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Simulation of laterally loaded foundation groups via Menrd pressuremeter tests

R.P. Cunha
University of Braslia, Braslia, Brazil (www.geotecnia.unb.br/gpfees)

J. Veverka
Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic

R.G.M. Santos
Ministry of the Cities, Braslia, Brazil

ABSTRACT: Results obtained from the Mnard pressuremeter (MPM) can be directly used in the design of geotechnical structures. Moreover, pressuremeter tests have also the potential to be used to calibrate numerical models to simulate the same structures. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to check the potentialities in back-analyzing the MPM to apply the resulting outcome in numerical simulations of horizontally loaded groups of Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) piles, tested in the collapsible unsaturated clay from the Geotechnical Research Site of the University of Braslia (UnB). This particular site is well characterized and the MPM curves were obtained at distinct seasons of the year, i.e., during dry and wet regional seasons when the soils matric suction changes. The chosen model of simulation was the Mohr-Coulomb without hardening, and analyses were performed using the software CESAR-LCPC. The exercise allowed a better understanding to simulate real case engineering foundations under lateral load. 1 INTRODUCTION The Mnard pressuremeter test can be used to analytically determine the Menard's Modulus among other parameters. This tool can also be adopted in design applications, by using empirical rules defined, in general, by French researchers. Nevertheless, in Brazil, the usage of the MPM is not widespread given the fact that it can not compete economically with this countrys most used site investigation equipment, the Standard Penetration Test (SPT), at least if one wants to interpret the MPM solely on an empirical basis. Therefore, in order to advance the use of this remarkable device in Brazil one should think on aggregating value to its particular interpretation approach. Given the fact that it can be easily done in tropical unsaturated soils and that it yields in loco the stress-strain curve of the tested material (horizontal direction), it could in principle be used to aid the numerical simulation of horizontally loaded geotechnical structures. In this regard, no SPT test would be able to compete, and it would serve to fulfill a theoretical niche still lacking proper methodologies and/or in situ devices for a practical engineering use. Based on this philosophy, MPM tests carried out in the experimental research site of the University of Braslia, within the Brazilian capital Braslia, were adopted and numerically interpreted herein. Laterally loaded foundation groups in this same site were also used for a 1st. Class simulation, in order to verify the potential of the proposed methodology. All the tests herein were done as part of research theses from the Geotechnical Graduation Program of the University of Braslia. It shall be mentioned that the advocated approach is not new, but it still lacks proper validation and divulgation so to encourage engineers to take full potential of this magnificent testing device. Hence, the goal of this paper is to get experience and check the potentialities in back-analyzing the MPM to apply the resulting values to numerical simulations of horizontally loaded CFA pile groups founded on non classical soils. Although the comparisons were not ideal, the potential has been shown and they can be regarded as encouraging for further research with this device in order to make it more competitive in the Brazilian market. Thus, to be technically useful in a type of foundation design where gaps of information prevail and room for research still exists - as laterally loaded group of piles. 2 MPM CURVE FITTING APPROACH The original concept of lowering a balloon like device down a borehole and inflating it to measure deformation properties dates from 1930 or 1931 (Baguelin et al. 1978). The first reference to such device was given by Kgler (1933) who developed a simple probe with length of 125 cm and diameter of

