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Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Chemical Engineering

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Chemical Engineering Science

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ces

Science journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ces Recent developments in experimental (PIV) and numerical

Recent developments in experimental (PIV) and numerical (DNS) investigation of solid–liquid fluidized beds

R.K. Reddy a , c , M.J. Sathe a , d , J.B. Joshi a , b , n , K. Nandakumar c , nn , G.M. Evans d

a Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

b Homi Bhabhi National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094, India

c Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA

d School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia

HIGHLIGHTS

c

Particle image velocimetry and DNS (fictitious-domain method) have been performed.

c

The particle Reynolds number range was varied from 51 to 759.

c

Refractive index of fluid is matched with particles to achieve transparency for PIV.

c

Space and time mean and RMS velocity field were observed to be homogeneous.

c

Energy dissipation rate close to particles exceeds the average in fluidized bed.

article info

Article history:

Received 4 February 2012 Received in revised form 3 November 2012 Accepted 14 November 2012 Available online 20 November 2012

Keywords:

CFD Direct numerical simulation Particle image velocimetry Fluidized bed Hindrance effect Multiphase flow

abstract

Particle image velocimetry measurements have been performed in a solid–liquid fluidized bed in the Reynolds number range 51–759. To do this, the refractive indexes of the solid and liquid phases were matched at approximately 1.47 using 3 mm diameter borosilicate glass beads and a solution of turpentine and tetra-hydronaphthalene. Paraffin oil was added in varying quantities to vary the dynamic viscosity between 0.0012 and 0.010 Pa s without changing the refractive index of the solution. From the PIV measurements, at sampling rates of 2 Hz, the fluctuating velocity components were found to be quite uniform in both the axial and radial directions. Moreover, the computed turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates were also found to be relatively constant throughout the bed, thus highlighting the homogenous nature of the turbulence within the system. Following from Reddy et al. (2010b) , direct numerical simulations were undertaken at particle Reynolds numbers up to 200 for assemblages of 1, 9, 27, 100, 180 and 245 particles, which corresponded to a liquid volume fraction range of 0.687 o A L o 0.998. The effect of surrounding particles on the settling velocity (hindrance effect) and the wake dynamics was investigated. It was found that the average settling velocity decreased with an increasing number of particles, with the quantitative results being in good agreement with the well established empirical correlation of Richardson and Zaki (1954) . The local energy dissipation rate was also computed, and for a particle Reynolds number of 51, it was found to be 5.5 m 2 s 3 . This value was approximately 18 times the average energy dissipation rate of 0.30 m 2 s 3 ; and compared favourably with the 0.36 m 2 s 3 obtained by a volume-averaged energy balance of the experimental system. & 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

n Corresponding author at: Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of

Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India. Tel.: þ 91 22 3361 2106;

fax: þ 91 22 3361 1020.

nn Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 1 225 578 2361; fax: þ 1 225 578 1476. E-mail addresses: jbjoshi@gmail.com (J.B. Joshi), nandakumar@lsu.edu (K. Nandakumar).

0009-2509/$ - see front matter & 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Particle–fluid interaction plays an important role in many industrial processes, including: crystallization, chromatographic separations, ion exchange, sedimentation, fluidization, hydrome- tallurgical operations (leaching, particle classification and backwashing of downflow granular filters), slurry transport (water lubricated transport of heavy crude and coal slurries), hydraulic fracturing in oil and natural gas production. Whilst

2

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

these multiphase processes are widely applied detailed under- standing of the relative motion between the particles and the fluid and their corresponding influence on mass, heat and momentum transfer [for instance, Joshi et al., 1980 , 1981 , 2003 ; Thakre and Joshi, 1999 ; Murthy et al., 2007 ] has been limited for two reasons. First, non-intrusive experimental observations are very difficult to undertake, especially of the liquid motion in the interstices between the particles, droplet or bubbles. Second, the computational requirements for direct numerical modelling of such a complex flow have been prohibitively large. Recent advances in both flow visualization techniques and computing capability have reduced these limitations to such an extent that

