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Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System 1.

) Meninges- The layers of membranes that cover the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves. Dura mater (Hard Mother) - The outermost of the three layers of meninges, found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Arachnoid layer- This more delicate layer gets its name from the fact that its structure looks like a spiders web in cross-section. Subarachnoid space- A space filled with cerebrospinal fluid that lies between the arachnoid and pia mater layers of the meninges in the central nervous system. Pia mater (Pious Mother) - This nearly transparent membrane sticks closely to the outside of the brain.

*meningitis- Various viruses and bacteria are responsible for meningitis, which can be a lifethreatening disease.

Cerebrospinal fluid- is secreted within hollow spaces in the brain known as ventricles. Choroid plexus: converts material from the nearby blood supply into cerebrospinal fluid. CSF circulates through the central canal of the spinal cord and four ventricles in the brain: the two lateral ventricles, one in each hemisphere, and the third and fourth ventricles in the brainstem. The fourth ventricle is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord, which runs the length of the cord at its midline. Flow of CSF: 1. CSF production by the choroid plexus. Four ventricles 2. 2 lateral ventricles (1 in each hemisphere) 3. 3rd and 4th ventricle in the brainstem. 4. 4th ventricle is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. 5. Small opening in the 4th ventricle that allows CSF to flow into the subarachnoid space.

New CSF is made constantly, with the old CSF reabsorbed into the blood supply at the top of the head. Cerebral aqueduct separates the tectum from the tegmentum and links the third and fourth ventricles.

Blood Supply Carotid artery- One of the two major blood vessels that travel up the sides of the neck to supply the brain.

Vertebral artery- One of the important blood vessels that enter the brain from the back of the skull.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM A. Spinal Cord- A long cylinder of nervous tissue extending from the medulla to the first lumbar vertebra. Cervical nerves (8) - One of the first eight spinal nerves that serve the area of the head, neck, and arms. Thoracic nerves (12) - One of twelve pairs of spinal nerves that serve the torso. Lumbar nerves (5) - One of the five spinal nerves serving the lower back and legs Sacral nerves (5) - One of the five spinal nerves that serve the backs of the legs and the genitals Coccygeal nerve (1) - The most caudal of the spinal nerves White matter is made up of nerve fibers known as axons, the parts of neurons that carry signals to other neurons. Gray matter consists of areas primarily made up of cell bodies. Dorsal horns gray matter in the spinal cord that contains sensory neurons. Ventral horns gray matter in the spinal cord that contains motor neurons.

B. The Brain 1. Hindbrain- The most caudal division of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. The Myelencephalon (Medulla) - The most caudal part of the hindbrain. Reticular formation - a collection of brainstem nuclei, located near the midline from the rostral medulla up into the midbrain, that regulate sleep and arousal. The Metencephalon a.) Pons means bridge Form connections between the medulla and higher brain centers as well as with the cerebellum. - Important nuclei found at this level of the brainstem are the cochlear nucleus and the vestibular nucleus. - cochlear nucleus receives information about sound

Vestibular nucleus receives information about the position and movement of the head. b.) Cerebellum means little brain - coordinating voluntary movements, maintaining muscle tone, and regulating balance - Damage to the cerebellum affects skilled movements, including speech production 2.) The Mesencephalon a.) Tectum- roof b.) Tegmentum- covering Red nucleus- the red nucleus, which is located within the reticular formation, communicates motor information between the spinal cord and the cerebellum Substantia Nigra- Degeneration of the substantia nigra occurs in Parkinsons disease, which is characterized by difficulty moving Superior colliculi receive input from the optic nerves leaving the eye Inferior colliculi these structures are involved with auditory reflexes such as turning the head in the direction of a loud noise and appear to participate in the localization of sounds in the environment by comparing the timing of the arrival of sounds at the two ears 3.) Forebrain Diencephalon a.) Thalamus- most of our sensory systems converge on the thalamus b.) Hypothalamus means below the thalamus- regulatory center for such behaviors as eating, drinking, sex, biorhythms, and temperature control - directly connected to the pituitary gland, from which many important hormones are released Telencephalon a.) Basal ganglia- A collection of nuclei within the cerebral hemispheres that participate in the control of movement. - nucleus accumbens, which plays an important role in the experience of reward b.) Limbic System means border 1.) Hippocampus seahorse participates in learning and memory. 2.) Amygdala plays important roles in fear, rage, and aggression. For encoding and storage of emotional memories. 3.) Cerebral Cortex- outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres is known as the cortex, from the Latin word for bark. - Hills of the cortex are referred to as gyri. - The valleys are known as sulci. - A particularly large sulcus is usually called a fissure.