10 cm. The first device consisted of a long sausage shaped bladder which stretched between two metal discs. The discs were held apart at a fixed distance by a steel rod which formed the backbone of the device. It was lowered into a predrilled hole and gas inflated. The impact of Kglers invention in the geotechnical area was insignificant, even though he was able to use the equipment to record pressure vs. volume change curves that are similar to those obtained nowadays with more sophisticated equipments. It was only in the 50s that the pressuremeter was developed and started to be used in real engineering terms. Without knowledge of Kglers work, a civil engineering student at the Univ. of Illinois called Mnard developed a pressuremeter in 1955 (Mnard 1955). In less than 3 years the Mnard pressuremeter started to be produced by Mnards own firm and used as a consulting tool in France. At that time Mnard was able to benefit from technological and analytical interpretation advances that were not available in Kglers time. Like Kglers original probe, the Mnard pressuremeter was designed to be inserted in prebored holes. Due to the high disturbance generated at the cavity wall by the preboring process, results of Mnard pressuremeter tests are generally interpreted by empirical rather than analytical methods. Later on (Cunha 1994, Vecchi et al. 2000) the curve fitting concept started to be employed to interpret selfboring and Mnard pressuremeter testing curves. As discussed by Cunha & Campanella (1998), the curve fitting approach basically consists in the comparison of the field testing curve with some idealized pressure expansion testing curve based on some sort of constitutive model. The idealized model curve can be interactively changed by varying the input parameters that constitute its rheological relationship. This is carried out until a match or fitting between this model curve and the field one is established. The closer the rheological relationship and assumptions of the adopted cavity expansion model are to the real shearing phenomena, the closer will be the agreement of the idealized curve with respect to the field one (assuming no disturbance). As well, the lower the number of input model parameters, the easier and faster will be the curve fitting. The current study encompassed some Mnard pre bored pressuremeter tests carried out in the Braslia porous clay at both wet and dry regional seasons (performed by Mota 2003, respectively at February and June 2000). It is noticed that from the dry season of this region (Jun/Oct) to the wet season (Nov/Apr) there is a slight change in the natural moisture content of the soil, especially in the top 3 meters (active zone of moisture variation). Below this depth the changes are low, indicating an almost constant humidity and, hence, soils suction.

A Mnard NX pressuremeter probe was adopted, by following the testing procedure recommended by the ASTM (2007). The tests were carried out in prebored holes, initially excavated by using the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) apparatus and subsequently manually bored at testing depth with a BX and later a NX auger (to decrease disturbance). The probe was pressurized in constant increments of 25 kPa, and the tests were completed after expanding the central probe to its full capacity. Figure 1 presents the location of the tests within the Experimental Research Site of Foundations and In Situ Testing of the University of Braslia, where Figure 2 depicts the approximate location of this site within the University Campus in Braslia city. It is noticed in Figure 1 the main in situ tests carried out in the site by the Research Group on Foundations and In Situ Tests (GPFees), in particular the pressuremeter tests (PM1 and PM2) respectively done at wet and dry seasons, and the CFA pile load tests respectively done with groups of 1, 2 and 3 piles (EHC1, EHC2 and EHC3). The stress-strain curve obtained from Pressuremeter tests describes soil behavior under shear and therefore it is ideal foundation for back-analyses using nowadays most popular numerical methods via Finite Element techniques (FEM). Several authors (Zentar 2001, Pereira 2003) have tried to do so using various computing codes and several material models. The mainly used material modes were MohrCoulomb and Cam Clay family ones. These studies have been focused on methods of parameter backcalculation via MPM, whereas other studies have tried to derive new parameters (in the case of Cam Clay models) using optimizing algorithms to simulate more than just the elastic soil behavior. Nevertheless initial values had to be inferred by laboratory tests, thus making the procedure uneconomical. In the present paper all back-analyses were carried out by the French LCPC Cesar 3D software using a convenient elasto-plastic Mohr Coulomb model. This was done in order to turn the exercise simple and fast and to infer if such handy procedure could be readily (and accurately) done. Perhaps, the advocated approach can become more useful in future for the daily basis design of local engineering offices. 3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 3.1 Site specific laboratory results Within the Federal District extensive areas (80%) are covered by a weathered latosoil of the tertiary-quaternary age. This latosoil has been extensively subjected to a laterization process and it presents a variable thickness throughout the District, varying from few centimeters to around 40 meters.

