Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 66

Date:2007 February

DIN V 18599-1

Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting Part 1: General balancing procedures, terms and definitions, zoning and evaluation of energy carriers

Energetische Bewertung von Gebuden Berechnung des Nutz-, End- und Primrenergiebedarfs fr Heizung, Khlung, Lftung, Trinkwarmwasser und Beleuchtung Teil 1: Allgemeine Bilanzierungsverfahren, Begriffe, Zonierung und Bewertung der Energietrger

Supersedes DIN V 18599-1:2005-07

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Contents

Page

Foreword......................................................................................................................................................... 5 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 6 1 2 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 5.4.7 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 5.6 6 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.3 6.4 7 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 Scope ................................................................................................................................................. 7 Normative references ....................................................................................................................... 8 Terms and definitions, symbols and units..................................................................................... 9 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................... 9 Symbols, units and subscripts...................................................................................................... 14 Relationship between the parts of the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards ............................ 19 Input parameters from other parts of the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards ....................... 19 Output parameters for other parts of the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards ....................... 22 Balance calculation ........................................................................................................................ 22 General............................................................................................................................................. 22 Requirements relating to the energy balance.............................................................................. 22 Zoning (partitioning) of the building............................................................................................. 23 Determining the energy needs for each zone.............................................................................. 23 Determining the energy needs for heating and cooling by iteration......................................... 23 Determining system losses, delivered and primary energy....................................................... 23 Times and periods .......................................................................................................................... 24 Energy need balance calculation .................................................................................................. 24 General............................................................................................................................................. 24 Energy need for lighting ................................................................................................................ 25 Energy needs for heating and cooling ......................................................................................... 25 Energy needs for air handling and ventilation of residential spaces........................................ 28 Energy need for domestic hot water............................................................................................. 30 Balances of energy losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage................ 30 Lighting............................................................................................................................................ 30 Heating (heating systems and HVAC heating function) ............................................................. 30 Cooling (cooling system and HVAC cooling function) ............................................................... 32 Humidification in HVAC systems .................................................................................................. 33 Ventilation of residential buildings ............................................................................................... 33 Domestic hot water supply ............................................................................................................ 34 Energy for other process heating or cooling requirements....................................................... 35 Balancing of delivered energy (energy use) ................................................................................ 35 Delivered energy for lighting ......................................................................................................... 35 Delivered energy for heating and cooling and generation losses............................................. 35 Delivered auxiliary energy ............................................................................................................. 38 Delivered energy, calculated according to energy carriers ....................................................... 39 Primary energy rating..................................................................................................................... 40 Zoning of buildings......................................................................................................................... 41 General description ........................................................................................................................ 42 Dividing a building into zones....................................................................................................... 43 Zoning step 1: Determining areas with the same usage ............................................................ 43 Zoning step 2: Application of additional zoning criteria ............................................................ 44 Serviced areas................................................................................................................................. 46 Determination of geometric parameters ...................................................................................... 46 Assignment of the balance components ..................................................................................... 46 General information........................................................................................................................ 47 Assignment rules............................................................................................................................ 48 Case 1: Serviced area and zone are identical.............................................................................. 48 Case 2: Several serviced areas in one zone ................................................................................ 48 Case 3: Several zones in one serviced area ................................................................................ 49

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

8 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.3 9 9.1 9.2 9.3

Determination of system boundaries, areas and volumes .........................................................49 Reference dimensions for determining the thermal envelope area and the gross volume ..............................................................................................................................................50 Floor plans (horizontal dimensions) .............................................................................................50 Sections (vertical dimensions) ......................................................................................................50 Other reference dimensions...........................................................................................................51 Energy reference area.....................................................................................................................51 Storey height....................................................................................................................................51 Air volume ........................................................................................................................................52 Characteristic length and width.....................................................................................................52 Input parameters for balance calculation .....................................................................................52 Balance calculation approach........................................................................................................52 General case ....................................................................................................................................53 Residential buildings ......................................................................................................................55 Accuracy of the calculations..........................................................................................................56

Annex A (normative) Primary energy factors ............................................................................................58 A.1 General .............................................................................................................................................58 A.2 Boundary conditions for default values........................................................................................58 A.3 Calculation of the primary energy factor of area heating and district heating systems .........59 Annex B (normative) Conversion of the energy content of energy carriers ..........................................62 B.1 Default values ..................................................................................................................................62 B.2 Deviation from default values ........................................................................................................62 Annex C (normative) Provisions relating to calculation methods for cogeneration .............................63 C.1 General .............................................................................................................................................63 C.2 Determination of power ..................................................................................................................63 C.3 Further provisions for selected heat generators .........................................................................63 Bibliography..................................................................................................................................................66 Figures Figure 1 Overview of the parts of DIN V 18599 ...........................................................................................7 Figure 2 Content and scope of DIN V 18599-1 (schematic diagram)..........................................................8 Figure 3 Subscript system .........................................................................................................................17 Figure 4 Example of zoning .......................................................................................................................42 Figure 5 Building used as an example for assignment..............................................................................47 Figure 6 Reference dimensions (floor plan)...............................................................................................50 Figure 7 Reference dimensions (sectional view) .......................................................................................51 Figure 8 Relationships within the balance as calculated according to the DIN V 18599 series General example ...............................................................................................................................53 Figure 9 Relationships within the balance as calculated according to the DIN V 18599 series Residential buildings..........................................................................................................................55 Figure A.1 Method of determining balances of district heating systems ...................................................60 Tables Table 1 Symbols and units.........................................................................................................................15 Table 2 Subscripts .....................................................................................................................................15 Table 3 Subscript and designation system ................................................................................................18

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Table 4 Heat sources and heat sinks........................................................................................................ 26 Table 5 Additional zoning criteria .............................................................................................................. 44 Table 6 Zoning criteria for cooling energy balances ................................................................................. 45 Table A.1 Primary energy factors.............................................................................................................. 59 Table B.1 Conversion factors, as a function of energy carrier.................................................................. 62

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Foreword
This prestandard has been prepared by DIN Joint Committee NA 005-56-20 GA Energetische Bewertung von Gebuden of the Normenausschuss Bauwesen (Building and Civil Engineering Standards Committee), which also lead-managed the work, and Normenausschuss Heiz- und Raumlufttechnik (Heating and Ventilation Standards Committee) with the co-operation of the Normenausschuss Lichttechnik (Lighting Technology Standards Committee). A prestandard is a standard which cannot be given full status, either because certain reservations still exist as to its content, or because the manner of its preparation deviates in some way from the normal procedure. No draft of the present prestandard has been published. Comments on experience with this prestandard should be sent: preferably by e-mail containing a table of the data, to nabau@din.de. A template for this table is provided on the Internet under the URL http://www.din.de/stellungnahme; or as hard-copy to Normenausschuss Bauwesen (NABau) im DIN Deutsches Institut fr Normung e. V., 10772 Berlin, Germany (office address: Burggrafenstrasse 6, 10787 Berlin, Germany). The DIN V 18599 series of prestandards Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting consists of the following parts: Part 1: General balancing procedures, terms and definitions, zoning and evaluation of energy carriers Part 2: Energy needs for heating and cooling of building zones Part 3: Energy need for air conditioning Part 4: Energy need and delivered energy for lighting Part 5: Delivered energy for heating systems Part 6: Delivered energy for ventilation systems and air heating systems for residential buildings Part 7: Delivered energy for air handling and air conditioning systems for non-residential buildings Part 8: Energy need and delivered energy for domestic hot water systems Part 9: Delivered and primary energy for combined heat and power plants Part 10: Boundary conditions of use, climatic data The DIN V 18599 series of prestandards provides a methodology for assessing the overall energy efficiency of buildings. The calculations enable all energy quantities required for the purpose of heating, domestic hot water heating, ventilation, air conditioning and lighting of buildings to be assessed. In the described procedures, the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards also takes into account the interactive effects of energy flows and points out the related consequences for planning work. In addition to the calculation procedures, the use- and operation-related boundary conditions for an unbiased assessment (i.e.

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

independent of the behaviour of individual users and of the local climatic data) to determine the energy needs are specified. The DIN V 18599 series of prestandards is suitable for determining the long-term energy needs of buildings or parts of buildings as well as for assessing the possible use of renewable sources of energy in buildings. The procedure is designed both for buildings yet to be constructed and for existing buildings, and for retrofit measures for existing buildings. Amendments This prestandard differs from DIN V 18599-1:2005-07 in that it has been revised in form and content. Previous edition DIN V 18599-1: 2005-07

Introduction
When an energy balance is calculated in accordance with the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards, an integrative approach is taken, i.e. the building, the use of the building, and the buildings technical installations and equipment are assessed together, taking the interaction of these factors into consideration. In order to provide a clearer structure, the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards is divided into several parts, each having a particular focus. Figure 1 provides an overview of the topics dealt with in the individual parts of the series.

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Figure 1 Overview of the parts of DIN V 18599

Scope

The DIN V 18599 series of prestandards provides a methodology for calculating the overall energy balance of buildings. The described algorithm is applicable to the calculation of energy balances for: residential buildings and non-residential buildings; planned or new building construction and existing buildings. The procedure for calculating the balances is suitable for: balancing the energy use of buildings with partially pre-determined boundary conditions; balancing the energy use of buildings with freely-selectable boundary conditions from the general engineering aspect, e.g. with the objective of achieving a good comparison between calculated and measured energy ratings. The balance calculations take into account the energy use for: heating, ventilation,

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

air conditioning (including cooling and humidification), heating the domestic hot water supply, and lighting of buildings, including the additional electric power input (auxiliary energy) which is directly related to the energy supply. This document provides an overview of the procedures for calculating the energy need, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, lighting and the domestic hot water supply of buildings. The central balance equations are described in this part. Furthermore, it explains the general terms which apply for all parts of the DIN V 18599 series. The general balance calculation method is outlined together with separate information on calculations for residential buildings and non-residential buildings. The procedure for defining zones of buildings is explained. In the Annex, factors for assessing the environmental effects of the energy use (primary energy factors) are listed. Figure 2 shows the scope of the present document as a diagram. For the readers orientation, all other parts of the DIN V 18599 series contain an illustration similar to Figure 2 as shown here and in which the respective energy components dealt with are shown in colour.

Figure 2 Content and scope of DIN V 18599-1 (schematic diagram)

Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

DIN V 18599-2, Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting Part 2: Energy needs for heating and cooling of building zones DIN V 18599-3, Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting Part 3: Energy need for air conditioning DIN V 18599-4, Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting Part 4: Energy need and delivered energy for lighting DIN V 18599-5, Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting Part 5: Delivered energy for heating systems DIN V 18599-6, Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting Part 6: Delivered energy for ventilation systems and air heating systems for residential buildings DIN V 18599-7, Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting Part 7: Delivered energy for air handling and air conditioning systems for non-residential buildings DIN V 18599-8:2005-07, Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting Part 8: Energy need and delivered energy for domestic hot water systems DIN V 18599-9, Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting Part 9: Delivered and primary energy for combined heat and power plants DIN V 18599-10, Energy efficiency of buildings Calculation of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water Part 10: Boundary conditions of use, climatic data DIN 277-1, Areas and volumes of buildings Part 1: Terminology, bases of calculation DIN EN ISO 13789, Thermal performance of buildings Transmission heat loss coefficient Calculation method ISO 13600, Technical energy systems Basic concepts Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending Directive 92/42/EEC Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV) (German Energy Saving Ordinance) 2002/2004

3
3.1

Terms and definitions, symbols and units


Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

3.1.1 primary energy calculated quantity of energy, taking into account the energy required outside of the building by the preceding process chains for obtaining, converting and distributing the respective fuels used, in addition to the energy content of the required fuel and the auxiliary energy for the technical building installations 3.1.2+ delivered energy (energy use in this document) calculated quantity of energy delivered to the technical building installations (heating system, ventilation and air conditioning system, domestic hot water system, lighting system) in order to ensure the specified room temperature, heat the domestic hot water and ensure the desired lighting quality throughout the entire year
NOTE This energy includes the auxiliary energy required to operate the technical building installations. The delivered energy is transferred at the interface constituted by the external building envelope and thus represents the amount of energy which the connected load requires in order to use the building for its intended purpose under standardized boundary conditions. Against this background, the energy use is expressed individually for each energy carrier.

3.1.3 energy needs collective term for the energy needs for heating, cooling, domestic hot water, lighting and humidification 3.1.4 energy need for heating calculated heat energy required in order to maintain the specified thermal room conditions within a building zone during the heating period 3.1.5 energy need for cooling calculated cooling energy required in order to maintain the specified thermal room conditions within a building zone during periods in which the sources of heat generate more energy than is required 3.1.6 energy need for lighting calculated energy required to illuminate a building zone with the quality of lighting specified in the usage profile 3.1.7 energy need for domestic hot water calculated energy required to supply a building zone with the amount of domestic hot water at the required supply temperature specified in the usage profile 3.1.8 energy carrier substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work, radiation or heat or to operate chemical or physical processes
NOTE See ISO 13600.

3.1.9 energy efficiency (energy performance) evaluation of the energy quality of buildings by comparing calculated energy ratings against standard energy ratings (i.e. with economically viable energy ratings from comparable new or renovated buildings) or by comparing measured energy ratings against comparable values (i.e. with mean measured energy ratings from buildings with comparable types of usage)

10

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

3.1.10 conditioning generation of defined conditions in spaces due to heating, cooling, ventilation, humidification, lighting and domestic hot water supply
NOTE Conditioning aims to meet requirements relating to the room temperature, fresh air supply, light, humidity and/or domestic hot water.

3.1.11 conditioned space space and/or enclosure which is heated and/or cooled to a defined set-point temperature and/or humidified and/or illuminated and/or provided with ventilation and/or domestic hot water
NOTE Zones are conditioned spaces having at least one mode of conditioning. Spaces which have no form of conditioning are called unconditioned spaces.

3.1.12 zone basic unit of space for calculating energy balances


NOTE 1 A zone is a cumulative term for a section of the floor area or certain part of a building having uniform boundary conditions of use and which does not exhibit any relevant differences in the mode of conditioning and other zone criteria. NOTE 2 DIN V 18599-10 contains a compilation of boundary conditions of use. Zone criteria are explained in 6.2.2.

