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# Physics 102

Spring-2013

## Instructor: Dr. Abdullah Ceylan H.U. Physics Eng. Dept. aceylanabd@yahoo.com

Test Book: University Physics, Young and Freedman Vol: 2, 13th Edition.
OUTLINE 1.Electric Charge and Electric Field (Ch. 21) 2.Gauss Law (Ch. 22) 3.Electric Potential (Ch. 23) 4.Capacitance and Dielectrics (Ch. 24) 5.Ohms & Kirchhoffs Laws (Ch. 25+26) 6.Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Forces (Ch. 27) 7.Sources of Magnetic Field (Ch. 28) 8.EM Induction (Ch. 29) 9.Inductance, R-C (Ch. 36), R-L, L-R Circuits (Ch. 30) 10.EM Waves (Ch. 32) 11. Elements of Quantum Phenomena

## Chapter 21 Electric Charge and Electric Field

Atom and Charges Types of electric charge Types of Materials Coulombs law Electric Field (discrete and continuous charges) Electric Dipole (Torque and Potential Energy)

In Benjamin Franklins day (18th century) it was assumed that electric charge is some type of weightless continuous fluid. Investigations of the structure of atoms by Ernest Rutherford at the beginning of the 20th century revealed how matter is organized and also identified that charge of its constituents. Atoms consist of electrons and the nucleus. Atoms have sizes 5 x10-10 m. Nuclei have sizes 5 x10-15 m. The nucleus itself consists of two types of particles: protons and neutrons. The electrons are negatively charged. The protons are positively charged. The neutrons are neutral (zero charge). Thus electric charge is a fundamental property of the elementary particles (electrons, protons, neutrons) out of which atoms are made.

## GOOD TO KNOW NO NEED TO MEMORIZE

Mass and Charge of Atomic Constituents Neutron (n) : Proton (p) : Electron (e) : Mass m = 1.675x10-27 kg; Charge q = 0 Mass m = 1.673x10-27 kg; Charge q = +1.602x10-19 C Mass m = 9.11x10-31 kg; Charge q = -1.602x10-19 C

Note 1: We use the symbols -e and +e for the electron and proton charge, respectively. This is known as the elementary charge. Note 2: Atoms are electrically neutral. The number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. This number is known as the atomic number (symbol: Z). The chemical properties of atoms are determined exclusively by Z. Total Charge q or Q (positive or negative)

Quantizied: Takes integer multiple of e. Always conserved: Net charge of an isolated system stays constant Even in nuclear reactions charge is conserved

Types of Materials
Conducting Materials There are freely moving electrons (conduction e). Ag (silver) is the best conductor amongst the metals

Insulating Materials No conduction electrons. There are electrons but they are bound to atoms Rubber, plastic etc.

Semiconducting Materials There might be freely moving electrons Electrons are semi-bound to atoms. (Si, Ge, etc.)

Charging by induction
In the figure below, the negative rod is able to charge the metal ball without losing any of its own charge. This process is called charging by induction.

Separation of positive and negative charges: POLARIZATION. Effective on light absorption of metals

Coulombs law
Coulombs Law: The magnitude of the electric force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
2 1 9 N.m k= = 8.99x10 ( 2 ) 4 0 C

## the!permitivity!of!free!space! C2 0 = 8.85x10 ( ) 2 N.m !

12

q1 Electric Field

q2

Charge creates its own E field and charges intract with each other via this field. E field is parallel to the force (Coulomb Force)
=/ (Newton/Coulomb) (N/C)

If a charged object expriences a force given by E.q in anywhere in space then that position is said to have an Electric Field.

Electric Field Generated by a Point Charge Consider the positive charge q shown in
r E

qoP r

the figure. At point P a distance r from q we place the test charge q0 . The force exerted on q0 by q0 is equal to: 1 q q0 F = 40 r 2

E=

4 0 r 2

F 1 q q0 1 q E = = = 2 q0 40 q0 r 40 r 2 The magnitude of E is a positive number. In terms of direction, E points radially outward as shown in the figure. If q were a negative charge the magnitude of E would remain the same. The direction of E would point radially inward instead.

## Electric field lines of point charges

The figure below shows the electric field lines of a single point charge and for two charges of opposite sign and of equal sign.

Electric Field Generated by a Group of Point Charges. Superposition The net electric electric field E generated by a group of point charges is equal to the vector sum of the electric field vectors generated by each charge. In the example shown in the figure, E = E 1 + E 2 + E 3 . Here E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 are the electric field vectors generated by q1 , q1 , and q3 , respectively. Note: E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 must be added as vectors:

E x = E 1x + E 2 x + E 3 x , E y = E 1 y + E 2 y + E 3 y , E z = E 1 z + E 2 z + E 3 z

## Electric Field Generated by a Continuous Charge Distribution

P r dV dE Consider the continuous charge distribution shown in the

## figure. We assume that we know the volume density of

r
dq

dq ( Units: C/m 3 ). dV Our goal is to determine the electric field dE generated by the distribution at a given point P . This type of problem can be solved using the principle of superposition as described below.
the electric charge. This is defined as =

1. Divide the charge distribution into "elements" of volume dV . Each element has charge dq = dV . We assume that point P is at a distance r from dq . 2. Determine the electric field dE generated by dq at point P . dq The magnitude dE of dE is given by the equation dE = . 2 40 r 1 dVr 3. Sum all the contributions: E = r2 . 40

Electric Dipole
Dipoles are important because many physical systems are described as electric dipoles.
System of two equal and opposite charges seperated by a distance d.

+q/2

+q/2

-q

=

## Force and Torque on an Electric Dipole

Torques direction is into the page

Net force on the electric dipole is ZERO however forces do not act along the same line, so their torques dont add to zero. If we calculate the torques w/t the center of the dipole then we get;

= + +
d d = qE( sin )+ qE( sin ) 2 2 = qd(E sin ) = pE sin ! = pxE !(in!vector!form)