Distances in meters EHC1


DM8 CP14

3.30
CPT DMT CPT

1.50 0.80
CP4 CP3 DM3

1.00
CP13 CP10 CP9 CP8

4.00

1.50
DM7

1.00
SP4 SP5

Drilled Pier CPT DMT

EHC2 EHC3
EHC1

0.80 3.00 4.35 3.00 3.00

2.40
DM6

1.20

1.60
CP12

CP11

1.50 2.60
E3

1.50
E4

6.00

1.50 2.00 2.70

1.50
SP2/PM2

PM2
2.50
DM5

CP7

5.30

SHAFT 1

0.60
DM11 CP16

5.60 1.90
CP6

10,70 1.40
SHAFT 2

REFERENCE 1.40
3.00 2.50
DM1 CP2

2.80 0.80
DM4

0.90 2.50
CP1 DM2

CP17

1.00

10,15

DM9 DM10 CP15

2.10
DM12

1.00 0.90
SP1/PM1

0.80 . 1.50

1.60
SP3/PM3

3 SPT & MPM Test Holes (SP1/PM1-SP3/PM3)


DM

12 Dilatometer Penetration Profiles (DM1-DM12) 17 Cone Penetration Test Profiles (CP1-CP17) 2 Geology Investigation Shafts 7 Reaction Piles PILE Load Tests (Mota, 2003) PILE Load Tests (Perez, 1997 & Jardim, 1998)

CP

PM1
ENERGY BOX

FENCED AREA

Figure 1. Location of the MPM and Pile load tests (among others) within the Experimental Research Site.

Some of the laboratory tests were carried out with undisturbed block samples taken from inspection shafts dug at the research site (see Figure 1). These samples were taken at 3, 6 and 9 m below soil surface.
Table 1. General geotechnical properties of the site (Perez, 1997, Palocci 1998 and Janda et al. 2009). Parameter Unit Range Sand percentage % 12-27 Silt percentage % 8-36 Clay percentage % 37-80 Dry unit weight kN/m3 10 17 Natural unit weight kN/m3 17 19 Moisture content % 20-34 Degree of saturation % 50-86 Void ratio 1.0-2.0 Liquid limit % 25-78 Plastic limit % 20-34 Plasticity index % 5-44 Total cohesion (C) kPa 10-34 Friction angle () 26-34 Youngs modulus (E) MPa 1-8 Coefficient of collapse % 0-12 Coefficient of earth pressure 0.44-0.54 Coefficient of permeability m/s 10-8-10-5

Figure 2. Location of the research site within Braslia.

This superficial soil is known locally as the Braslia porous clay, being geotechnically constituted by sandy clay with traces of silt, forming a lateritic horizon of low unit weight and high void ratio, as well as an extremely high coefficient of collapse. Within this soil, there is a predominance of the clay mineral caulinite, and oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum. Its characteristics are illustrated in Table 1, valid for the Research Site. The geotechnical parameters displayed in this table were obtained by a comprehensive laboratory testing program carried out by previous and simultaneous research projects of the University of Braslia (Perez 1997 and Palocci 1998). Conventional characterization tests were performed together with more sophisticated tests, as double oedometer and collapse tests, special K0 and triaxial CK0D tests, permeability tests and direct shear tests with the samples under distinct orientations and moisture contents.

During this period, and later on (with new samples), some specific tests for unsaturated soils were also done. For instance, in the deposit of the Research site, Mota (2003) estimated the matric suction of the soil at distinct depths by carrying out suction

tests with undisturbed soil samples following the wetting path on the laboratory conventional Richarts chamber. Humidity of the samples was determined by paper filter techniques, and the matric suction indirectly inferred by correlations previously established with the distinct characteristic curves. 3.2 Mnard pressuremeter tests Pressuremeter tests PM1 and PM2 were carried out in accordance to ASTM (2007), at each meter of the profile of the site and in locations depicted in Figure 1. They were done with the removal of disturbed soil samples from hand excavating augers, as previously mentioned. With such samples it was possible to determine the matric suction of the soil surrounding the MPM probe moments before the start of the test. This was done indirectly by correlating the humidity of the soil with the suction via characteristic curves (using aforementioned correlations). Hence, Figures 3 and 4 present MPM testing curves in terms of cavity internal pressure versus radial strain (variation of radius over initial radius) of the probe, already calibrated and corrected for in situ original horizontal stresses (i.e., according to Briaud 1992 the recompression stage of the curve, up to the effective horz stresses, are removed and the curve is readjusted to a new origin). The horizontal stress was obtained by the traditional method, of the early inflection part of the MPM curve, as presented in Briaud (1992). These figures also include estimated matric suctions (ua-uw) at each respective testing depth, determined via filter paper technique.
1000
Ensaio 1