3.1.13 building services technical building systems providing internal climate condition services
NOTE 1 This document deals with heating, cooling, domestic hot water supply, ventilation, humidification and lighting. A building service may include more than one technical building system. NOTE 2 For example, the domestic hot water supply service includes both central and decentralized systems. Appropriate part-balances are assigned to each of the building services.

3.1.14 serviced area area comprising all those parts of a building which are served by the same technical building system
NOTE A serviced area (heating, domestic hot water, ventilation, cooling, lighting etc.) can cover several zones; a single zone may also include more than one serviced area. In keeping with the rules for calculating individual part-balances, it may be necessary to determine the energy use of an individual serviced area. The energy values determined for the serviced area are then distributed over the individual building zones as explained in 7.2.

3.1.15 system boundary outer delimitation of a zone


NOTE Rules for determining system boundaries are given in clause 8.

3.1.16 envelope or thermal envelope area outer delimitation of each zone


NOTE 1 The envelope or thermal envelope area is the boundary between conditioned spaces and the external air, the ground or unconditioned spaces. The cooled or heated spaces will lose heat or gain heat via this surface and, for this reason, it can be also called the thermal envelope area. Spaces which are not heated or cooled, but which have other

11

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

forms of conditioning (e.g. lighting, ventilation) also have specific envelopes, but these do not contribute to heat transfer. For simplification, the designations envelope and thermal envelope area are used synonymously. NOTE 2 The envelope or thermal envelope area is formed by a material boundary, usually by the outer facade, internal surfaces, basement ceiling, ceiling of the top storey or by the roof. Rules for delimiting envelopes are described in 8.1.

3.1.17 net floor area, reference area usable floor area within the conditioned volume of the building
NOTE The net floor area (ANGF) is used as the reference area.

3.1.18 gross volume, external volume (Ve) volume of a building or of a building zone as calculated on the basis of external dimensions
NOTE 1 This volume includes, at least, all the spaces in a building or zone which are directly or, since they are interconnected, indirectly conditioned as required for their function. NOTE 2 Rules for determining the gross volume are given in 8.1.

3.1.19 net volume, air volume V (internal volume) volume which undergoes air interchange within a conditioned zone or within an entire building
NOTE 1 The net volume is determined on the basis of the internal dimensions, i.e. the volume of the building structure itself is not included. NOTE 2 The net volume is calculated by multiplying the net floor area by the clear ceiling height. The clear ceiling height is the difference in height between the upper face of the floor and the lower face of the storey floor above or suspended ceiling. As an estimate, (if no internal measurements are taken, for instance) the net volume is calculated using the equation V = 0,8 Ve, with Ve being the gross volume (external volume).

3.1.20 internal set-point temperature specified felt temperature, as a function of the usage profile, inside a building or a zone. It represents the setpoint of the room temperature when the heating or cooling system is in operation
NOTE Usually, different set-point temperatures are assumed for heating and for cooling, respectively.

3.1.21 reference internal temperature mean internal temperature of a building or a building zone on which the calculations of the energy needs for heating and cooling are based. Also the mean temperature based on heating patterns with limited heating in certain sections or at certain times and, where the energy need for cooling is to be calculated, taking into account the permitted temperature variations
NOTE Different temperature values are usually assumed for heating and for cooling, respectively.

3.1.22 external temperature temperature of the external air, which is determined by meteorological measurement and evaluation and is taken as a basis for the calculations 3.1.23 heat sink quantity of heat drawn out of the building zone
NOTE This does not include heat removed by means of the cooling system.

12

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

3.1.24 heat source quantity of heat with temperatures above the internal temperature, which is fed into the building zone or which is generated inside the building zone
NOTE This does not include controlled heat energy input via the technical building systems (heating, ventilation) in order to maintain the internal temperature.

3.1.25 utilization factor factor by which the total input from the monthly or annually active heat sources is reduced in order to determine the usable portion of the heat from the respective sources 3.1.26 air change rate air flow per unit volume 3.1.27 system losses losses (heat losses, cooling losses) occurring in subsystems between the energy need and the energy use, i.e. losses occurring due to control and emission, distribution, storage and generation
NOTE Where such system losses occur within the conditioned spaces, they are considered to be part of the heat sources or heat sinks.

3.1.28 renewable energy energy from sources which will not be depleted within the foreseeable existence of the human race (e.g. solar energy (thermal, photovoltaic and for lighting purposes), wind, water and energy from biomass) 3.1.29 calculation period period for which the balance of relevant energy flows in a building is calculated
NOTE The period for calculating the delivered energy and primary energy use is one year; periods of one month or one day can be used for calculating partial energy values.

3.1.30 auxiliary energy energy required by heating, cooling, domestic hot water heating, air conditioning (including ventilation) and lighting systems in order to support energy transformation to satisfy energy needs
NOTE This includes the energy required by pumps, fans, controls, electronics etc., but not the transformed energy.

3.1.31 energy content amount of thermal energy which is output by complete combustion of a specific quantity of fuel at a constant pressure of 101 320 Pa
NOTE When expressed as the gross calorific value, the energy content includes the latent heat liberated by condensation of water vapour. The net calorific value does not include this latent heat.

3.1.32 product data manufacturer-specific data on the basis of a declaration of conformity to harmonized European specifications or corresponding European directives, or a declaration of conformity to generally recognized technical standards, or

13

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

a building-inspectorate certificate of usability that is suitable for this calculation procedure 3.1.33 default value data which can be used for the calculation if no suitable product data are available for the calculation procedure

3.2

Symbols, units and subscripts

This document provides an overview of symbols, subscripts and units which are generally used to calculate the energy balances of buildings within the framework of the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards. The parameters described apply to all parts of the series. Other symbols and, in particular, subscripts which are used specifically for individual building services are listed in the other parts of the series. Table 1 contains an overview of important symbols which are generally applicable to the overall balance described in the DIN V 18599 series. Table 2 lists the subscripts which are used in all balance calculations.

14

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Table 1 Symbols and units Symbol f Q t d A h V


& V

Meaning German Faktor Energie Nutzungsgrad, Effizienz, Ausnutzung Zeit, Zeitperiode, Stunden Zeit, Zeitperiode, Tage Flche Hhe Volumen Volumenstrom Leistung, Energiestrom Lichtstrom Differenz Lnge Breite Luftwechsel Quellen/Senken-Verhltnis Celsiustemperatur factor energy performance ratio, efficiency, utilization factor time, time period, hours time, time period, days area height volume volume flow rate power, energy output, energy flow rate luminous flux difference length width air change rate source/sink ratio Celsius temperature English

Common unit kWh/a h, h/a d, d/a m2 m m3 m3/h W lm

m m h1 C

Table 2 Subscripts Index p f b aux h h* c PrimrEndNutzenergiebedarf im Gebude HilfsHeizung, Raumheizsystem RLT-Heizfunktion, Wrmeversorgung der RLT-Anlage Khlung, Raumkhlsystem Meaning German primary delivered building energy needs auxiliary (space) heating system HVAC heating function, heating energy supply for the air conditioning system (space) cooling system, room conditioning system English

15

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Table 2 (continued) Index c* m* w l v vh vc rv ce d s g outg tech reg T V S I i e j, k a mth day NGF CHP Meaning German RLT-Khlfunktion, Klteversorgung der RLT-Anlage Befeuchtung Trinkwarmwassersystem Beleuchtungssystem Lftungssystem RLT-Lftungssystem (warm, als Wrmequelle wirksam) RLT-Lftungssystem (kalt, als Wrmesenke wirksam) Wohnungslftungssystem Verluste der bergabe Verluste der Verteilung Verluste der Speicherung Verluste der Erzeugung Nutzenergieabgabe des Erzeugers (ce+d+s) Technische Verluste (ce+d+s+g) regenerative Energien Transmission Lftung Solar innere innen uere Index Jahr, jhrlich Monat, monatlich Tag, tglich Nettogrundflche Kraft-Wrme-Kopplung English HVAC cooling function, cooling energy supply for the air conditioning system humidification domestic hot water system lighting system ventilation system a-c ventilation system (heating) a-c ventilation system (cooling) residential ventilation system control and emission losses distribution losses storage losses generation losses (net) energy output of generator (ce+d+s) system losses (ce+d+s+g) regenerative (recoverable) energy transmission ventilation solar internal indoor, internal outdoor, external subscript year, annual month, monthly day, daily net floor area combined heat and power, cogeneration

Figure 3 and Table 3 show the system of subscripts used for designating the energy quantities in the balances.

16

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Figure 3 Subscript system

17

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Table 3 Subscript and designation system


Building energy need Energy need for lighting Ql,b Energy need for heating Qh,b Energy need for cooling Qc,b a-c ventilation system (heating) Net heat of air conditioning Qvh,b Net cooling energy of air conditioning Qvc,b Energy need for heating coil Qh*,b Energy need for cooling coil Qc*,b Energy need for humidification Qm*,b Control and emission losses of heating system Qh,ce Control and emission losses of cooling system Qc,ce Control and emission losses of a -c ventilation system Qvh,ce Control and emission losses of a-c venti -lation system Qvc,ce Control and emission losses of HVAC heating function Qh*,ce Control and emission losses of HVAC cooling function Qc*,ce Control and emission losses of humidification Qm*,ce Distribution losses of heating system Qh,d Distribution losses of cooling system Qc,d Distribution losses of a-c ventilation system Qvh,d Distribution losses of a-c ventilation system Qvc,d Distribution losses of HVAC heating function Qh*,d Distribution losses of HVAC cooling function Qc*,d Distribution losses of humidification Qm*,d Storage losses of HVAC heating function Qh*,s Storage losses of HVAC cooling function Qc*,s Generator heat output for HVAC heating function Qh*,outg Generator cooling energy output for HVAC cooling function Qc*,outg Generator heat energy output for humidification Qm*,outg Generation losses of HVAC heating function Qh*,g Generation losses of HVAC cooling function Qc*,g Generation losses of humidification Qm*,g Delivered energy for HVAC heating function Qh*,f Delivered energy for HVAC cooling function Qc*,f Delivered energy for humidification Qm*,f Storage losses of heating system Qh,s Storage losses of cooling system Qc,s Generator heat output to heating system Qh,outg Generator cooling energy output to cooling system Qc,outg Generation losses of heating system Qh,g Generation losses of cooling system Qc,g Control and emission Generator heat / cooling energy output to network Generatio n Delivered energy Delivered energy for lighting Ql,f Delivered energy for heating system Qh,f Delivered energy for cooling system Qc,f

Distribution

Storage

Lighting

Heating system

Cooling system

a-c ventilation system (cooling)

HVAC heating function

HVAC cooling function

Humidification

18

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Table 3 (concluded)
Heat / cooling energy output of generator to the network Generator heat output to residential ventilation system Qrv,outg Generator heat energy output for domestic hot water Qw,outg

Building energy need

Control and emission

Distribution

Storage

Generation

Delivered energy

Ventilation systems for residential buildings

Energy need for residential ventilation system Qrv,b Energy need for domestic hot water Qw,b

Control and emission losses of residential ventilation system Qrv,ce Control and emission losses of domestic hot water Qw,ce

Distribution losses of residential ventilation system Qrv,d Distribution losses of domestic hot water Qw,d

Storage losses of residential ventilation system Qrv,s Storage losses for domestic hot water Qw,s

Generation losses of residential ventilation system Qrv,g Generation losses of domestic hot water Qw,g

Delivered energy for residential ventilation system Qrv,f Delivered energy for domestic hot water Qw,f

Domestic hot water supply

Relationship between the parts of the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards

The following two subclauses: summarize the input parameters to be used in this document, provide an overview of how the part-balances calculated using the method explained here are applied in other parts of the DIN V 18599 series. For simplification, neither the parameters nor the reasons why the data are needed in other calculations are explained here. Where input parameters are not taken from other parts of the DIN V 18599 series but are compiled for a specific project the following applies: where professional planning documentation is available, the values given in such documentation (e.g. energy requirement values, output of equipment, operating times) are to be given preference over the guideline values given in this document; when calculating the energy balances of existing buildings, the values already available shall be taken as a basis.

4.1

Input parameters from other parts of the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards

In order to calculate the delivered energy and primary energy balance, the following parameters (in order according to sources) from the other parts of the DIN V 18599 series are required:

19

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Meaning Energy need for heating Energy need for cooling Net heat of air conditioning Net cooling energy of air conditioning Energy need for humidification Auxiliary energy for air transport Energy need for lighting Auxiliary energy for lighting Control and emission losses of the heating system Distribution losses of the heating system Storage losses of the heating system Generation losses of the heating system Regenerative energy used for the heating system1) Auxiliary energy for the heating system Auxiliary energy for providing heat for the HVAC system Energy need of the residential ventilation system

Symbol Qh,b Qc,b Qvh,b Qvc,b Qm*,b Qv,aux Ql,b Ql,aux Qh,ce Qh,d Qh,s Qh,g/Qh*,g Qh,reg/Qh*,reg Qh,aux Qh*,aux Qrv,b

Source see DIN V 18599-2 see DIN V 18599-2 see DIN V 18599-3 see DIN V 18599-3 see DIN V 18599-3 see DIN V 18599-3 see DIN V 18599-4 see DIN V 18599-4 see DIN V 18599-5 see DIN V 18599-5 see DIN V 18599-5 see DIN V 18599-5 see DIN V 18599-5 see DIN V 18599-5 see DIN V 18599-5 see DIN V 18599-6 see DIN V 18599-6 see DIN V 18599-6 see DIN V 18599-6 see DIN V 18599-6 see DIN V 18599-6 see DIN V 18599-6 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7

Control and emission losses of the residential ventilation system Qrv,ce Distribution losses of the residential ventilation system Storage losses of the residential ventilation system Generation losses of the residential ventilation system Regenerative energy used for the residential ventilation system1) Auxiliary energy for air transport Control and emission losses of the HVAC ventilation system Distribution losses of the HVAC ventilation system Control and emission losses of the HVAC heating function Distribution losses of the HVAC heating function Storage losses of the HVAC heating function Control and emission losses of the cooling system Distribution losses of the cooling system Qrv,d Qrv,s Qrv,g Qrv,reg Qv,aux Qvh,ce/Qvc,ce Qvh,d/Qvc,d Qh*,ce Qh*,d Qh*,s Qc,ce Qc,d

1) The regenerative energy includes energy recovered from extract air, solar energy gains, eco-energy etc. The solar component may be identified by the special subscript sol in individual parts of the DIN V 18599 series.

