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What Is Matter?
Matter is anything with mass. Typically, we think of tiny little pieces of mass as atoms and molecules because those 117 elements behave Newtonian. There are over 200 smaller particles that behave Quantunian.
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Matter Summary

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Solids, Continued
Some solids have their particles arranged in an orderly geometric patternwe call these crystalline solids.
Salt and diamonds.

Mixtures
Heterogeneous 1. Made of multiple substances, whose presence can be seen. 2. Portions of a sample have different composition and properties.
3 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3 4 Jason M. Ampoloquio, PECE!

Homogeneous 1. Made of multiple substances, but appears to be one substance. 2. All portions of a sample have the same composition and properties.

Other solids have particles that do not show a regular geometric pattern over a long rangewe call these amorphous solids.
Plastic and glass.
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H2O Physical verses H2O Chemical

Some Physical Properties of Iron


Iron is a silvery solid at room temperature with a metallic taste and smooth texture. Iron melts at 1538 C and boils at 4428 C. Irons density is 7.87 g/cm3. Iron can be magnetized. Iron conducts electricity, but not as well as most other common metals. Irons ductility and thermal conductivity are about average for a metal. It requires 0.45 J of heat energy to raise the temperature of one gram of iron by 1C.

Chapter One

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Some Chemical Properties of Iron


Iron is easily oxidized in moist air to form rust. When iron is added to hydrochloric acid, it produces a solution of ferric chloride and hydrogen gas. Iron is more reactive than silver, but less reactive than magnesium.
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Is it a Physical or Chemical Change?


A physical change results in a different form of the same substance.
The kinds of molecules dont change.

A chemical change results in one or more completely new substances.


Also called chemical reactions. The new substances have different molecules than the original substances. You will observe different physical properties because the new substances have their own physical properties.
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Phase Changes Are Physical Changes


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Separation of Mixtures
Separate mixtures based on different physical properties of the components.
Physical change.
Different Physical Property Boiling point State of matter (solid/liquid/gas) Adherence to a surface Volatility Density Technique Distillation Filtration Chromatography Evaporation Centrifugation and decanting
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Boiling = liquid to gas. Melting = solid to liquid. Subliming = solid to gas. Freezing = liquid to solid. Condensing = gas to liquid. Deposition = gas to solid. State changes require heating or cooling the substance.
Evaporation is not a simple phase change, it is a solution process.
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Distillation: different boiling points

Filtration: different solubility's

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Law of Conservation of Mass


Antoine Lavoisier Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. The total amount of matter present before a chemical reaction is always the same as the total amount after. butane + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water
58 grams + 208 grams = 176 grams + 90 grams
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Law of Conservation of Energy


Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The total amount of energy in the universe is constant. There is no process that can increase or decrease that amount. Note: neither Mass nor Energy are ever destroyed

266 grams

266 grams
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Kinds of Energy Kinetic and Potential


Potential energy is energy that is stored; slow moving
Water flows because gravity pulls it downstream. However, the dam wont allow it to move, so it has to store that energy.

Units of Energy
Calorie (cal) is the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of water by 1 C.
kcal = energy needed to raise 1000 g of water 1 C. food calories = kcals.
Energy Conversion Factors 1 calorie (cal) 1 Calorie (Cal) 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = = = 4.184 joules (J) 1000 calories (cal) 3.60 x 106 joules (J)
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Kinetic energy is energy of motion, or energy that is being transferred from one object to another; fast moving.

When the water flows over the dam, some of its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy of motion.
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Exothermic Processes
When a change results in the release of energy it is called an exothermic process. An exothermic chemical reaction occurs when the reactants have more chemical potential energy than the products. The excess energy is released into the surrounding materials, adding energy to them.
Often the surrounding materials get hotter from the energy released by the reaction.
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An Exothermic Reaction
Surroundings reaction

Reactants
Potential energy

Amount of energy released Products


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Endothermic Processes
When a change requires the absorption of energy it is called an endothermic process. An endothermic chemical reaction occurs when the products have more chemical potential energy than the reactants. The required energy is absorbed from the surrounding materials, taking energy from them.
Often the surrounding materials get colder due to the energy being removed by the reaction.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3 19 Jason M. Ampoloquio, PECE!