TABLE 2.2 Structures of the Limbic System

Structure
Amygdala Fear, aggression, memory temperature, circadian rhythms, hormones anticipation of reward, pain, and empathy memory Olfactory bulbs Olfaction (smell) Mammillary bodies Part of the hypothalamus; memory bodies and other parts of the brain

Function
Hippocampus Declarative memory formation Hypothalamus Aggression; regulation of hunger, thirst, sex, Anterior cingulate cortex Decision making, error detection, emotion, Posterior cingulate cortex Eye movements, spatial orientation, and Septal area Reward Parahippocampal gyrus Memory Fornix Connects the hippocampus to mammillary

Frontal lobe - The most rostral lobe of the cerebral cortex, separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and from the temporal lobe by the lateral sulcus. Parietal lobe - One of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex; located between the frontal and occipital lobes. - The postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe contains the primary somatosensory cortex, which is the highest level of processing for information about touch, pain, position, and temperature. Temporal lobe - The lobe of the cerebral cortex lying ventral and lateral to the frontal and parietal lobes and rostral to the occipital lobe. The primary auditory cortex is located in the temporal lobe. Occipital lobe Cingulate Cortex Fold of cortical tissue in the inner surface of the cerebral hemispheres. Contains an unusual and possibly recently evolved class of nerve cells known as Von Economo neurons found only in apes and humans. Further divided into anterior and posterior sections: 1.Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) exerts influence over autonomic functions and apparent roles in physical and emotional pain, decision making, error detection, emotion, reward, and empathy. 2.Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) participates in functions such as eye movements, spatial orientation, and memory. This is also one of the first structures of the brain affected by Alzheimers Disease. Septal Area

Located anterior to the thalamus and hypothalamus. Stimulation of the area may produce pleasure, while lesions produce uncontrollable rage and attach behaviors. Olfactory Bulbs Located at the base of the forebrain which receive and process information about smell. Parahippocampal gyrus, Mammillary bodies, and Fornix Tightly connected with one another and participate in memory processes. The most caudal lobe of the cortex; location of primary visual cortex.

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM A. Cranial Nerves- 12 pairs of cranial nerves enter and exit the brain directly to serve the region of the head and neck. Olfactory nerve (I) - cranial nerve carrying information about smell to the brain. Optic nerve (II) - cranial nerve carrying information from the eyes to the brain. Auditory nerve (VIII) - The cranial nerve that carries information from the inner ear to the brain. Oculomotor nerve (III) - cranial nerve that controls muscles of the eye. Trochlear nerve (IV) - cranial nerve that controls the muscles of the eye. Abducens nerve (VI) - cranial nerve that controls the muscles of the eye. Spinal accessory nerve (XI) - cranial nerve that controls the muscles of the neck. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) cranial nerve responsible for movement of the tongue. Trigeminal nerve (V) - cranial nerve that controls chewing movements and provides feedback regarding facial expression. Facial nerve (VII) - cranial nerve that produces muscle movement in facial expressions and that carries taste information back to the brain. Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) - cranial nerve that manages both sensory and motor functions in the throat. Vagus nerve (X) - cranial nerve that serves the heart, liver, and digestive tract.

B. Spinal Nerves - Each spinal nerve is also known as a mixed nerve, because it contains a sensory, or afferent nerve (a means toward the CNS in this case, as in access) and a motor, or efferent, nerve (means away from the CNS, as in exit)

Autonomic Nervous System It manages many vital functions without conscious effort or awareness.

1.) Sympathetic Nervous System

known as our fight-or-flight system. Both systems use the chemical messenger acetylcholine (ACh) to communicate with their ganglia

2.) Parasympathetic Nervous System - Para means around - The job of the parasympathetic nervous system is to provide rest, repair, and energy storage. Divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Sympathetic Nervous System Designed to cope with emergencies as it prepares the body for action and coordinates arousal. Fight or flight system Shuts down low priority systems and putting blood and oxygen into the most necessary parts of the body. Sympathetic Chain A string of cell bodies outside the spinal cord that receive input from sympathetic neurons in the CNS and that communicate with target organs. Parasympathetic Nervous System Responsible for rest and energy storage.