optimized for dense granular systems and applied to a fluidized bed at incipient fluidization conditions into which both single- and multi-bubbles were injected. They observed that the highest granular temperature was in the vicinity of the bubble(s), and for the case of 1.5 mm glass particle bed the granular temperature ( Gidaspow, 1994 ) was in the range of 0.022–0.069 m 2 s 2 . Shi (2007) applied PIV to investigate the particle motion and cluster properties in a gas–solid two-phase flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser. Visual images and micro-structure of various clusters were captured. After the boundary of clusters was determined by the gray level threshold method, clusters were classified by the distance between particles and the shape and

detailed investigation of multiphase systems that more closely reflect actual industrial practices is now possible. In this study, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been utilized to quantify both the particle slip and interstitial liquid

position of clusters. In addition, the process of cluster formation and breakup was described, and the sizes of clusters were also obtained. With the Minimum Quadric Difference cross-correlation algorithm suitable for high-density particles, the axial velocities

velocity within a solid–liquid fluidized bed in the Reynolds

of

the particles were obtained in the dilute phase section. Analysis

number range of 51–759. The experimental measurements are

of

the magnitude and distribution of particle axial velocity in the

complemented by in-house direct numerical simulations (DNS) to quantify the influence of the presence of neighbouring particles on the wake structure and settling velocity of freely falling particles. The DNS is carried out using the in-house code reported

radial direction showed at most radial cross-sections a parabolic profile in the upward direction. The magnitude of axial velocity in the core region was found to be higher than that in the near wall region of the riser.

in Jin et al. (2009) , whereby the hydrodynamic force between the particle and the fluid is resolved without the need for assuming a

M uller¨ et al. (2009) employed simultaneous PIV and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measuring techniques to

given drag law relationship.

investigate the eruption of both a single and continuous stream

of

bubbles in the freeboard region of a fluidized bed. The observed

1.1. Previous work

Numerous experimental and theoretical studies ( e.g. Richardson and Zaki, 1954 ; Hanratty and Bandukwala, 1957 ; Garside and A1-Dibouni, 1977 ; Joshi, 1983 ; Pandit and Joshi, 1998 ; Gevrin et al., 2008 ; Reddy and Joshi., 2009 ; Zivkovic et al., 2009 ) have investigated bed expansion characteristics of solid–liquid fluidized beds; and whilst these studies are useful they give no real insight into the flow behaviour in the interstices between the particles. There have been a number of studies that have attempted to address this issue. Handely et al. (1966) undertook photographic measurements in beds of 3 mm glass beads at Re N of 45, 87 and 182 in a 75 mm diameter glass column and found that the root mean square fluctuating velocity in the axial direction is about 2.5 times higher than that in the radial direction. Chen and Kadambi (1990) studied solid–liquid slurry flows in a horizontal pipe using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and refractive index matching of the solid and liquid phases. They used silica-gel particles having an average size of 40 m m and 50% W/W sodium iodide aqueous solution. They were able to measure the average axial liquid velocity for silica-gel concentrations between 5 and 50% W/W. Neither Handely et al. (1966) nor Chen and Kadambi (1990) reported turbulence quantities. Chen and Fan (1992) applied PIV to three phase gas–liquid– solid fluidized beds to obtain 49 velocity vectors that provided an excellent basis for quantifying the mean flow. However, the number was well below the 100,000 required for reliable estimation of turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent energy dissipation rate and structure functions. Haam et al. (2000) combined PIV measurements with refractive index matching to obtain velocity information inside solid–liquid flui- dized beds at solids concentrations much higher than was pre- viously possible. They measured the axial and radial velocity components in a fluidized bed of glass beads for Re N values of 1040 and 1550. They found that the axial turbulent intensity of the fluid increased by up to 70% due to the presence of the glass beads. Dijkhuizen et al. (2007) coupled their PIV measurements with simultaneous measurement of the instantaneous velocity and granular temperature fields. The PIV algorithm was specifically

bubble eruption patterns were in general agreement with the bubble models published in the literature. Based on the calculated

vorticity of the gas in the freeboard it was found that the bubble induced turbulence decays rapidly. Stereoscopic PIV measure- ments of the out-of-plane component of the liquid velocity were found to be not negligible. Kashyap et al. (2011) used PIV to obtain laminar and turbulent

properties near the wall in the developing region of circulation of Geldart B type particles in the riser part of circulating gas–solid fluidized bed. Instantaneous velocities for the solid phase were measured simultaneously in the axial and radial directions using