20

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Storage losses of the cooling system Control and emission losses of the HVAC cooling function Distribution losses of the HVAC cooling function Storage losses of the HVAC cooling function Control and emission losses of humidification Distribution losses of humidification Generation losses of the cooling system Regenerative energy used for the cooling system1) Generation losses of humidification Regenerative energy used for humidification1) Auxiliary energy for the cooling system Auxiliary energy for cooling in the HVAC system Auxiliary energy for humidification in the HVAC system Energy need for domestic hot water Control and emission losses of the domestic hot water system Distribution losses of the domestic hot water system Storage losses of the domestic hot water system Generation losses of the domestic hot water system Regenerative energy used for the domestic hot water system1) Auxiliary energy for the domestic hot water supply Auxiliary energy for the heating system

Qc,s Qc*,ce Qc*,d Qc*,s Qm*,ce Qm*,d Qc,g/Qc*,g Qc,reg/Qc*,reg Qm*,g Qm*,reg Qc,aux Qc*,aux Qm*,aux Qw,b Qw,ce Qw,d Qw,s Qw,g Qw,reg Qw,aux Qh,aux

see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-7 see DIN V 18599-8 see DIN V 18599-8 see DIN V 18599-8 see DIN V 18599-8 see DIN V 18599-8 see DIN V 18599-8 see DIN V 18599-8 see DIN V 18599-9

The following are needed for calculating primary energy factors which deviate from default values: Meaning Delivered energy of the energy carriers used to generate heat or electricity, measured at the place of delivery, on the basis of the net calorific value Electrical energy produced by cogeneration as defined in Annex II of Directive 2004/8/EC External heat energy delivery to the district heating system Primary energy factor of the external heat delivery Electric power losses of external cogeneration plant Symbol Qf,i Source Utility, supplier company Utility, supplier company Utility, supplier company Utility, supplier company Utility, supplier company

ECHP QCHP,ext fP,CHP,ext

ECHP,ext

21

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Efficiency of the external (delivering) heating network

HN

Utility, supplier company

4.2

Output parameters for other parts of the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards
Symbol B L hG nG fHs/Hi fp Qh,b Qh,outg Qh*,outg Qw,outg Qrv,outg Used in see DIN V 18599-5 DIN V 18599-8 see see see see see see see see see see DIN V 18599-5 DIN V 18599-8 DIN V 18599-5 DIN V 18599-8 DIN V 18599-5 DIN V 18599-8 DIN V 18599-5 DIN V 18599-8 DIN V 18599-9 DIN V 18599-5 DIN V 18599-9 DIN V 18599-9 DIN V 18599-9 DIN V 18599-9

Meaning Width of building Length of building Storey height Number of heated storeys Ratio of gross calorific value to net calorific value Primary energy factor Energy need for heating Generator heat output to the heating system Generator heat output for the HVAC heating function Generator heat output for domestic hot water Generator heat output to the residential ventilation system

5
5.1

Balance calculation
General

In the following, the calculations for determining the energy balance of a building are described and specified using generally applicable equations. This description is of a generalized nature, i.e. it includes all areas. For residential buildings, certain steps of the calculations can be omitted in some cases (e.g. those for lighting or room conditioning). Prior to determining the energy balance a building is divided into zones. Areas are grouped together into zones where they have the same type of use and there are no significant differences in the mode of conditioning or other zone criteria. The zoning of buildings and the associated zone criteria are described in clause 6.

5.2

Requirements relating to the energy balance

The principle of the energy balance is described in the following in terms of the energy needs, delivered energy and primary energy for all types of conditioning or all types of building service (heating, cooling, ventilation humidification, lighting and domestic hot water supply). Each balance of energy flows follows the same procedure. The delivered energy is calculated from the energy needs of the building and the system losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage and the losses due to energy generation for the individual conditioning modes. The primary energy is calculated from

22

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

the delivered energy, with the delivered energy being evaluated per energy carrier using factors relating to its environmental performance. In the following, each step of the calculation is described only once. When using calculations in actual conditions, however, individual steps may need to be used several times. A typical example would be if different zones of a building were assessed (e.g. personal offices and ancillary rooms in an administrative building). Other calculation steps need not be carried out if the building does not contain a specific building service (e.g. cooling in a school, domestic hot water supply in industrial plant, etc.). 5.2.1 Zoning (partitioning) of the building

The building shall be divided into zones (partitioned) prior to carrying out the actual balance calculations. All relevant characteristics are determined once for each zone. The most important characteristics of a zone are the same use and the same mode of conditioning in all the spaces it comprises. Zoning and criteria for dividing buildings into zones are described in clause 6. 5.2.2 Determining the energy needs for each zone

The energy needs (for heating, cooling, ventilation humidification, lighting and domestic hot water) are to be determined separately for each zone of a building. For heating and cooling this is done by comparing the heat sources and heat sinks in the relevant zone. One reason why prior zoning of a building is necessary is that, in complex buildings, heat sources and heat sinks differ depending on their location in the building. However, only those spaces that are assumed to have similar heat sources and heat sinks are grouped together into any one zone. 5.2.3 Determining the energy needs for heating and cooling by iteration

The energy needs for heating and cooling are determined by an iterative method. Since calculation of energy needs requires all heat sinks to be compared with all heat sources, these shall first be calculated in full. The magnitude of heat sources and heat sinks depends on the conditions associated with the building and its use. Most parts of the balance can be determined once-off without iteration (e.g. internal heat sources due to persons (metabolic heat), transmission, ventilation, solar heat sources, etc.). The heat sources and heat sinks associated with the heating system (e.g. heat gains from heating distribution pipes) are themselves dependent on the building energy needs, however. But since the building energy needs are the objective of the comparison of heat sources and heat sinks, iteration is necessary. The procedure is described in 5.3.3. 5.2.4 Determining system losses, delivered energy and primary energy

Provided more than one technical building system exists, the energy need calculated for each zone is divided up among these. To the energy need are added the system losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage for all building systems. This gives the quantity of energy to be supplied by the heat generator(s). The heat generator(s) is (are) then assessed. This consists in determining the generator thermal losses, taking into consideration any regenerative energy. The last two steps consist in determining the delivered input energy required for the heat generators and the primary energy evaluation of the delivered energy. The delivered and primary energy balances also contain the electrical auxiliary energy used. If a technical building system supplies more than one zone (e.g. a central refrigeration plant or a central heating plant serving the whole building), or if there is more than one system per building service for each zone (e.g. central and decentralized domestic hot water supply in a canteen), the characteristic values for each area served by this building service are to be determined once and then distributed over the zones. The procedure is described in clause 7.

23

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

5.2.5

Times and periods

Delivered energy or primary energy balances are calculated for a one-year period. The part-balances may be calculated for shorter periods, e.g. by day or by month. Characteristic values are indicated as follows: one-day period: subscript day;

one-month period: subscript mth or no subscript; one-year period: subscript a.

For all parts of the DIN V 18599 series of prestandards, the following equation applies when calculating annual energy characteristic values:
Qa =

Qmth, j
j =1

12

(1)

where Qa Qmth is the respective annual energy characteristic value; is the respective monthly energy characteristic value.

Equations (2) to (24) can be used for different time frames. The balance can be on either a monthly or an annual basis.
NOTE The additional identification of the periods by the subscripts mth (for month) or a (for annual) is omitted for the sake of simplicity.

5.3
5.3.1

Energy need balance calculation


General

The first step is to determine the energy needs which result directly from the conditions of use and which have to be provided by each building service. The following are classed as forms of energy need: energy need for lighting, i.e. the electrical energy required to ensure adequate lighting of the building or the building zone; energy need for heating, i.e. that quantity of supplementary heat which is fed to the building or the zone in a (demand-) controlled manner in order to maintain the internal set-point temperature; energy need for cooling, i.e. that quantity of supplementary cooling energy which is fed to the building or the zone in a (demand-) controlled manner in order to maintain the internal set-point temperature; energy need for air conditioning, i.e. that amount of energy which has to be transferred to or from a ventilation and air conditioning (VAC) system for heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification in order to maintain the required air quality; energy need for domestic hot water, i.e. that energy which is actually contained in the hot water drawn from the taps in the building or building zone (using the cold-water temperature as a reference quantity).

24

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Air conditioning in this context comprises the handling of external air drawn in until it achieves a specified supply air quality under a control method which is not dependent on the current demand in the building zone (central system). The balanced energy needs for heating and cooling in a building zone is the additional demand which has to be met by reheating/recooling the air, by increasing the air throughput or by other means of heating or cooling in order to maintain the internal set-point temperature. In buildings with ventilation and air conditioning systems, the calculated energy needs for heating and cooling in the building zone are assigned to various components of the heating and cooling system, depending on the type of system. The energy need for heating and the energy need for cooling are thus divided up among different building systems (e.g. cooling by means of both an air handling unit and a cooled ceiling). The energy need for heating and the energy need for cooling can also be divided up in buildings or building zones which have no ventilation and air conditioning system if these contain different heating and/or cooling systems operated in parallel (e.g. heating by means of underfloor heating and radiators). 5.3.2 Energy need for lighting

The energy need for lighting Ql,b is the quantity of energy required to ensure adequate lighting of the building or the building zone by artificial means. The space for which the balance is calculated is the zone in which the respective lighting quality is required. Additional energy used which is not directly associated with the actual lighting function, such as energy used by control equipment, is not considered to be part of the energy need. The energy need is calculated as described in DIN V 18599-4. The entire energy need for lighting is effective as an internal heat source. For this reason, the internal heat source QI,l does not need to be calculated separately. 5.3.3 Energy needs for heating and cooling

The energy needs for heating and cooling in the building zone are influenced by the magnitude of the uncontrolled energy gains and losses in the form of heat sources and heat sinks. These shall initially be determined for each zone. 5.3.3.1 Determination of all heat sources and heat sinks

Heat sources and heat sinks describe energy gains and losses which are not directly fed to the space via heating and cooling systems in order to control the temperature. Heat and cold gains are grouped into four categories: 1) 2) Thermal transmission flows via opaque and transparent building element surfaces are calculated. The balances of ventilation thermal flows due to the opening of windows (user action) and ventilation through joints (infiltration) are calculated. The heat sources and heat sinks also include those energy flows which become effective via the mechanical supply of fresh air into the spaces without (demandrelated) control. These heat flows are considered to be those which affect the spaces independently of the actual energy need for heating or cooling (e.g. the supply air stream from a heat recovery system or from an air conditioning system with a given, constant supply air temperature). Solar heat and solar cooling energy other than dedicated sources are understood to be the quantities of energy which enter the heated building or building zone via opaque or transparent building elements. The internal heat sources and heat sinks comprise all heat and cold gains which occur within the building or building zone. These may be from lighting, persons and electrical appliances which emit quantities of heat large enough to be taken into consideration. In non-residential buildings, the flow of

3)

4)

25

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

materials and/or goods as well as machinery and appliances contribute heat energy and cooling energy. The technical building installations themselves also contribute non-dedicated heat energy and cooling energy. This includes the energy which is emitted to the space by the distribution pipes and ducts, storage units etc. of heating systems, cooling systems, ventilation and air conditioning systems and domestic hot water systems. Table 4 gives an overview of the heat sources and heat sinks that may occur. In this table, both the heat sources Qsource and the heat sinks Qsink are treated as positive quantities. DIN V 18599-2 contains a more detailed description. Table 4 Heat sources and heat sinks
Energy balance item QT Transmission QT,area QT,wb QV,inf QV Ventilation QV,win QV,mech QS Solar energy other than a dedicated heat source QS,op QS,trans QI,p QI,goods QI,fac QI,el QI Internal heat sources other than dedicated heat sources QI,l QI,h QI,h* QI,w QI,c QI,c* QI,m* QI,vh QI,vc QI,rv Transmission via building element surfaces (see DIN V 185992) Transmission via thermal bridges (see DIN V 18599-2) Ventilation due to infiltration (see DIN V 18599-2 and DIN V 18599-10) Ventilation due to user action or window airing (see DIN V 18599-2, DIN V 18599-6 and DIN V 18599-10) Uncontrolled mechanical ventilation (see DIN V 18599-2, DIN V 18599-3, DIN V 18599-6 and DIN V 18599 10) Solar heat gains from opaque building elements (see DIN V 18599-2) Solar heat gains from transparent building elements (see DIN V 18599-2) Internal heat gains from metabolic heat (see DIN V 18599-10) Internal heat gains or losses due to the flow of goods (see DIN V 18599 10) Internal heat gains or losses due to appliances, machinery and equipment (see DIN V 18599-10) Internal heat gains or losses due to other electrical appliances (see DIN V 18599-10) Internal heat gains due to lighting (see DIN V 18599-4 and DIN V 18599-10) Internal heat sources and heat sinks from the heating system, including HVAC (see DIN V 18599-5 to DIN V 18599-7 and DIN V 18599-9) Internal heat gains from the domestic hot water heating system (see DIN V 18599-8 and DIN V 18599-9) Internal heat gains or losses from the cooling system, including HVAC (see DIN V 18599-7 and DIN V 18599-9) Internal heat gains from steam generation and distribution (see DIN V 18599-7) Internal heat gains or losses from the mechanical ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-6 and DIN V 18599-7) Qsource Qsink

i < e i < e i < e i < e i < zu


QS,op > 0 always always

i > e i > e i > e i > e i > zu


QS,op < 0

i < goods i < fac


always always always always

i > goods i > fac


i < system
always

i > system

i < R

i > R

Balances are calculated iteratively. Part of the non-dedicated heat emission by the technical building installations can only be calculated once the utilization (load ratio) of the systems is known. Due to the

26

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

sequence in which the balances are determined, this load is not known until the energy need for heating or cooling the building or building zone has been calculated. The value of energy need, in turn, is the result of a comparison of the heat sources and heat sinks of the building or the building zone being assessed. The first step involves collecting the data of the following heat sources and heat sinks: transmission: QT; ventilation: QV,inf, QV,win, QV,mech; passive solar heat sources: QS,trans, QS,op; internal heat sources/heat sinks (without the technical building installations): QI,fac, QI,goods, QI,p, QI,el; internal heat gains due to lighting: QI,l. On the basis of the above balance items, it is also possible to estimate the energy need without the internal heat sources and heat sinks due to heating/cooling/ventilation/domestic hot water. This gives an estimation of the utilization of the system, and the remaining internal heat sources and heat sinks due to the system are also determined. internal heat sources (domestic hot water system): QI,w; internal heat sources/heat sinks (air-conducting part of HVAC system): QI,vh, QI,vc; internal heat sources/heat sinks (residential ventilation): QI,rv; internal heat sources of heating / cooling energy supply of HVAC systems: QI,h*, QI,c*, QI,m*; internal heat sources due to heating system: QI,h; internal heat sources due to cooling system: QI,c. Calculations for determining the heat sources and heat sinks due to transmission and the solar heat sources are specified in DIN V 18599-2. The heat sources and heat sinks due to ventilation are dealt with in DIN V 18599-2 and DIN V 18599-3. DIN V 18599-2 to DIN V 18599-10 contain information on how to calculate the balances of the internal heat sources and heat sinks. 5.3.3.2 Determination of the energy need for heating and cooling

The energy need for heating and cooling is calculated using the heat sources and heat sinks for the building zone or building by means of equations (2) and (3). The calculated quantities of energy shall be fed (either as a pure energy flow, or using an air stream as an energy carrier) in a controlled manner to the building or the zone to be heated or cooled. Calculation of the net heat and cooling energy balance is described in DIN V 18599-2. DIN V 18599-5 to DIN V 18599-7 contain information on dividing up the energy need for heating and cooling. Energy need for heating in a building zone Qh,b = Qsink Qsource where (2)

27

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Qh,b Qsink

is the energy need for heating in the building zone; is the sum total of all heat sinks in the building zone;

Qsource is the sum total of all heat sources in the building zone; is the utilization factor of the heat sources.