An Endothermic Reaction
Surroundings reaction

Products
Potential energy

Amount of energy absorbed Reactants


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Temperature Scales
100C 25C 0C -38.9C 373 K 298 K 273 K 234.1 K 212F 75F 32F -38F 671 R 534 R 459 R 421 R

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Heat Capacity

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Boiling point water Room temp Melting point ice Boiling point mercury

-183C

90 K

-297F

162 R

Boiling point oxygen BP helium 0 R Absolute zero

Heat capacity is the amount of heat a substance must absorb to raise its temperature by 1 C. cal/C or J/C. Metals have low heat capacities; insulators have high heat capacities. Specific heat = heat capacity of 1 gram of the substance. cal/gC or J/gC. Waters specific heat = 4.184 J/gC for liquid.
Or 1.000 cal/gC. It is less for ice and steam.
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-269C

-273C 4 K

0 K -452F

-459 F 7 R

Celsius

Kelvin

Fahrenheit

Rankine

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Specific Heat Capacity


Specific heat is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 C. The larger a materials specific heat is, the more energy it takes to raise its temperature a given amount. Like density, specific heat is a property of the type of matter.
It doesnt matter how much material you have. It can be used to identify the type of matter.

Powerful Review Center! Example 3.10Calculate Amount of Heat Needed to Raise Temperature of 2.5 g Ga from 25.0 to 29.9 C

1. 2. 3. 4.

Write down the Given quantity and its unit.

Given:

Write down the quantity you want to Find and unit. Write down the appropriate Equation: Equations. Write a Solution Map. Solution Map:

m = 2.5 g, T1 = 25.0 C, T2= 29.9 C, C = 0.372 J/gC Find: q, J


q = m C T

m, C, DT

q = m C T

5.

Follow the solution map to Solve the problem.

Solution:

Waters high specific heat is the reason it is such a good cooling agent.
It absorbs a lot of heat for a relatively small mass.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3 23 Jason M. Ampoloquio, PECE!

J q = (2.5 g ) 0.372 g C (29.9 - 25.0C)

q = 4.557 J
6. 7. Significant figures and round. Check. Round: Check:

2 significant figures

4.557 J = 4.6 J

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Calculate the Amount of Heat Released When 7.40 g of Water Cools from 49 to 29 C
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Sort Information Strategize

Given: Find: Solution Map:

T1 = 49 C, T2 = 29 C, m = 7.40 g q, J
Cs m, DT q

q = m Cs T
Relationships:

q = m Cs DT Cs = 4.18 J/g!!C (Table 3.4)

Solution: Follow the T = T2 T1 concept plan to T = 29 C - (49C ) solve the = - 20 C problem. Check: Check.

q = m Cs T

= (7.40 g ) 4.18 g C (- 20 C)
J

= 618.64 J = 6.2 102 J


The unit and sign are correct.
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Plum Pudding Atom


Sizes of Atoms
Using compositions of compounds and assumed formulas, Dalton was able to determine the relative masses of the atoms.
Dalton based his scale on H = 1 amu.
We now base it on C-12 = 12 amu exactly.

Unit = atomic mass unit.


Amu or dalton.

Absolute sizes of atoms:


Mass of H atom= 1.67 x 10-24g. Volume of H atom = 2.1 x 10-25cm3.
Jason M. Ampoloquio, PECE! Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 4 28 Jason M. Ampoloquio, PECE!

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The Atom Is Divisible


Work done by J. J. Thomson and others proved that the atom had pieces called electrons. Thomson found that electrons are much smaller than atoms and carry a negative charge.
The mass of the electron is 1/1836th the mass of a hydrogen atom. The charge on the electron is the fundamental unit of charge that we call 1 charge unit.
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 4 29 Jason M. Ampoloquio, PECE!

