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This is a case of 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed of having a Pediatric Community Acquired Pneumonia-Type C.

Pediatric Community Acquired Pneumonia (PCAP) refers to pneumonia in a previously healthy person who acquired the infection outside a hospital. PCAP is a common illness that affects infants and children. In children, the majority of deaths occur in the newborn period, with over two million worldwide deaths a year. In fact, the WHO estimates that one in a three newborn infant deaths are due to pneumonia. It occurs because the areas of the lung which absorb oxygen (alveoli) from the atmosphere become filled with fluid and cannot work effectively. Children are very susceptible to acquire this illness especially when their immune systems are low. They can get it anywhere like in school, for example, one of the classmates has a cough. Then in house, if there is a poor environment. Then in playground, wherein there are lots of other children playing. PCAP is classified into four types. First is, PCAP A, which has a minimal risk, there is no dehydration, with a respiratory rate of greater than 30-50/min. Second is, PCAP B, which has a low risk, there is mild dehydration, with a respiratory rate of greater than 30-50/min. Third is, PCAP C, which has a moderate risk, with moderate dehydration, with a respiratory rate of greater than 35-60/min. Fourth is, PCAP D, which has a high risk, with severe dehydration, with a respiratory rate of greater than 35-70/min. But in this case, our patient has a PCAP C. Pneumonia is sometimes caused by viral infections, including RSV, the parainfluenzavirus, adenovirus, and the flu. In addition to viruses, pneumonia can also be caused by bacteria, including S. pneumoniae, H, influenza type b, groupA streptococcus, and M. tuberculosis (TB). Some of the symptoms of PCAP are fever, cough, tachypnea, grunting and audible wheezing, chest pain, and it is often proceeded by upper respiratory tract infection. It can be diagnosed by chest x-ray, blood tests, sputum culture, pulse oximetry, chest CT scan, bronchoscopy, and pleural fluid culture. The best way to prevent PCAP is to cover mouth when coughing, practice good hygiene, and have a clean environment. Also, childhood immunizations willhelp greatly in the prevention of PCAP in children. Treating pneumonia includes appropriate diet, increase fluid intake, cool mist humidifier in the childs room, medication for cough, intravenous (IV) fluids or oral antibiotics, oxygen therapy, frequent suctioning of the childs nose and mouth (to help get rid of thick secretions), and breathing treatments, as ordered by the childs doctor. In 2009, 1.1 million people in the United States were hospitalized with pneumonia and more than 50,000 people died from the disease. Globally, pneumonia kills more than 1.5 million children younger than 5 years of age each year. This is greater than the number of deaths from any other infectious disease, such as AIDS, malaria or tuberculosis (Center for Disease Control and 1

Prevention). In the Philippines, there are more than 40,000 cases of CAP annually. More than 50% are admitted in the hospital. Pneumonia is considered the 3rd leading cause of death and the 4th leading cause of morbidity in children (Department of Health, 2008 Health Statistics). The significance of this study globally is, since other countries are already updated, this study will give more information to them on the previous studies about PCAP. Nationally, to increase awareness thus will lead them to be prepared in case the number of PCAP cases will increase. Locally, this will help in treating and preventing the spread of PCAP here in Batangas. We chose this study because as nursing students we would like to increase our knowledge about this illness. As part of our duty the right interventions are needed in order to help the patient and we will only be able to do it by studying this case more deeply.

General Objectives: After this case study, we will be able to know what Pediatric Community Acquired Pneumonia, how it is acquired and, its prevention and treatment of its occurrence. Specific Objectives: Define what is PCAP-C Trace the pathophysiology of PCAP-C Enumerate the causes and symptoms of PCAP-C Formulate and apply nursing care plans, utilizing the nursing process To learn new clinical skills as well as sharpen our current clinical skills required in the management of the patient with PCAP-C To develop our sense of love and empathy in rendering nursing care to our patient so that we may be able to serve future clients with higher level of holistic understanding as well as individualized care.

Name: K.U. Age: 7 y/o Address: Luta Norte, Malvar, Batangas Status: Child Educational Attainment: Level 1 Occupation: N/A Chief complaint: Cough for 2 weeks Admitting Dx: Pediatric Community Acquired Pneumonia Type C (PCAP-C) Present Dx:Pediatric Community Acquired Pneumonia Type C (PCAP-C) Date and Time of Admission: 12/08/12 3:00 PM Attending Doctor: Dr. Geraldine Dimaculangan