mr. Alex _____________________English. (not/to teach) 9. The birds ___________________to the East. (not/to fly) 10. Anton ______________________his homework. (not/to do)

Put in the correct verb forms into the gaps. Use Simple Present. Example: ___ they ______ their friends? (to phone) Answer: Do they phone their friends?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

_________ you __________mineral water? (to drink) _________ the children ____________their pets? (to feed) __________ you _______________your homework? (to check) ___________ Sarah ______________in the old house? (to live) ____________ your grandfather ____________on the chair in the mornings? (to

sit)
6. ____________ Anton _________________computer games? (to play) 7. ___________ Sue and Sarah ___________________TV in the afternoon? (to

watch) 8. ___________ he _______________the phone? (to answer) 9. ______________ Ann ______________shopping? (to do) 10. _________ your father __________a cup of tea in the afternoon? (to have)

UNIT FIVE
READING Reading Comprehension Read the following text and do the comprehension questions

FOOTBALL (SOCCER)
Football or soccer, which is considered to be the most popular sport in the world, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players using a spherical ball. The object of the game, which is played on a wide rectangular field with a goal on each end of the field, is to score by putting the ball into the adversary goal. The goal is kept by a goalkeeper who is allowed, at the exception of other players, to use his / her hands in the game. The winners are those who score the most goals. If the football (or soccer) match ends in a draw the two teams may be redirected to play extra time and / or penalty shootouts (each team taking turns to have a set number of kicks at the goal.) The way football is played now was first codified in England. Nowadays, it is governed by the FIFA, "Fdration Internationale de Football Association" (International Federation of Association Football.) The game is played now all over the world and competitions are organized nationally, continentally and internationally. The most prestigious of football competitions is the World Cup, which is held every four years. (Adapted from Wikipedia) Questions

1. Soccer is another word for football a. True b. False 2. Each team includes 22 players a. True b. False 3. The rules of the game were established a. by an international committee b. in England 4. The world cup competition takes place a. annually, b. every 5 years c. every 4 years

GRAMMAR The simple past tense of the verb to be: This page will present the simple past tense of the verb to be:

its form and its use.

The affirmative form: I, he, she, it was. you, we, they were. Examples:

I was in London in 1999.

Pam was in London in 1999, too. We were together. She was my girlfriend.

The negative form: was not. I, you, he, she wasn't. were not. You, we, they weren't. Examples:

I wasn't in Paris in 1999. Pam wasn't in Paris in 1999. We weren't in Paris.

The interrogative form: Was Were I, he, she, it? you, we, they?

Examples:

Were you in London last year? Was Pam with you? Were you together?

Rememeber: 1. wasn't is the short form of was not. You can say either:

I was not in Paris, or I wasn't in Paris.

2. weren't is the short form of were not. You can say either:

we were not in Paris, or

we weren't in Paris.

Put the verb "to be" into the simple past: 1. I _______in Canada last summer holiday. 2. My sister ___________ with me. 3. We _______ in Montreal. 4. She _______ very happy. 5. My brother and I ________ hungry yesterday. 6. I _________ an engineer 7. Last year I ________ a student in University of PGRI Palembang 8. I _______ in love with a beautiful girl at that time. We _______friends 9. He _______ a policeman ten years ago. 10. Mr. Alex _________ a Dean of this faculty last year

The simple past tense This page will present the simple past tense:

its form and its use.

The forms of the simple past: The Affirmative form of the simple past: played. I, you, he, she, it, we, they wrote did. Examples:

I played tennis with my friends yesterday. I finished lunch and I did my homework.

The negative form of the simple past: I, you, he, she, it, we, they did not/didn't play

write do

I didn't like the food in the wedding last Saturday. I didn't eat it.

The interrogative form of the simple past: Play? Did I, you, he, she, it, we, they write do? Examples:

Did you play basketball yesterday? Did you watch television? Did you do the homework?

Remember: didn't is the short form of did not. You can say either:

I did not play basketball, or I didn't play basketball.