3.3 Pile load tests Three load tests of large scale deep foundations constructed at the UnB experimental site were analyzed during this study. The single pile test, the group of two piles and the group of three piles are labeled as EHC1, EHC2 and EHC3, respectively in accordance with Anjos (2006) nomenclature, as they were constructed as basis of his doctoral Thesis. The Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) technology was adopted to construct the piles and no injection pressure was used during the construction phase, given very soft characteristics of the surficial clay of the Experimental Site. Therefore, during the last construction phase the hollow auger was gradually removed with simultaneous casting of concrete under only atmospheric pressure (through its internal hollow stem). Although this technical simplification (gravity pressure only) may cause decrease in the final bearing capacity of the entire foundation system, it allows for a straightforward numerical analysis which is also applicable to traditional bored piles. The particular arrangement of the CFA piles within the UnB site, and the geometric characteristics of the cap blocks, are also shown in Figure 1 together with the MPM locations. Figure 5 shows the CFA drilling machine used to bore and cast the piles. All pile foundations were built with the same dimensions. The nominal diameter was 0.3m and the nominal length 8.0 m. In the case of the pile groups EHC2 and EHC3 the axial distance between the piles was 0.9 m. The top three meters of all piles was reinforced with four steel bars with 16 mm diameter and 6.3 mm stirrups with distance of 0.15 m. A concrete block without physical contact with the underlying soil (a vertical gap of 20 cm was left) was constructed on the top of the EHC1 single pile as well as on top of EHC2 and EHC3 pile groups.

900 800 700

Ensaio 2 Ensaio 3 Ensaio 4 Ensaio 5 Ensaio 6 Ensaio 7 Ensaio 8 Ensaio 9 Ensaio 10

P (kPa)

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 25

r/r0 (%)

Figure 3. Corrected and adjusted MPM results from Mota (2003) at wet season of the year (PM1).
1000 900 800 700

P (kPa)

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 25

En En En En En En En En En En

Figure 5. Closer details of the CFA drilling machine.

r/r0 (%)

Figure 4. Corrected and adjusted MPM results from Mota (2003) at dry season of the year (PM2).

All CFA foundations were constructed in the wet (rainy) season of Braslia city during 2006, for Anjos (2006) Thesis as commented before. Nevertheless, this author did not carry horizontal load tests,

only vertical type ones. The horizontal loading of such pile groups was solely done three years later, by Santos (2010) unpublished (i.e., still on going) Master dissertation. This latter author carried out the lateral loading tests by following the Brazilian standard ABNT (2006) in slow maintained constant load intervals until a pre-failure stage of all pile groups was reached. The tests started in the end of the rainy season of the city ( March) and extended up to the end of the dry season ( September) of 2009. In order to carry out the tests, this author has excavated around the cap blocks (also 20 cm) in order to prevent any lateral restraint from the surrounding soil, and the tests were performed with the soil in its either natural content or inundated conditions. Inundation was attained by flooding the trench around the cap blocks during 48 uninterrupted hours. The first loading stage, with the soil in its natural condition, proceeded until the pile group approached the plastic stage (defined by personal experience). After that, unloading started and this was followed by the inundation of the surrounding soil. Once this stage was completed, a second reloading stage, now with the soil under its inundated condition, was accomplished again to deformation stages close to what was previously defined as horizontal plastic failure. Figure 6 presents the results for the EHC3 pile group, whereas Figure 7 depicts the loading direction and some of the experimental components for this particular load test (notice the load cell and hydraulic jack on the left side and two mechanical dial gauges on the right corner of the picture). One can also observe that the second loading stage (inundated) has a considerable higher degree of displacement, under same load, than equivalent data from the first stage. It is believed that such behavior relates directly to the suction/water content characteristics of the soil, i.e., the degradation and collapse of its structure under loading with both increase of its humidity and decrease of its suction. Other (less probable but) possible sources can be vented, as the previous degradation of the soil during the first loading stage. 4 NUMERICAL RESULTS 4.1 Software and MPM back-analysis The MPM back-analyses were carried out by using the French 3D finite element program LCPC Cesar which belongs to the UnB. In order to carry out the analyses it was decided to simulate the soil and the pressuremeter in an axisymmetric manner, by using 6-noded elements as depicted in Figure 8. A commonly used elasto-plastic Mohr Coulomb model was adopted as basis of the numerical analyses.