If the building or building zone contains more than one technical building system, the energy need for heating is divided up among these systems. The sum of the energy required from all systems shall be equal to the entire energy need for heating. This can be divided between several ventilation and air-conditioning systems, several heating systems or a combination of heating systems and VAC systems. One example of this type of heating is the heating of an office building by a heated ventilation air stream (reheating of the supply air) and static emitters. In such a case, the heat required is divided between a VAC system and a heating system. Energy need for cooling in the building zone Qc,b = (1 ) Qsource where Qc,b Qsource is the energy need for cooling in the building zone; is the sum total of all heat sources in the building zone; is the utilization factor of the heat sources. (3)

If the building or building zone contains more than one technical building system, the energy need for cooling is divided up among these systems. The sum of the cooling energy required from all systems shall be equal to the entire energy need for cooling. This can be divided among several VAC systems, several cooling systems or a combination of cooling systems and VAC systems. One example of this type of cooling is the cooling of an office building by a cooled ceiling and additional converters within the building zone. In such a case, the energy need is divided up between a VAC system and a cooling system. 5.3.4 Energy need for air handling and ventilation of residential spaces

Handling of external air to provide supply air of a desired quality, defined by a certain temperature and humidity range, is via a series of system components (heaters, chillers and humidifiers). Methods of determining the energy need to be met by every component of the VAC system for various system configurations are described in DIN V 18599-3 and DIN V 18599-7. For each component of a VAC system, the quantity of energy to be transferred to the air is determined on the basis of: the existing VAC system configuration and the way it is operated, the usage parameters (supply air temperature and humidification or dehumidification requirements), and all other air distribution losses between the building zone and the location of the air handling unit .

28

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

For variable air volume systems, the additional air volume flow required to satisfy the energy need for heating or cooling is calculated on the basis of the energy need for heating or cooling of the building zone as described in DIN V 18599-2. In this way, a specified energy need for air handling is calculated for every component (heaters, chillers and humidifiers) of the VAC system. Energy need for the HVAC heating coil Equation (4) is used to calculate the heat energy needed at the VAC heating coil. In addition to the net heat of air conditioning from DIN V 18599-3, derived from the usage parameters of the spaces being assessed, the control, emission and distribution losses for the HVAC ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-7) are taken into consideration. Qh*,b = Qvh,b + Qvh,ce + Qvh,d where Qh*,b Qvh,b is the energy need for the heating coil; is the net heat of air conditioning (see DIN V 18599-3); (4)

Qvh,ce is the control and emission loss of the HVAC ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-7); Qvh,d is the distribution loss of the HVAC ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-7).

Energy need for the HVAC cooling coil Equation (5) is used to calculate the cooling energy needed at the VAC cooling coil. In addition to the cooling energy need for air conditioning from DIN V 18599-3, derived from the usage parameters of the spaces being assessed, the distribution, control and emission losses for the HVAC ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-7) are taken into consideration. Qc*,b = Qvc,b + Qvc,ce + Qvc,d where Qc*,b Qvc,b is the energy need for the HVAC cooling coil; is the net cooling energy of air conditioning (see DIN V 18599-3); (5)

Qvc,ce is the control and emission loss of the HVAC ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-7); Qvc,d is the distribution loss for the HVAC ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-7).

Energy need for humidification (HVAC) Where the water vapour for humidification is generated using steam, the method described in DIN V 18599-3 also includes the steam Qm*,b which has to be provided in the central unit.

29

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Internal heat sources and heat sinks from the air distribution for HVAC The energy quantities QI,vh and QI,vc which act as internal heat sources or sinks are determined from the air distribution losses, Qvh,d and Qvc,d,. Energy need for ventilation for residential buildings The energy need for ventilation of residential buildings Qrv,b, as calculated according to DIN V 18599-6, is used to describe the energy provided in a controlled manner, via the supply air, to the zone being assessed. System losses of ventilation systems for residential buildings are described in 5.4.5. 5.3.5 Energy need for domestic hot water

The energy need for domestic hot water Qw,b is the quantity of energy which is contained in the hot water used (i.e. drawn from the taps) within the building or building zone. The energy need in this case is determined using the cold-water temperature as a reference value, the temperature of the water on tap and the amount of hot water used. Calculation of the energy need for domestic hot water is described in DIN V 18599-8. The boundary conditions for default values are specified in DIN V 18599-10.

5.4

Balances of energy losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage

After determining the energy needs (i.e. for heating, cooling, domestic hot water, HVAC systems and lighting) required in the zones, the next step in the energy balance calculations is to determine the system losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage. Once these have been determined, they can be combined with the already determined energy need to calculate the energy output which the generator or generators is required to provide to the network (generator heat output or (net) cooling energy output). 5.4.1 Lighting

The losses due to control, emission and distribution of energy for artificial lighting are already included in the energy need for lighting. 5.4.2 Heating (heating systems and HVAC heating function)

When the energy balance of a heating system is being calculated, on the one hand the quantities of heat delivered to the building zone or building by conventional space heating (emitters, direct electric heating, electrical storage heaters, etc.) are assessed together, and on the other hand, the heat delivered by the heating function of an HVAC system (with one or more heating coils) is assessed together with the additional energy required for supplying this heat. 5.4.2.1 Generator heat output to the heating system

Equation (6) is used to calculate the generator heat output (the heat energy the generator must supply). In this equation, the energy need for heating (i.e. the heat which is supplied to the heated zone by conventional heating systems and not via the air handling unit) is added to the losses due to control and emission, heat distribution and storage (in each case only where applicable). DIN V 18599-5 contains a detailed description of how to determine the system losses. Qh,outg = Qh,b,i + Qh,ce + Qh,d + Qh,s where Qh,outg is the generator heat output to the heating system; (6)

30

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Qh,b,i Qh,ce Qh,d Qh,s

is the energy need for heating (i.e. the fraction which is supplied to the space via conventional heating systems), see 5.3.3; is the control and emission loss of the heating system (see DIN V 18599-5); is the distribution loss of the heating system (see DIN V 18599-5); is the storage loss of the heating system (see DIN V 18599-5).

If a building or zone is served by several completely separate heating systems, equation (6) shall be applied separately for each system in order to determine the generator heat output individually for each generator. An example of a multiple system of this kind would be a building which is partly heated directly by electrical heaters and partly by central heating with pumped hot water circulation. 5.4.2.2 Generator heat output for the HVAC heating function

The term generator heat output for the HVAC heating function is used to describe the sum of all energy which one or more generators is to provide to the HVAC system when it is running in heating mode. This includes the energy needed by the heating coil as well as the losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage of heating water occurring between the location where the energy is generated and the location where the heat is transferred to the air stream. This is described by equation (7). DIN V 18599-7 contains a detailed description of how to determine the system losses. Qh*,outg = Qh*,b,i + Qh*,ce + Qh*,d + Qh*,s where Qh*,outg Qh*,b,i Qh*,ce Qh*,d Qh*,s is the generator heat output for the HVAC heating function; is the energy need for the heating coil (see equation (4)); is the control and emission loss for the HVAC heating function (see DIN V 18599-7); is the distribution loss for the HVAC heating function (see DIN V 18599-7); is the storage loss for the HVAC heating function (see DIN V 18599-7). (7)

If there are several heating coils which are all connected to a common hot water network supplied by a common generator (or by a common central heating plant with multiple generators), then equation (7) can be applied in a similar manner. If several completely separate heat generation systems are used, equation (7) shall be applied separately for each system in order to determine the generator heat output individually for each system. An example of a system of this kind would be one in which one heating coil is heated by a boiler and a second electricallyheated heating coil is also installed. 5.4.2.3 Internal heat sources due to the heating system

The contribution QI,h of the internal heat sources due to the heating system (as well as the fraction QI,h* of heating energy supply to the HVAC system) shall be calculated from the distribution heat losses Qh,d (Qh*,d) and storage losses Qh,s (Qh*,s) of the heating system.

31

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

5.4.3

Cooling (cooling system and HVAC cooling function)

When the energy balance of a cooling system is being calculated, on the one hand the thermal quantities delivered directly to the building zone or building by room conditoning (e.g. cooled ceilings, decentralized coolers, silent cooling etc.) are assessed together, and on the other hand, the thermal quantities delivered by the cooling function of an HVAC system (with one or more cooling coils) are assessed together with the additional expenditure required for supplying this cooling function. 5.4.3.1 Generator cooling energy output to the cooling system

Equation (8) is used to calculate the generator cooling energy output (the cooling energy the generator is to provide). In this equation, the energy need for cooling (i.e. that part to be provided to the cooled zone by conventional cooling systems, not via the HVAC system) is added to the losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage (where applicable). DIN V 18599-7 contains a detailed description of how to determine the system losses. Qc,outg = Qc,b,i + Qc,ce + Qc,d + Qc,s where Qc,outg Qc,b,i Qc,ce Qc,d Qc,s is the generator cooling energy output to the cooling system; is the energy need for cooling (i.e. the fraction which is supplied to the space via static cooling surfaces), see 5.3.3; is the control and emission loss of the cooling system (see DIN V 18599-7); is the distribution loss of the cooling system (see DIN V 18599-7); is the storage loss of the cooling system (see DIN V 18599-7). (8)

If there are several completely separate cooling systems, equation (8) shall be applied separately for each system in order to determine the cooling energy output individually for each generator. 5.4.3.2 Generator cooling energy output for the HVAC cooling function

The term generator cooling energy output for the HVAC cooling function is used to describe the sum of all energy quantities which one or more generators are to provide to the HVAC system when it is running in cooling mode. This includes the energy need for the cooling coil as well as the losses due to the control and emission, distribution and storage of cold water occurring between the location where the cooling is carried out and the location where the cooling energy is transferred to the air stream. This is described by equation (9). DIN V 18599-7 contains a detailed description of how to determine the system losses. Qc*,outg = Qc*,b,i + Qc*,ce + Qc*,d + Qc*,s where Qc*,outg Qc*,b,i Qc*,ce Qc*,d is the generator cooling energy output for the HVAC cooling function; is the energy need for the cooling coil as calculated using equation (5); is the control and emission loss for the HVAC cooling function (see DIN V 18599-7); is the distribution loss for the HVAC cooling function (see DIN V 18599-7); (9)

32

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Qc*,s

is the storage loss for the HVAC cooling function (see DIN V 18599-7).