a CCD camera and a coloured rotating transparency. A novel

method was used to determine axial and radial solid phase dispersion coefficients using the autocorrelation technique. The measured laminar and Reynolds stresses, laminar and turbu- lent granular temperatures, laminar and turbulent dispersion coefficients and energy spectra all exhibited anisotropy. The total granular temperatures were in reasonable agreement with the literature values. However, the axial and radial solid dispersion

coefficients measured near the wall were slightly lower than the radially averaged values in the literature. Herna´ ndez-Jime´ nez et al. (2011) investigated both experimen- tally and computationally the hydrodynamics of a rectangular, bubbling air-fluidized bed of 5 mm thickness. The authors used PIV and Digital Image Analysis (DIA) to obtain quantitative information on bubble hydrodynamics, dense-phase probability, and time-averaged vertical and horizontal components of the dense-phase velocity as a function of gas flow rate through the bed. Simulations were also conducted using an Euler–Euler two- fluid approach based on two different closure models for the gas– particle interaction, namely the drag models of (1) Gidaspow (1994) and (2) Syamlal and O’Brien (1989) . Good agreement between experimental observation and simulation results was obtained for dense-phase probability, gas bubble diameter rise velocity. The vertical component of the simulated dense-phase velocity, however, was found to be nearly an order of magnitude larger than that obtained from the PIV experiments. Van Buijtenen et al. (2011) applied PIV, Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), and Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) measuring techniques to quantify the flow in both quasi-2D

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

3

and 3D spouted fluidized beds. In the pseudo-2D bed the measurements were able to highlight the appearance of dead zones in the annulus near the bottom of the bed in the spout- fluidization regime. Measurements were also made in the jet-in- fluidized-bed regime beds with spout heights of 0, 20, and 40 mm. The results from both experimental systems were compared with full 3D discrete particle modelling (DPM) simulations; with generally good agreement being achieved except for slight over-

prediction of the velocities in the annular region for the quasi-2D case where wall effects in the experimental system are possibly higher than assumed in the modelling. In addition to the experimental investigations there have been many studies involving simulations of multi-particle systems. For

a recent review of the topic, with particular focus on DNS, see Reddy et al. (2010b) . Some more recent studies include:

Deen et al. (2009) have reported DNS results for multi-fluid flows in which simultaneously moving deformable (drops or bubbles) and non-deformable (particles) elements are present,

possibly with the additional presence of free surfaces. They utilized

a front tracking (FT) model to circumvent the explicit computation

of the interface curvature. They also used an immersed boundary (IB) model to incorporate both particle–fluid and particle–particle interaction via a direct forcing method and a hard sphere Discrete Particle approach. The capabilities of the hybrid FT-IB model are demonstrated by the authors with a number of examples in which complex topological changes in the interface are encountered. Uhlmann and Pinelli (2009) conducted a DNS study of dilute turbulent particulate flow in a vertical plane channel, considering up to 8192 finite-size rigid particles with numerically resolved phase interfaces. The particle diameter corresponded to approxi- mately nine wall units, with a terminal Reynolds number of 136. The bulk fluid upflow was maintained at a Re ¼ 2700 to maintain solids suspension. Two different density ratios were simulated, which varied by a factor of 4.5. The corresponding Stokes numbers for the two particles were O (10) in the near-wall region and O (1) in the outer flow. The DNS simulations indicated that the mean flow velocity profile tended towards a concave shape, and anisotropy for both the turbulence intensity and normal stresses. Large-scale elongated streak-like structures were predicted by the DNS, with stream-wise dimensions of the order of eight channel half-widths and cross-stream dimensions of the order of one channel half-width. There was no evidence for the formation of particle clusters, which suggested that the large structures were due to an intrinsic instability of the flow that was triggered by the presence of the particles. Xu and Subramaniam (2010) have reported DNS results for turbulent flow past uniform and clustered configurations of fixed particle assemblies at the same solid volume fraction. Their approach was based on a discrete-time, direct-forcing immersed boundary method that imposes no-slip and no-penetration boundary conditions on each particle surface. Results are reported for mean flow Reynolds number of 50 where the ratio of the particle diameter to the Kolmogorov scale was 5.5. The DNS confirmed experimental observations that the fluid-phase turbu- lent kinetic energy was enhanced by clustered configurations leading to increased levels of anisotropic turbulence. Tenneti et al. (2011) have reported particle-resolved DNS results of interphase momentum transfer in flow past fixed random assemblies of mono-disperse spheres with finite fluid inertia using a continuum Navier–Stokes solver. This solver is based on a new formulation called the Particle-resolved Unconta- minated-fluid Reconcilable Immersed Boundary Method (PURe- IBM). The principal advantage of this formulation is that the fluid stress at the particle surface is calculated directly from the flow solution (velocity and pressure fields), which when integrated over the surfaces of all particles yields the average fluid–particle force.