The simulated area is 2 meters wide in order to avoid border effects, whereas the edge of the smallest element is 0.02 m and of the largest 0.2 m. Note in this figure the position of the pressuremeter, in the lower left corner. In order to decrease calculation demands, the mesh of the problem has been reduced to only a 1 m high strip. The original stress state has been reached by applying a vertical pressure which is equivalent to the pressure caused by the unit weight of the soil layers above the MPM.
HorizontalLoad(kN)
0 0 1 Natural Water Content Inundated 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Figure 6. Horizontal load test results for EHC3.

Figure 7. Some details of the EHC3 horizontal load test.

Figure 8. Bidimensional axisymmetric 6 node element mesh adopted in the MPM back-analyses.

HorizontalDisplacement(mm)

Derivation of the elastic Young modulus (E) was a matter of few iterations, adopting a constant (0.33) value for the Poissons ratio. The unit weight varied from around 15 to 18 kN/m3 at deeper depths. The variables describing the plastic behavior are only two (cohesion, C, and friction angle, ) and, therefore, it did not take too long time to find a reasonably good match between experimental and FEM theoretical curves. The main approach was to vary by trial and error these parameters until a fit could be established. Nevertheless, some curves, or depths, did not yield straight matching curves, but the results were adopted anyway accepting that experimental errors would be included within the present exercise. 4.2 Results of the MPM back-analyses Table 2 presents the back-analyzed parameters obtained for the pressuremeter test at the wet season (PM1), while Figure 9 gives an example of curve matching between experimental and numerical simulations for depth 1.6 m of both PM1 and PM2 tests. In this figure it is possible to notice the good fit of the curves and the qualitative agreement between MPM data and the level of suction at distinct seasons of the year.
Table 2. Back-analyzed parameters from PM1 test. Depth E C (m) (MPa) (kPa) (deg) 0.6 30 70 12 1.6 3 10 35 2.6 4 5 20 3.6 4 6 25 4.6 5.5 14 23 5.6 5.5 14 23 6.6 30 15 20 7.6 30 15 20 8.6 40 9 18

The results from the PM1 tests were somehow slight better than those from the test at the dry season (PM2), and it is believed that such feature happened given the lower level of suction on the site during the rainy season. Therefore, only the results of PM1 were used to simulate the horizontally loaded pile groups. Given that, it is also expected that some discrepancy in results may be appear on the pile group simulation, since these load tests were not carried out exactly, and predominantly, on the rainy season, but rather from the end of this season throughout the dry one, as mentioned before. 4.3 Software and pile group analysis The pile group simulations were accomplished by the same 3D finite element program as used before, now calibrated against site specific MPM results. That means, at each depth, from 0 to 9 meters, the same geotechnical parameters as back-calculated before were now used to furnish the data, also at each meter, of the 3D FEM mesh constructed to simulate the pile group / surrounding soil. Likewise, the same elasto-plastic model, Mohr Coulomb, was adopted. Figure 10 presents a top view of the 3D mesh constructed for the numerical analyses of the EHC3 pile group, the only one to be presented here given space limitations. The mesh has 9 m in height (vertical boundary located just 1 m below pile base) and 12 m in extension at both horizontal directions. The smallest elements near the piles have an edge of 8 mm wide while the largest element of the model has a 1 m long edge. Similarly as the case of Janda et al. (2009), the concrete reinforced piles and the top raft were modeled as homogenous nonporous linear elastic material with Youngs modulus of 20 GPa, Poissons ratio of 0.2 and a unit weight of 24 kN/m3. Although in the real construction the top part of the pile, together with the top raft, was reinforced with projecting bars and stirrups, no additional reinforcement was incorporated in the numerical model.

