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Running head: MANTUNGTONG TAYO (MAG-USAP TAYO)

Mantungtong Tayo (Mag-usap Tayo): The Negotiation Process between the Community and the Barangay Council of San Isidro Norte in Binmaley, Pangasinan regarding Local Health Programs

Hope R. Bongolan, Maxlee Y. Merida, & Carleen G. Reyes University of the Philippines-Diliman

MANTUNGTONG TAYO (MAG-USAP TAYO)

Abstract Participation in initiatives (e.g., negotiations and dialogues) that aim to improve the quality of life in a community offers the best guarantee that more adequate actions will be taken for the community's benefit by the authorities, such as the implementation of more appropriate barangay programs. This study looked into the whole negotiation process between the community and the local government unit of Barangay San Isidro Norte in Binmaley, Pangasinan regarding the communitys health-related issues, and the local government units means of disseminating information about local health programs conceptualized in response to those issues. In-depth interviews were conducted with the residents and the officials of the barangay. The study found that direct verbal communication is used by both the residents and the barangay officials in expressing their health-related needs and disseminating information about local health programs, respectively. Negotiations operate mainly on a personal level; most residents only express their own needs and do not include those that concern the entire community. The decisions in making local health programs are dependent on the barangay officials initiatives since there is a lack of involvement from the community. The findings raise serious questions regarding the utilization of communication as a tool for community development in the barangay.

MANTUNGTONG TAYO (MAG-USAP TAYO) Introduction

Under the general idea that people know what is best for them and their localities because they have common values, loyalties, and concerns (Einsiedel, 1968), members of a community constantly strive to improve their quality of life by being deeply involved in their environment. With this goal in mind, they feel the need to interact and share perceptions and interpretations about their current state among themselves. Communication, a fundamentally social process that makes organized action possible, plays a very vital role in this, as all their joint actions is based on shared meanings conveyed through it (Habito-Cadiz, 1968; Kunczik, 1992). There are some who take responsibility in managing their communities problems by negotiating with those higher up what they believe is best for everyone, as development is an internal process that cannot be done to or for them by outside groups (Habito-Cadiz, 1968; Staley, 2001). Negotiationa dialogue that takes place between different parties in order to satisfy the interests of everyone involved becomes a tool for the community in achieving its aim of bringing about positive change in their environment, attaining holistic growth (Development Research Initiatives, Inc., 2005; Habito-Cadiz, 1968; Torry, 2008). It paves the way for community development, a circular social action process brought about by members of a community which takes into consideration the concerns of the communities themselves by involving them in the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of programs for the welfare of their localities. (Development Research Initiatives, Inc., 2005; Labonne & Chase, 2009a). It is a process by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of the governmental authorities to improve economic, social, and cultural conditions of communities, to integrate these communities into the life of the nation, and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress (as cited in Einsiedel, 1968, p. 7). At the center of community development is participation (Zadeh & Ahmad, 2010), which can offer the best guarantee that better decisions will be made and more adequate actions will be taken. When members of a community play a considerable part in dialogues that gather substantial information for a futureor even an ongoingprogram that can enhance their quality of life, authorities are more likely to

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come up with programs that are more efficient and effective, reducing the risk of failure (Zadeh & Ahmad, 2010). Because it assures the stakeholders commitmentas they own the decisions (Labonne & Chase, 2009a; Zadeh & Ahmad, 2010)peoples participation ensures the programs social acceptability (Habito-Cruz, 1968) and increases the communitys enthusiasm for the programs implementation and maintenance. Unfortunately, in the Philippines, participatory development was termed by Okamura as pseudo-participatory because the beneficiaries are merely given token participation and simply execute plans organized by the government (Habito-Cadiz, 1968); regular direct communication with the communities themselves are not very common, and these are done through informal channels and outside office hours. Moreover, mayors still have the final say on the decisions made because they are in control of the government funds (Malone, 1995), especially if the community is equal, poor, or uninterested in dialogues with the government; in contrast, Labonne and Chases study show that it is neither the barangay officials nor the local elites but the households in the middle of the village wealth distribution and those more involved in barangay assemblies who are more likely to have their opinions represented in negotiations (2009b). A good two-way information flow throughout the entire process is crucial to program formation and implementation because only when information is properly disseminated can they be truly understood by people; if the information is completely grasped, the program has a higher chance for success (Development Research Initiatives, Inc., 2005). In Philippine rural communities, there are various patterns of propagating information news about programs within barangays (Mercado et al., n.d.)most of which rely on word of mouth or other very traditional means. For instance, in Balatong B, information about a program is received by the barangay captain, who shares it to his relatives, friends, and neighbors; and they then share it to other members of the community. In Salvacion II, extension workers let informal leaders know about a program, and they share this information in organizational meetings of men, women, and the youth; and these people share it with the rest of the barangay. This old-fashioned set-up of using solely interpersonal communication to get the word around about community programs takes a great deal of effort because they do not utilize modern media or other types of mediated communication.

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This definitely requires collective actionas with the entire process of community developmentand it greatly entails participation from the community to accomplish the members goal of addressing their needs and other societal issues. Concerns regarding health, in particular, should be given more attention, as the health sector is said to be one of the areas sought to be enhanced by the 1991 government decentralization in the Philippines, which shifted the power to municipalities (Ramiro et al., 2001). It was a way for local government units (LGU) to better address the health-related needs of their constituents, and it supposedly improved the quality, transparency, and participation of the community in decision-making regarding local health programs (Bossert & Beauvais, 2002); nevertheless, that move did not seem to improve the state of health in the country due to the LGUs lack of funding to implement proposed health services (Ramiro et al., 2001). A case in point is the construction of community health centers, whichto some extenthave been helpful in providing health services to underprivileged members of localities, especially in rural areas, because most of them are not capable of shouldering hospital expenses (Whelan, 2010); however, health workers are only able to administer starter doses of prescribed medications because some cannot afford the full doses since 80 percent of the people live below the poverty line (Concha et al., 2003; Malone, 1995). It is important to note how LGUs are trying to alleviate health-related issues through active negotiations with its residents, as developments regarding the maintenance of every Filipinos health are imperative in attaining poverty reduction and sustainable development because a strong economy is no good without its healthy citizens. Also, knowing how barangay officials disseminate information on local health programs conceptualized to answer those needs is also essential because being able to think of appropriate programs is not enougheffective implementation is necessary for community development to truly work. In spite of this, no researches have been made on either the negotiation process or the dissemination of information on programs conceptualized in response to the communitys needs. As such, the current studyentitled Mantungtong Tayo or lets talk in Pangalatok, the main dialect in Pangasinanaimed to discover the negotiation process between the community and the LGU of

MANTUNGTONG TAYO (MAG-USAP TAYO)

Barangay San Isidro Norte in Binmaley, Pangasinan in relation to health issues, and to explore the LGUs means of communication in disseminating information about local health programs in response to those issues.

Framework Since one communication theory cannot adequately cover the phenomenon studied, the researchers took concepts from three theoriesnamely, Stuart Halls Seminal Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Social Exchange Theoryto come up with an integrated framework. According to Stuart Hall, there are three ways in which understanding a text can take place: dominant reading (full acceptance), negotiated reading (partial acceptance), and oppositional reading (full rejection). This concept acts as a filter for both parties (Chandler, 2001): the community can accept, negotiate, or oppose local health programs being implemented based on how they have interpreted the meanings behind the symbols; conversely, barangay officials can also accept, negotiate, or oppose the petition of the community during negotiations. Meaning making, taken from Symbolic Interactionism, was operationalized as the subjective meanings anchored on ones background. It exists in messages that are being sent by both parties, in which case it was defined as programs and verbal communication. Once a negotiation has been settled, it will then result in an action, operationalized as conformity/defiance to the implemented program. Naturally, if a communitys petition is granted, conformity will follow; however, the opposite will happen if negotiations were unsuccessful, or if the community negatively interprets the meanings attached to a particular program. Equal give and take between parties still serves as the foundation of the operational framework to further emphasize that reciprocity, a concept from the Social Exchange Theory, should always be observed in every section of the negotiation process.

MANTUNGTONG TAYO (MAG-USAP TAYO) Figure 1. Operational Level Model

Methodology A qualitative research design was employed because the problems required a closer look at the nature of activities within the community and involved the construction of meanings. In-depth interviews were conducted with both the community members and the local government officials of Barangay San Isidro Norte in Binmaley, Pangasinan to be able to give a holistic view of the negotiation process, validating statements from main actors from both parties. Separate interview guides were made for the two groups to draw out the necessary information. Maximum variation sampling was employed for the residents, with education as the criterion because of the presumption that locals with varying educational backgrounds make use of different negotiation strategies. On the other hand, snowball sampling was used for the barangay officials, with the barangay captain serving as the point person.

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The data constructed from the informants interviews were organized and analyzed in line with the studys objectives. To fully draw out the findings, verbatim transcriptions were done for all the interviews, and manual grouping was done in order to organize statements according to concepts. Their age, sex, and level of educational attainment were also used as anchors of comparison to be able to fully wring out the relationship of such demographic factors to their responses.

Results & Discussion Profile of Barangay San Isidro Norte A wide range of residents was covered by the researchers in terms of age: almost half of the informants were in their fifties, while the others ages were spread out: 18, 24, 32, 43, and 74 years old. Apparently, age does not significantly determine if negotiations will take place, as the informants who have conveyed issues concerning the entire community have varied ages. Moreover, the residents are well aware and informed of the local health programs despite their age. On another note, the barangay officials are at least in their mid-thirties. This shows that holding a position in the barangay council can be associated with age; older people are assumed to be more experienced and mature, and, therefore, be more able to manage his or her constituents. On the subject of sex, it was found that women are more able to convey their concerns to the barangay officials, and this assertion was reinforced by the barangay captain, who said that those who ask help from him are usually women who need financial help for ultrasound and/or labor assistance. Meanwhile, the dominance of men in the barangay council may be associated with the countrys patriarchal system of governance. Although the researchers were not able to meet all of the officials, the number of men who hold positions in the local government unit is enough basis to say that the barangay is in a patriarchal state. Regarding the barangays economic standing, it can be said that San Isidro Norte has a relatively low standard of living, being a rural and provincial community; thus, what might be small in an urban area is already quite enough for the residents of the locality being studied. However, it must be noted that

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their economic standing does not significantly influence their tendency to negotiate with the barangay officials since the residents who were able to communicate with the local government unit about community-related problems are from varied economic standings. On the other hand, the barangay officials were all classified as well-off; hence, it can be said that financial stability is a prerequisite for an individual to hold public office. This may be attributed to the fact that the barangays internal revenue allotment or IRA, which only amounts to roughly 1.4 million PhP, is literally in their hands; thus, they must be able to rely on their own resources in order to help their constituents without resorting to corrupt acts. With the last socio-demographic factor being educational attainmentand the criterion for the residents maximum variation samplingit was found to play a vital role because those who are able to better understand the communitys needs are the ones who negotiate in order to work out the true issues of the community; and just as presumed, those who were able to receive a relatively high level of education are the ones who are able to negotiate community-wide concerns with the barangay officials. As for the authorities, it can also be posited that the level of education they received can influence their fitness for public office, as the barangay captain was found to have graduated from college.