If there are several cooling coils which are all connected to a common cold-water network supplied by a common generator (or by a common central refrigeration plant with multiple units), then equation (9) can be applied by analogy. If individual cooling coils are supplied by several completely separate systems, equation (9) shall be applied separately for each system in order to determine the cooling energy output individually for each generator. 5.4.3.3 Internal heat sinks due to the cooling system

The energy contribution QI,c of the internal heat sinks due to the cooling system (as well as the fraction QI,c* of the cooling energy supply to the HVAC system) shall be calculated from the losses Qc,d (Qc*,d) of the coolantconducting distribution system and the storage losses Qc,s (Qc*,s). 5.4.4 5.4.4.1 Humidification in HVAC systems Generator heat output for water vapour supply to the HVAC system

The energy balance of the water vapour supply to the HVAC system is calculated according to the method determined by the type of heating and cooling system. The generator heat output for the supply of water vapour is calculated on the basis of the sum of the water vapour required for humidifying the air in the HVAC system and the energy losses due to the heat control, emission and distribution of the water vapour. The relationships between these quantities are described by equation (10). DIN V 18599-7 contains additional information. Qm*,outg = Qm*,b + Qm*,ce + Qm*,d where Qm*,outg Qm*,b Qm*,ce Qm*,d 5.4.4.2 is the generator heat output for humidification; is the energy need for humidification (see 5.3.4); is the control and emission loss of humidification (see DIN V 18599-7); is the distribution loss of humidification (see DIN V 18599-7). Internal heat sources due to the water vapour supply (10)

The energy contribution of the internal heat sources due to the supply of water vapour QI,m* are to be calculated from the internal heat losses Qm*,d of the water vapour distribution system. 5.4.5 Ventilation of residential buildings

Calculations for the energy balance of the ventilation system of a residential building take into account the heat quantities which are delivered via the ventilation system, either with or without a heating function, to the building or building zone being heated, as well as the additional energy requirements for the technical installations supplying this service. 5.4.5.1 Generator heat output to the ventilation system for residential buildings

Equation (11) is used to calculate the generator heat output (the heat energy the generator must supply). The losses due to the control and emission, distribution and storage of heat (where applicable) are added to the

33

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

energy need of the residential ventilation system. DIN V 18599-6 contains a detailed description of how to determine the system losses. Qrv,outg = Qrv,b + Qrv,ce + Qrv,d + Qrv,s where Qrv,outg Qrv,b Qrv,ce Qrv,d Qrv,s is the generator heat output to the residential ventilation system; is the energy need of the residential ventilation system (see 5.3.4) is the control and emission loss of the residential ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-6); is the distribution loss of the residential ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-6); is the storage loss of the residential ventilation system (see DIN V 18599-6). (11)

If there are several completely separate systems supplying heat, equation (11) shall be applied separately for each system in order to determine the generator heat output individually for each system. 5.4.5.2 Internal heat sources of ventilation systems for residential buildings

The energy contributions QI,rv by the internal heat sources of the residential ventilation system shall be calculated on the basis of the heat distribution losses Qrv,d and storage losses Qrv,s. 5.4.6 Domestic hot water supply

The calculation of the energy balance of the domestic hot water system takes into account the heat quantities delivered as net energy to the building or building zone being heated and the energy losses of the technical installations supplying this service. 5.4.6.1 Generator heat output for hot water production

Equation (12) is used to calculate the generator heat output (i.e. heat energy the generator must supply) for the domestic hot water supply. The losses due to the control and emission, distribution and storage of heat (where such losses occur) are added to the energy need of the domestic hot water system. DIN V 18599-8 contains a detailed description of how to determine the system losses. Qw,outg = Qw,b + Qw,ce + Qw,d + Qw,s where Qw,outg Qw,b Qw,ce Qw,d Qw,s is the generator heat output for domestic hot water; is the energy need for domestic hot water (see 5.3.5) is the control and emission loss of the domestic hot water supply (see DIN V 18599-8); is the distribution loss of the domestic hot water supply (see DIN V 18599-8); is the storage loss of the domestic hot water supply (see DIN V 18599-8). (12)

If there are several completely separate heating systems, equation (12) shall be applied separately for each system in order to determine the generator heat output individually for each generator. An example of a

34

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

multiple system of this kind would be a building which is partly supplied directly by localized electrical waterheaters and partly by a central domestic hot water system. 5.4.6.2 Internal heat sources due to the domestic hot water supply

The energy contributions QI,w by the internal heat sources of the domestic hot water system shall be calculated on the basis of the heat distribution loss Qw,d and the storage loss Qw,s. 5.4.7 Energy for other process heating or cooling requirements

The heat or cooling energy output for other process heating or cooling requirements can be determined by adding the net energy to all system losses between the place of generation and the place where the energy is transferred to the respective application.

5.5

Balancing of delivered energy (energy use)

The delivered energy is the sum of the energy needs, system losses due to control, emission, distribution and storage (sub-total: generator heat output or generator cooling energy output) and heat generation losses. Any regenerative energy shall be deducted. 5.5.1 Delivered energy for lighting

The delivered energy for lighting Ql,f corresponds to the energy need for lighting according to 5.3.2. 5.5.2 Delivered energy for heating and cooling and generation losses

Once the generator output of heat or cooling energy has been calculated as described in 5.4.2 to 5.4.7, the delivered energy can be calculated. This is done by adding the heat generation losses to the generator heat or cooling energy output and deducting any regenerative energy. First the delivered energy balance is described below for a single building service with a single heat generator (basic version). Then calculation modes are described for systems in which energy is delivered by more than one generator for a single service. Finally, the most frequent situation (i.e. where more than one service is served by one or more generators) is described. 5.5.2.1 Systems with a single building service and a single generator

There are various combinations of generators and systems (examples of which are given in this subclause), which use a single generator to supply energy for a single service (e.g. heating, cooling energy, domestic hot water etc.). DIN V 18599-5 to DIN V 18599-8 describe how to assess single generators for single services. A single heat generator supplying heat solely for heating purposes Qh,f = Qh,outg + Qh,g Qh,reg where Qh,f Qh,outg Qh,g is the delivered energy for the heat generator; is the generator heat output to the heating system as calculated using equation (6); is the generation loss of the heating system, taking due consideration of the building automation system, where applicable (see DIN V 18599-5); (13)

35

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Qh,reg

is the quantity of regenerative energy used (see DIN V 18599-5).

In individual parts of the DIN V 18599 series, the physical relationships may be modelled in a way which differs from equations (13) to (19). A single heat generator supplying heat solely to an HVAC heating function Qh*,f = Qh*,outg + Qh*,g Qh*,reg where Qh*,f Qh*,outg Qh*,g Qh*,reg is the delivered energy for the heat generator; is the generator heat output to the HVAC heating system as calculated using equation (7); is the generation loss of the HVAC heating system, taking due consideration of the building automation system, where applicable (see DIN V 18599-5); is the quantity of regenerative energy used (see DIN V 18599-5). (14)

A single cold generator supplying cooling energy only Qc,f = Qc,outg + Qc,g Qc,reg where Qc,f Qc,outg Qc,g Qc,reg is the delivered energy for the cold generator; is the net cooling energy output to the cooling system as calculated using equation (8); is the generation loss of the cooling system, taking due consideration of the building automation system, where applicable (see DIN V 18599-7); is the quantity of regenerative energy used (see DIN V 18599-7). (15)

A single cold generator supplying cooling energy solely to an HVAC cooling function Qc*,f = Qc*,outg + Qc*,g Qc*,reg where Qc*,f Qc*,outg Qc*,g Qc*,reg is the delivered energy for the cold generator; is the net cooling energy output to the HVAC cooling system as calculated using equation (9); is the generation loss of the HVAC cooling system, taking due consideration of the building automation system, where applicable (see DIN V 18599-7); is the quantity of regenerative energy used (see DIN V 18599-7). (16)

36

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

A single thermal or electrical generator supplying energy solely for water vapour Qm*,f = Qm*,outg + Qm*,g Qm*,reg where Qm*,f is the delivered energy for the water vapour generator; (17)

Qm*,outg is the generator energy output for humidification as calculated using equation (10); Qm*,g Qm*,reg is the generation loss of humidification, taking due consideration of the building automation system, where applicable (see DIN V 18599-7); is the quantity of regenerative energy used (see DIN V 18599-7).

A single heat generator supplying heat solely to the ventilation system of a residential building Qrv,f = Qrv,outg + Qrv,g Qrv,reg where Qrv,f Qrv,outg Qrv,g Qrv,reg is the delivered energy for the generator of the ventilation system; is the generator heat output to the ventilation system as calculated using equation (11); is the generation loss of the ventilation system, taking due consideration of the building automation system, where applicable (see DIN V 18599-6); is the quantity of regenerative energy used (see DIN V 18599-6). (18)

A single heat generator supplying heat solely for domestic hot water heating Qw,f = Qw,outg + Qw,g Qw,reg where Qw,f Qw,outg Qw,g Qw,reg is the delivered energy of the heat generator for domestic hot water; is the generator energy output for domestic hot water as calculated using equation (12); is the generation loss of domestic hot water heating, taking due consideration of the building automation system, where applicable (see DIN V 18599-8); is the quantity of regenerative energy used (see DIN V 18599-8). (19)

Internal heat sources/heat sinks In some cases generation loss Qg has the effect of an internal heat source or heat sink. In such cases, the individual contributions QI of the internal heat sources/heat sinks (these being identified as Ql,h,g, Ql,w,g, Ql,rv,g etc., as appropriate) shall be calculated.

37

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

5.5.2.2

A single technical building service with more than one generator

If a single building service is supplied with energy by more than one generator (e.g. domestic hot water heating by a boiler and by a solar system), then the calculated generator heat or cooling energy output shall be distributed over the individual generators. The assessment of combinations of different generators for individual building services is described in DIN V 18599-5 (where several heat generators are used for heating), DIN V 18599-6 (where a residential ventilation system has several heat generators), DIN V 18599-7 (where there are several heat generators for HVAC and cooling) and DIN V 18599-8 (where there are several heat generators for domestic hot water heating).
NOTE Further guidance is given in Annex C,

Internal heat sources/heat sinks In some cases generation loss Qg has the effect of an internal heat source or heat sink. In such cases, the individual contributions QI of the internal heat sources/heat sinks (identified as Ql,h,g, Ql,w,g, Ql,rv,g etc.) shall be calculated. 5.5.2.3 Several technical building services with one or more generators

Use of one or more generators to supply energy for more than one building service is the most common type of energy supply system. The simplest example of such an application is a boiler used for both space heating and domestic hot water. The assessment of combinations of generators is described in DIN V 18599-5 (space heating plus domestic hot water heating plus heat for cooling processes), DIN V 18599-7 (cooling for HVAC and water-based cooling systems) and DIN V 18599-9 (other complex systems). In DIN V 18599-5, DIN V 18599-7 and DIN V 18599-9, the generation losses Qg and the delivered energy Qf are determined separately for each building service (h, h*, c, c*, m*, w, rv, m*) and each individual energy carrier is described on the basis of the calculation algorithms in those prestandards. Furthermore, the regenerative energy used for each building service is specified in each of the documents.
NOTE Further guidance is given in Annex C.

Internal heat sources/heat sinks In some cases the generation loss Qg has the effect of an internal heat source or heat sink. In such cases, the individual contributions QI of the internal heat sources/heat sinks (identified as Ql,h,g, Ql,w,g, Ql,rv,g etc.) shall be calculated. 5.5.3 Delivered auxiliary energy

The entire energy supply of a building for heating, cooling, domestic hot water, etc. is linked to a variety of auxiliary processes which consume additional quantities of electrical energy (e.g. electrical actuators, controls etc.). Equation (20) provides an overview of the individual auxiliary energy fractions. Qf,aux = Qh,aux + Qc,aux + Qv,aux + Qh*,aux + Qc*,aux + Qm*,aux + Qw, ,aux + Ql,aux where Qf,aux Qh,aux is the delivered auxiliary energy; is the auxiliary energy for the heating system (see DIN V 18599-5 and DIN V 18599-9); (20)

38

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Qc,aux Qv,aux Qh*,aux Qc*,aux Qm*,aux Qw, ,aux Ql,aux

is the auxiliary energy for the cooling system (see DIN V 18599-7); is the auxiliary energy for air distribution (see DIN V 18599-3 and DIN V 18599-6); is the auxiliary energy for heating in the HVAC system (see DIN V 18599-5); is the auxiliary energy for cooling in the HVAC system (see DIN V 18599-7); is the auxiliary energy for humidification in the HVAC system (see DIN V 18599-7); is the auxiliary energy for the domestic hot water system (see DIN V 18599-8); is the auxiliary energy for lighting (see DIN V 18599-4).

The auxiliary energy is assessed in conjunction with the respective thermal energy in the appropriate part of the DIN V 18599 series. In addition, all subsystems (i.e. control and emission, distribution, storage and generation) are assessed. Internal heat sources other than dedicated heat sources Wherever the respective fractions of the auxiliary energy have a heating or cooling effect, they shall be treated as internal sources. 5.5.4 Delivered energy, calculated according to energy carriers

Equation (21) groups the delivered energy of a building or building zone according to energy carriers j . Qf,j = Qh,f,j + Qh*,f,j + Qc,f,j + Qc*,f,j + Qm*,f,j + Qrv,f,j + Qw,f,j + Ql,f,j + Qf,j,aux Qf,j,x where Qf,j Qh,f,j Qh*,f,j Qc,f,j Qc*,f,j Qm*,f,j Qw,f,j Qrv,f,j Ql,f,j Qf,j,aux is the delivered energy supplied by energy carrier j; is the delivered energy supplied to the heating system by energy carrier j (see 5.5.2) is the delivered energy supplied to the HVAC heating function by energy carrier j (see 5.5.2); is the delivered energy supplied to the cooling system by energy carrier j (see 5.5.2); is the delivered energy supplied to the HVAC cooling function by energy carrier j (see 5.5.2); is the delivered energy supplied by energy carrier j for humidification purposes (see 5.5.2); is the delivered energy supplied by energy carrier j for domestic hot water heating (see 5.5.2); is the delivered energy supplied by energy carrier j for residential ventilation (see 5.5.2); is the delivered energy supplied by energy carrier j for lighting (see 5.5.1); is the delivered auxiliary energy supplied by energy carrier j (see 5.5.3); (21)

39

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Qf,j,x

is the delivered energy for other processes (that is taken to be expenditure (+) or is generated within the building and deducted (), depending on the energy carrier).2)

The delivered energy according to equation (21) is given on the basis of the gross calorific value. To calculate the delivered energy based on the net calorific value, equation (22) shall be applied.
Qf,Hi, j = Qf, j f HS/HI, j

(22)

where Qf,Hi,j Qf,j fHS/HI is the delivered energy for each energy carrier j based on the net calorific value Hi; is the delivered energy for each energy carrier j based on the gross calorific value (see equation 21); is the conversion factor for the delivered energy (see Table B.1);

5.6

Primary energy rating

Equation (23) is used to determine the primary energy based on the net calorific value. The total delivered energy, divided up according to individual energy carriers, is evaluated by applying primary energy factors. As rating of the delivered energy for all fuels is based on the gross calorific value, the delivered energy is also converted to the equivalent net calorific value. Primary energy factors are listed in Annex A, conversion factors for delivered energy values in Annex B.
Qp =

Qf, j fHS/HI, j
j

f p, j

(23)

where Qp Qf,j fp fHS/HI is the primary energy based on the net calorific value; is the delivered energy for each energy carrier j (see 5.5.4); is the primary energy factor (see Table A.1); is the conversion factor for the delivered energy (see Table B.1).

The primary energy according to equation (23) is based on the net calorific value. If primary energy values based on the gross calorific value are required, equation (24) is to be used.
Qp,HS =

(Qf, j fp, j )
j

(24)

2) This could be electrical energy generated using a photovoltaic system, for example. Until further notice, Qf,j,x is taken to be equal to 0 kWh/a in the balance since in Germany electricity from photovoltaic systems is usually fed into the grid and the positive effects of the photovoltaic system are already taken into account in the primary energy factors in A.2.

40

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

where Qp,HS Qf,j fp is the primary energy based on the gross calorific value; is the delivered energy for each energy carrier j, based on the gross calorific value (according to equation (21)); is the primary energy factor (cf. Table A.1).