Figure 9. Fitting of MPM curves at 1.6 m from both regional seasons. Figure 10. Three-dimensional 6 node element mesh adopted in the EHC3 group numerical analyses.

4.4 Results of the pile group analyses The process of numerical simulation of the loaded pile group consisted of three successive phases, as follows: Application of initial geostatic and self-weight stresses; Settlement of soil and pile group under aforementioned load conditions; Application of lateral load in successive steps, with subsequent estimation of horizontal displacements. The comparison between experimental and numerical results is presented in Figure 11, where the original FEM analysis, as previously described, is depicted as a continuous line. It is clear from this figure that no significant plastification was (numerically) reached during the simulation of the group, when using original back-calculated parameters from the MPM (PM1) back-analyses. Given the fact that the behavior of laterally loaded piles is extremely dependent on the stuffiness of the superficial layers, this discrepancy could be, perhaps, related to the difference in time in which both tests (MPM and pile load) were accomplished. That means, differences in matric suction in the first meters of the soil from one month to another do indeed lead to high differences in stiffness and loaddisplacement shapes as it can for instance be seen in the comparison of the MPM results from Figure 9. Therefore, as a further exercise, new simulations were carried out with decreased geotechnical parameters (solely) for the 1st. layer. Hence, all parameters from Table 2 for the 0.6 m level were simultaneously decreased by the same percentage amount, yielding results that are also depicted in Figure 11.
HorizontalLoad(kN)
0 0 1 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Although better results (closer approximation) were obtained in the latter cases, again no yielding of the soil was reached. This has nevertheless shown that the observed discrepancies could indeed be related to differences in the stiffness of the first (or subjacent) superficial layers of the soil surrounding the MPM and the pile load tests. It is then postulated that such differences could be related to suction variations along time, or even stratigraphic aspects (see distances in Figure 1). It is worthy to point out that Veverka (2011) advanced this question by plotting and comparing mean and deviatoric stresses with the yield surface of the soil at each meter. This author concluded that the numerical shear stresses were not high enough to cause the onset of plasticity, and further stated that it seems that the soil in the experimental site of UnB has a tendency to fail not only in shear, as most of the soils we encounter in Czech Republic, but also in compression. In other words, the adopted simple rheologic model was also not the most suitable for the present exercise. 5 CONCLUSIONS This paper emphasized the use of the Mnard pressuremeter tests to calibrate numerical tools, based on some sort of geotechnical model, to simulate laterally loaded pile groups. The research was extremely valid to gain an initial experience in how to aggregate value to the Mnard pressuremeter interpretation, hence turning this tool more attractive to the Brazilian market (and most probably elsewhere). Although preliminary results were not perfect, they are encouraging and allowed the authors to conclude on several aspects of this research, as: The importance of soil suction, stratigraphy and time of the year when adopting results from in situ and pile load tests in tropical soils carried out at distinct regional seasons; The importance of (more) complex models to try to circumvent natural discrepancies of real x model behavior; The high potential that Mnard pressuremeters do indeed have in tropical soils, specially for the design of geotechnical structures that displace the surrounding material in similar characteristics; The importance of continuing the research in this area, with improved test conditions. This (on going) topic of research is of vital importance for Brazil nowadays, given the necessity of the Academy to provide a fast way to design engineering works on a highly demanding market (specially given the pre world cup and Olympic games era). Besides, the procedure could take full advantage of the magnificent characteristics of the Mnard pressuremeter as in situ testing tool, and the fact that large extensions of this country is covered by tropical unsaturated deposits.