Plum Pudding Atom


Very few of the a particles do not go through.

If atom was like a plum pudding, all the a particles should go straight through.

Nuclear Atom

. . .

Most a particles go straight through. Some a particles go through, but are deflected.
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Rutherfords Interpretation The Nuclear Model


1. The atom contains a tiny dense center called the nucleus.

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The amount of space taken by the nucleus is only about 1/10 trillionth the volume of the atom.

2. The nucleus has essentially the entire mass of the atom.


The electrons weigh so little they contribute practically no mass to the atom.

3. The nucleus is positively charged.


The amount of positive charge balances the negative charge of the electrons.

4. The electrons are dispersed in the empty space of the atom surrounding the nucleus.
Like water droplets in a cloud.
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Tro's "Introductory Jason M. Ampoloquio, PECE! Chemistry", Chapter 5

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Subatomic particle Proton

Mass g x 10 x 10
-24

Mass amu

Location in atom nucleus

Charge Symbol 1+ 1 0 p, p+, H+ e, en, n0

Some Notes on Charges


There are two kinds of charges, called positive and negative. Opposite charges attract.
+ attracted to .

1.67262 1.0073

Electron 0.00091 0.00055 empty space


-24

Like charges repel.


nucleus
+ repels +. repels .

Neutron 1.67493 1.0087 x 10-24


To be neutral, something must have no charge or equal amounts of opposite charges.


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Elements
Each element has a unique number of protons in its nucleus.
All carbon atoms have 6 protons in their nuclei.

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number.
Z is the short-hand designation for the atomic number. Because each elements atoms have a unique number of protons, each element can be identified by its atomic number. The elements are arranged on the Periodic Table in order of their atomic numbers.

Each element has a unique name and symbol.


The symbol is either one or two letters
One capital letter or one capital letter + one lower case letter.
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Periodicity
= Metal = Metalloid = Nonmetal

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Important Details

Atomic Number

Metals
Solids at room temperature, except Hg. Reflective surface.
Shiny

Element Symbol

Mass Number

Conduct heat. Conduct electricity. Malleable. Can be shaped. Ductile.


Drawn or pulled into wires.

Lose electrons and form cations in reactions. About 75% of the elements are metals. Lower left on the table.
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Nonmetals
Found in all 3 states. Poor conductors of heat. Poor conductors of electricity. Solids are brittle. Gain electrons in reactions to become anions. Upper right on the table.
Except H.
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Metalloids
Show some properties of metals and some of nonmetals. Also known as semiconductors.

Properties of Silicon: Shiny Conducts electricity Does not conduct heat well Brittle
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= Alkali metals = Alkali earth metals = Noble gases

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= Halogens = Actinides

The Modern Periodic Table


Elements with similar chemical and physical properties are in the same column. Columns are called Groups or Families.
Designated by a number and letter at top.

= Lanthanides

= Transition metals

Rows are called Periods. Each period shows the pattern of properties repeated in the next period.
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Important Groups Alkali Metals


Group IA = Alkali metals. Soft, low melting points, low density. Flame tests: Li = red, Na = yellow, and K = violet. Very reactive, never found uncombined in nature. Tend to form water soluble compounds that are crystallized from seawater then molten salt electrolyzed. Colorless solutions. React with water to form basic (alkaline) solutions and H2: 2 Na + 2 H2O 2 NaOH + H2 Releases a lot of heat.
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Important GroupsAlkali Earth Metals


Group IIA = Alkali earth metals. Harder, higher melting, and denser than alkali metals. Mg alloys used as structural materials. Flame tests: Ca = red, Sr = red, and Ba = yellow-green. Reactive, but less than corresponding alkali metal. Form stable, insoluble oxides from which they are normally extracted. Oxides are basic = alkaline earth. Reactivity with water to form H2: Be = none, Mg = steam, Ca, Sr, Ba = cold water.