Health-related Issues Five concerns regarding the communitys health were raised: (1) common illnesses and immunization; (2) cleanliness; (3) hypertension; (4) malnutrition; and (5) family planning. Common illnesses and immunization are usual problems, especially with children and the elderly; they are the most prone to ailments because their immune systems are not yet or no longer strong enough to be resistant against infections. Most of the informants mentioned that they needed medication for cough, colds, and fever at some point in the past. Kids were also vaccinated to avoid preventable illnesses. Cleanliness is a health-related issue as well, as a polluted environment may lead to the aforementioned sicknesses and diseases related to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) such as

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leptospirosis. Dengue is a specific example of a WASH-related sickness, and it is widespread in areas with unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation, and inadequate hygiene practices. Fortunately, there have been no reported cases in the barangay, as confirmed by the barangay captain. Nevertheless, the community is aware of the dengue outbreak in the country and is cooperating with the barangay officials in preventing the sickness through fogging and seminars. Another condition the residents look out for is hypertension or high blood pressure, which is more likely to develop in older people. The elderly informants pay close attention to their blood pressure, getting it checked whenever possible, because having high blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. One informant shared, Yong mister ko, high blood... nagpapa-BP siya diyan sa health center... Gusto ko mino-monitor ang BP niya. Di ba pag high blood, daily magpapa-BP para alam niya yong kilos niya, [kung] magpapagod ba siya o ano. [My husband has a high blood pressure... He has his BP checked at the local health center... I want to monitor his BP daily so he would know what to do, if its okay to tire himself out or what.] (Resident, F, 50) Malnutrition is also prevalent in the impoverished locality, as not all of the residents are able to eat three complete and healthy meals a day.Mahirap talaga [ang barangay namin]. Nagkakaroon talaga ng food shortage. Masakit mang aminin, pero makikita mo talaga na karamihan ay halos hindi na kumakain ng kumpleto sa isang araw. Tatlong meals, hindi na nila nakukumpleto yon. [Our community is poor. There really is a shortage of food. It hurts to admit it, but it is apparent that most of them do not eat three complete meals a day.] (Captain, M, 49) Lastly, family planning or conceiving a plan on when and how many children a couple is going to have, preventing unwanted pregnancies, has become the main problem of the community; however, it is only perceived to be as such by the barangay captain. According to him, residents do not think of it as an issue because they believe in Gods command to go forth and multiply. He attributes this ignorance to the residents lack of education: Yan ang problema satin. Kasi sila, wala silang education... Hindi nila alam ano yong mga modern technologies para sa family planning... Syempre akala nila hindi yon ang cause ng

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paghihirap nila... Wala silang trabaho. Wala silang fixed [way] kung paano nila bubuhayin yong bata. Kaya ang style dito, pagkapanganak, papakainin lang nila ng two years, papakawalan na. [That is the problemtheyre not educated. They do not know the modern technologies for family planning, which they do not believe is the cause of their poverty. They do not have jobs. They dont have a sure plan to be able to take care of their children. Thats why in this community, after they give birth, the parents would just feed them for two years and then let them fend for themselves.] (Captain, M, 49)

Negotiation Strategies and Tactics Negotiators in the barangay can be classified into two types, determined by the goal of the negotiation: the self-centered and the altruistic. The self-centered, as the name suggests, cares only about his or her immediate environments health concerns; informants categorized as such went to barangay officials in order to address their familys needs regarding medication for ailments and monetary needs for checkups, among others. A case in point is one informant who approached the barangay captain in his home because she needed personal financial assistance. These kind of negotiators do not suggest sustainable local health programs with barangay officials; they simply express their immediate health needs instead. This is consistent with Timbermans belief that the Philippines predominant culture of poverty compels its deprived citizens to take interest in immediate benefits, as opposed to long-term gains (1991). The altruistic, on the other hand, are those who communicate with barangay officials to resolve issues that concern not only themselves but the entire community as well. Informants classified as such conveyed their interest in large-scale barangay programs (e.g., drainage system) and their concerns regarding the security within the community. Consistent with the studies in the related literature, negotiations are done through informal channels and sometime even outside office hours. The residents simply go directly to the barangay captains house because of the urgency and severity of a certain need. When asked how she approaches the barangay officials, one informant answered, Kapag araw kasi, andiyan sila [sa barangay hall]...

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kapag gabi na, sa bahay. Pwedeng puntahan mo sila sa bahay, Malalapitan mo sila. [They are at the barangay hall during the day. At night, we can easily approach them in their own homes.] (Resident, F, 29) In line with the utilization of informal channels in the negotiation process, there is no legitimized process that the residents have to follow if they wish to communicate with barangay officials, especially the barangay captain. Walang process yan. Wala yong hierarchy na pupunta muna sa purok leader, tapos yong purok leader, ia-ano niya sa barangay kagawad, tapos yong barangay kagawad to kapitan. Mali, kapitan kaagad, e. [There is no process, no hierarchy. The residents do not go to the purok leader, who then supposedly goes to a barangay kagawad, and then the barangay captain. No, they approach the barangay captain directly.] (Captain, M, 49) The community perceives the barangay captain as its access to the higher ups because he or she has the power and capability to ask help from other institutions, such as the Department of Social Welfare and Development and the Municipality of Binmaley, Pangasinan. The barangay captain commented that in utilizing direct verbal communication in negotiations, those seeking for help are able to inject emotions into the discourse unlike in formal written communication: Umiiyak ditong pumupunta yan. E kung pwede lang talagang maresolba yong

problema nila, pahintuin mo yong iyak sa pamamagitan lang ng maliit na bagay o kaya sa magandang pakiki-usap. [They come here, crying. If only I can solve all their problems, make them stop crying by giving them a small amount or talking to them.] (Captain, M, 49) Some even use their children to fish for sympathy so they can get what they are asking for. As compared to formal written proposals, informal and direct verbal communication can be sparked at any moment. One kagawad said that formal written letters are often used in big projects and solicitations, such as Christmas caroling; hence, it is not usually used by the community in addressing their immediate health needs. Social distance also played an important role in the negotiation process, as it determines if negotiation will even take place. Informants who have close ties with barangay officials are the only ones proactively involved in the negotiation process regarding programs that are deemed important for the entire community; those who are socially distant from the local authorities do not suggest or have little

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interest in bringing up their issues concerning the community to the barangay officials. One informant who is friends with the barangay captain recounted: Consultant ako ng barangay... pumupunta sila dito kung saka-sakaling may ire-report silang problema. Pumupunta lang sila dito sa bahay para tanungin ako... Parang magkaibigan kasi, actually. Yong kapitan dito, kumpare ko e. Tinulungan ko kasi siya kaya nanalo. [Im a consultant of the barangay. They go to me if ever they need to report a problem, to ask me something. We are friends, actually. I am a close friend of the barangay captain because I helped him win.] (Resident, M, 50)

Local Health Programs as Negotiation Feedback Knowing how the local authorities perceive and interpret the communitys health-related needs is essential because it is part of the decoding process during negotiations, and it serves as the foundation for the creation of local health programsthe concretized feedback of barangay officials regarding the communitys concerns. Aside from the residents expressed needs taken collectively by the barangay officials, hearsay from barangay health workers (BHW) is another source from which the local government unit gathers information about the communitys health-related concerns. These BHWs serve as the barangay captains additional eyes in looking after his constituents pressing health needs because he cannot check up on each and every resident himself. In addition to the BHWs as the barangay officials source of information on the communitys needs, the barangay captain himself inquires about the community whenever he can. He believes that he should be aware of the happenings regarding his constituents, and should be directly involved in handling their health needs. Yan talaga ang [role] ng kapitan: siya ang directly involved doon sa mga tao. Halos kapamilya na nila yan, e. [Thats the barangay captains role: he is the one directly involved with people because they are like family.] (Captain, M, 49)

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Through these, several local health programs were implemented based on the information collected from the said sources, each one corresponding to a certain health-related issue raised by the communityfree checkups, medication and vaccines, cleanup drives, fogging, feeding programs, and family planning seminars, to name a few. However, it is important to note that there is clearly a lack of involvement on the communitys part in the development of the said local health programs, and this finding is consistent with the studies mentioned in the related literature. Only personal pleas are evident in negotiations. This is so not because residents do not explicitly express their concerns regarding the communitys health-related issues; therefore, no dialogue ensues between the residents and the barangay officials concerning programs that can be conceptualized to best meet their needs. This lack of involvement can also be rooted in the communitys trust in their barangay officials. Some informants believe that the local authorities are capable of carrying out their duties, which include implementing local health programs that the entire community will benefit from. Since the residents trust them enough to perform such responsibilities, they tend not to state their problems about their health. For instance, one informant thinks the barangay officials are able to answer their health-related needs because weekly, andiyan sila [sa health center]... Kapag may humihingi ng gamot, andiyan naman sila. Basta sinabi mong kailangan mo ng gamot, binibigay nila. [They are always there at the health center every week to give out medicine if someone asks for it. Just tell them you need medicine, and they will give it to you.] (Resident, F, 29) Consequently, the decisions regarding the making of local health programs are usually dependent on the barangay officials initiative. When asked if the community negotiates its concerns and gives out suggestions for future programs, the barangay captain said, Yong may magrereklamo pa, hihintayin mo pa yong reklamo tapos tsaka ka lang mag-aaksyon? Hindi, hindi sa amin... Inuunahan na namin yong problema. [Well wait for someone to complain before we take action? No, not in our community. We take steps in order to prevent the problem.] (Captain, M, 49) It is the authorities themselves who think of

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what the main health-related problems are and how to best address those within their limitations because the residents are not as involved in the negotiation process.

Information Dissemination of Local Health Programs After identifying and interpreting all the needs of the community, the barangay officials, in turn, address these through the implementation of community development programsthe encoding process of the local government unit in the overall negotiation process. However, their power to implement comes with the responsibility of communicating with the residents; information dissemination, then, becomes a tool for negotiations to persist. Furthermore, the level of awareness may affect the communitys reception and participation in the program being raised by the barangay. This can be increased by employing effective means of information dissemination. Though modernization is ubiquitous in urban areas, barangay officials of Binmaley still observe the traditional ways of communication, with the voice of the communicator being the only medium. Considering the economic standing of most members of the community, this becomes the most appropriate means of communication since they cannot even sustain their basic needs, and modern technologies such as the radio and television may be affordable to a few. This eliminates the use of other media in information dissemination. Though using print media seams feasible, it will be difficult and ineffective, as it might cater only to a small portion of the community because of the level of illiteracy due to the lack of education as a result of poverty. One particular strategy being employed by the local authorities is the barangay assembly, which is usually help every March and October at the barangay gym. It aims to accommodate the whole community and raise the members awareness, as shared by the informants: Doon na sinasabi yong mga ganitong projects... Magkakaroon tayo ng medical-dental mission na nagmumula sa NGO tulad ng Rotary Club. Sinasabi na doon para alam nila. [This is when projects are announced. We will be having medical-dental missions from NGOs like the Rotary Club. They tell us so the community would know.]