The PUReIBM is a consistent numerical method to study gas–solid flow because it results in a force density on particle surfaces which is reconcilable with the averaged two-fluid theory. The numerical convergence and the accuracy of PUReIBM approach were estab- lished through a comprehensive suite of validation tests. The normalized average fluid–particle force, F, was obtained as a function of solid volume and mean flow Reynolds number for random assemblies of mono-disperse spheres. From the simula- tions, a simple correlation for F, and hence drag coefficient, was developed for the particle Re range 100–300. Given that the simulations were based on a fixed particle assembly, any effects of mobility of the particles was not included. However, approach is a good approximation for high Stokes number particles, which are encountered in most gas–solid flows.

1.2. Research priorities

The great majority of industrial systems are operated under turbulent conditions, wherein a compendium of eddies (turbulent structures) of different length and time scales govern the momen- tum, heat and mass transfer and mixing behaviour. For this reason it is desirable to more fully understand the formation and dynamics of these turbulent structures. All the above-mentioned studies on PIV measurement and DNS computations have provided an excellent foundation, and with recent advances in experimental and mathematical techniques there is an opportunity to expand that knowledge for multi-particle systems. The following list of 13 research priorities is aimed at coupling both experimental and computational investigations. The priorities include:

1. DNS simulation for creeping flow ( Re N o 1) around a single particle in both an infinite liquid and a solid–liquid fluidized bed. Estimation of skin, form and total friction at all locations on the surface of the particle. Estimation of total drag coefficient at different solid volume fractions in the fluidized bed to quantify the hindrance effect.

2. DNS simulation of flow around a particle in the Re N range of 1–10 3 to obtain 3D component instantaneous velocities at temporal resolutions up to the Kolmogorov scale. Simulation of boundary layer separation and also the size, shape and stability of wakes behind a particle with respect to Re N . Estimation of skin and form drag on the entire surface of the particle.

3. DNS simulation of flow around a single particle in the Re N range of 10 3 –10 6 , capturing the sudden drop in drag coeffi- cient, C D , at Re N of around 2 10 5 due to the transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer separation.

4. DNS simulation of settling of a particle in a Hele-Shaw cell to include the wall effect.

5. DNS simulation of flow around two neighbouring particles.

6. DNS simulation of a solid–liquid fluidized bed in the Re N range of 1–10 6 to obtain 3D component instantaneous velo- cities at temporal resolutions up to a small scale permissible by the computational power. Estimation of skin, form and total friction at all locations on particles within the fluidized bed. Simulation of boundary layer separation in multi- particle systems and also understanding of size, shape and stability of wakes with respect to Re N and solids volume fraction.

7. DNS simulation of solid–liquid fluidized bed where the momen- tum transfer is accompanied by mass/heat transfer at the wall. Quantification of heat and mass transfer coefficients as a function of Re N and A L utilizing u 0 u 0 , u 0 c 0 and u 0 T 0 simulated results.

8. Quantification of homogeneity, isotropy and energy spectrum in solid–liquid dispersions as a function of Re N , A L and particle diameter and shape.

4

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

9. Development of scaling laws for the inertial, dissipation and large scale sub-range in solid–liquid dispersions.

10. DNS simulation for estimation of interface forces, such as drag, lift, virtual mass, and Basset; and subsequent applica- tion in the closure formulation for RANS and LES simulations of solid–liquid dispersions.

11. Measurement of instantaneous velocity within the fluidized bed using techniques such as high speed PIV, at sampling rates of up to 10 kHz, in combination with refractive index matching of the liquid and solid phases. Application of mathematical techniques, such as discrete wavelet trans- forms (DWT), continuous wavelet transforms (CWT) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), to identify and characterize the flow structures in terms of shape, size, velocity and energy distributions.