HorizontalDisplacement(mm)

2 3 4 5 6
Experimental Result

7 8 9 10

Original FEM analysis Values decreased 25% Values decreased 50% Values decreased 75%

Figure 11. Comparison between experimental and numerical simulations for pile group EHC3.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to express their gratitude to the Research Group on Foundations and In Situ test of the University of Braslia, the Geotechnical Graduation Program and the FINATEC Foundation of this same University, the Czech Technical University at Prague, and the Brazilian Governmental sponsorship organizations CAPES and CNPq. The good relationship and comradeship between both Universities of Braslia and Czech Technical in Prague, in particular through Profs. Pavel Kuklk and Michal Sejnoha from the latter one, should also be acknowledged. REFERENCES
ABNT. 2006. NBR12131. Piles Static Load Test Method of Test . ABNT Brazilian Association of Technical Standards. 8 p. Anjos, G.M. 2006. Study of the behavior of bored foundatios in tropical soils. D.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Braslia. 341 p. (In Portuguese). ASTM 2007. D4719. Standard Test Method for Prebored Pressuremeter Testing in Soils. American Society for Testing and Materials Standards. 9 p. Baguelin, F., Jezequel, J.F. & Shields, D.H. 1978. The pressuremeter and Foundation Engineering. Clausthal: Eng. Trans. Tech. Publications. Briaud,J.L. 1992. The Pressuremeter.A.A. Balkema Publishers, 192 p. Cunha, R.P. & Campanella, R.G. 1998. Interpretation of selfboring pressuremter tests using a curve fitting approach. 1st. International Conf. on Site Characterization, Atlanta 2: 759-764. Cunha, R.P. 1994. Interpretation of selfboring pressuremeter tests in sand. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, 279 p. Janda, T., Cunha, R.P., Kuklk, P. & Anjos, G.M. 2009. Three dimensional finite element analysis and back-analysis of CFA standard pile groups and piled rafts founded on tropical soil. Soil and Rocks, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 3-18. Jardim, N.A. 1998. Methodology to forecast the vertical and horizontal load capacity of piles with the Marchetti dilatometer. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Braslia. 141 p. (In Portuguese). Kgler, F. 1933. Baugrundprfung im bohrloch. Der Bauingenieru, Berlin: 19-20. Mnard, L. 1955. Travail personnel sur le pressiomtre. Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chausses, Paris. Mota, N.M.B. 2003. Advanced in situ Tests in the Unsaturated and Porous Clay of Braslia: Interpretation and Application Into Foundation Design Projects. D.Sc. Thesis, University of Braslia, Braslia, 336 pp. (In Portuguese). Palocci, A. 1998. Laboratory tests on undisturbed block soil samples from the experimental research site of the Geotechncial Graduate Program of the University of Braslia. University of Braslia Internal Report. (In Portuguese). Pereira, J.M. 2003. Numerical modeling of unsaturated soils. 16th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference. Seattle. Perez, E.N.P. 1997. The use of the elasticity theory in the determination of the Youngs modulus of the soil adjacent to vertically loaded piles founded in the porous clay of Braslia. M.Sc. Thesis, Univ. of Braslia. (In Portuguese).

Santos, R.G.M. 2010. Experimental assessment of the behavior of pile groups laterally loaded in tropical porous soil. On going M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Braslia. Vecchi, P.P.L., Cunha, R.P., Pereira, J.H.F., Schnaid, F. & Kratz de Oliveira, L.A. 2000. Use of the Mnard pressuremeter in the evaluation of geotechnical parameters in the Braslia porous clay. 1st. Braz. Congress on Field Investigation, So Paulo 3: 312-325. (In Portuguese). Veverka, J. 2011. Modeling of piles in clay soils. Diploma Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering. Czech Technical University in Prague, 57 p. Zentar, P. H. 2001. Identification of soil parameters by inverse analysis. Computers and Geotechnics.