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(Resident, M, 50) However, the attendance of all the residents is not assured, as some are reluctant to leave their homes because they cannot leave their children, among other reasons. An alternative way of communicating with the residents is through house-to-house visits of BHWs or barangay patrol, as the residents call it. This is parallel with Mercado et al.s study wherein there really are people responsible in dissemination information through traditional verbal communication. Using megaphones, the BHWs would announce upcoming programs to almost every house in the community: Mayroong mga miyembro dito ng BHW. Labindalawa sila, umiikot... Kung schedule ng Huwebes ng mga BHW, pupunta sila diyan [sa sekretarya], kukuha ng gamot, tapos ilalagay sa [health] center. [There are twelve BHWs who go around the community. Every Thursday, they would go to the secretary, get medications, which would be taken to the health center.] (Resident, F, 74) However, the BHWs are not able to reach all the residences in the community, as mentioned by an informant: Paminsan, pumupunta; paminsan, hindi. Pero madalas, hindi kasi asa likod kami... doon malapit sa dagat. [Sometimes, they would come; sometimes, they would not. But more often than not, they would not because our house is by the sea.] (Resident, F, 43) This shows that being equipped with these means of information dissemination is not enough. The execution of these means still determines the success of instilling awareness in the community

Participation and Negotiation Motivators One of the basic premises of symbolic interactionism is that people act on the basis of the meanings they attach to certain things. Consequently, in this process of decoding and meaning-making, the residents filter the messages they receive and respond according to how they interpret the programs. These responses can be either full acceptance or rejection, as pointed out in the operational framework; there is no partial acceptance since there is no observed negotiations occur regarding issues of the entire community, especially after the implementation of the programs. The residents needs are an essential aspect that influences their interpretation of local health programs. If they sense that a particular program will satisfy their needs, there is a tendency for them to

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participate more in that program (full acceptance). A certain example would be those who constantly take part in the feeding program, which helps lessen the cases of malnutrition; those underprivileged families are more willing to participate because they cannot provide enough food for the family due to financial instability. Most of the needs mentioned by informants are physiological ones (e.g., food, shelter, medicine, money). Once these needs are not met, they will respond more positively and participate more actively in programs that satisfy these basic needs; the community will join only if the intensity and urgency to fulfill a particular need is extremely high. Moreover, residents tend to support a program more if it gives them immediate benefits; otherwise, they will simply be aware of the program but take no actions. Education also plays a vital part in how residents interpret local health programs being implemented by barangay officials. It serves as a lens through which they can see things, such as that of a professional photographers: the higher the level of education received, the wider their lens become when perceiving barangay programs. Residents who are relatively uneducated perceive a particular program as unnecessary and harmful to them (full rejection). For instance, the barangay captain pointed out that people in the community are not receptive to his family planning program because they are afraid of it: Hindi sila interesado [sa family planning program] kasi takot din sila. Takot daw sila kumain ng mga [birth control] pills. Takot silang magpa-ligate... kasi nga kulang sila sa edukasyon. [They are not interested in the family planning program because they are scared. They are scared of taking birth control pills. They are scared of having a ligation because they are not educated.] (Captain, M, 49) Education also becomes a basis for implicit physical segregation within the community. The condition of houses improves as they are located farther from the ocean. One informant argued that those who live by the ocean are poorer, while those who live farther are well-off: Di naman sa nakakaangat, pero yong mga skwater sa area, malapit sa dagat. [It is not that we are better, but the underprivileged in the area live near the sea.] (Resident, M, 50) This segregation can also be rooted in the type of livelihood the two different social classes have. Because the poors livelihood consists mainly of fishing, it is imperative that

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they live closer to the coast for maximum efficiency; on the other hand, those who are well-off live farther from the coast because their work is probably nearer to the city. Lastly, religious and traditional beliefs can substantially influence how residents decode local health programs. This specifically applies to the family planning program of the barangay. The barangay captain commented that only a few residents attend his seminars, and he slightly coerces them just to go to these discussions. Coercion is deemed necessary because some are so attached to their religious beliefs that they decode it as something that is against their religious background and reject it completely: Ang nasa isip lang nila, yong nasa Bible na go forth and multiply. [They are only thinking of the saying in the Bible, go forth and multiply.] (Captain, M, 49) This rejection may be rooted in the lack of negotiation between the community and the barangay officials; since the residents do not negotiate their health-related concerns with barangay officials, the latter are unable to take into account their religious beliefs to the conception of local health programs.

Conclusion In this qualitative investigation, it was learned that Barangay San Isidro Norte in Binmaley, Pangasinan is a poor community located near the coastline, with fishing as its main livelihood; most of the residents earn less than 10,000 PhP monthly. The main health concerns of the community are common illnesses (e.g., cough, colds, and fever), immunization, cleanliness, hypertension, malnutrition, and family planning. As part of the communitys negotiation strategies and tactics on both personal petitions and community-wide concerns, the residents use informal and direct verbal communication in conveying personal need; through this, the resident seeking help is able to inject emotions in order to add validity to his or her pressing need. They simply go straight to any barangay official since there is no legitimized process needed to follow, as there is no hierarchy at the barangay level.

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Barangay officials gather information about the communitys needs through the residents expressed needs taken collectively, hearsays from the barangay health workers, and the barangay captains personal inquiries with his constituents. When they have already conceptualized a local health program based on the collected information from the community, the barangay officials disseminate information about the program through direct verbal communication as well. The barangay health workers would go around and inform the community on the upcoming local health program. Barangay officials resort to traditional methods of information dissemination because of the absence of technologies that can make the process more efficient. The residents needs, educational attainment, and religious and traditional beliefs are underlying aspects that play important roles in molding the communitys interpretations, and, in turn, affect their reception of and compliance with the local health programs. With Stuart Halls Seminal Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, the researchers were able to identify significant concepts on how the local government unit perceives the needs of the community, which leads to the construction of appropriate programs, the communitys interpretation of barangay programs, and how their interpretations play a role in their participation in the said programs. However, the concept of reciprocity from the Social Exchange Theory was not observed in the relationship between the community and barangay officials in the conducted study. The decisions in making local health programs are dependent on the barangay officials initiatives since there is a lack of involvement from the community. Negotiations between the community and the local government unit are not as prevalent as anticipated. They operate mainly on a personal level; residents are only concerned with their own needs, and they are not vocal about what they may believe are urgent health issues in the community.

Recommendations Future researchers can improve on the methodology used. To gain more insights, interviews should be more exhaustive in discovering the nature of the negotiation process. Barangay health workers, midwives, and even volunteers from the community who may give new perspectives on the study can be

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interviewed. One crucial limitation of the current study was a language barrier. It is suggested that future researchers concentrate on localities that consist mainly of residents who speak a language or dialect the researchers are articulate in so more insights can be obtained from different informants. In utilizing maximum variation sampling, other criteria may be used which could influence the community. In a practical sense of fostering community development, both the residents and the barangay officials should be proactively engaged in dialogues between and among them. This will help the local authorities to respond effectively to the communitys needs and not just depend on hearsays. It should be the local government units goal to improve the means of communication in the community regarding the identification of issues that should be resolved, which can lead to community development. Barangay officials can make use of traditional communications full potential in disseminating information by holding assembly meetings more frequently; in encouraging the residents to attend and participate in the meetings, simple incentives can be given away to them. Barangay officials may hold activities, such as election of programs, which makes the proposals decision-making process more transparent, beneficial and participative to the community. More importantly, they may start using modern technologies in raising awareness among the residents. More efficient means of disseminating information about community programs the barangay officials have come up with should be employed through the help of mediated communication and modern media. This may be a long-term process for development, especially for a rural area like Binmaley, but it will be more beneficial for the community in the long run. Considering most of the residents health-related needs have to do with financial assistance, allocating funds or a certain portion of the budget will be highly beneficial to finance local health programs in response to these concerns (e.g., feeding program and free medications). Provided this fixed source of funds, there is no need for barangay officials to draw their own money in sustaining the residents needs. Also, an allotment of funds for the use of media in disseminating information is recommended.

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Lastly, education in the barangay should be given more attention, as it is one of the major influences on the residents perception of their needs and participation in community programs.

MANTUNGTONG TAYO (MAG-USAP TAYO) References Bossert, T., & Beauvais, J. (2002). Decentralization of health systems in Ghana, Zambia, Uganda and the Philippines: a comparative analysis of decision space. Health Policy and Planning, 17 (1), 14-31. Bryman, A. (1988). The intellectual underpinnings of qualitative research. In A. Bryman, Quantity and quality in social research (pp. 50-61). New York: Routledge. Cardinosa, G. (2007). Pangasinan: Richest province so poor. Philippine Daily Inquirer, 22 (361), 19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Global WASH-related diseases and contaminants. Retrieved from http://cdc.gov/healthywater/global/wash_diseases.html Chandler, D. (2001). Semiotics for beginners. Retrieved from Aberystwyth University: http://aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/sem08c.html Concha, A., Ramirez, A., Dela Fuente, M., Guilaran, B., Kunnang-Antonio, N., Sylio, A., Somoso, A., Albutra, R., & Clet, C. (2003). Concepts of health and health needs of suburban residents in a developing country. Asia Pacific Family Medicine, 2, 107-113. Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 875. Development Research Initiatives, Inc. (2005). What determines the policy impact of local negotiations? A comparative study in the Philippines [FAO-PPLG study]. Retrieved from https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&srcid=0B4YV6_yH1DlsYjN mNmE5MmYtOWQxYi00NDhlLWJiNjAtYTgzNWYyODU1YTY5&hl=en_US Einsiedel, L. (1968). Success and failure in selected community development programs in Batangas. Quezon City: Community Development Research Council, University of the Philippines-Diliman. Gebbie, K., Rosenstock, L., & Hernandez, L. (2003). Who will keep the public healthy: Educating public health professionals in the 21st century. Washington, D.C.: National Academics Press. Habito-Cadiz, M.C. (1968). Communication and participatory development: A review of concepts, approaches, and lessons. Laguna: Institute of Development Communication, University of the Philippines-Los Baos.

MANTUNGTONG TAYO (MAG-USAP TAYO) Kunczik, M. (1992). Development and communication: On the important of communication in the development process. Germany: Media and Communication Department, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Labonne, J., & Chase, R. (2009a). Do community-drive development programs enhance social capital: Evidence from the Philippines. Social Welfare and Development Journal, 3 (2), 10-15. Labonne, J., & Chase, R. (2009b). Whos at the wheel when communities drive development: The case of the KALAHI-CIDSS in the Philippines. Social Welfare and Development Journal, 3 (2), 17-24. Littlejohn, S. W., & Foss, K. A. (2008). Theories of human communication. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth. Malone, M. (1995). Philippine programme initiates local empowerment. Alternatives Journal, 21 (2), 15. Mercado, C., Movido, M., Ducusin, R., & Balasoto, L. (n.d.). Communication and adoption in rural development: Philippine Case. Quezon City: Community Development Research Council, University of the Philippines-Diliman. Ramiro, L., Castillo, F., Tan-Torres, T., Torres, C., Tayag, J., Talampas, R., & Hawken, L. (2001). Community participation in local health boards in a decentralized setting: cases from the Philippines. Health Policy and Planning, 16 (2), 61-69. Rollof, M. (2009). Social exchange theory. In S. W. Littlejohn, & K. A. Foss, Theories of human communication (pp. 894-896). Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth Publications. Staley, J. (2001). Responsibility for development: A meeting with villagers in Tamilnad, South India. Asian Affairs, 19 (2), 171-179. Timberman, D. (1991). A changeless land: continuity and change in Philippine politics. New York, USA: M.E. Sharpe, Inc. Torry, A. (2008). Healthy active communities: Creating change in your community. Alberta Centre for Active Living, 10 (1). Warren, J. T. (2009). Audience theories. In S. W. Littlejohn, & K. A. Foss, Theories of human communication (pp. 63-69). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.