12. To understand the mechanism of vorticity generation and hence the origin of turbulence.

13. Relate momentum, heat and mass transfer to turbulent structure dynamics.

Priorities 1 and 2 for the authors have already been reported in

Reddy et al. (2010a , 2010b) . This study is focused on addressing priorities 3, 6 and 11. In terms of DNS (Priorities 3 and 6), simulating up to 245 particles (as performed previously) with Reynolds number range extended to 200. In terms of experimen- tal development (Priority 11), standardization of PIV measure- ment in terms of matching of refractive indices of the solid particles and liquid; achieving sampling frequencies of 2 Hz over

a wide range of Reynolds numbers; and data processing in terms of mean and turbulence characteristics which can be directly compared to DNS results.

2. Experimental

2.1. Solid–liquid fluidized bed apparatus

The schematic of experimental apparatus is shown in Fig. 1 . It consisted of an acrylic circular column (1), with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a height of 300 mm. A 0.5 HP centrifugal pump (6) was used for pumping the refractive index-matched liquid.

A calming section packed (4) with 3–4 mm glass beads of 0.3 m

height was provided to homogenize the liquid flow before it reached the liquid distributor. The distributor was a perforated plate (3) containing 128 holes of 2 mm diameter on a triangular pitch of 3.1 mm. The circular test section of the fluidized bed was encased with a square tank (2) which was filled with a refractive index-matched liquid to allow for Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the bed.

2.2. Solid–liquid refractive index matching

PIV measurement within opaque fluidized beds is only possible at solids concentrations of only a few percent by volume. However,

if the refractive index of the particle is matched 1 to that of the fluid

then it is possible to take reliable measurements at solids con- centrations greater than 50% by volume. In this study, different mixtures of organic liquid and inorganic salts were screened for matching the refractive index of 1.47 of high precision borosilicate glass beads (d p ¼ 3 mm and r p ¼ 2230 kg m 3 ). As indicated in Table 1 , from the screening process it was found that Solution 12 (68% turpentine and 32% tetra-hydronaphthalene) provided the

1 An excellent review on the subject of RI matching has been written by Wiederseiner et al. (2011) .

Outlet Gasket 9 Heat Exchanger 8 50 Acrylic column 1 Outer square column 2 300
Outlet
Gasket
9
Heat
Exchanger 8
50
Acrylic column
1
Outer square column
2
300
Distributor
3
100
Calming section
4
Vent
Flange
5
Refractive index
Inlet
matching liquid
7
PUMP
6

Fig. 1. Solid–liquid fluidized bed experimental setup (all dimensions are in mm) [(1) acrylic column; (2) outer square column; (3) distributor; (4) calming section; (5) flange; (6) pump; (7) refractive index matching liquid; (8) heat Exchanger; (9) gasket].

best match for the RI of the borosilicate glass beads as well as being compatible with the acrylic column. Paraffin oil, with very similar RI to that of the solution and glass beads, was also added in small quantities to change the viscosity of the solution and still maintain the required RI.

2.3. PIV measurements

A schematic of the TSI PIV set-up is shown in Fig. 2 . The laser source was provided by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser that had a pulse duration of 6 ns and was synchronized with the camera. The time difference between the two laser pulses was optimized based on Nyquist criteria. The optics included a combination of cylindrical and spherical lenses that produced a thin laser sheet of 0.1 mm thickness. Images were captured at a frequency of 2 Hz using a high-resolution 4 M CCD camera (2048 2048 pixels) placed perpendicular to the laser sheet. The refractive index matched liquid was seeded with silver-coated hollow glass particles with a mean diameter equal to 20 m m. The interrogation area was set at 50 100 mm (64 64 pixels, with a 50% overlap) resulting in approximately 1500 vectors per image. Post-processing of the captured raw PIV images was under- taken to determine the velocity vectors. Out-of-plane motion of the seeding particles and strong local velocity gradients caused some spurious velocity vectors. Median filtering, with a threshold value 1.5 times the median of surrounding vectors, was applied to filter the high spurious vectors. A signal-to-noise ratio of 4 was applied to filter the low spurious vectors. Parameters like time

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

Table 1 Screening of refractive index matching liquid for PIV experiments.

