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Name and logo

The word Bluetooth is an anglicised version of Old Norse Bltnn or Danish Bltand, the name of the tenth-century king Harald I of Denmark, who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom. The implication is that Bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard.[1][2][3] The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Germanic runes (Hagall) and (Berkanan).

The History of Bluetooth

A long time ago (historians differ on the exact dates, but it was sometime in the 10th Century C.E.) in a country far, far away, (which was mostly Denmark, with a little bit of Norway added in for flavor,) there lived a Viking king who was principally noted for converting to a foreign religion called Christianity. He was known as Harald Bluetooth, son of Gorm the Old, and he united most of Denmark before his estranged son, Sven Forkbeard, sent him to Valhalla and took over the family business. A little more than 1000 years later, succumbing to an attack of Scandinavian pride, the giant Swedish telecom manufacturer Ericsson decided to honor old, weird Harald by naming its new wireless networking standard after him. It convinced founding Special Interest Group co-partners Nokia, Toshiba, IBM and Intel that Bluetooth was the right name for the thing and, together, they set off to conquer the air. By December 1, 1999, 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft and Motorola had joined the Promoter Group -- the folks that were willing to spend money to hype the standard -- and in the neighborhood of 1200 other companies had joined the SIG. (Signing up for membership costs nothing, so it isn't exactly an exclusive club.) Between them, they manged to generate a lot of coverage about Bluetooth in the trade press. Since the computer trade press mainly consists of English and journalism majors with no hands-on technical background, most of whom make a living re-wording press releases, the fanfare meant very little, however. Meanwhile, actual consumers waited for actual products actually to emerge. As is often the case with consortium-driven standards -- even "open" ones like Bluetooth -- that took a while. And, as is also often the case, the majority of the early products were aimed not at consumers, but at developers.

While the world waited, grass-roots programmers and engineers began playing with a brand new wireless standard: an offshoot of good, old Ethernet called 802.11b. Like Bluetooth, it used the unlicensed 2.4 - 2.48GHz portion of the radio spectrum, so 802.11b products would work anywhere on the planet without any special license from the local authorities. And it was fast -- much faster than Bluetooth's nominal 1Mbps -- and it had about 10 times the range that Bluetooth's Class 3 devices could boast. Time passed and soon it was 2001, the beginning of a brand-new millenium. The clumsy-sounding 802.11b moniker had since been supplanted by the less-tonguetwisting name "Wi-Fi" and the cost of its hardware was plunging like a dotcom stock option. The world was still waiting for Bluetooth -- and, to its SIG partners' dismay, Microsoft announced that the initial release of its forthcoming Windows XP would not include Bluetooth support. Microsoft's stated reason for omitting the Viking technology from the next release of its flagship OS was the lack of a critical mass of Bluetooth-enabled devices demanding Windows support. That basically translated to the Redmond behemoth simply acknowledging a conspicuous worldwide lack of user demand for the namesake of Gorm the Old's son. That's not the only problem with Bluetooth, however.

Bring it on home
There are, of course, those who disagree with my gloomy assesment, including some right here on dW Wireless. Big Blue itself is still extremely big on the technology. It offers a Bluetooth PCCard for its latest laptops and it has even gone so far as to release a Bluetooth protocol stack for Linux, to enable the Penguin People to make Tux talk Viking. The thing is, I still can't help but think that, like Harald, the modern Bluetooth is just going to wind up teeing off so many people who are crucial to its survival that, again like him, it will wind up face-down in a muddy field with an arrow in its back.

What is "Bluetooth"?

