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Homework Title / No.

: 1

Course Code : CAP201

Course Instructor :Miss Ramandeep Kaur Date of Allotment : 02/09/2012 Students Roll No: A23 Date of submission : 02/21/2012 Section No. :D1003

Declaration: I declare that this assignment is my individual work. I have not copied from any other students work or from any other source except where due acknowledgment is made explicitly in the text, nor has any part been written for me by another person.

Students Signature : Sachin

kumar

sharma

Evaluators comments: _____________________________________________________________ Marks obtained : ___________ out of ______________________ Content of Homework should start from this page only:

Q1: What drawbacks present in OSI model lead to the development and implementation of TCP/ IP Model?
Ans. The Following drawbacks are there present in OSI model lead to the development and implementation of TCP/IP Model.

The Upper Layers

The Session layer


The Session layer permits two parties to hold ongoing communications called a session across a network. Not found in TCP/IP model

The Presentation Layer


The Presentation Layer handles data format information for networked communications. This is done by converting data into a generic format that could be understood by both sides. Not found in TCP/IP model

The Application Layer


The Application Layer is the top layer of the reference model. It provides a set of interfaces for applications to obtain access to networked services as well as access to the kinds of network services that support applications directly.

Transport Layer

Transport is responsible for creating and maintaining the basic end-to-end connection between communicating open systems,

TCP/IP Transport Layer


TCP provides reliable data transmission UDP is useful in many applications eg. Where data needs to be broadcasted or multicasted

Network vs. Internet

Connectionless Network Service Both OSI and TCP/IP support a connectionless network service: OSI as an alternative to network connections and TCP/IP as the only way in use.

Data link / Physical vs. Subnet

These 2 layers of the OSI correspond directly to the subnet layer of the TCP/IP model. Majority of the time, the lower layers below the Interface or Network layer of the TCP/IP model are seldom or rarely discussed. The TCP/IP model does nothing but to high light the fact the host has to connect to the network using some protocol so it can send IP packets over it. Because the protocol used is not defines, it will vary from host to host and network to network

Q:2 Why there is a need of networking? If we need to establish a network of 30 computers which topology would you adopt and why?
Ans) Networking is Important for the following person:-

File sharing: Have you ever needed to access a file stored on another computer? A network makes it easy for everyone to access the same file and prevents people from accidentally creating different versions. Printer sharing: If you use a computer, chances are you also use a printer. With a network, several computers can share the same printer. Although you might need a more expensive printer to handle the added workload, it's still cheaper to use a network printer than to connect a separate printer to every computer in your office. Communication and collaboration: It's hard for people to work together if no one knows what anyone else is doing. A network allows employees to share files, view other people's work, and exchange ideas more efficiently. In a larger office, you can use e-mail and instant messaging tools to communicate quickly and to store messages for future reference. Organization: A variety of scheduling software is available that makes it possible to arrange meetings without constantly checking everyone's schedules. This software usually includes other helpful features,Such as shared address books and to-do lists

If we need to establish a network of 30 computers than we can use tree Topology?


Tree Topology integrates the characteristics of Star and Bus Topology. Earlier we saw how in Physical Star network Topology, computers (nodes) are connected by each other through central hub. And we also saw in Bus Topology, work station devices are connected by the common cable called Bus. After understanding these two network configurations, we can discuss tree topology better. In Tree Topology, the number of Star networks are connected using Bus. This main cable seems like a main stem of a tree, and other star networks as the branches. It is also called Expanded Star Topology. Ethernet protocol is commonly used in this type of topology. The diagram below will make it clear.

Tree Topology

Advantages of Tree Topology


1. It is an extension of Star and bus Topologies, so in networks where these topologies can't be implemented individually for reasons related to scalability, tree topology is the best alternative. 2. Expansion of Network is possible and easy. 3. Here, we divide the whole network into segments (star networks), which can be easily managed and maintained. 4. Error detection and correction is easy. 5. Each segment is provided with dedicated point-to-point wiring to the central hub. 6. If one segment is damaged, other segments are not affected.

Disadvantages of Tree Topology


1. Because of its basic structure, tree topology, relies heavily on the main bus cable, if it breaks whole network is crippled. 2. As more and more nodes and segments are added, the maintenance becomes difficult. 3. Scalability of the network depends on the type of cable used. When we consider the advantage and disadvantage than we can easily understand.

Q:3 Which are the transmission media available in the market? Which one is the most appropriate to establish a connection between two LANs in two different buildings? Why?

Ans) TRANSMISSION MEDIA available in the market:The means through which data is transformed from one place to another is called transmission or communication media. There are two categories of transmission media used in computer communications.
BOUNDED/GUIDED MEDIA UNBOUNDED/UNGUIDED MEDIA

1. BOUNDED MEDIA: Bounded media are the physical links through which signals are confined to narrow path. These are also called guide media. Bounded media are made up o a external conductor (Usually Copper) bounded by jacket material. Bounded media are great for LABS because they offer high speed, good security and low cast. However, some time they cannot be used due distance communication. Three common types of bounded media are used of the data transmission. These are
Coaxial Cable Twisted Pairs Cable Fiber Optics Cable

COAXIAL CABLE: Coaxial cable is very common & widely used commutation media. For example TV wire is usually coaxial. Coaxial cable gets its name because it contains two conductors that are parallel to each other. The center conductor in the cable is usually copper. The copper can be either a solid wire or stranded martial. Here the most common coaxial standards.
50-Ohm RG-7 or RG-11 : used with thick Ethernet. 50-Ohm RG-58 : used with thin Ethernet 75-Ohm RG-59 : used with cable television 93-Ohm RG-62 : used with ARCNET.