5

ID

Liquid

RI 25 1 C

Re max

Remarks

1

90% W/W glycerin þ10% W/W water

1.45

2

RI not exactly matched Highly corrosive For low Re N Harmful and corrosive Harmful and corrosive Specialty chemical RI not matched Not compatible with the acrylic column (column was cracked) Corrosive and not stable, turned in to pale yellow Chlorine compounds are not compatible with the acrylic column Not compatible with the acrylic column (column was cracked) RI has been matched and compatible with the acrylic column

2

Sodium idiode solution (55% W/W)

1.475

210

3

Paraffin oil light

1.465

23

4

Potassium thiocyanate solution (42% W/W)

1.46

200

5

Ammonium thiocyanate solution (45% W/W)

1.47

200

6

P-cyamene

1.465

545

7

Turpentine

1.44

850

8

Benzene or methyl benzoate with turpentine

1.47

900

9

30% W/W naphthalene þ70% W/W

turpentine

1.465

750

10

Turpentine þchloro-naphthalene

1.465

850

11

Turpentine þbenzyl alcohol

1.47

850

12

68% Turpentine þ32% Tetra hydro naphthalene

1.467

760

Table 2 PIV experimental conditions.

PIV exp

Paraffin light oil % W/W a

m

L

r

L

RI (–) V S N

 

e L range

Re N

no.

(Pa s)

(kg m 3 )

(m

s 1 )

(–)

(–)

1

85

0.01010 855

1.462 0.199

0.52–0.71 51

2

63

0.00420 870

1.471 0.266

0.46–0.75 164

3

48

0.00280 880

1.468 0.298

0.56–0.72 276

4

34

0.00193 890

1.469 0.309

0.53–0.73 437

5

18

0.00165 900

1.466 0.317

0.51–0.73 525

6

6.5

0.00142 910

1.470 0.325

0.46–0.66 625

7

0.0

0.00120 915

1.470 0.333

0.49–0.75 759

a Added to liquid 12 listed in Table 1.

Synchronizer Camera Laser Solid-liquid fluidized bed Refractive Pump index matching liquid
Synchronizer
Camera
Laser
Solid-liquid
fluidized bed
Refractive
Pump
index
matching
liquid

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of PIV setup.

difference between laser pulses, light sheet thickness and seeding density were optimized so that spurious vectors remained below 2%. The PIV measurements were performed in darkness to

minimize light contamination from external sources. Additional information 2 pertaining to the PIV measurements can be found in Deshpande et al. (2009 , 2010) and Sathe et al. (2010) .

3.

Direct numerical simulation

3.1.

Simulation set-up

The physical properties of particles and liquid used to simulate different particle Reynolds numbers within a fluidized bed are the same as those used in Reddy et al. (2010b) and are listed in Table 3 . Direct numerical modelling was undertaken for 1, 9, 27, 100, 180 and 245 particles contained. For each system, corre- sponding to a desired particle hold-up, the particles were initially arranged in a regular lattice. At time, t ¼ 0, the particles were allowed to settle through a rectangular domain with width and depth of 10 and 20 particle diameters, respectively. A moving reference frame method was employed, resulting in the rectan- gular domain to move downward with a velocity equal to the average velocity of particle ensemble. At steady state, this situa- tion is comparable to a fluidized bed where the heavier particles are suspended by the upward velocity of the liquid. The compar- ison between the particle and liquid velocity reference conditions is shown in Fig. 3 . For the fluidized bed (A), the liquid rises upwards with particle settling velocity; whilst for the DNS domain (B) the volume averaged liquid velocity is zero and the particle is moving down with its settling velocity. The domain is sliding downward with the same velocity as the particle. In both cases, the relative velocity of particles with respect to the walls of the domain is zero, and the relative velocity of the liquid with respect to the domain walls is equal to settling velocity of the particles, in the upward direction. The moving reference frame has two advantages for this application. First, very long settling times can be simulated by using a domain with finite dimensions making the simulations computationally affordable; and second, it is a relatively straightforward to establish a fluidized bed with a given particle hold-up. The initial conditions for the DNS are summarized in Table 4 . The side faces of the box have been treated as wall boundary condition. The top face of the box was treated as a pressure outlet, whilst the bottom face was treated as the velocity inlet with zero velocity magnitude. The initial particle positions are shown in Fig. 4 .

2 For a more general discussion on the topic see Tokuhiro et al. (1998), Deen et al. (1999), Lindken and Merzkirch (1999 , 2002) and Br oder¨ and Sommerfeld (2003) .