Zoning of buildings

The general procedure for drawing up the energy balance (with all energy characteristic values and ratings from energy need to primary energy) is described in clause 5 using a zone as an example. It may be necessary to divide the building into several zones for the calculations. The aim of zoning is to group together into one zone all areas of a building with similar net energy requirements or, in the case of heating and cooling, similar heat sources and heat sinks. Zoning is based on the principle that the most important characteristic defining similar energy requirements or heat sources and heat sinks is that they are used in the same way (example: a personal office). If two rooms are used in distinctly different ways, they are assigned to different zones. In addition, similar net energy requirements, heat sources and heat sinks can only be assumed if the rooms have the same mode of conditioning (example: a personal office with lighting/heating/ventilation/cooling as opposed to a personal office with lighting/heating/ventilation). If conditioning modes differ widely, the rooms are assigned to different zones, even though they are used in a similar way. Besides the type of usage and the conditioning mode there are other criteria that can result in net energy requirements, heat sources and heat sinks that differ so much that the rooms cannot be part of the same energy balance. These data are termed additional zoning criteria and generally relate to cooled rooms (example: two offices with lighting/heating/ventilation/cooling, one with a glazed area of 25 % and the other a glazed area of 75 %). Hence zoning is based on the exclusion principle with the aim of grouping together, and drawing up balances for, areas of buildings that are as homogeneous as possible. The energy requirement of the building is the total energy requirement of all building zones. The example described above is illustrated in Figure 4 which shows the procedure for various types of usage, conditioning (e.g. with and without cooling) and zoning criteria (e.g. different proportions of glazing).

41

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Figure 4 Example of zoning To simplify the balance, the number of zones into which a building is divided should be limited to those required to enable adequate consideration of the most important differences in energy requirements. Too many zones are to be avoided as this may considerably increase the complexity of the calculations without a parallel improvement in the result.

6.1
Zone

General description

A zone is the basic unit for the calculations described in this document. A zone comprises the section of the floor area or part of a building with rooms or spaces that are characterized by uniform boundary conditions of use, and, in respect of heating, cooling, ventilation, humidification, lighting and domestic hot water supply: the same mode of conditioning, and uniform zoning criteria. Boundary conditions of use are listed in DIN V 18599-10. The zoning criteria are described in 6.2.2. The energy need for heating and cooling shall be determined separately as described in DIN V 18599-2 for each zone which is conditioned and is heated and/or cooled. Conditioned spaces or zones A zone may have all forms of conditioning (heating, cooling, ventilation, humidification, lighting) or simply one single conditioning mode (e.g. lighting). Spaces which have at least one conditioning mode are termed conditioned spaces. A zone which has at least one conditioning mode is termed a conditioned zone. Unconditioned spaces or zones

42

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

The spaces and parts of a building which have no form of conditioning are grouped together under the designation unconditioned spaces or the descriptor unconditioned. A building may have more than one unconditioned zone (e.g. basement, loft). Serviced area A serviced area (supplied with heating, domestic hot water, ventilation, cooling, lighting, etc.) comprises all parts of a building which are served by the same building service. One serviced area can spread over several zones and one zone may contain several serviced areas. Irrespective of how it is zoned, a building can be divided into serviced areas. The energy characteristic values or part-balances calculated for a serviced area are then distributed over the individual building zones according to the rules specified in 7.2.

6.2

Dividing a building into zones

Defining the zones of a building involves two steps: determining areas which are all used in the same way (usage profiles according to DIN V 18599-103) if necessary, further subdivision of areas used in the same way to account for conditioning and further zoning criteria (see Tables 5 and 6). Up to 3 % of the total floor area of the building may be assigned to other zones provided the internal loads of the zones do not differ substantially. Spaces which are not directly heated or cooled (e.g. basements, uninhabitable lofts, technical equipment rooms etc.) shall be grouped together in one or more unheated building zones. The temperature in the unheated zone" is determined solely on the basis of the heat flows from neighbouring spaces and/or their heat sources/heat sinks, whereby provisions described in DIN V 18599-2 apply. A usage profile in accordance with DIN V 18599-10 shall be assigned to these rooms. 6.2.1 Zoning step 1: Determining areas with the same usage

Spaces are grouped together into a zone if they have the same usage profile and if, at the same time, there are no restrictions on account of the additional zoning criteria. The procedure is described below. The types of usage whose boundary conditions are defined for the purposes of this document are listed in DIN V 18599-10. Where usage cannot be matched to one of the listed profiles, the boundary conditions of use shall be determined separately. As a rule, usages with different profiles should be assigned to different zones. However, if there is rapid air interchange between different spaces or enclosures in the building, then these shall always be grouped together in a single building zone. The required procedure is described in DIN V 18599-2. If none of the additional zoning criteria described below are relevant to the area in question, the zones will depend on usage profiles. In this case, all spaces or sections of the building floor area which are used in the same way form a zone.

3) Spaces (such as unheated basements) can be assigned to a usage profile (e.g. "storeroom, technical equipment, archives") according to DIN V 18599-10 even though specific parameters relating to their use (e.g. room temperature) cannot be met due to the absence of the appropriate technical installation (e.g. a heating system). All other parameters (such as lighting) are applicable in spite of this.

43

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

6.2.2

Zoning step 2: Application of additional zoning criteria

It is necessary to further subdivide an area with a single type of usage if the characteristics of the building or technical installations within this area differ so greatly that it is necessary to calculate the energy part-balances for heating, air conditioning and lighting separately. Such characteristics are described below. It is important that these zoning criteria are applied after the zones based on usage profiles have been defined. Table 5 shows the additional zoning criteria to be applied within areas with the same usage and which enable a more detailed assignment of spaces or sections of the floor area to zones. Spaces are only grouped together into a zone if they exhibit the same characteristics in respect of both criteria in Table 5. Table 5 Additional zoning criteria Criterion Differences with respect to conditioning Description Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) with the same usage profile shall be grouped into different zones if they have different conditioning requirements. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) may be grouped together if: their requirements with respect to thermal and lighting conditioning are identical; the spaces are subject to lighting technology requirements only; the spaces are subject to thermal conditioning requirements only. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) shall be grouped into different zones if they are equipped with different systems for ventilation and conditioning. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) are grouped together if: 2 Different ventilation systems they are ventilated solely by natural means; they have air conditioning or ventilation systems with constant air volume flow; they have air conditioning or ventilation systems with variable air volume flow; they have air conditioning or ventilation systems with air/water systems they are equipped with room air conditioning units (split and multisplit units). Table 6 gives further boundary conditions (criteria 1 to 6) which apply only to spaces or sections of the floor area in which room conditioning equipment is located for which usage profiles alone may not be the basis for zoning for the cooling energy balance calculations. Spaces and rooms are only grouped together into a zone if they exhibit the same characteristics in respect of all criteria in Table 6.

44

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Table 6 Zoning criteria for cooling energy balances Criterion Different functions of the HVAC system External air supply volume flow dependent on operating mode Installed power of artificial lighting Description Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) with HVAC systems are to be assigned to different zones if these systems have different functions. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) are grouped together if the systems have the same characteristics with respect to: heating; cooling; humidification and dehumidification. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) with HVAC systems are to be assigned to different zones if there are differences in the external air supply volume flow of the systems as a result of their operating modes. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) are grouped together if their HVAC systems: are operated with an external air supply volume flow of 5 % or more of the air volume flow in the building; have a refrigeration capacity of 12 kW or more; have an air volume flow of 3 000 m3/h or more. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) are to be assigned to different zones if they differ with respect to the installed power of their artificial lighting provision. If the installed specific power in a particular area is in a range at least 20 W/m2 higher than the specific power installed in the remainder of the zone, and if the area of the respective area is larger than 10 % of the area of the zone or the installed power in the area with the higher power is greater than 5 kW, these spaces/rooms shall be assigned to different zones. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) are to be assigned to different zones if they differ with respect to their daylight supply / room conditioning. Buildings with a depth of more than 16 m (external dimensions) shall be divided into an inner zone and an outer zone parallel to the faades which have windows. This criterion does not apply to large internal spaces or similar floor plans which have no material boundaries between the inner and outer zones. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) bordering on faades are to be assigned to different zones if they have different proportions of glazed areas. Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) with the following glazing factors are to be grouped together: < 0,3; 0,3 and < 0,5; 0,5 and < 0,7; 0,7. An individual grouping of spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) with different glazing factors into a zone is permissible if the glazed areas do not differ by more than 0,2 within a zone.

Depth of building and rooms

Faade design and proportion of glazed areas (glazing factor)

45

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Solar protection and building orientation

Spaces/rooms (or sections of the floor area) bordering on faades are to be grouped into different zones if they differ with respect to their solar protection. Each of the categories listed below means that the respective space/room (or section of the floor area) should be assigned to a particular zone. Without consideration of orientation: permanently shaded faades; external protection against solar radiation, with gtotal < 0,12. Dependent on the orientation, facing South, East, West or North: external protection against solar radiation, with gtotal > 0,12; internal protection against solar radiation, with gtotal < 0,35; internal protection against solar radiation, with gtotal 0,35; without protection against solar radiation.

6.3

Serviced areas

Once zoning is completed, the building is subdivided into serviced areas. These comprise areas of a building that are served by the same building service. The criteria governing subdivision into serviced areas are independent of the zoning considerations in connection with the design calculations for a service, which are not dealt with here. The purpose of subdivision into serviced areas is to determine partial energy characteristic values (such as the heat losses from a heat generator serving several zones). These energy values are then assigned to the appropriate zones (cf. clause 7).

6.4

Determination of geometric parameters

Once zones have been defined according to qualitative criteria as described above, the geometric parameters (e.g. areas, volumes) are determined for all zones and all serviced areas. The reference dimensions described in 8.1 apply when determining the boundaries of each zone.

Assignment of the balance components

The energy balance described in this document serves to identify delivered and primary energy characteristic values for buildings seen as an entity. However, the full set of characteristic values for each zone of a building also need to be determined. These are: the heat sources and heat sinks of the zone; the type of energy need in the zone; the system losses and auxiliary energy of the zone; the delivered and primary energy required by the zone. One result of zoning is that the boundaries between zones and between serviced areas are not always one and the same. In particular, system losses and the delivered and primary energy required are initially determined for each serviced area rather than for each zone. The required characteristic values relating to the zones are then determined. The following rules apply when assigning part-balances to the zones on the basis of building services: if a serviced area includes more than one zone, or if a zone boundary passes through a serviced area, the energy requirement is to be distributed over the individual zones;

46

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

if a zone is subdivided into several serviced areas, then the energy need of the zone is the sum of the energy to be required for all partial floor areas of all serviced areas within the zone. In the following, the assignment rules are explained in detail using the building shown in Figure 5 as an example. The balance calculations for the building energy needs, system losses, auxiliary energy, delivered energy and primary energy are described below.

Figure 5 Building used as an example for assignment

7.1

General information

The energy needs for all modes of conditioning (heating, cooling, ventilation, humidification, lighting and hot water supply) are determined once only for each zone. It is assumed that the energy needs are evenly distributed throughout the respective zone. For the purposes of the balance this means that the following components of the energy need are to be determined for each zone: the energy need for heating as described in DIN V 18599-2; the energy need for cooling as described in DIN V 18599-2; the energy need for air conditioning including humidification as described in DIN V 18599-3; the energy need for domestic hot water as described in DIN V 18599-8; the energy need for lighting as described in DIN V 18599-4. This means that the energy need (in relation to the net floor area) is the same for any part of the zone. In order to determine the energy needs for heating and cooling of a zone, the heat sources and heat sinks in the zone need to be known. When a balance is calculated by the method described in DIN V 18599-2, all heat sources and heat sinks in a zone are assumed to be evenly distributed across the entire net floor area.
EXAMPLE Three energy need calculations (for lighting, domestic hot water, heating, cooling and air conditioning) are required for the building shown in Figure 5 (i.e. a separate calculation is required for each of the three zones).The net energy characteristics (defined in relation to the net floor area) are the same magnitude for any part of the zone. The heat sources and heat sinks are also assumed to be evenly distributed throughout the respective zone. In zone 2 of the building, the loss due to domestic hot water distribution (see (c) in Figure 5) is assumed, for simplification, to be evenly

47

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

distributed throughout the zone, although this is not actually the case because zone 2 is served by two different building services (central and decentralized).

7.2

Assignment rules

If energy characteristics/balance components of serviced areas are to be determined according to zones, a distinction is to be made between three types of case. 7.2.1 Case 1: Serviced area and zone are identical

If a zone has only one technical building system for each service, then all system losses of the technical building systems, all auxiliary energy of the technical building systems, and all heat sources and heat sinks resulting from the above within the zone are balanced once only for this zone. No assignment is required in this case. In the calculations, all system losses, all auxiliary energy and all resulting heat sources and heat sinks are assumed to be evenly distributed throughout the zone. This means that the energy characteristics, defined in relation to the net floor area, are the same for any part of the zone.
EXAMPLE In Figure 5, this applies to the HVAC system in zone 3 (see (b) in Figure 5) and lighting in zones 2 and 3 (see (a) in Figure 5).

7.2.2

Case 2: Several serviced areas in one zone

If one zone has multiple technical building systems for the same building service, then initially all system losses, all auxiliary energy of the technical building systems, and all heat sources and heat sinks resulting from these within the zone are balanced individually for each serviced area. The resulting absolute values (in kWh/unit of time) for system losses, auxiliary energy and the resulting heat sources and heat sinks are then added together for all serviced areas within the zone in order to obtain overall values. In the calculations, it is assumed that the overall values are evenly distributed over the respective zone. This means that the relative energy values, defined in relation to the net floor area, are the same for any part or sector of the zone.
EXAMPLE This applies to the ventilation system in zone 1 (see (b) in Figure 5). Roughly half the area is served by ventilation system 1 (e.g. ventilation with heat recovery and a heat pump), the other half by ventilation system 2 (e.g. extract-air equipment).

The heat losses of the ductwork, the auxiliary energy for fans and the corresponding heat sources and heat sinks are calculated individually for each part of the area. When calculating the energy need for zone 1 as described in DIN V 18599-2, only the sum total of all heat sources and heat sinks for the zone is to be used. When calculating the delivered and primary energy balances as described in DIN V 18599-1, the sum total of all system losses and of the auxiliary energy shall be used.