MANTUNGTONG TAYO (MAG-USAP TAYO) Whelan, E. (2010). The importance of community health centers. Retrieved from http://americanprogress.org/issues/2010/08/community_health_centers.html Zadeh, B., & Ahmad, N. (2010). Social development, community development, and participation. Journal of US-China Public Administration, 51 (7), 66-69.

APPENDIX A A. Interview Guide for the Community


1. Ano po mga nararanasan ninyong problema pagdating sa kalusugan? O kahit po mga kamag-

anak ninyo?
2. May mga proyekto po ba ang barangay na tumugon sa mga problemang ninyong ito? 3. Paano po ito ipinatutupad ng barangay? Naabutan na po ba kayo ng proyektong ito? 4. Kung wala, papaano niyo po ipanaparating sa barangay na may mga ganito kayong

problema? (Probe for verbal and nonverbal messages; in form of formal petitions, outright/hostile conversations, friendly conversations) Bakit sa ganitong paraan po?
5. Susundin niyo po ba ang mga panuntunin na ito kung ipatupad man ito ng inyong barangay

batay sa inyong mga suhestiyon? Bakit?


6. May ibang mga proyekto po ba ang barangay na tumutugon sa inyong pangangailangang

pangkalusugan?
7. Kung meron, ano ano? Sinusunod niyo po ba ito? Bakit oo? (Probe if answered

nakakabuti) Bakit hindi? (Probe if answer negatively; might be against culture/religion/tradition)


8. Anu-ano po ba yung mga serbisyong pangkalusugan na sa tingin ninyo po ay dapat na

ibinibigay ng barangay?

B. Interview Guide for the Barangay Officials


1. Mayroon po ba kayong mga proyekto na inluunsad para sa komunidad ng Binmaley? Ano-

ano po ito? (Probe for health projects)


2. Meron po bang tungkol sa kalusugan?

3. Paano niyo po ito ipinatupad? Ipapatupad? Pinapatupad? 4. Kamusta naman po ang naging pagtugon ng mga resident e sa proyektong ito? Bakit po kaya

nagging ganito ang kanilang naging pagtugon? Naging epektibo po ba ang proyekto?
5. Paano ninyo po nalalaman na itong mga serbisyo ang kanila pong kailangan? (Probe if

dialogues between the barangay and community exists)


6. Sa paanong paraan po nila ito pinapahayag? Nakikipag-diyalogo po ba ang komunidad sa

inyo? (Formal petition/friendly convo) Bakit po sa ganitong paraan?


7. Tinutugunan ninyo po ba ang ang lahat ng kanilang pangangailangang pangkalusugan batay

sa kanilang mga hinain o suhestiyon o diyalogo? Bakit oo? (Significant/palakasan system) Bakit hindi? (Probe reasons for not implementing all of the commnuitys suggestions; financial constraints/feasibility/insignificant)
8. Sa tingin niyo po ba ay nagagampanan ninyo nang maayos ang inyong tungkulin upang

solusyunan ang mga hinaing ng mga residente pagdating sa mga isyung pangkalusugan?

APPENDIX B A. Personal Information Sheet for Community Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Educational Attainment: Occupation: Aware of Barangay Activities: Sindrell Apostol Female 18 February 25 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan N/A First year college Student Yes

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Educational Attainment: Occupation: Aware of Barangay Activities:

Emilita Ayad Female 59 September 22 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan N/A Grade 6 Mananahi Yes

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Educational Attainment: Occupation: Aware of Barangay Activities:

Rodolfo Cerezo Male 50 December 2 185 San Isidro Norte 25,000 Bachelor of Law Director of Government Yes

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Educational Attainment: Occupation:

Camillo Cruz Male 55 October 29 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan 2,000 Grade 4 Fisherman

Aware of Barangay Activities:

Yes

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Educational Attainment: Occupation: Aware of Barangay Activities:

Lederlesida T. Macanilao Female 50 January 3 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan 3,000 First year college Housewife Yes

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Educational Attainment: Occupation: Aware of Barangay Activities:

Merna Rosario Female 32 August 8 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan 1,500 High school graduate Housekeeper No

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Educational Attainment: Occupation: Aware of Barangay Activities:

Manilyn Soriano Female 24 October 31 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan 2, 000 High school N/A Yes

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Educational Attainment:

Marilyn Soriano Female 43 March 29 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan N/a Elementary

Occupation: Aware of Barangay Activities:

unemployed No

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Educational Attainment: Occupation: Aware of Barangay Activities:

Maria Torio Female 74 December 30 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan N/A Elementary Unemployed Yes

B. Personal Information Sheet for Local Government Officials Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Current position in barangay office: Duration of service: Past positions in the barangay: Duration of service: Have you taken part in any local barangay projects within your time of service? What are these projects? How many of these projects are focused on health? Dennis Ruiz Male 49 December 25 San Isidro Norte Binmaley, Pangasinan 30,000 Barangay Captain 1 year None N/A Yes

Drainage system, clean-up drive Family planning, feeding program

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Current position in barangay office: Duration of service:

Imelda Abalos Female 53 September 28 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan 13,000 Kagawad 1 year

Past positions in the barangay: Duration of service: Have you taken part in any local barangay projects within your time of service? What are these projects? How many of these projects are focused on health?

Barangay Health Worker 11 years Yes Livelihood, womens brigade, wella Wella (boneless bangus), feeding

Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Address: Projected Monthly Income: Current position in barangay office: Duration of service: Past positions in the barangay: Duration of service: Have you taken part in any local barangay projects within your time of service? What are these projects? How many of these projects are focused on health?

Angelito Bijaron Male 35 January 4 54 San Isidro Norte, Binmaley, Pangasinan 15,000 Kagawad 1 year Kagawad 3 years Yes

Basketball, plummery, canal (drainage) Feeding, fogging, general cleaning (dengue), half-court basketball

APPENDIX C Interview Transcripts A. Barangay Official M: Di ba nabanggit niyo po kanina na may mga programa po kayo na inilulunsad sa komunidad ninyo p tungkol sa... para sa ikauunlad nitong barangay ninyo. Paki-enumerate ninyo lang po kung ano po itong mga ito, yong lahat po. R: Na ano? Yong... M: Opo, yong naabutan ninyo po. Yong mga proyekto po na... R: Naabutan ko na? O yong... M: Mga ginagawa ninyo po. R: Tsaka gagawin? M: Tsaka gagawin po. Yong mga plano ninyo pong gawin? R: Yong ano, yong garbage disposal. M: Tsaka yong uplifment of the poor. Ganon! Yong ano yong trabaho nila... R: Ah, yong para po sa mahirap? M: Ano pa po, sir? R: Yong kasi tabing dagat kami. Gusto naming yong ano... mangingisda sa illegal fishing. M: Illegal fishing po? So yon po yong pinaka-focus niyo? R: Oo, illegal fishing. M: Ano pa po? R: Tsaka yon nga, yong garbage disposal, paglilinis ng mga ilog, ganon. M: Bakit po? Madumi po ba yong ilong?

R: Oo, madumi masyado yong ilog natin. Grabe yong ano natin. Tsaka yong ano... kaya nga ang priority ko talaga ang drainage system. M: Opo. R: Oo, kasi para malayo tayo sa flash flood. M: Yong basura po, wala naman pong nagkakasakit dahil sa mga basura na yon? R: Oo, marami rin. M: Katulad po ng alin yong mga sakit na yon? R: Pero dito naman, hindi naman masyado ang dengue dito. Hindi naman masyadong sakit. Yong nga, nagpapalinis kami. Mayroon kaming... basta weekly, mayroon kaming clean-up drive. Kung hindi sa dagat, dito sa mga bahay-bahay. M: Pero nagka-dengue naman na po dito sa inyo? R: So far, wala pa kaming kaso ng dengue dito sa barangay namin. M: Wala pa naman, buti naman po. Ayan, meron po ba kayong proyekto dito tungkol sa kalusugan bukod sa mga nabanggit ninyo po kanina? R: Oo, yong mga bakuna. Yong mga bata. M: Ano pa po para sa kalusugan? R: Bakuna, tapos yong sa feeding program. M: Opo. R: Sa malnutrition, yon lang. Yon lang yata. M: Yong sa family planning po? R: Ayon, yong sa family planning. M: Opo, yong sa family planning. Yong mga proyekto po na ito na pangkalusugan, paano ninyo po siya ipinapatupad?

R: Yong sa mga bata? M: Opo. Sige, isa-isahin po natin. Yong sa feeding program po muna sa mga bata, paano ninyo po siya ipinapatupad? R: Every... twice a month na, kwan... dati, ang mga rotary, tapos may mga volunteer na nagpapaano... feeding program dito. M: A, may mga rotary po? R: Oo, rotary club tapos yong ano... may mga balikbayan din na nagbibigay ng mga donasyon nila e. M: Paano ninyo po pinapaalam sa komunidad na may ganito kayong mga programa, na feeding program? R: Umiikot yong mga ano... yong mga ano... BHW. M: May pinapaikot po? Ano poi to? Voluntary work o inuutusan ninyo po? R: Oo, voluntary sila. Yon yong obligasyon nila eh, ng mga BHW namin. Barangay health worker, M: Nagbabahay-bahay po ba sila? R: Oo, nagbabahay-bahay sila. M: Saan po ba yong sakop nitong San Isidro? Malaki po ba yong sakop natin? R: Hindi naman masyadong malaki, pero maraming malnourished sa taga-dagat. Oo, yon ang maraming... M: Dito po yong sa may dagat? R: Oo, tsaka yong educational attainment nila, medyo mababa. Mas marami pang illiterate na ano dito e. Kaya ayon din iniisip ko e, kung paano ko ma-improve yong educational system dito e, kasi maraming bata ang hindi nag-aaral dito e. Nagre-rely na lang sila sa dagat. Maaga sila

kasing nagkakaron ng trabaho e kaya hindi na nila focus ang sa eskwelahan. Ang focus na nila yong magka-income sila ng kaunti. M: Kayo po ba, may mga anak? R: Oo. M: Nag-aaral naman po sila? R: Tapos na yong dalawa kong ano... yong bunso ko, nasa FEU, kumukuha ng med tech. M: Tapos yong isa ninyo pong anak? R: Yong panganay, nagtuturo sa Lyceum dyan. M: Sa Maynila po? R: Dyan sa Dagupan, College of Nursing. Tsaka yong isa, nagdu-duty pa sa ano... yong volunteer. Nursing... dalawa yong nursing ko e. M: So yong iba po na proyekto ninyo? Di ba nabanggit ninyo po yong feeding program. Yong bakuna po? R: Every Thursday, merong ibinibigay na gamot yong munisipyo. Tsaka nagpu-purchase din kami ng mga gamot. M: Saan po nanggagaling yong pambili niniyo po ng gamot? R: Yong sa IRA ng barangay. M: Ano po yong IRA? R: Ano yon... internal allotment. M: Allotment po? So yong mga gamot po na nanggagaling sa munisipyo, kayo po ang naga-ano sa mga tao? R: Internal, oo. Internal revenue allotment yata. M: Opo. Paano ninyo po ina-ano yong bakuna? So every Thursday po...