6

Table 3 DNS physical properties.

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

Re N (–)

1

5

10

30

65

100

200

d P (mm)

r p (kg r L (kg

m L (Pa s)

m 3 ) m 3 )

15

1120

900

0.5700

15

1120

900

0.2210

15

1120

900

0.1430

15

1120

900

0.0680

15

1120

900

0.0390

15

1120

900

0.0282

15

1120

900

0.0166

15 1120 900 0.0390 15 1120 900 0.0282 15 1120 900 0.0166 H V L V

H

V L

V L =0

15 1120 900 0.0282 15 1120 900 0.0166 H V L V L =0 Control volume
Control volume stationary, H Liquid moving V S = up with velocity V S V
Control volume
stationary,
H
Liquid moving
V S =
up with velocity
V S
V L

V L

Liquid stationary,

Control volume moving down

with velocity V S

Fig. 3. Schematic of fluidized bed and moving reference frame DNS simulation framework.

3.2. Fictitious domain formulation

The DNS simulations were carried out using the fictitious domain method described previously (see Diaz-Goano et al., 2003 ; Veeramani et al., 2007 ). Briefly, the fluid and particles occupy domains O 1 and O 2 , respectively, and the relevant equations of continuity and motion are applied to each domain as appropriate. In the fictitious domain approach the equations for the fluid are extended into the particle domain, such that O ¼ ( O 1 U O 2 ), resulting in savings in computational time as the liquid domain no longer needs to be re-meshed each time there is particle motion. The relevant equations 3 are

D

ð 1 Þ

u 1

¼

r p 1 þ

1

V i Z O 2 , i

Re 1 r 2 u 1 þ r 2 , i r 1

r

1

Fd O

ð G F Þ ,

r U u 1 ¼ 0

in O

Dt

and

DU 1

Dt ¼

ð 2 Þ

where

G

¼

(

and

F

¼

(

1

Fr e g

0

1

Fr e g þ

0

in O 2 , i , in O 1

r

1

r 2 , i r 1

^

F

i ¼ 1 , ::: , n

in O 2 , i ,

i n O 1

i

¼ 1 , ::: , n

ð

ð

3 Þ

4 Þ

and

^

F ¼

(

D u 1 Dt

0

þ

Re r 2 u 1 r p 1

1

in O 2 , i ,

i n O 1

i ¼ 1 , ::: , n

ð

5 Þ

where F is the interaction force. For collision of a particle with the plane wall, the interaction force can be replaced by the lubrica- tion force given by tenCate et al. (2002) :

^

F

W

i

¼

(

6 p r i U ? m 1

0

r

^

h

i

r i

h

^

if h o h

otherwise

ð

6 Þ

An operator splitting procedure is applied to the discretization process, with a rigid body constraint being applied to the particles

3 See Veeramani et al. (2007) for definition of terms.

in the last time step. Finally, the solver is parallelized using the

PETSc libraries ( Jin et al., 2008 , 2009 ) on a shared memory system.

4.

Results and discussion

4.1.

PIV measurements

Seven experiments were performed using the refractive index matched solid–liquid fluidized bed. A summary of the experi- mental conditions is given in Table 2 . Two sample raw images at Re N of 625 and superficial liquid velocities of 0.046 and 0.116 m/s are shown in Fig. 5 . The post-processing of instantaneous velocity flow field at Re N of 625 and superficial liquid velocity of 0.046 m s 1 is shown in Fig. 6 . The radial variation of the average axial velocity, v L , at superficial liquid velocities of 0.046 and 0.116 m s 1 is shown in Fig. 7 . It can be observed that these velocity profiles are almost flat in the radial direction. It can be observed that at Re N of 625 and at superficial liquid velocity, V L , of 0.047 m s 1 the axial turbulent intensity was on average 69% and the radial turbulent intensity was around 42% (Fig. 8A). An increase in the V L from 0.047 to 0.116 m s 1 , results in a decrease in the solid volume fraction of the bed from 0.54 to 0.355. Therefore the turbulent intensity (ratio of root mean square velocity to the average velocity) also decreases to about 47% in the axial direction and around 28% in radial direction (Fig. 8B). It has been observed that at Re N ¼ 437 and at V L of 0.047 m s 1 the axial turbulent intensity is 59% and radial turbulent intensity is around 36%. In order to examine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbulent intensity, the Reynolds number has been varied over the range 51–759. The variation of average axial and radial turbulent intensities with respect to Reynolds number is shown in Fig. 9. At the lowest Reynolds number of 51 it was observed that the axial turbulent intensity is only 7% whilst the radial turbulent