48

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

7.2.3

Case 3: Several zones in one serviced area

If one and the same technical building system serves an area which is larger than a single zone, then the balance of the characteristic values is as specified below: The system losses due to control and emission shall be determined as characteristic values for each zone. The system losses due to distribution shall be determined as characteristic values for each zone. The basic data required for the calculations (especially the pipe lengths and pump capacities) shall be determined once for the entire serviced area, and if no actual project data are available, default values shall be used. These are then distributed over the zones according to the ratio of the respective net floor areas. The same procedure is applied for the internal heat sources and heat sinks as well as for the auxiliary energy for distribution. The system losses due to storage shall be determined once as an absolute value for the entire serviced area and then distributed over the serviced zones. The share of the storage losses and the associated auxiliary energy for each zone is calculated by weighting these according to the energy need for heating or cooling of the zones serviced by the respective storage vessel. The internal heat sources are only fully effective within the zone in which the storage vessel is installed (i.e. these heat sources are not distributed over a number of zones). The system losses due to generation and the associated auxiliary energy for generation are distributed among the serviced zones according to the fraction of generator heat output and fraction of generator cooling energy output of these zones (weighted according to the energy need of the zone).
EXAMPLE In the building shown in Figure 5, this applies to the central domestic hot water supply (see (c)) and heating system (see (d)). The central domestic hot water supply shown in Figure 5 (c) meets the entire demand of zones 1 and 3, but only a part of the demand of zone 2. The control and emission losses are determined separately for each zone (however, these are usually zero). The distribution loss, internal heat sources of distribution and auxiliary energy are also determined for each zone, with the pipe lengths and circulation pump capacity being initially calculated on the basis of the dimensions of the entire serviced area (if no detailed project data are available). The energy values are distributed over the three zones according to the ratios of the net floor areas (whereby only that section of zone 2 which is served by the central hot water supply is taken into account). The storage loss of the hot water system and the storage equipment auxiliary energy are distributed over the three zones according to their energy need for heating. The non-dedicated internal heat from storage only has an effect in zone 3 because the storage vessel is installed in that zone. The losses and auxiliary energy of generation (in kWh/unit of time) are determined as described in DIN V 18599-8 once only for the entire serviced area. They are distributed over the three zones according to their generator heat energy requirement. This is a fairer method in as far as the zones with a lower domestic hot water requirement will be assigned correspondingly lower fractions of the generation energy losses. Given that approximately 10 % of the heat that the generator is to output is needed by zone 2, only 10 % of the generation energy loss is assigned to zone 2. The heat output of the generator could be distributed over the other zones in a similar manner (i.e. 25 % to zone 1 and 65 % to zone 3).

The control and emission, distribution and generation calculations for the heating system shown in Figure 5 (d) shall be performed in the same way.

Determination of system boundaries, areas and volumes

The following reference dimensions shall be used as a basis when determining system boundaries, areas and volumes of the entire building, the zones and the areas served by the individual building services.

49

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

8.1
8.1.1

Reference dimensions for determining the thermal envelope area and the gross volume
Floor plans (horizontal dimensions)

The following dimensions, measured horizontally, are to be used as reference when determining the thermal envelope area and the gross volume (external volume) of a zone: for external components and elements, the external dimensions in accordance with DIN EN ISO 13789, including any external thermal insulation and rendering; for internal components and elements between a temperature-controlled zone and a zone without temperature control, the external dimensions (of the temperature-controlled zone); for internal components and elements between zones with temperature control (even if the set temperatures differ), the axial dimension, i.e. the centre of an unfinished building component, irrespective of any internal insulation layers. These provisions also apply when determining the horizontal dimensions of the entire building as well as of the areas served by individual building services.

Key Zone 1: internal boundaries (to zones 4 and 2) and external boundaries (to zone 3 and external air). Zone 2: internal boundaries at the top, left and right; for the boundary to zone 4 on the right, the axial dimension is used (neglecting insulation); for the boundary to zone 3, which has no temperature control, the external dimension is used. Zones 4 and 5: the upper surface of the last thermally effective layer in the direction of the ventilated faade. Zone 3 has no heating and no cooling system, zones 1 and 2 are heated and cooled: the external dimensions of the internal walls separating them are to be used. Figure 6 Reference dimensions (floor plan) 8.1.2 Sections (vertical dimensions)

The following dimensions, measured vertically, are to be used as reference when determining the thermal envelope area and the gross volume (external volume) of a zone: the unfinished floor of each level of a building (base, storey floors) irrespective of the location of any insulating layers;

50

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

the topmost surface of the building is an exception: in this case the upper surface of the topmost thermally effective layer is used as the external dimension. These provisions also apply when determining the vertical dimensions of the building as a whole as well as of the areas served by individual building services.

Key Zones 1 to 3, 5 and 6: the upper boundary is always the upper surface of the unfinished floor of the storey above the zone, the lower boundary is the lowest unfinished floor of the zone. Zone 4 (heated zone bordering ground): lower boundary is the outside ground level. Figure 7 Reference dimensions (sectional view)

8.2

Other reference dimensions

Additional dimensions are needed in order to estiimate the lengths of distribution pipes and ductwork. These dimensions can be estimated as follows. 8.2.1 Energy reference area

For the purposes of this document, the energy reference area is the total net ground floor area ANGF of a building, zone or serviced area. It is determined as specified in DIN 277-1. 8.2.2 Storey height

The storey height hG is the distance between the upper surface of the unfinished floor of the respective storey to the upper surface of the unfinished floor of the storey above it. In the case of topmost storeys, the vertical distance to the upper boundary of the zone applies (see 8.1.2 description of vertical dimensions). If there are storeys of different heights within one zone, the storey height of the majority of storeys is used as the characteristic storey height.

51

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

8.2.3

Air volume

The air volume V (net volume, internal volume) of a zone, a complete building or the serviced area of a particular building service is determined on the basis of the internal dimensions (see 3.1.19). It is calculated by multiplying the net floor area by the clear storey height h. The clear storey height is the difference in height between the upper surface of the floor and the lower surface of the storey floor or a suspended ceiling. If the clear storey height varies in the zone, building or serviced area, a characteristic height shall be used. This is the height applying to the majority of the spaces (with an accuracy of 0,3 m). As an estimate, e.g. if no internal measurements are taken, the net volume is calculated using the gross volume (external volume) and the equation V = 0,8 Ve . 8.2.4 Characteristic length and width

The characteristic length L and characteristic width B of a zone, an entire building or a serviced area are determined in accordance with the method described in Annex B of DIN V 18599-5.

8.3

Input parameters for balance calculation

Before the energy balance can be calculated, the following parameters are to be determined for every zone: the net floor area ANGF; the characteristic length L and characteristic width B; the storey height hG and the number of storeys; the individual thermal envelope areas Ai, or the sum total A of these; the gross volume (external volume) Ve; the net volume (air volume) V. For every area served by a particular building service and which is not the same size as the respective zone, the following dimensions shall be determined: the net floor area ANGF; the characteristic length L and characteristic width B; the storey height hG and the number of storeys; the net volume (air volume) V.

Balance calculation approach

The scope and detail of the balances for providing proof of conformity to building authority regulations are specified in the respective regulations. Such regulations differentiate between residential buildings and nonresidential buildings. In other cases (e.g. energy consultation services, energy analyses etc.), the balance may vary in scope and detail, depending on its purpose. For example, balances relating to energy use for certain areas (e.g. heating, ventilation air conditioning, domestic hot water, lighting etc.) may be omitted in individual cases.

52

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

NOTE The examples described below make use of checklists to demonstrate the procedure for carrying out a balance for proof of conformity to building authority regulations.

9.1

General case

Figure 8 gives an overview of the sequence of the balance calculation steps and of the interrelationships of the individual parts of the DIN V 18599 series in the overall balance. A generally applicable example is used.

Figure 8 Relationships within the balance as calculated according to the DIN V 18599 series General example The procedure comprises the following steps: 1) Determination of the boundary conditions of use and, where applicable, zoning of the building according to type of usage, building physics and technical installations and equipment of the building, including lighting, as specified in DIN V 18599-10, clauses 5 and 6. Compilation of the input data required for calculating the balances of the building zones (areas, characteristics relating to building physics and technical installations and equipment of the building and (for certain types of ventilation system as described in DIN V 18599-10 and DIN V 18599-3) the supply air temperature and air change rates). Determination of the energy need and delivered energy (use) for lighting and the heat sources due to lighting in the respective zone, as described in DIN V 18599-4. Determination of heat sources and heat sinks due to mechanical ventilation in the respective zone, as described in DIN V 18599-6 and DIN V 18599-7.

2)

3) 4)

53

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

5) 6)

Determination of heat sources and heat sinks due to persons, appliances, etc. (excluding the technical installations and equipment of the building) as described in DIN V 18599-2. Initial balance estimate of the energy need for heating and cooling of the zone (separately for days of usage and days of non-usage), as described in DIN V 18599-2, taking into account the heat sources and heat sinks already known. Preliminary splitting of the balance of energy need among the building services (air handling as in DIN V 18599-3 and DIN V 18599-7, residential ventilation as in DIN V 18599-6, heating and cooling as in DIN V 18599-5 and DIN V 18599-7). Determination of the heat sources due to heating in the respective zone (distribution, storage and, where applicable, generation within the zone), as described in DIN V 18599-5, on the basis of the estimated energy need for heating. Determination of the heat sources and heat sinks due to cooling in the respective zone (distribution, storage and, where applicable, generation within the zone), as described in DIN V 18599-7, on the basis of the estimated energy need for cooling.

7)

8)

9)

10) Determination of the heat sources due to domestic hot water heating (distribution, storage and, where applicable, generation within the zone), as described in DIN V 18599-8. 11) Calculation for balancing the energy need for heating or cooling of the respective zone (determined separately for days of usage and days of non-usage), as described in DIN V 18599-2. Steps 7) to 11) shall be repeated (but not more than 10 times) in an iteration loop until two consecutive results for the energy need for heating and the energy need for cooling differ by not more than 0,1 %. 12) Determination of the energy need for air conditioning handling and, where applicable, calculation of the sum of the energy needs for cooling for all zones (VAV systems), as described in DIN V 18599-3. 13) Final splitting of the balance of energy need among the building systems (air handling as described in DIN V 18599-3 and DIN V 18599-7, residential ventilation as described in DIN V 18599-6, heating and cooling as described in DIN V 18599-5 and DIN V 18599-7). 14) Determination of the losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage for heating (heat output of the generator), as described in DIN V 18599-5. 15) Determination of the losses due to control and emission and distribution for the air transport systems, as described in DIN 18599-7 and DIN V 18599-6. 16) Determination of the losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage for heat supply to an HVAC system (heat output of the generator), as described in DIN V 18599-7. 17) Determination of the losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage for cooling (cooling energy output of the generator), as described in DIN V 18599-7. 18) Determination of the losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage for domestic hot water heating (heat output of the generator), as described in DIN V 18599-8. 19) Distribution of the heat output of all generators among the different generation systems, as described in DIN V 18599-5. 20) Distribution of the cooling/refrigeration energy output of all generators among the different generation systems, as described in DIN V 18599-7. 21) Determination of losses occurring during cold generation, as described in DIN V 18599-7. 22) Determination of losses occurring during steam generation, as described in DIN V 18599-7.

54

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

23) Determination of the heat energy generation losses, as described in DIN V 18599-5 (heat generator), in DIN V 18599-6 (residential ventilation systems), in DIN V 18599-8 (domestic hot water heating), in DIN V 18599-9 (CHP units, etc.) and, where applicable, as described in DIN V 18599-7 (surplus heat from chillers). 24) Grouping of auxiliary energy determined as above (e.g. for air transport, as described in DIN V 18599-3 and DIN V 18599-6). 25) Grouping of delivered energy and energy carriers, as described in DIN V 18599-1. 26) Primary energy evaluation as described in DIN V 18599-1.

9.2

Residential buildings

A simplified balance calculation method can be used when assessing residential buildings. Figure 9 shows the sequence of steps and the interrelationships of the individual parts of the DIN V 18599 series when calculating the energy balance of a residential building.

Figure 9 Relationships within the balance as calculated according to the DIN V 18599 series Residential buildings The procedure comprises the following steps: 1) 2) Determination of the boundary conditions of use, as specified in DIN V 18599-10, clause 5. Compilation of the input data required for calculating the balances of the building zones (e.g. areas, characteristic values relating to building physics and the technical installations and equipment of the building).

55

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Determination of heat sources and heat sinks due to mechanical ventilation in the respective zone, as described in DIN V 18599-6. Determination of heat sources and heat sinks due to persons, equipment etc. (excluding technical installations and equipment), as described in DIN V 18599-6. Initial balance estimate of the energy need for heating of the zone, as described in DIN V 18599-2, taking into account the heat sources and heat sinks already known. Preliminary splitting of the balance of energy need among the technical building systems (residential ventilation, as described in DIN V 18599-6; heating system, as described in DIN V 18599-5). Determination of the heat sources from heating in the respective zone (distribution, storage and, where applicable, generation within the zone), as described in DIN V 18599-5, on the basis of the estimated energy need for heating. Determination of the heat sources due to domestic hot water heating (distribution, storage and, where applicable, generation within the zone), as described in DIN V 18599-8. Calculation for balancing the energy need for heating of the respective zone, as described in DIN V 18599-2. Steps 6) to 9) shall be repeated (but not more than 10 times) in an iteration loop until two consecutive calculation results for the energy need for heating differ by not more than 0,1 %.

8) 9)

10) Final splitting of the balance of energy need among the technical building systems (residential ventilation, as described in DIN V 18599-6; heating system, as described in DIN V 18599-5). 11) Determination of the losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage for heating (heat output of the generator), as described in DIN V 18599-5. 12) Determination of the losses due to control and emission and distribution for the air transport systems, as described in DIN V 18599-6. 13) Determination of the losses due to control and emission, distribution and storage for domestic hot water heating (heat output of the generator), as described in DIN V 18599-8. 14) Splitting of the heat output of all generators among the different generation systems, as described in DIN V 18599-5. 15) Determination of the losses of generation of heat energy, as described in DIN V 18599-5 (heat generator), in DIN V 18599-6 (residential ventilation systems), in DIN V 18599-8 (domestic hot water heating), and in DIN V 18599-9 (CHP units, etc.). 16) Grouping of auxiliary energy (e.g. for air transport, as described in DIN V 18599-6). 17) Grouping of delivered energy and energy carriers, as described in DIN V 18599-1. 18) Primary energy evaluation, as described in DIN V 18599-1.