Regular verbs: The verbs "lived, started, died" are regular past forms. The rule is the following: Verb + ed Examples: The infinitive live start die The simple past lived started died

visit play watch phone marry

visited played watched phoned married

Irregular verbs: The verbs "was, wrote" are irregular past forms. "Was" is the simple past of "to be"; "wrote" is the simple past of "write". There is no rule for these verbs. You should learn them by heart. The infinitive be write come do meet speak PRACTICE 1 Put the verbs into the simple past: Last year I (go) _________to England on holiday. It (be) ________fantastic. I (visit) ________ lots of interesting places. I (be) _______ with two friends of mine . In the mornings we (walk) _________ in the streets of London. In the evenings we (go) _________ to pubs. The The simple past was/were wrote came did met spoke

weather (be) _________ strangely fine. It (not / rain) ________ a lot. But we (see)_________ some beautiful rainbows. Where (spend / you) ______________your last holiday?

Write the past forms of the irregular verbs. Infinitive 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. meet drive speak put write sing do sit stand run Simple Past . . . . . . . . . .

Complete the table in simple past. Affirmative He wrote a book. He did not sing Was she pretty? Negative Interrogative

Put the sentences into simple past. 1. We move to a new house. ___________________ 2. They bring a sandwich. ______________________ 3. He doesn't do the homework. ________________ 4. They sell cars. _____________________________ 5. Does he visit his friends? ____________________ Write sentences in simple past. 1. Janet / miss / the bus ________________________ 2. she / tidy / her room _________________________ 3. Nancy / watch / not / television________________ 4. she / read / a book __________________________ 5. we / fly / to Jakarta _________________________

UNIT SIX
READING Read the following text and do the comprehension questions

WHAT IS THE INTERNET?


The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite, a set of communications protocols, to serve billions of users worldwide. The internet has reshaped and redefined most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television. This has given birth to new services. Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2011, more than 2.1 billion people nearly a third of Earth's population use the services of the Internet. (Source: Wikipedia) QUESTIONS State True or False 1. The internet has completely dethroned traditional media. ( 2. The internet has had an impact on commerce. ( 3. The internet was first introduced in the 1990s. ( ) ) ) )

4. More than a quarter of the Earths population are internet users. ( and traders. ( )

5. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans

GRAMMAR The simple future tense: This page will present the simple future tense:

its form and its use.

The forms of the simple future: The simple future is formed as follows: will / 'll + verb will = 'll The affirmative form of the simple future: I, you, he, she, it, we, they will / ''ll go. Examples:

I think I'll buy a new computer. I will open the door. Someone is ringing the bell.

The negative form of the simple future: will not I, you, he, she, it, we, they won't will not = won't Examples:

go.

I will not stay at home if I finish the homework. I won't visit Big Ben if I go to London.

The interrogative form of the simple future: Will I, you, he, she, it, we, they go? Examples:

Will you buy a computer? Will you go to the party?

The use of the simple future:

We use the simple future for instant decisions. Example: "I've left the door open; I'll close it." We use the simple future , when we predict a future situation: Example: "She'll pass the exam. She's hardworking" We use the simple future with: "I (don't) think...", "I expect...", "I'm sure...", "I wonder...", "probably". Example: "It will probably rain tonight" , "I wonder what will happen? We use the simple future in conditional sentences type one. (More on conditional sentences here): Example: "If I have enough time, I'll watch the film."

Things to remember: 1. We don't use the simple future to say what somebody has already decided or arranged to do in the future. We use instead either the present continuous or "going to + verb" (Future plan) :

Ann is traveling to New York next week. (NOT, "Ann will travel ") Are you going to watch television? (NOT "will you watch").

2. You can use shall instead of will for I and we:


I shall play football.(Or, I will play ...) We shall play football. (Or, we will play ...)

3. 'll is the short form of will. You can say either:


I will go, or I 'll go.

4. Won't is the short form of will not. You can say either:

I will not go, or I won't go.

PRACTICE 1 Put the verbs into the correct form (simple future) James, 18 years old, asked an ugly fortune teller about his future. Here is what she told him: 1. You (be) very happy. 2. You (get) a lot of money. 3. You (buy) a beautiful house. 4. Your friends (envy) you 5. You (meet) a beautiful girl. 6. You (marry) her 7. You and your wife (travel) around the world. 8. People (serve) you 9. They (not/refuse) to make you happy. 10. But all this (happen / only) when you are 70 years old.

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