R: Oo, every Thursday, mayroong midwife na nagdu-duty dyan sa barangay center namin. M: Mga nagvo-volunteer po? R: Hindi, mga kwan talaga... M: Mga barangay officers po talaga? R: Sa munisipyo, galing munisipyo siya. Every Thursday, nagko-conduct sila ng mga ano sa bata, tsaka yong mga may sakit, ganon. M: Opo. E paano niyo naman po pinapaalam doon sa mga tao na may bakuna kayo every Thursday? R: Alam na nila. M: A, alam na nila. Pero nagbabahay-bahay pa din po? R: Oo, nagbabahay-bahay pa rin, pero alam na nila. Sila na rin ang interesado e. M: May kusang loob na po? R: Walang problema ang dissemination dito. Sa mga tao kasi, talagang gusto rin nila na mabakunahan yong mga anak nila. M: Bakit po kaya sa tingin ninyo sila na mismo yong nagkukusang-loob? R: Syempre kapag pupunta sila sa private hospital, e di mas mahal. Lahat yan nagbo-boil down sa kung walang pera sa bulsa. M: E yong sa family planning naman po? R: Nagko-conduct kami ng seminar sa mga mother na medyo marami-rami na ang anak nila. Yan yong pinipili naming. M: Pinipili ninyo po? R: Pinipilit. Pinipilit naming mag-attend ng seminar kasi dito, halos mga 16 years old, mother na sila e. Oo, yong lately dito, 2nd year at 3rd year high school e.

M: Paano ninyo po nalaman? Sila po ba yong lumalapit sa inyo? R: Hindi. Nagi-inquire din ako kung anong nagiging balita. Syempre, mga tao mo yan e. M: Paano ninyo po nakuha yong balita? R: Yong mga BHW ko nga. M: Yong mga nagbabahay-bahay? R: Oo, yong mga nagbabahay-bahay. Nagsasabi sila kung ano yong mga balita sa kwan nila, tsaka lately, ayon yong mga nakukuha naming balita, na maraming bata ang nai-involve sa relationships at early pregnancy. Karamihan dito na minor, buntis na sila e. Kaya ayon, ang macontrol talaga naming yong population e. M: So focus ninyo din po yong population at pre-marital pregnancy? R: Oo, pre-marital. Yon ang number one focus namin. M: Kung baga sa health po, kung ira-rank po natin yong tatlong proyekto, number one po ba yong pregnancy? R: Oo, yong early pregnancy tsaka yong population. Hindi na kasi nila iniisip yong... basta gawa lang sila ng gawa ng bata. M: Bakit ninyo po sila pinipilit? Wala po silang kusang loob? R: Yan ang problema natin. Kasi sila, wala silang education. Halos wala talaga. Hindi nila alam kung ano yong gagawin nila. Hindi nila alam kung ano yong mga modern technologies para sa family planning kaya ang nasa isip lang nila, yon nga, yong nasa bible na go forth and multiply. M: So kaya ninyo pinipilit kasi... R: Para mabigyan ng proper ano... yong ma-educate sila, kung ano yong ibig-sabihin ng family planning.

M: May nga tumatanggi naman po? R: Halos lahat talaga, tumatanggi yan. M: Bakit po? R: Syempre akala nila hindi yon ang cause ng paghihirap nila, na hindi yon ang cause ng poverty nila; pero syempre kami, alam na alam namin kasi mahirap. Wala silang income, wala silang trabaho. Wala silang fixed kung paano nila mabubuhay yong bata, kaya ang style dito, pagka-panganak, papakainin lang nila ng two years, papakawalan na e. Oo, grabe dito samin e kasi ayon nga, lack of education. Wala silang pinag-aralan talaga. M: Nabanggit ninyo din po di ba yong sa feeding program. Kamusta naman po yong naging pagtugon nung mga tao doon? R: Ay! Ikaw ba naman. Syempre gutom na gutom yang mga yan. M: Masasabi niyo po ba talaga na mahirap yong barangay ninyo? R: Mahirap talaga. Nagkakaroon talaga ng food shortage. Masakit mang aminin, pero makikita mo talaga na karamihan ay halos hindi na kumakain ng kumpleto sa isang araw. Tatlong meals hindi na nila nakukumpleto yon. M: Yong sa feeding program po ninyo, sa bata lang po iyon, ano? R: Oo, bata lang. Bata ang concentration naming sa feeding program. M: Ilan po ang ina-accommodate ninyo? Di ba twice a month po siya? R: Ang pumupunta siguro mga 50 above. M: Pero may sumosobra po ba? Like may gusto pa pong pumasok pero hindi niyo nap o napapayagan? R: Marami ang pumapasok. Kulang lang talaga yong pagkain. M: Saan po ba nanggagaling yong funds po para sa feeding program?

R: Minsan nag-aano kami ng mga members ng barangay. Kami na mga opisyales, nagshe-share na lang kami para makapag-feeding program kami. M: Yong mga officials po? Kasama po dito yong barangay captain? R: Kagawad. M: Ilan po yong kagawad ninyo? R: Pito. M: Pito po? So nagaambag-ambag na lang? R: Oo, ambag na lang, share-share. Kung wala kayong makuha na ano... kasi ang feeding program, kanya-kanyang ano na yan e... wala namang budget para dyan e. M: So wala pong ibinibigay ang munisipyo? R: Wala, walang binibigay ang munisipyop dyan. M: Hindi po kayo nagpe-petition? R: Magre-request? M: Opo. R: Kulang na rin ang pondo nila e sa DSWD. Halos kukulangin talaga sila sa dami ng nagkakasakit. Kaya ang barangay captain, talagang mapipilitan kang maglabas ng pera mo e. Ngayon, meron akong kaso. Talagang napakakawawa. Kailangan niyang magpa-ultrasound. Pumunta siya sa ospital, overdue na e. Pumunta siya sa Bolingin. Wala palang libreng ultrasound dyan sa Bolingin kaya pinapunta sa region, sa Dagupan. Ang ano naman ng region, kung wala kang pera, hindi ka naming iu-ultrasound. Kaya ayon, ewan ko kung ano yong magiging desisyon ng local barangay council sa amin. M: So kayo na po yong bahala sa kanya na magpa-ultrasound? R: Talagang ganon ang mangyayari doon.

M: Pagdedesisyonan pa po ng barangay? R: Oo kasi ultrasound yan, tsaka CS yan e. Oo, caesarian yon. M: Mahirap po ba siya? R: Mahirap talaga. Halos pumapatol sila, walang control sa pagbubuntis. M: Siya po ba yong lumapit sa inyo? R: Oo, sila ang lumapit sakin. M: Yong mismong tao po na nagdadalang-tao po? So kinausap po kayo? R: Gusto nang manganak, talagang walang pera e. M: Paano niya po kayo kinausap? R: Dito, pumunta lang siya dito. M: Siya lang po mag-isa? R: Kasama niya yong mga anak niya. M: Paano niya po sinabi sa inyo na kailangan niya po... R: Diretsahan niya na ano... kailangan niya magpa-ultrasound. Dala naman nila yong reseta ng doktor for... M: So parang pinapakiusapan lang po kayo? R: Oo, ganon. M: Ayan, balik po tayo doon sa feeding program. Naging epektibo po ba yong proyekto na yon? R: Hindi ko pa alam yong resulta. M: Kailan po ba natin sinimulan yon, sir? R: Mga three months pa lang e. M: So hindi pa po natin nakikita yong resulta?

R: Oo, hindi pa natin alam kung ano yong magiging resulta. M: E yong sa bakuna naman po, kamusta yong naging pagtugon ng mga tao? R: Yong sa bakuna, okay lang naman. Interesado silang ipabakuna yong mga anak nila. M: Yong sa bakuna po, may limit din po ba tayo? R: Wala, nababakunahan naman lahat, pwera lang yong mga ayaw pumunta sa center. M: Bakit ayaw nila pumunta sa center? Di bap o nagbabahagi naman kayo ng impormasyon? R: Meron talagang matitigas ang ulo, di mo talaga maalis yan kasi busy ang magulang kasi nagtatrabaho. M: Bata din po yong focus nung bakuna ninyo? R: Oo, bata ang focus namin. Wala naman tayong matandang binabakunahan e. Ang libre lang sa atin ay puro bata e. M: Opo, puro po sa bata. E yong sa family planning po? R: Ayon, ang focus natin yong mga ina, mga magulang, mga babae. M: Sa tingin niyo po ba ay nagiging epektibo ito? R: Hindi ko pa masasabi, pero ang ano ko dyan, sabay yan e. Maturuan mo sila kung ano ibigsabihin ng ganito, ganyan, ng family planning... M: Pero marami po bang pumupunta sa mga seminar ninyo? R: Sa family planning? M: Opo. R: Kakaunti pa kasi talagang busy sila. Kung minsan ay ayaw pa nila e. Hindi sila interesado kasi takot din sila. Sabi nila takot daw sila na kumain ng itong mga pills. Takot silang magpaligate. M: Natatakot po sila?

R: Oo kasi nga kulang sila sa edukasyon. M: Edukasyon po talaga, ano? Ayan, yong mga serbisyo po ba na ito, paano ninyo po siya nakoconceptualize? Parang, paano ninyo po nalaman na kailangan nila itong mga proyekto na ito? O parang may sinusunod po ba tayo na guidelines? R: Wala. Basta ang ano ko lang kung paano i-uplift yong taong mahihirap na maging sustainable. M: So base na rin po sa kalagayan ng buong barangay? R: Oo, sa kalagayan ng buong barangay.kasi hindi nila kayang i-sustainyong buhay nila e. M: So sa tingin niyo po ito yong mga proyekto na para ma-uplift yong buhay nila? R: Oo, para ma-uplift nga yong buhay nila. Hindi doon sa talagang pinakamababang level ng poor. Yong talagang pinakamahirap talaga. Dapat ay maihahon lang natin sila sa kahirapan. Sila dapat ang mag-sustain at hindi na sila aasa sa iba pang tao. M: So wala naman pong pumupunta dito na nagsasabi na kailangan po nila ng ganito? Kunyari po may pumunta dito sa inyo na may dengue, parang sasabihin po sa inyo na, Barangay captain, kailangan po natin ng ganitong programa para sa dengue kasi maraming nagkaka-dengue. May ganon na po bang instance? R: A, yong may magrereklamo pa? Hihintayin mo pa yong reklamo tapos tsaka ka lang magaaksyon? Ay, hindi. Hindi sa amin. Kami ang unang... inuunahan na namin yong problema. M: So wala pong pumupunta dito para makipagdayalogo yong mga constituents ninyo po? R:Wala, wala. Kami talaga ang... kami pa kamo ang interesado sa dengue. Maglinis dyan, pumupunta kami sa mga bahay-bahay, lahat ng garbage disposal nila, kami na mismo ang nagkokolekto. M: Kayo na po umaalam ng mga problem nila?