Bluetooth is a method for datacommunication that uses short-range radiolinksto replace cables between computers and their connected units. Many companies have been mulling over this idea, but it was Ericsson Mobile Communicationthat finally (in 1994) started the project that was named Bluetooth. As computerized implementations have grown and become increasingly more common in our environment, there has also been a growing need for cables of varying kinds, to tie all these units together and ensure communication between them. These cables, when they grow into a multitude, are not only unsightly but also increasingly cumbersome to handle, both directly and (even more so) indirectly. Consider this list of drawbacks (below): The Unfaithful Servant First of all, there's the issue of cost. The low end of the cellular phone hardware market is savagely price-competitive and Bluetooth silicon is still much too expensive to be included in the "gimme" phones that entice a substantial segment of cellular consumers to take the plunge. That creates a chicken-or-egg conundrum, since Bluetooth must become ubiquitous in order to achieve the enconomies of scale that would make it affordable to average consumers -- but first it must universally be adopted in order to achieve those very economies of scale. Then there's the question of Bluetooth's security -- or, more properly, the gaping holes therein. Although some have tried to wish the problem away, others have taken a more skeptical view of the fundamental weaknesses in Bluetooth's PIN-based generation of a device's initialization key. Juha T. Vainio of the Helsinki University of Technology's Department of Computer Science and Engineering quite rightly points out [4] that a 4-digit PIN offers only 10,000 total possible combinations -- making 4-digit PINs highly susceptible to brute-force cracking techniques -- and the problem is further exacerbated by the well-known user laziness factor that results in a large number of 4-digit PINs being set to 0000.

Bluetooth definitions
It is well to aquaint oneself with the terminology used in Bluetooth, if one is to understand the descriptions on these webpages. One could say that there are 3 types of connections in Bluetooth, as shown to the right:

a) Single-slave b) Multi-slave (up to 7 slaves on one master) c) Scatternet

A collection of devices connected via Bluetooth technology in an ad hoc fashion. A piconet starts with two connected devices, such as a portable PC and a mobile phone. The limit is set at 8 units in a piconet (thats why the required address-space is limited to 3 bits). All Bluetooth devices are peer units and have identical implementations. However, when establishing a piconet, one unit will act as a master for synchonization purposes, and the other unit(s) will be slave(s) for the duration of the piconet connection.

Two or more independent and nonsynchronized piconets that communicate with each other. A slave as well as a master unit in one piconet can establish this connection by becoming a slave in the other piconet. It will then relay communications between the piconets, if the need arises.

Master unit:

The device in a piconet whose clock and hopping sequence are used to synchronize all other devices in the piconet. The master also numbers the communication channels.

Slave units:

All devices in a piconet that are not the master (up to 7 active units for each master).

Mac address:
A 3-bit Media Access Control address used to distinguish between units participating in the piconet.

Parked units:
Devices in a piconet which are regularly synchronized but do not have MAC addresses. They are woken up by the Master with a beacon signal.

Sniff mode and hold mode:

Devices that are synchronized to a piconet, and which have temporarily entered power-saving modes in which device activity is lowered. They keep their MAC-addresses.

The Beacon-channel:
To support slaves, the Master establishes a beacon channel when or more slaves are parked. This channel consists of one beacon or a train of equidistant beacon slots transmitted at constant time interval. one slot,

More prevalent applications of Bluetooth include: Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a handsfree headset. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular.

Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required.

Wireless communication with PC input and output devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard and printer.

Transfer of files, contact details, calendar appointments, and reminders between devices with OBEX.

Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment, GPS receivers, medical equipment, bar code scanners, and traffic control devices.

For controls where infrared was traditionally used.

For low bandwidth applications where higher [USB] bandwidth is not required and cable-free connection desired.

Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth-enabled advertising hoardings to other, discoverable, Bluetooth devices[citation needed].

Wireless bridge between two Industrial Ethernet (e.g., PROFINET) networks.

Two seventh-generation game consoles, Nintendo's Wii[6] and Sony's PlayStation 3, use Bluetooth for their respective wireless controllers. Dial-up internet access on personal computers or PDAs using a data-capable mobile phone as a modem.

The Aim of "Bluetooth" The aim has been set quite hight. It is to arrive at a specification for a technology that optimizes the usage model of all mobile computing and communications devices, and providing:

Global usage Voice and data handling The ability to establish ad-hoc connections The ability to withstand interference from other sources in open band Very small size, in order to accommodate integration into variety of devices Negligible power consumption in comparison to other devices for similar use An open interface standard Competitivelly low cost of all units, as compared to their nonBluetooth correspondents.

Mobile phone requirements

A mobile phone that is Bluetooth enabled is able to pair with many devices. To ensure the broadest support of feature functionality together with legacy device support, the Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) forum has recently published a recommendations paper, entitled "Bluetooth Local Connectivity"; see external links below to download this paper.