9.3

Accuracy of the calculations

In order to ensure comparability of the final results, results shall be calculated to an accuracy of at least two significant figures, but with not more than two figures behind the decimal point, when these values are to be transferred from calculations of one part of the balance to those of another part of the balance. This applies to data expressed in the following units: part-balances Q, in kWh;

56

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

geometrical parameters, in m; power values , in W; luminous flux , in lm; periods t in h/a, or periods d in d/a; air change ratios n, in h1; temperatures , in C. Absolute ratings for delivered energy, primary energy, and energy reference areas shall be given in whole numbers (i.e. without figures behind the decimal point).

57

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Annex A (normative) Primary energy factors

A.1 General
The primary energy factors relating to the provision of delivered energy comprise all the factors of primary energy generation together with all preceding activities (including the material requirements and auxiliary energy) for procuring, preparing, transforming, transporting and distributing the energy carriers being evaluated. These factors are determined by modelling the corresponding energy chains. The GEMIS computer programme provides an appropriate calculation model.

A.2 Boundary conditions for default values


The factors listed in Table A.1 have been obtained from GEMIS static data records, taking due consideration of their accuracy and error margins. The interface up to which these factors apply is the building envelope. For district and area heating processes, the values for plants not included in Table A.1 can be calculated separately. The following boundary conditions needed to be taken into consideration when determining the factors listed in Table A.1 for primary energy calculations. The factors account for all preceding process chains, including materials and auxiliary energy required for procurement (e.g. mining), processing and transportation. The interface where the energy is transferred (the system boundary) is the building envelope. The primary energy factors have been determined in relation to the net calorific value, i.e. they are applicable for the evaluation of a delivered energy quantity which is also determined in relation to the net calorific value. Updating (which would be necessary, for instance, if the combination of electrical energy sources or the combination of import sources of the individual energy carriers were to change) is possible on the basis of the respective GEMIS data records.

58

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Table A.1 Primary energy factorsa Primary energy factors fp Energy carriera Total A Fuel oil EL Natural gas H Fuels Liquid petroleum gas Anthracite coal Lignite coal Wood Area / district heating by CHPb Area / district heating by heating power plants Electricity Eco-energy
a b

Proportion of nonrenewables B 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,2 0,2 0,7 0,0 1,3 0,1 2,7 0,0

1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,2 1,2 0,7 0,7 1,3 1,3 3,0 1,0

Fossil fuels Renewable fuels Fossil fuels Renewable fuels Electrical energy mix Solar energy, ambient heat

Reference value for delivered energy: net calorific value Hi These values are typical for average area/district heating systems with a 70 % contribution from cogeneration.

A.3 Calculation of the primary energy factor of area heating and district heating systems
Values which deviate from those specified above (in Table A.1) for district heating systems may be calculated by qualified independent consultants. In the case of district heating, account shall be taken of the fact that the delivered energy is delivered directly to the building and that the corresponding primary energy factors are thus not directly comparable to those of fuel. The primary energy factor shall be determined within the thermodynamic system boundaries of the district heating system being assessed. These are normally determined by an interconnected supply network.

59

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Figure A.1 Method of determining balances of district heating systems The primary energy factor is always calculated on the basis of the delivered energy balance (see Figure A.1) of the district heating system leading up to the primary side of the buildings district heating home transfer station (dwelling substation).

f P,DH =
where fP,DH Qf,i

i Qf,i fP,i ECHP fP,elt j Qh, f, j


is the primary energy factor of the district heating system;

(A.1)

is the delivered energy of the i th energy carrier used to generate heat or electricity, measured at the transfer point, in relation to the net calorific value; is the primary energy factor of the i th energy carrier used to generate heat or electricity as given in Table A.1; is the electrical energy produced by cogeneration as defined in Annex II of Directive 2004/8/EC; is the primary energy factor of electrical energy as given in Table A.1; is the delivered energy consumption (heat) of the j th heat consumer, measured at the primary side of the buildings district heating dwelling substation.

fP,i ECHP fB,elt Qh,f,j

60

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

External heat supplied by cogeneration is assessed in the same way as any other delivered energy carrier, namely by inserting the value of the heat delivered, multiplied by the primary energy factor of the external system, into equation (A.1). If the respective primary energy factor is not known, the electrical energy loss of the external CHP plant, assessed with the primary energy factor of electrical energy, can be used:

QCHP,ext f P,CHP,ext = f P,elt


where

ECHP,ext

HN

(A.2)

QCHP,ext fP,CHP,ext fP,elt fP,I

is the external heat energy output to the district heating system; is the primary energy factor of the external heat supply; is the primary energy factor of electrical energy as given in Table A.1; is the primary energy factor of the i th energy carrier used to generated heat or electricity as given in Table A.1;

ECHP,ext is the electric power loss of the external CHP plant; HN is the efficiency of the external district heating network.

A value of HN = 0,90 can be used for these calculations. Auxiliary energy (e.g. for pumps) shall be taken into consideration in as far as only the net electrical energy generation is accounted for in equations (A.1) and (A.2) and, where applicable, the electricity required e.g. for pumps, transformer stations etc. is to be deducted. Generally, a month-by-month assessment is possible. However, as this is normally too complicated, it is recommended that the year be used as a calculation period and a primary energy factor which remains unchanged for the entire year be applied in the ensuing calculations. Where suitable, separate primary energy factors should be specified for summer and winter. Primary energy factors calculated as being negative are assumed to be zero in the calculations.

fP,DH 0
where

(A.3)

fP,DH is the primary energy factor of the district heating system.


Energy expenditure due to the heat losses of the district heating dwelling substation is calculated in the same way as that of a heat generator installed inside the building, using the methods described in DIN V 18599-5 or DIN V 18599-8, respectively. Heat which is generated inside the building by cogeneration (CHP) shall be calculated as described in DIN V 18599-9.

61

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Annex B (normative) Conversion of the energy content of energy carriers

B.1 Default values


Factors for converting the energy content of energy carriers are specified in Table B.1. Table B.1 Conversion factors, as a function of energy carrier Ratio of gross calorific value to net calorific value Hs/Hi (Conversion factor for delivered energy) fHS/HI 1,06 1,11 1,09 1,04 1,07 1,08 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

Energy carrier

Fuel oil Natural gas Fuels Liquid petroleum gas Anthracite coal Lignite coal Wood Area / district heating by CHPa Area / district heating by heating power plants Electricity
a

Fossil fuels Renewable fuels Fossil fuels Renewable fuels Electrical power source mix

These values are typical for average area heating / district heating systems with a 70 % contribution by CHP plants.

B.2 Deviation from default values


The above values need not be used if the real net and gross calorific values of fuels are known. The factor fHS/HI is then the ratio of gross calorific value to net calorific value.

62

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Annex C (normative) Provisions relating to calculation methods for cogeneration

C.1 General
DIN V 18599-5 and DIN V 18599-8 provide specifications supplementing those below.

C.2 Determination of power


The power value to be used in the calculations for the losses (generator heat output and generation loss) of a heat generator is determined according to the provisions given in DIN V 18599-8, 6.4. This is the maximum value of:

the sum total of all power which may be required simultaneously (e.g. for heating, ventilation, domestic hot water and air conditioning) and the maximum power in priority operation (e.g. in domestic hot water heating systems with priority control).

C.3 Further provisions for selected heat generators


Heat exchangers Extract air/supply air heat exchangers with and without ground/supply air heat exchangers are taken into account in the calculation of the energy need of a zone according to DIN V 18599-2. The supply air temperature leaving the heat exchanger is calculated using methods described in DIN V 18599-6, and the mean system air change rate for the ensuing calculations is determined by methods described in DIN V 18599-2. This applies to individual heat exchangers. The individual components in combinations of heat exchangers with other systems (e.g. air heating system or extract-air heat pumps) are dealt with separately in the calculation procedures. Each individual heat exchanger in the combination is treated in the same way as a solitary heat exchanger would be treated. The calculations described in DIN V 18599-5 and DIN V 18599-6 use the energy need, taking the heat exchanger into consideration. Determination of the auxiliary energy for ventilation systems of residential buildings is described in full in DIN V 18599-6. The calculations for the auxiliary energy of the water installations of air heating systems with water-filled reheating coils are described in DIN V 18599-5, the other auxiliary energy calculations in DIN V 18599-6. Air heating systems Air heating systems are systems which supply heat to the respective zone using only air as the heat carrier. Air heating systems have at least one heat generator (e.g. an extract air heat pump); they may also have a supplementary heat exchanger and a reheating coil. Calculations for air heating systems without water-filled reheating coils are explained in full in DIN V 18599-6, and the results of these are used directly in the algorithms described in DIN V 18599-1.

63

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Air-heating systems with water-filled reheating coils are assessed as follows: a) b) The energy need for heating Qh,b is determined as described in DIN V 18599-2. The generator heat output of the extract air heat pump of air-heating systems equipped with such units is calculated as described in DIN V 18599-6. For water-filled reheating coils, any residual heat requirement will be an input value for further calculations as described in DIN V 18599-5. DIN V 18599-5 also describes how any regenerative heat gains are taken into consideration. In the case of air-filled systems, all calculations are carried out as described in DIN V 18599-6. The procedure described in DIN V 18599-8 is also applied to calculate the balance of the hot water supply for air heating systems, where applicable.

c)

Extract air heat pumps Extract air heat pumps are devices for exploiting the heat content of the extract air of the ventilation systems of residential buildings. Where an extract air heat pump is used in combination with an extract air/supply air heat exchanger, the heat exchanger is considered as described in DIN V 18599-6 and in DIN V 18599-2. When assessing the extract air heat pump, the reduced heat source temperature shall be considered (see DIN V 18599-6). Extract air/water heat pumps (heat source: extract air, heat sink: water) transfer the heat which they generate to fluid heat carriers. These heat pumps are to be assessed as follows: a) The required generator heat output Qw,outg for domestic hot water is determined in accordance with DIN V 18599-8 (taking due consideration of any values previously subtracted to account for other possible regenerative heat gains, e.g. from solar energy). The quantity of heat Qw,outg which the extract air/water heat pump can supply for domestic hot water production is determined in accordance with DIN V 18599-6. If the extract air heat pump cannot supply the quantity of heat as determined in step a), the remainder Q*w,outg to be delivered is calculated as described in DIN V 18599-8 (as in the case of systems without an extract air heat pump). The required generator heat output for heating, Qh,outg, is determined as described in DIN V 18599-5 (taking due consideration of any values previously subtracted to account for other possible regenerative heat gains, e.g. from solar energy). The quantity of heat which the extract air/water heat pump can supply for heating purposes (or also for hot water heating in systems with combined domestic hot water heating and space heating) is determined as calculated by the method described in DIN V 18599-6. If the extract air heat pump cannot supply the quantity of heat as determined in step c), the remainder to be delivered is calculated as described in DIN V 18599-5 (as in the case of systems without an extract air heat pump). If the system being assessed is one which solely uses electrical reheating for water-filled back-up heating within a unit, it is assessed entirely on the basis of the calculations in DIN V 18599-6. The results are used directly in the algorithms explained in DIN V 18599-1.

b)

c)

d)

e)

Steps a) and b) are not required for extract air/water heat pumps without domestic hot water heating. The entire quantity of heat delivered by the heat pump can be used for space-heating purposes in that case. Extract air/supply air heat pumps (heat source: extract air, heat sink: supply air) transfer the recovered heat solely to the supply air of the ventilation system of a residential building. They shall be assessed as follows: a) The energy need for heating Qh,b is determined as described in DIN V 18599-2.

64

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

b)

The generator heat output of the extract air/supply air heat pump is determined as described in DIN V 18599-6. In the case of water-filled systems, any remaining heat energy requirement will serve as an input value for the calculations described in DIN V 18599-5; in the case of air-filled systems (airheating), all calculations are carried out as described in DIN V 18599-6. Domestic hot water heating is assessed as described in DIN V 18599-8 (as for systems without an extract air heat pump).

c)

Extract air/supply air/water heat pumps (heat source: extract air, heat sink: supply air and water) transfer the recovered heat to the supply air and to the domestic hot water system. They are assessed as follows: a) The required generator heat output Qw,outg for domestic hot water is determined in accordance with DIN V 18599-8 (taking due consideration of any values previously subtracted to account for other possible regenerative heat gains, e.g. from solar energy). The quantity of heat Qw,outg which the extract air/water heat pump can supply to the domestic hot water heating is determined in accordance with DIN V 18599-6. If the extract air heat pump cannot supply the quantity of heat as determined in step a), the remainder Q*w,outg to be delivered is calculated as described in DIN V 18599-8 (as in the case of systems without an extract air heat pump). The energy need for heating Qh,b is determined as described in DIN V 18599-2. The generator heat output of the extract air/supply air/water heat pump is determined as described in DIN V 18599-6 (taking into account the heat delivered for domestic hot water production). In the case of water-filled systems, any remaining heat demand will be used as an input value for the calculations described in DIN V 18599-5; in the case of air-filled systems (air-heating), all calculations are carried out as described in DIN V 18599-6. For extract air/supply air/water heat pumps with additional, separate hot water heating, the generator heat output of the extract air/supply air/water heat pump is determined using the calculations described in DIN V 18599-6. Any remaining heat demand will be used as an input value for the calculations described in DIN V 18599-5.

b)

c) d)

e)

65

DIN V 18599-1:2007-02

Bibliography

[1]

AGFW FW 309-1, Umsetzung der Anforderungen aus der EnEV in der Fern-/Nahwrmeversorgung (German Heat and Power Association rules Transposition of the requirements of the German Energy Saving Ordinance in area heating and district heating systems) AGFW FW 309-2, Bestimmung der spezifischen Primrenergiefaktoren fr Fern-/Nahwrmeversorgung (German Heat and Power Association rules Determination of the specific primary energy factors for area heating and district heating systems)

[2]

66