R: Oo, kami na. Kasi di ba dapat active yong approach mo sa kanila e. Hindi yong mag-aantay ka pa. Dapat ikaw na mismo ang gagalaw kasi kung andyan na yong epidemic, wala na. Kasado ka na. M: Pero di ba nabanggit ninyo po yong may pumunta dito na buntis. May iba pa po ban a ganon na humihingi ng tulong sa inyo? R: Ay, nako. Marami. Araw-araw yan kung pinansyal. M: Financial po? As in araw-araw po? Paano po humihingi yon? R: Oo, karamihan dito, may sakit ang pumupunta. M: Ano pong mga sakit nila usually? R: Usually may trangkaso, may... M: Mga simpleng sakit lang po? R: Hindi, hindi. Lahat yan ay naka-confine sa ospital. Puro naka-confine sa ospital. M: Paano ninyo po ito sinosolusyonan? R: Ayon, kung ano lang yong kaya kong ibigay, yon lang, o kaya pumupunta kami sa DSWD. Meron ding tulong ang mayor, at meron ding tulong ang gobyerno. M: So ito pong lahat ng humihingi sa inyo ng tulong, paano po nila kayo ina-approach? R: Kung medyo malaki-laki na, mag-aano kami sa DSWD, tapos puntahan namin si Mayor. Tapos sa gobyerno, meron din. M: Pero kung maliit lang? R: Kung maliit lang, kami na lang para din... M: Kayo po mismo, nanggagaling sa bulsa ninyo? R: Oo, personal sa bulsa namin. M: Wala po kayong ibang kasama para doon sa pagbayad? Yong mga kagawad ninyo po.

R: Ay, wala. Yon ang masakit e. Ang masakit dito sa local government, marami kaming opisyales pero halos ang concentration, nandoon sa barangay captain kasi head of the barangay e. Nandoon lahat ng concentration, kaya magtataka tayo kung bakit marami tayong sinuswelduhan pero ang naghihirapan ay ang kapitan. M: So sa inyo po kaagad ang takbo? R: Oo, walang process yan. Wala yong hierarchy, na punta muna sa purok leader tapos yong purok leader, ia-ano niya sa barangay kagawad, tapos yong barangay kagawad to kapitan. Mali, kapitan kaagad e. Kaya yong una mong ano, kapitan e. M: Pero may mga natanggihan na po tayo? R: Marami tayong tinatanggihan. Hindi natin... kung kakayanin mo yan, mangangako pa tayo ng pera, o kaya mangho-holdup pa tayo. Oo, talagang mapipilitan ka kasi halos dito sa amin, ang takbuhan ng tao talaga kapitan lang e. Yon ang malaking ano dito... ito ha, bigyan ko kayo ng background ng kaunti dito sa IRA, ha? M: Opo. R: Ang IRA namin is less than 1.4 million pesos sa isang taon. Maliit lang yon, pero malaki na yon sa akin. Tingnan mo, ha? Kung iisipin mo, maliit; pero kung titignan mo, pera din yon. Ang napupunta sa allocation for personal services is 55 percentmahigit kalahati. Ang ginagawa pa dyan , mayroon pang sumosobra dyan, kaya ang sweldo namin... ang computation ko ay 900,000 pesos. Lahat ng tanod, BHW, lahat ng appointed na kagawad. Pati ako, yong kapitan. Tulad ko, ang sweldo ko, 5,000 plus lang per month. Ang barangay kagawad ko, 4,000 plus lang. Pero pito yong kagawad30,000 kamo na. Compare mo sakin, 5,000 lang. Halos ang function ng pito, wala pa sa kalahati ng function ng kapitan, kaya mali yong... doon ako

nagtataka. Bakit sa pitong kagawad, wala silang... ang kagawad kasi nandoon. Ang responsibility niya ay taga-gawa lang ng batas e; legislation lang sila e. M: So hindi po sila nakikialam sa proyekto ninyo? R: Oo, hindi sila ma-oblige na makialam kasi ang alam nla, legislation lang e. gagawa lang ng ordinansa, gagawa lang ng mga solusyon. Ang kapitan, siya ang person of authority. Person of ano ng lahat na e... lahat ine-exercise ko sa barangay e. Kaya 30,000 kontra 5,000. Yong 30,000, hindi nila nagagalaw yon sa kagawad kasi wala namang tumutulong na kagawad e. Tapos halos lahat yan, puro barangay captain ang... kasi sasabihin mo, ganitong project natin, Bakit kami makikialam sa project, e ang purpose lang naming dito e gagawa ng ordinansa? M: Ay, ganon po? R: Oo yon ang nasa local government code, na ang purpose nila ay legislation lang. Samantalang kami, administration, lahat. M: Di ba nabanggit niyo po kanina na mga nagbibigay po ng pera sa inyo, yong iba po ay donasyon lang? R: Wala. Ay, donasyon yong sa mga rotary. Yon lang, pero madalang. M: Ibinibigay lang po, o nagbibigay din po kayo ng formal letter? R: Oo, magre-request kami. M: A, nagre-request pa po kayo? Tapos po, naaprubahan naman po siya? R: Ay, matagal pa yong approval nun. M: Pero kung ano naman po yong in-indicate ninyo na amount, nabibigay naman po ba? R: Basta yong kaya nilang ibigay lang. M: A, wala po kayong sinasabi na amount?

R: Oo, wala kaming sinasabi na amount, pero kapag feeding program, lugaw lang naman yan e tsaka manok. Ganon lang ka-simple yon. M: Opo. Di ba nasabi ninyo din po na yong mga balikbayan, nagbibigay din po? R: Yon, kung minsan may mga kaibigan tayo na balikbayan. Doon na tayo humihingi, pero halos napakahirap din humingi ng donasyon. Hindi kasi tayo sanay sa hingi e. Ako... kayo siguro, mahirap sa inyo yong hihingi-hingi ka na... para kang nagmamakaawa e. M: So kusang-loob pong nagbibigay itong mga to? R: Oo, yon na lang ang nangyayari dyan. Kusang-loob na lang lahat kasi may kasabihan tayo: Kung may utang, may babayaran. M: Tama po. R: Yan ang kakulangan ng DILG e. Yan ang gusto kong ayusin nila. M: Nabanggit niyo po di ba na may mga pumupunta nga po dito, kinakausap po nila kayo di ba? Personal na po silang lumalapit sa inyo? R: Oo, umiiyak ditong pumupunta yan. E kung pwede lang talagang maresolba yong mga problema nila, pahintuin mo yong iyak sa pamamagitan lang ng maliit na bagay o kaya sa magandang pakiki-usap. M: So halos lahat po ay ganito ang sistema? Nakikipag-usap, tapos may kaunting iyakan po na magaganap, tapos yon na nga, kung maaprubahan ninyo o hindi? R: Oo. M: Sa tingin niyo po, parang awa na lang? R: Awa talaga. Walang anong mga allowance para doon. Kasi ang calamity fund, calamity fund. Ang style dyan, kung hindi nag-delcare ang mayor ng calamity, hindi ka pwedeng mag-declare ng calamity. Meron kaming calamity fund, pero ang problema nga, hindi naming pwedeng

pakialaman yong calamity fund kung hindi nila ide-declare na state of calamity ang buong bayan. M: Yong sa mga ganito pong pakikipagdayalogo, nagkaroon na po ba ng problema? Katulad ng sabi niyo po, hindi naman lahat ng naaaprubahan at yong iba, naaaprubahan. Ano pong nangyayari sa mga naaaprubahan? Nagkakaroon po ba ng kaunting problema? R: Yong mga hindi nabibigyan kamo? Ay, talagang ano na lang yon... kung baga, yon na ang itinuro ng anak ko sakin e. Sympathy or empathy ba yon? Daddy, sabi niya, kung lahat ng tao magsi-sympathize ka, walang mangyayari sayo. Hindi mo rin magagawang hindi tulungan. M: E ano po yong nagiging batayan ninyo sa pagtulong at sa pagtanggi? R: Depende sa laman ng bulsa ko. Kung maswertehan nla na meron, walang problema; pero kung naswertehan nilang wala, pasensyahan na lang. M: So hindi pos a kalalaan nung ano nila... na importante talaga? R: Lahat, importante sila e. Wala namang pupunta dito na hindi nagsasabi ng katotohanan e. Makikita mo talaga na totoo yong sinasabi ng lahat ng tao na pumupunta dito. M: Wala naman po yong parang dahil kaibigan ninyo... R: Ay, wala. Wala yon. Walang ganon. M: So lahat po ay pantay-pantay? R: Oo, pantay-pantay yan lahat na in-need talaga sila, tsaka hindi ka naman pupuntahan ng mga yan kung kaya pa nila e. Kung baga, walang wala na talaga, tsaka sila pumupunta. M: At naaaprubahan niyo lang kung may pera po kayo? R: Oo, kung may pera, yon lang. Maaprubahan lang kung may pera, pero kung wala, pasensyahan din. Kaya sabi ko, hanggang kailan kaya ako mag-survive kapag ganitong style ng

ano... kinakausap ko yong tesorera ko, paano kaya natin iresolba ito, na dapat meron tayong allocation sa mga taong pumupunta sa bahay, sa akin. M: A, so may ganon po kayong plano? R: Mayroon akong plano kung paano namin makapag-allowance ng pera para doon sa mga laging lumalapit kasi talagang in-need sila e, para hindi naman masyadong... paano na kung may pumunta na talagang kailangan niya, wala kang mabigay? E di masakit din. M: Ano po ba yong pinakamalala na sakit na humingi ng tulong sa inyo sa tingin ninyo po? R: Pinakamalaking gastusan na yong mga cancer. M: Marami na pong lumapit sa inyo na may cancer? R: Wala pa namang karamihan, pero basta cancer victim, talagang malaking pera yan kaya ang ginagawa ko, pupunta ako kay mayor. Pupunta ako kay governor, tapos magbibigay ako ng kaunting ano ko... tulong-tulong na lang para makapagpagamot siya e. Itong chemotherapy... M: So nakikipag-usap po kayo ng personal doon sa mayor at governor ninyo po? R: Oo, meron naman silang ano e... pupuntahan kang tao diyan e. M: A, doon na po nagkakaroon ng hierarchy? R: Oo, hierarchy. M: Huling tanong na po. Sa tingin ninyo po ba ay nagagampanan ninyo po ng maayos ang inyong tungkulin upang solusyonan itong mga hinaing ng mga residente pagdating sa mga isyong pangkalusugan? R: Ay, wala. Hindi kaya. Aminin ko talaga yan, hindi ko natutugunan ang lahat. Ang natutugunan ko lang siguro mga 20 percent lang e. Doon sa talagang kailangan e. Because of ano yan... syempre wala ding pondo ang barangay. Kulang ang pondo ng barangay kasi wala namang naka-allocate para sa mga pagkain e; ang allocation lang sa amin sa barangay, yong

personal services na sabi ko, yong mga sweldo namin. Tapos yong electric lights, ano yan... mga halos 10 percent ng IRA din namin yan e. Sa mga electrical maintenance, kaya lang malalaking ano... katulad niyan, 900,000 yong sweldo namin, tapos kuryente naming 100,000. One million na yon, ano? 400,000 na lang. Yong calamity na lang, e di mga 400,000 na lang. Mga 100,000 yong calamity namin e. Tapos yong 400,000, mga gamot na lang. Ay, meron pa palang 10 percent ang SK. M: A, may SK pa? R: E di 250,000 na lang. Yon ang ibinibigay namin sa development ngayon; mga drainage, ganyan. At least nakagawa din kami ng kaunting kapirasong drainage dahil doon sa 250,000. M: So yong kalusugan po medyo hindi po siya yong priority? R: Hindi priority. Ang priority, ang pinakamalaking percentage doon sa IRA, yong sweldo ng kapitan, kagawad, tsaka tanod at BHW. Kaya nga hinahamon ko sila, kung gusto niyo, wala nang swelduhan e. Oo, para maibigay na yong 900,000. Ibili na lang natin ng bigas tsaka gamot lang e. Oo. Isipin mo, yong 900,000, ilang bags of rice yan. Ilang medicine yan. Kung gusto mo talaga, tutulong, sasabihin mo sa eleksyon, gusto ko kayong tulungan, pero ang usapan dyan, wala nang pupunta sa akin. Kasi baliktad e, sila walang pumupunta sa kanila, mga kagawad.Ang pinupuntahan nila puro kapitan. M: Opo. R: Samantalang sila, ang sweldo nila, halos kapareho. Halos maliit lang ng kaunti sa akin, kaya hindi balanced e. Mas maganda pa yong wala nang tanggapan ng sweldo, ibili na lang ng bigas at ng gamot. E di wala nang pupunta sa akin. M: Pero gusto ninyo naman po talagang ma-improve itong mga proyekto ninyo sa kalusugan?