Specifications and features

The Bluetooth specification was developed in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson, who were working for Ericsson Mobile Platforms in Lund, Sweden.[10][citation needed] The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology.

The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The SIG was formally announced on May 20, 1998. Today it has a membership of over 11,000 companies worldwide. It was established by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba, and Nokia, and later joined by many other companies.

Operating system support

For more details on this topic, see Bluetooth stack. Apple has supported Bluetooth since Mac OS X v10.2 which was released in 2002.[7] For Microsoft platforms, Windows XP Service Pack 2 and later releases have native support for Bluetooth. Previous versions required users to install their Bluetooth adapter's own drivers, which were not directly supported by Microsoft.[8] Microsoft's own Bluetooth dongles (packaged with their Bluetooth computer devices) have no external drivers and thus require at least Windows XP Service Pack 2. Linux has two popular Bluetooth stacks, BlueZ and Affix. The BlueZ[9] stack is included with most Linux kernels and was originally developed by Qualcomm. The Affix stack was developed by Nokia. FreeBSD features Bluetooth support since its 5.0 release. NetBSDfeatures Bluetooth support since its 4.0 release. Its Bluetooth stack has been ported to OpenBSD as well.

Basic Bluetooth functions

The Bluetooth technology is quite complex. This is not so surprising, considering the task it has to handle. It is mainly based on the IEEE 802.11 standard, briefly described at right. Of the 2 network modes described, Bluetooth uses the ad-hoc mode. This means that each station must observe "netiqette" and give all other units fair access to the wireless media. The above diagram shows the main building blocks. With todays technology, the transmitter/receiver-part for Bluetooth s requirements could be made as small as a thumbnail (!!), and the antenna could be more or less hidden in the unit, much as it is in mobile telephones. Thus, the connectors in corresponding older units would not be replaced by something of similar dimensions; the transceiver would just "disappear" among other circuits.

The IEEE 802.11 standard The IEEE 802.11communications standard defines the protocol for two types of networks; Adhoc and client/server.

The Ad-hoc network is a simple network where communications are established between multiple stations in a given coverage area without the use of an access point or server. Functionally, one talks about the three core protocols: The 802.11- standard specifies The logical link control and adaptation protocol (L2CAP), the etiquette that each station the service discovery protocol (SDP) and the RFCOMM must observe so that all units protocol. have fair access to the wireless media. It provides methods L2CAP, which adapts upper layer protocols over the for arbitrating requests to use Baseband, provides data services to the high layer protocols the media to ensure that with protocol multiplexing capability, segmentation and throughput is maximized for all reassembly operations, and group abstractions. Device of the users in the base service information, services and the characteristics of the services set. can be queried using theSDP. Like SDP, RFCOMM is layered on top of the L2CAP. As a The client/server network uses cable replacement protocol, RFCOMM provides transport an access point that controls capabilities for high-level services (e.g. OBEX protocol) that the allocation of transmit time use serial line as the transport mechanism. for all stations and allows mobile stations to roam from cell to cell.

The Bluetooth air interface is based on a nominal antenna power of 0 dBm. Spectrum spreading has been added to facilitate optional operation at power levels up to 100 mW worldwide. This is accomplished byfrequency hopping; 79 hops displaced by 1 MHz, starting at 2.402 GHz and stopping at 2.480 GHz.

The access point is used to handle traffic from the mobile radio to the wired or wireless backbone of the client/server network. This arrangement allows for point coordination of all the stations in the basic Due to local regulations, the bandwidth is reduced in Japan, service area and ensures proper handling of the data traffic. The France and Spain. This is handled by an internal software switch. The maximum frequency hopping rate is 1600 hops/s. access point routes data between the stations and other The nominal link range is 10 centimeters to 10 meters, but can be extended to more than 100 meters by increasing the wireless stations or to and from the network server. transmit power. Typically, WLANs (i.e. wireless LANs) controlled by a central access point will provide better throughput performance than ad-hoc networks.