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Important GroupsHalogens
Group VIIA = Halogens. Nonmetals. F2 and Cl2 gases, Br2 liquid, and I2 solid. All diatomic. Very reactive. Cl2, and Br2 react slowly with water: Br2 + H2O HBr + HOBr React with metals to form ionic compounds.
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Important GroupsNoble Gases


Group VIIIA = Noble gases. All gases at room temperature.
Very low melting and boiling points.

Very unreactive, practically inert. Very hard to remove electron from or give an electron to.

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Ions
Ions with a positive charge are called cations.
More protons than electrons. Form by losing electrons.

Chemical Bonds

Ions with a negative charge are called anions.


More electrons than protons. Form by gaining electrons.

Chemically, ions are much different than the neutral atoms.


Because they have a different structure.

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Chemical Bonds
Nonpolar covalent bond Bonding electrons shared EQUALLY between two atoms. NO charges on atoms.

Polar covalent bond Bonding electrons shared UNEQUALLY between two atoms. Partial charges on atoms.
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Chemical Bonds
Ionic bond Complete transfer of one or more valence electrons. FULL charges on resulting ions.

Chemical Bonds

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Atomic Structures of Ions


Nonmetals form anions. For each negative charge, the ion has 1 more electron than the neutral atom.
F = 9 p+ and 9 e; F = 9 p+ and 10 e P = 15 p+ and 15 e; P3 = 15 p+ and 18 e

Metals form cations. For each positive charge the ion has 1 less electron than the neutral atom.
Na atom = 11 p+ and 11 e; Na+ ion = 11 p+ and 10 e. Ca atom = 20 p+ and 20 e; Ca2+ ion = 20 p+ and 18 e.

Atomic Structures of Ions, Continued

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Anions are named by changing the ending of the name to ide. fluorine F + 1e = F fluoride ion oxygen O + 2e = O2 oxide ion The charge on an anion can often be determined from the group number on the periodic table.
Group 7A = 1, Group 6A = 2.
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Cations are named the same as the metal. sodium Na = Na+ + 1e sodium ion calcium Ca = Ca2+ + 2e calcium ion The charge on a cation can often be determined from the group number on the periodic table.
Group 1A = 1+, Group 2A = 2+, (Al, Ga, In) = 3+.
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Find the Number of Protons and Electrons in Ca2+.


Given: Ca2+ Find: # p+, # e-, # n0 Solution Map: Relationships: symbol atomic number # p+ # e-

Table
Ion Cl-1 K S

p+ 17 19 16 38

e18 18 18 36

ion charge = #p+ #e

+1

-2 +2

Solution:

Z = 20 = #p+

ion charge = #p+ #e +2 = 20 #e 18 = #e 18 = #e

Sr

Check:

For cations, p+ > e, so the answer is reasonable.


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Isotopes
Atomic Number.
Number of protons. Z

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Powerful How Many Protons and Neutrons Are inReview Center! an Atom 52 of 24 Cr ?

Given: Find: Solution Map:

52 24 Cr

therefore A = 52, Z = 24 # p+ and # n0 atomic & mass numbers


mass number = # p+ + # n0

Mass Number
= Protons + Neutrons. Whole number. A

symbol
Relationships: Solution:

# n0

Percent natural abundance = Relative amount found in a sample.

Z = 24 = # p+

A = Z + # n0 52 = 24 + # n0 28 = # n0
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Check:

For most stable isotopes, n0 > p+.

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PracticeComplete the Following Table, Continued.


Atomic Mass Number Number Number Number Number of of of protons electrons neutrons 20 40 20 20 20 6 13 13 27 6 13 6 10 7 14

Mass Number Is Not the Same as Atomic Mass


The atomic mass is an experimental number determined from all naturally occurring isotopes. The mass number refers to the number of protons + neutrons in one isotope.
Natural or man-made.