R: Gusto, kaya nga ang nasabi ko sayo, ang natutulungan ko lang, 20 percent doon sa pangangailangan nila na 100 percent e, kaya hindi kaya ng isang kapitan na ang sweldo niya ay ganyan lang na matugunan niya yong needed na 100 percent. Ang kaya ko lang sigurohindi naman tayo mayaman e, mahirap ang buhay natinay yong mga 20 percent lang siguro. Kaya tingnan mo, nagmamanok ako para sa arroz caldo. M: A, so yong iba po dito sa mga manok ninyo, ibinibigay ninyo po? R: Oo. M: So hindi lahat, pera? May in-kind din po kayong ibinibigay? R: Hindi, arroz caldo mo rin e. E di magmanok ka na lang, gawin mong arroz caldo. Hindi ka na bibili sa bayan, makatipid, ano? M: Pero may mga nagdo-donate din po ba ng bigas, ganon? R: Wala, wala. Halos lahat ng tao, in-need na din e, o gusto na ring itago yong pera nila e. Yong mga mayayaman, yon ang nagtatago ng pera e. Yong mahirap magbibigay sakin ng pera, e di ibalik ko na para... kawawa naman siya. Kasi ang balance ng mahirap at mayaman, malaki e. Malaki ang gap e. Kapag nandito ka sa amin, siguro maisip mo yong... makalimutan mo yong buong buhay mo. Maisip mo yong magserbisyo sa tao. Iba ang barangay, iba ang munisipyo, iba ang gobernador, iba ang presidente, iba ang senador. Kami ang nandito sa field e. Ang bakbakan, nandito sa amin e. Kami talaga ang nakikipag-usap doon sa talagang mismong mahirap e. M: Kayo po talaga ang involved sa negosasyon? R: Oo, kami talaga ang involved. Yan talaga ang ano ng kapitan. Siya ang directly involved doon sa mga tao; halos kapamilya na nila yan e. Yong, tatay, pahingi ng ganyan. Tay, bigyan

mo kami ng ulam. Wala kaming mailuto na bigas, bigyan mo kami ng ulam. Ganon na lang ang nangyayari e. M: A, may mga ganon din po kahit hindi po pangkalusugan, may humihingi din po? R: Ay, marami yan. Kaya nga ang sabi ko sayo, yong three times na pagkain ng tao, hindi na nila nakukumpleto e. Wala naman tayong bigas na maibigay kasi kapag may calamity lang pwede mong i-release yong calamity fund, kaya nagtataka ako kung bakit ganon e. Ngayon ang tawag na nila risk-reduction; hindi na yong calamity victim. Risk-reduction na yong style nila ngayon e. Bibili ka pa ng bigas, wala pa yong calamity, pwede ka ng bumili ng bigas. Pero ewan ko lang kung naaprubhan na nila yon, pero halos chine-check ng accountant e. M: Sa accountant na nagkaktalo? R: Pati sa accountant problema yan e kasi kung nandoon na yong wala na silang iluluto, hindi pa nila i-release yong pera. Gamitin mo muna yong pera mo na barangay captain, tapos irereimburse na lang. Isipin mo yong chanelling, matagal. M: So mismo kahit doon sa barangay ninyo ay nagkakahirapan din po? R: Oo, malaki ang pagkakaroon ng problema e, kaya talagang gagamit ka ng personal ano mo talaga e... kaya sabi ko nga kung mayaman lang ako, walang maghihirap samin e, pero wala rin e kaya dapat talaga ang isang kapitan, bukod sa may pinag-aralan, may kaya din ng kaunti sa buhay para hindi talaga mahirapan. Yon ang qualification ng kapitan. M: Okay lang po ba na itanong namin kung ano po ang natapos ninyo? R: Bachelor of Science ako, Major in Accountancy. M: Kaya naman pala, Accountancy. R: Two years ako sa UST, tapos dito na ako nagtapos sa Luzon Colleges. Kayo, communications. Samin naman, arts and letters.

B. Resident M: Aware naman po kayo sa mga aktibidad po ng barangay ninyo ngayon? R: Yes. M: Yes po? Opo. May nararanasan po ba kayong problema pagdating sa kalusugan? Kahit po sa mga kamag-anak niyo po. R: Dito sa barangay, kalusugan talaga dito... malnutrition. May parting lugar sa barangay namin na mga iskwaters. M: Opo. R: At saka karamihan naman dito ay fishing ang hanapbuhay. Madalas na di sila nakakalaot, lalo na kung may bagyo, umuulandaming problema nitong malnutrition. M: Alin pa po, yong tingin niyo nagiging problema sa kalusugan dito sa barangay? R: Kulang sa gamot. M: A, opo. May mga proyekto po yong barangay na tumutugon sa mga problema na ganito? R: Actually, every month... I think every week [02:19-02:20] ng medicine yong barangay. Yon ang mga binibigay sa mga nangangailangan. M: Yong sa malnourished po... malnourishment po, meron pong project yong barangay para dito po ba? R: Actually, dyan pumapasok yong mga NGO namin, katulad ng Rotary Club ng Binmaley. Nagbibigay sila ng school feeding. Regular yan, every year, nagbibigay sila. M: Every year po? R: Oo. M: E yong mga gamot, may mga project po ba?

R: Yeah. Last year, nagkaroon kami ng medical-dental mission. M: A, may medical mission po? R: Pati medical hanggang dental. M: Paano po to ipinapatupad ng barangay? Paano po nila pinapakalat tuwing may ganito silang proyekto? R: Actually, nagkakaroon ng barangay assembly. M: May barangay assembly? Kailan po nangyayari to? R: Twice a year, March and October. Doon na sinasabi yong mga ganitong projects, mga ganitong... magkakaroon tayo ng medical-dental mission na nagmumula sa NGO tulad ng Rotary Club. Yon, sinasabi na doon para alam nila. Kumbaga, nalalapit na yong okasyon na gagawin yon, may magbo-broadcast na barangay official, umiikot. So may megaphone. M: A, nagbabahay-bahay? R: Oo. M: Naaabutan po ba kayo ng mga ganitong proyekto? R: Yeah, nangyayari ito sa barangay. M: Na-try niyo na po? R: Oo. M: May mga instances po ba na may problema kayo sa kalusugan na inilalapit niyo po sa barangay? O kahit sa iba pong kakilala ninyo na may sakit, inilalapit niyo po ba sa barangay itong mga ganito? R: Oo pag ganon kalala. Tulad ng nangyayari ngayon, tong dengue outbreak. Yong ginagawa, [04:37-04:40] through the help of municipal government. Pagkatapos ng [04:46] decision, ayan,

pupunta sila dito sa barangay to [04:51-04:56]. Mga dalawang beses na siguro nag-conduct ng dengue [05:00]. M: Para doon sa dengue outbreak? R: Laban sa dengue. M: Meron po ba [05:06] kung paano napapatupad yong mga barangay tungkol sa kalusugan? Kunyari po yong mga seminar, ganon, about family health. Kahit ano po. Meron [05:15] family planning na seminars dito sa barangay? R: [05:21] wala pa naman. M: A, wala po kayong alam? R: Wala. M: Pero gusto niyo po ba na may ganon silang proyekto about sa family planning? R: Oo, mas maganda. M: Bakit sa tingin niyo kailangan? R: Kailangan kasi alam mo naman dito, dyan sa skwater, talagang maraming bata dyan. Di tulad dito sa mayayaman, kasi busy sila, may mga trabaho sila. Karamihan dyan sa skwaters kasi, hanapbuhay nila yon ngang sinasbi kong, kwan man, fishing, naglaot ng dagat. Pag wala yon, syempre ang kwan doon, walang magsasabi sa kanya anong nangyayari dyan, e magkakaroon sila ng [06:07-06:10]. M: So ito pong lugar ninyo, medyo nakakaangat po? R: Di naman sa nakakaangat, pero yong mga skwater sa area, malapit sa dagat. Mga skwaters yon. M: A, okay po. R: Marami dyan.

M: Ano po yong mga serbisyong pangkalusugan na sa tingin niyo po ay ninyong natatanggap mula sa barangay? R: Actually, every Thursday of the week, may mga health workers and may barangay midwife. Yong midwife and municipal nurse, pupunta sila dyan, nagko-conduct ng check-up sa mga tao. M: So nakausap niyo na po ba yong barangay tungkol sa mga ganito pong health projects? Parang nag-suggest na po ba kayo kung ano yong mga dapat ipa-improve? R: [07:13] konsulta nila e. M: A, talaga po? R: Minsan, konsulta ako ng barangay. M: So paano po kayo nag-uusap ng barangay? R: Pumupunta sila dito kung saka-sakaling may ire-report silang problema, pumupunta lang sila dito sa bahay para tanungin ako. M: Ano po yong mga problema na ganito? R: Yong ano talaga, health. M: Health po? R: Health. Tungkol sa malnutrition... M: So yong buong barangay po ba o pati mga kagawad, nagpupunta dito sa bahay niyo, o yong barangay captain lang? R: Barangay captain lang. M: So paano po kayo nag-uusap? As in parang magkaibigan lang? R: Oo, parang magkaibigan kasi actually, yong kapitan dito, kumpare ko e. Tinulungan ko siya kaya nanalo. Kasi [07:57] na kapitan ako e. M: A, kayo po yong huling naging kapitan bago...

R: Hindi naman. Meron pang sumunod sakin, tapos ito namang bago. M: Si kapitan Dennis Ruiz po? R: Oo. M: So hindi po nagiging pormal tong konsultasyon? Parang ganito lang po? R: Oo, parang ganito lang. [08:20] sabi niya sakin may tatanungin lang kami tungkol sa problemang ito, paanong ire-resolve ito. Yon lang pag-uusap namin, tapos sasagutin ko.