The Bluetooth "Channels" "Channels" can mean 3 different things in this context: 1. It could refer to the 79 (or 23) RF-channels, on individual frequencies 1 MHz apart 2. It could also refer to the communications channels, consisting of a pseudo-random hopping sequence through these 79 (or 23) RF-channels. Such a channel could more be likened with what is called a "session" in the OSI-model. 3. There are also 5 Logical Channels, which are used for control purposes.

What could be the practical use of Bluetooth? Well, its very much up to our imagination. But the ambition is set high, indeed; practically all computerized equipment normally found in a modern office (and home) which do not use a synchronous communications protocol could be adapted for use with Bluetooth. Check this list: Phones and pagers Modems LAN access devices Headsets Notebook computers Desktop and handheld computers Printers Fax machines Keyboards

Application Examples: 1. A Bluetooth-mouse could be used at a further distance from a monitor, and while moving about in the room. 2. A Bluetooth-keyboard could be used further away from the monitor. This would reduce eye-strain for persons who are long-sighted. Increasing the distance would also reduce exposure to electromagnetic radiation from the monitor. 3. A Bluetooth-keyboard could also be used to address more than one computer, in a dynamic, switchless manner. 4. Use e-mail while your portable PC is still in the briefcase! When your portable PC receives an e-mail, you'll get an alert on your mobile phone. You can also browse all incoming e-mails and read those you select in the mobile phone's display. 5. A travelling businessman could ask his laptop computer to locate a suitable printer as soon as he enters a hotel lobby, and send a printout to that printer when it has been found, and replied in a positive manner. 6. Cable-less connection to printers and faxes. 7. Cable-less connection to digital cameras and video projectors. 8. Cordless connection from cell phone to handsfree headset. 9. Bluetooth interface to office PBX. 10. Dial-up networking and automatic email. 11. Use cell phone as office cordless phone. 12. Use of PC or PDA as handsfree phone. 13. Automatic exchange of files, electronic business cards, calendars etc. 14. Dancing couples at a dance hall could


Virtually any digital device can be part of the Bluetooth system. Bluetooth radio technology can also provide a universal bridge to existing data networks, a peripheral interface, and a mechanism to form small ad hoc groupings of connected devices, away from fixed network infrastructures. The dynamic connectivitynature of Bluetooth makes it possible for this system to replace USB, and it is an improvement on Plug-and-Play-systems, where the operating system has to be rebooted for the installation to take effect. A Bluetooth-mouse is already in existence; it was shown at CeBIT in Hannover in February 2000, and more items are on their way. News at Comdex 1999 One of the highlights at the annual Comdex show in Las Vegas in Autumn 1999 was the Bluetooth pavilion, where Motorola showed a Palm V synchronising data with a mobile

phone. Using a 3Com cradle attached to the back of the Palm V, Motorola demonstrated the types of Bluetooth devices that it will eventually be selling. The cradle contained Bluetooth radio for transmitting and receiving data and a prototype phone contained a built-in Wap (wireless application protocol) browser for viewing Web pages. It also used Bluetooth for synchronising data such as an address book. Ericsson showed a wireless hands-free headset for its mobile phone. The headset used Bluetooth to connect to a special adapter attached to the cell phone. Peripherals manufacturer TDK Systems showed three Bluetooth radio systems: one based on CardBus technology and designed for laptops; the second, aCompactflash card, was designed to be plugged into a handheld PC. The third was an external Bluetooth radio which could be attached to a PC via a USB cable. TDK Systems also plans to develop a Bluetooth hub, providing four Bluetooth radios to connect to a corporate network. The hub would expand the available bandwidth of Bluetooth, allowing up to four users to connect into a corporate network at a speed of 721 kb/second each.

receive the music through their headsets and pick the dance of their choice (a bit far-fetched, perhaps, but who knows? Some day....). More ideas can be found at the Bluetooth website. Just add your own ideas to this list!



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A report


A report submitted by


Under the guidance of Mr. Thrilochan Lecturer in Computer Science Dept


Vidya vikas Education Trust Polytechnic MYSORE-570010


A report


A report submitted by


Under the guidance of Mr. Thrilochan Lecturer in Computer Science Dept


Vidya vikas Education Trust Polytechnic MYSORE-570010

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