Calcium-40 Carbon-13 Aluminum-27+3

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 4

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Ga-69 with Mass 68.9256 Amu and Abundance of 60.11% and Ga-71 with Mass 70.9247 Amu and Abundance of 39.89%. Calculate the Atomic Mass of Gallium.

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Given: Find: Solution Map: Relationships: Solution:

Ga-69 = 60.11%, 68.9256 amu Ga-71 = 39.89%, 70.9247 amu atomic mass, amu isotope masses, isotope fractions avg. atomic mass

Atomic Mass = (fractional abundance of isotope)n (mass of isotope)n

Atomic Mass = (0.6011)(68.9256 amu ) + (0.3989)(70.9247 amu ) Atomic Mass = 63.7 23041 = 69.72 amu
The average is between the two masses, closer to the major isotope.

Check:

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If Copper Is 69.17% Cu-63 with a Mass of 62.9396 Amu and the Rest Cu-65 with a Mass of 64.9278 Amu, Find Coppers Atomic Mass.
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Given: Find: Solution Map: Relationships: Solution:

Cu-63 = 69.17%, 62.9396 amu Cu-65 = 100-69.17%, 64.9278 amu atomic mass, amu isotope masses, isotope fractions avg. atomic mass

Atomic Mass = (fractional abundance of isotope)n (mass of isotope)n

Atomic Mass = (0.6917)(62.9396 amu ) + (0.3083)(64.9278 amu ) Atomic Mass = 63.5525 = 63.55 amu

Check:

The average is between the two masses, closer to the major isotope.
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Molecules and Compounds


Salt Sodiumshiny, reactive, poisonous. Chlorinepale yellow gas, reactive, poisonous. Sodium chloridetable salt. Sugar Carbonpencil or diamonds. Hydrogenflammable gas. Oxygena gas in air. Combine to form white crystalline sugar.
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Law of Constant Composition


All pure substances have constant composition.
All samples of a pure substance contain the same elements in the same percentages (ratios). Mixtures have variable composition.

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Compounds Display Constant Composition


If we decompose water by electrolysis, we find 16.0 grams of oxygen to every 2.00 grams of hydrogen. Water has a constant mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen of 8.0.

Show that Two Samples of Carbon Powerful Review Center! Dioxide Are Consistent with the Law of Constant Composition.
Given: Sample 1: 4.8 g O, 1.8 g C; Sample 2: 17.1 g O, 6.4 g C Find: proportion O:C Solution Map: Relationships: Solution: element masses compound composition

composition = mass O : mass C

mass of oxygen Mass Ratio = mass of hydrogen 16.0 g = = 8.0 2.0 g


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Sample 1 4.8 g O = 2.7 1.8 g C

Sample 2 17.1 g O = 2.7 6.4 g C

Compare:

Since both samples have the same proportion of elements, carbon dioxide shows constantJason M. Ampoloquio, PECE! composition.

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PracticeShow that Hematite Has Constant Composition if a 10.0 g Sample Has 7.2 g Fe and the Rest Is Oxygen; and a Second Sample Has 18.1 g Fe and 6.91 g O.

Powerful Review Example 5.1Show that Two Samples of HematiteCenter! Are Consistent with the Law of Constant Composition.

Given: Sample 1: 7.2 g Fe, (10.0-7.2) = 2.8 g O; Sample 2: 18.1 g Fe, 6.91 g O Find: proportion Fe:O Solution Map: Relationships: Solution: element masses compound composition

composition = mass Fe : mass O

Sample 1 7.2 g Fe = 2.6 2.8 g O

Sample 2 18.1 g O = 2.61 6.91 g C

Compare:
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 5 73 Jason M. Ampoloquio, PECE!

Since both samples have the same proportion of elements, hematite shows constant composition. Jason M. Ampoloquio, PECE!

Why Do Compounds Show Constant Composition?