Twisted Pair Cable:The most popular network cabling is Twisted pair. It is light weight, easy to install, inexpensive and support many different types of network. It also supports the speed of 100 mps.Twisted pair cabling is made of pairs of solid or stranded copper twisted along each other. The twists are done to reduce vulnerably to EMI and cross talk. There are two types of twisted pairs cabling 1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) 2. Shielded twisted pair (STP) 1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) UTP is more common. It can be either voice grade or data grade depending on the condition. UTP cable normally has an impedance of 100 ohm. UTP cost less than STP and easily available due to its many use. There are five levels of data cabling Category 1 These are used in telephone lines and low speed data cable. Category 2 These cables can support up to 4 mps implementation. Category 3 These cable supports up to 16 mps and are mostly used in 10 mps. Category 4 These are used for large distance and high speed. It can support 20mps. Category 5 This is the highest rating for UTP cable and can support up to 100mps. UTP cables consist of 2 or 4 pairs of twisted cable. Cable with 2 pair use RJ-11 connector and 4 pair cable use RJ-45 connector. 2. Shielded twisted pair (STP) It is similar to UTP but has a mesh shielding thats protects it from EMI which allows for higher transmission rate. IBM has defined category for STP cable. Type 1 STP features two pairs of 22-AWG Type 2 This type include type 1 with 4 telephone pairs Type 6 This type feature two pairs of standard shielded 26-AWG Type 7 This type of STP consist of 1 pair of standard shielded 26-AWG Type 9 This type consist of shielded 26-AWG wire

Fibber Optics
Fiber optic cable uses electrical signals to transmit data. It uses light. In fiber optic cable light only moves in one direction for two way communication to take place a second connection must be made between the two devices. It is actually two stands of cable. Each stand is responsible for one direction of communication. A laser at one device sends pulse of light through this cable to other device. These pulses translated into 1s and 0s at the other end.

Advantages Of Fiber Optic Cable: Fast


Low attenuation No EMI interference

Disadvantages Fiber Optics: Very costly


Hard to install

Q:4 The data link layer of OSI reference model certify the correct receiving of the data packets to the destination. Prove the above statement to be true with appropriate reasons.
Ans. :There are the following reason to prove the statement true : The main task of the data link layer to provide the line which a pairs to be free from undetected transmission error . This layer backup the input data frame transmit them frames accordingly and sequentially process the acknowledgement frame. To define the frame boundaries. The last task of layer fast transmit from drowning as a slow receiver.

When we consider that points we can say that data link layer of OSI model the correct receipt of the data packets to the destination.

Q:5 why do we call internet as a connectionless Network? Give reasons to support your answer.
Ans. Packet-switched describes the type of network in which relatively small units of data called packets are routed through a network based on the destination address contained within each packet. Breaking communication down into packets allows the same data path to be shared among many users in the network. This type of communication between sender and receiver is known as connectionless (rather than dedicated). Most traffic over the Internet uses packet switching and the Internet is basically a connectionless network.

Connectionless Does not require a session connection between sender and receiver. The sender simply starts sending packets (called datagrams) to the destination. This service does not have the reliability of the connection-oriented method, but it is useful for periodic burst transfers. Neither system must maintain state information for the systems that they send transmission to or receive transmission from. A connectionless network provides minimal services.

That reasons we can say that internet is a totally call internet as a connectionless Network.

Q:6 Compare the transmission speed and quality of optical fibre and the broadband coaxial cable.
Ans. These are the following comparsion :-

optical fibre

coaxial cable.

Optical fibre cable have higher bandwidth

co-axial cabel have less bandwidthas compare to Optical fibre

. co-axial have less information carrying capacity But fiber optics carry more information as compre than the optaical fibre to coaxial cable
optical fibre Capable extremely high speed optical fibre price is very High overall the quality of optical fibre is good But coaxial capable Up to 10Mbps capacity But the coaxial price is Low cost,so overall the coaxial cable quality is not good as compare to optical fibre

Optical fibre are Very hard to install

But cozxial cable is Easy to install

Q:7 How we are using a Public switched telephone networks to carry all our digital contents? Also explain the hardware requirements.
Ans.

The Public Switched Telephone Network:-

The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), also known as Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS), is the wired phone system over which landline telephone calls are made. The PSTN relies on circuit switching. To connect one phone to another, the phone call is routed through numerous switches operating on a local, regional, national or international level. The connection established between the two phones is called a circuit. in the early days, phone calls traveled as analog signals across copper wire. Every phone call needed its own dedicated copper wire connecting the two phones. That's why you needed operators' assistance in making calls. The operators sat at a switchboard, literally connecting one piece of copper wire to another so that the call could travel across town or across the country.

Hardware Requirement: Cable Component Power supplies Facility component Clock or clock synchronization