APPENDIX D Interview Matrix Baranggays Reception and Interpretation of Residents needs Hindi. Nagiinquire din ako lung anong nagiging balita. Syempre, mag tao mo yan e. Oo, yung mga nagbabahaybahay. Nagsasabi sila kung ano yung mga balita sa kwan nila. Tsaka lately ayun yung mag nakukuha naming balita, na maraming bata ang na-involve sa relationships at early preganancy. Karamihan dito na minor buntis na sila e. Kaya ayun ang ma-control talaga naming yung Underlying Aspects that Influence Residents Interpretation on Baranggays Health Projects Una, siyempre akala nila hinid yun ang cause ng paghihirap nila. Hindi yun cause ng poverty nila, pero syempre kami, alam na alam namin kasi mahirap, wala sialng income,w ala silang trabaho, wala silang fixed kung paano nila mabubuhay yung bata. Kaya ang style ditto pagkapanganak, papakainin lang nila ng 2 years, papakawalan na e. Oo, grabe ditto samin e. Kasi ayun nga, lack of educational, wala

Informants

Health-related Issues Tsaka yung ano, yun nga yung garbage disposal, paglilinis ng mga ilog, ganun. Yung nga Nagpapalinis kami. Mayroon kaming basta weekly mayroon kaming clean-up drive. Kunghindi sa dagat, ditto s mga bahaybahay.

Communication Strategies and Tactics of the Community Oo, sila ang lumapit sa akin. Dito pumunta siya dito [yung nanghihingi ng tulong]. Kasama niya yung mga anak niya [yung nanghihingi ng tulong]. Oo, karamihan dito may sakit ang pumupunta. Oo, walang process yan. Wala yung baga na hierarchy, na punta ka muna sa purok

Information Dissemination of Local Health Programs Umikot yun mga ano, yung mga ano BHW Oo, nagbabahaybahay sila [BHW]. Oo, nagbabahay bahay pa rin. Pero alam na nila. Sila na rin ang interesado e.

Dennis Ruiz

Bakuna,tapos yung feeding program Ayun, yung sa family planning.

leader, tapos yung purok leader ia-ano niya sa baranggay kagawad, tapos yung baranggay kagawad to kapitan. Mali, kapitan kaagad e. Kaya ang yung una mong ano kapitan e. Oo, umiiyak ditong pumupunta yan. Eh kung pwede lang talagang maresolba yung mga problema nila. Pahintuin mo yung iyak sa pamamagitan lang ng maliit na bagay, o kaya sa magandang pakikiusap. Ay wala, wala yun wala. Wala, wala, walang ganun. Walang ganun [palakasan system].

population e. Ah yung may magrereklamo pa? Hihintayin mo pa yung reklamo tapos tsaka ka lang magaaksyon? Ay hindi, hindi sa amin. Kami ang unang, inuunahan na naming yung problema. Oo, kami na. Kasi diba dapat active yung ano mo e, yung approach mo sa kanila e. Hindi yung mag-aantay ka pa. Dapat ikaw na mismo ang gagalaw, kasi kung nandyan na yung epidemic. Wala na, kasado ka na Iba ang baranggay, iba ang munisipyo, iba ang gobernador, iba ang presidente, iba ang senador. Kami ang

silang pinagaralan talaga. Yan ang problema natin. Kasi sila,wala sialng education. Halos wala talaga, hindi nila alam kung ano yung gagawin nila. Hindi nila alam kung ano yung mga modern techonologies para sa family palnning control. Kaya ang nasai sip lang nila, yun nga yung nasa bible na, go on and multiply. Kakaunti pa, kasi talagang busy sila kung minsan e ayaw pa nila e. Hindi sila interesado. Kasi takot din sila. Sabi nila takot daw sila na kumain ng itong mga pills. Takot silang magpa-ligate.

nandito sa field e. Ang bakbakan, nandito sa amin e. Kami talaga ang nakikipag- usap dun sa talagang mismong mahirap e. Oo, kami talaga ang involved. Yan talaga ang ano ng kapitan, siya ang directly involved dun sa mga tao. Halos kapamilya na nila yan e. Yung tatay, pahingi ng ganyan. Tay bigyan mo kami ng ulam. Wala kaming mailuto na bigas, bigyan mo kami ng ulam. Ganun na lang ang nangyayari e. ahh... hindi. yung mga halimbawa mga ganyan, tapos karamihan naman kahit na wala naman naming naririnig pagka mga ganito kailangan yung sa

Oo, kasi nga kulang sila sa edukasyon Oo, sa kalagayan ng buong baranggay kasi hindi nila kayang i-sustain yung buhay nila e.

Angelito Bijaron

Oo yung drainage system. Sa Binmaley. Bale Hindi pa tapos yun eh. Feeding

sa ngayon parang wala pa kong ganyang naencounter na [nagpupunta dito para magsabi ng kailangan nila] eh.

sa barangay naman kasi.Yung isang kagawad namin kung minsan umiikot yan. at "yung mga bahay bahay ninyo linisan niyo. maiwasan natin ang

siyempre wala na. para sa mga bata na mga yon eh, para sa kanilang mga anak eh. kasi nakikita nila na kumakain sila talaga ng masusustansyang

program tapos ano pa ba yung ibaano naming sa health, fogging. Nagfogging na rin kami sa health. Oo, antidengue. Tapos mga ano ahhh general cleaning kasi para ano maiwasan yung ano ng dengue. Halimbawa, kanina nagclean up rep kami dyan sa coastal area, sa tabi ng dagat

Ay. meron na [pumunta dito para humingi ng tulong]. Hindi na nga siguro halos naman kami barangay opisyal talagang mga ganyan naencounter na namin. kung sa bagay, kaya naman siyempre kahit naman sino kung kailangan talaga kapag meron kayo kahit konti... di, kahit konti bigyan mo ng kahit ano. at least walang sila masabi. Kadalasan kasi mga verbal lang eh. walang pormal... kasi pag pormal kasi pag mga ano na yan, kumbaga malakihang gawa. kadalasan niyan mga disyembre. kapag mangangaroling, gagawa sila ng pormal letter sa'min

gamot nagpupurchase rin kami ng mga gamot ah. hindi na. kami na mismo ang nagano ng initiative na kung ano kailangan na natin magfogging, kailangan natin magpurchase ng gamot para yung mga bata pag may sipon o lagnat, kasi may makukuha sila sa ano barangay.

dengue. mga ganon. tapos pag ka mga saturday, kami naman yung maglilinis oo yung mga... hindi yung mga ibang bhw... yun ang mga ibang halos nagtrabaho. kasi nagtatanong yung mga bhw kung tutustusin trabaho nila talagang sa field sila eh. talagang dapat sila sa mga ganyan sa ano paglilinis, pagfofogging, yung sa mga bata. mga ganyan.

pagkain talaga na dapat yun ang kainin ng mga bata para maiwasan nga ang malnourished na ganon na sitwasyon.

Lederlesida T. Macanilao

Yung ano din... yung normal na mga sakit lang din na ano di ba high blood, tulad nung last month, namatay ang kapatid ng tiyahin ng mister ko dahil high blood yun ay taga rito Oo kasi pagka ano... yung mister ko high blood din nga, oh ganon. diyan. magBBP siya. magpapaBP siya. yun. .Yung umpisa na nagbago ang barangay

sa schedule. mga ganon, pero pag mga hihingi ng tulong halos kadalasan mga biglang susulpot yung mga yan. Oo. diyan kasi malapit ka sa captain... yan... sinasabi niya, "kapitan, ang ano sa'tin ganito eh. ang pangit sa'tin nakikita sa kalsada nagiinom, mga nagsusugal, katulad yan sa isang ano na yan merong liquor, hindi mo na alam yung pagiinom nila may kasamang drugs" na kapagka lasing na o nakapagdrugs na, andyan lang sa kalsada

Yun... lumapit yung kasi pinsan ng mister ko yung isang volunteer. yan. sabi nga niya "oh bukas uumpisahan na namin na ano kasi yun ang ano namin na mga volunteer na training... Pag ka ano, yun lang pag ka ano magmimeeting din diyan parang ganon barangay assembly ganon... sinasabi nila na ganon. Ganon din. may magaano na kagawad diyan na, "oh, sinong gustong magganon, may medical ano tayo dito sa barangay hall."

captain. one month may mga naglilinis. nagwawalis. After nun na nakakuha na sila ng pangano nila Emilita Ayad Pina-ano nila ditto, pinasabi ng kapitan. Pumunta sila dito [barangay official]. Sa anak ko [gumagastos sa gamot niya]. Wala naman dyan. Sa kwan noon nung nagpa-BP ako. Nung huling kinunan ako dyan, nung libreng nagpupunta dyan. Oo. pag wala kang pambili, hingi ka kasi meron daw. Oo, libre [check-up sa baranggay]. Oo, mahirap ang buhay ditto, mahina ang kita. Hindi, hindi ako pumupunta doon kapag[family planning]

Merna Rosario

yong mga bata, lagnat nila, ganon. Nagbibigay sila doon sa center ng mga gamot. yong mga gamot sa ubo, ganon, lagnat. May BP rin, nagpapa-BP, ganon.

Midwife [yung nagsabi ng baranggay project]

Manilyn Soriano

Sa sakit, lagnat, ubo,

Pag gabi na sa bahay... kung gabi nangyari, pwedeng puntahan mo sila sa bahay. malalapitan mo sila. Direct na kasi yun [papkikipagusap sa opisyales] eh.

Sinasabi rin... lumilibot yung mga kagawad Hindi. sila. barangay patrol tapos inaano bahay bahay. Hindi.pag may assembly meeting, nagpapatawag ng mga tao Sa barangay opisyal. may kagawad na Actually, nagkakaroon ng barangay assembly. Twice a year, March and October. Doon na sinasabi yong mga ganitong projects, mga ganitong... magkakaroon tayo ng medical-dental mission na nagmumula sa NGO tulad ng Rotary Club. Yon, sinasabi na doon para alam nila [baranggay

Rodolfo Cerezo

Dito sa barangay, kalusugan talaga dito... malnutrition. May parting lugar sa barangay namin na mga iskwaters. Kulang sa gamot. Yeah. Last year, nagkaroon kami ng

Minsan, konsulta ako ng barangay. Oo, parang magkaibigan kasi actually, yong kapitan dito, kumpare ko e. Tinulungan ko siya kaya nanalo. Kasi na kapitan ako e.

Oo pag ganon kalala. Tulad ng nangyayari ngayon, tong dengue outbreak. Kailangan [family planning] kasi alam mo naman dito, dyan sa skwater, talagang maraming bata dyan. Di tulad dito sa mayayaman, kasi busy sila, may mga trabaho sila. Karamihan dyan sa skwaters kasi, hanapbuhay nila

medical-dental mission.

assembly]. Kumbaga, nalalapit na yong okasyon na gagawin yon, may magbo-broadcast na barangay official, umiikot. So may megaphone.

yon ngang sinasbi kong, kwan man, fishing, naglaot ng dagat. Pag wala yon, syempre ang kwan doon, walang magsasabi sa kanya anong nangyayari dyan, e magkakaroon sila ng Di naman sa nakakaangat, pero yong mga skwater sa area, malapit sa dagat. Mga skwaters yon.

Camillo Cruz

Oo, tapos yung maga-ano sila ng sa dengue. Libre sila

Oo, tapos yung maga-ano sila ng sa dengue. Libre sila Paminsan hindi, paminsan pumupunta [yung mga BHW] Pero madalas hindi kasi asa likod kami

Marilyn Soriano

Sindrell Apostol

Maria Torio

Oo, yong bilihan ng gamut. Syempre kung

May umiikot nga

inuubo, hihinig kami ng gamot

ditto, kasi may BHW. Hindi naman ako miyembro dito ng BHW, labindalawa sila. Umiikot sila. Oo, nililibot nila yong mga bahay e, hanggang sa dulo.

APPENDIX E Images of Barangay San Isidro Norte