The smallest piece of a compound is called a molecule. If you have a pure substance, then every molecule will have the same number and type of atoms. Therefore, your compound have the same predictable properties (physical & chemical).

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Formulas Describe Compounds

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Elements are represented by a letter symbol. A pure compound is composed of atoms of two or more elements. The number of each element is written to the right of the element as a subscript.
If there is only one atom, the 1 subscript is not written.

Polyatomic groups are placed in parentheses.


If more than one.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 5

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Formulas Describe Compounds, Continued


Water = H2O = two atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen

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Order of Elements in a Formula


Metals are written first.
NaCl

Nonmetals are written in order from


CO2 There are occasional exceptions for historical or informational reasons.
H2O, but NaOH .

Table salt = NaCl, one sodium and one chlorine atom: notice that pure substances have consistent structures, these pure substance will also have consistent physical and chemical properties.

Table Order of Listing Nonmetals in Chemical Formulas


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C P N H S

I Br Cl O F

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PracticeWrite Formulas for Each of the Following Compounds. HematiteComposed of four oxide ions for every three iron ions. Fe O
3 4

AcetoneEach molecule contains six hydrogen atoms, three carbon atoms, and one oxygen atom. CHO
3 6

Write the formula for each compound. a. magnesium sulfate, which has 1 magnesium atom, 4 oxygen atoms, and 1 sulfur atom b. ethylene glycol (antifreeze), which has 6 hydrogen atoms, 2 carbon atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms c. acetic acid, which has 2 oxygen atoms, 2 carbon atoms, and 4 hydrogen atoms d. potassium chlorate, which has 1 chlorine atom, 1 potassium atom, and 3 oxygen atoms
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Empirical Formula
the relative numbers of atoms of the elements in a compound, reduced to the smallest whole numbers.

Molecules with Polyatomic Ions


Symbol of the polyatomic ion called nitrate. Symbol of the polyatomic ion called sulfate.

Mg(NO3)2
Compound called magnesium nitrate. Implied 1 subscript on magnesium. Parentheses to group two NO3s.

CaSO4
Compound called calcium sulfate. Implied 1 subscript on calcium. No parentheses for one SO4.
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Write the empirical formula for the simplest binary ionic compound formed from each ion or element pair. a. Li+ and N3 b. Al3+ and O2 c. lithium and oxygen
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Write the empirical formula for the compound formed from each ion pair. a. Ca2+ and H2PO4 b. sodium cation and bicarbonate anion c. ammonium cation and sulfate anion
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Molecules with Polyatomic Ions, Continued


Subscript indicating two NO3 groups. No subscript indicating one SO4 group.

PracticeDetermine the Total Number of Atoms or Ions in One Formula Unit of Each of the Following. Mg(C2H3O2)2 1 Mg + 4 C + 6 H + 4 O = 15

Mg(NO3)2
Compound called magnesium nitrate. Implied 1 subscript on nitrogen, total 2 N. Stated 3 subscript on oxygen, total 6 O.

CaSO4
Compound called calcium sulfate. Implied 1 subscript on sulfur, total 1 S. Stated 4 subscript on oxygen, total 4 O. 85
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(Hg2)3(PO4)2

6 Hg + 2 P + 8 O = 16

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Classifying Materials
Atomic elements = are single atoms. Molecular elements = multi-atom molecules. Molecular compounds = molecules made of only nonmetals.

Ionic compounds = Compounds made of cations and anions.


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More about Molecular Elements


Certain elements occur as diatomic molecules. 7 diatomic elementsThe Rule of 7s

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Molecular Compounds
Two or more nonmetals. Smallest unit is a molecule.

Find the element with atomic number 7, N. Make a figure 7 by going over to Group 7A, then down. The seventh element is H2. 7A

H2

N2

O2

F2 Cl2 Br2 I2
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2/23/13

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Ionic Compounds
Metals + nonmetals. No individual molecule units, instead have a 3-dimensional array of cations and anions made of formula units.
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Molecular View of Elements and Compounds

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