intensity is around 2%. When the Reynolds number is increased from 51 to 164 it was observed that the axial and radial turbulent intensities increase to 19% and 8%, respectively. Further increase in Reynolds number from 164 to 759 led to an axial turbulent intensity

of 75% and a corresponding radial turbulent intensity of 47%. In the turbulent regime, at Re N 4 500 (Clift et al., 1978; Joshi, 1983), it was found that the axial turbulent intensity is 1.65 times that of the radial turbulent intensity. This value is lower than the value of 2.5 reported by Handely et al. (1966). The image capture and processing technique employed here, utilizing a laser light sheet to clearly illuminate the particle boundary, is arguably more precise than the photographic measurement of Handely et al. (1966). Based on the limited number of experimental measurements, the follow- ing simple relationships are proposed for the relationships between

the turbulence intensity in the axial, v 0 , and radial, u 0 , directions and

the solid phase holdup, A S , and slip velocity, V S :

0

v

S ¼

V

1 : 29 A S

0

u

V S ¼ 0 : 78 A S

ð

7

Þ

ð 8 Þ

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

Table 4 DNS initial conditions.

7

Number of particles

1

9

27

100

180

245

d P (mm) r p (kg m 3 ) L n (–) Comp. domain dimension (mm) (mm) (mm) Number of nodes (–)

15

15

15

15

15

15

1120

1120

1120

1120

1120

1120

—— 8 16 8 1.2 10 6

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

8 16 8 1.9 10 6

8 16 8 2.6 10 6

8 16 8 4.1 10 6

8 16 8 5.2 10 6

8 16 8 6.5 10 6

8 16 8 5.2 10 6 8 16 8 6.5 10 6 Fig. 4. Initial particle

Fig. 4. Initial particle positions for (A) 1, (B) 9, (C) 27, (D) 100, (E) 245 particles [see Fig. 14 A for orientation for 180 particles].

[see Fig. 14 A for orientation for 180 particles]. Fig. 5. Raw images at Re N

Fig. 5. Raw images at Re N ¼ 625 for V L ¼ (A) 0.046 and (B) 0.116 m s 1 .

The radial variation of turbulent kinetic energy at different Reynolds numbers is shown in Fig. 10. It can be seen that as Reynolds number increases from 51 to 759, the turbulent kinetic energy also increases from 2 10 5 to 4 10 3 m 2 s 2 . Moreover, for each Reynolds number there is practically no

variation in the turbulent kinetic energy profile along the radial direction, which is similar to that for the turbulent inten- sity profiles. Both of these observations are further validations of the homogenous nature of turbulence in the solid–liquid fluidized bed.

8

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

Axial velocity (m s 1 )
Axial velocity
(m
s 1 )

Fig. 6. Instantaneous axial velocity flow field at Re N ¼ 625 and V L ¼ 0.047 m s 1 .

0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 2 0.06 0.04 0.02 1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
2
0.06
0.04
0.02
1
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.08 2 0.06 0.04 0.02 1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Fig. 7. Average

Fig. 7. Average axial velocity vs radial position at Re N ¼ 625 and V L ¼ (1) 0.047 and (2) 0.116 m s 1 .

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.8 1 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Fig.

Fig. 8. Turbulent intensities vs axial and radial position at Re N ¼ 625 and V L ¼ (1) 0.047 and (2) 0.116 m s 1 .

4.2.

Direct numerical simulations

 

wake is attributed to the asymmetric velocity gradients around

4.2.1.

Wake structure

the particle, resulting in centrifugal acceleration in the core of the

Fig. 11 shows the wake structure for a particle both in isolation and with other eight particles present. It can be observed that at the wake structure of a single particle at Re N ¼ 200 in (A) an infinite medium; and (B) surrounded by eight other particles at centre-to-centre distance of 1.2 d p . It can be seen that whilst the separation angle was similar for both particles the wake length was reduced by almost 33% due to the presence of other particles. For a single particle in an infinite medium the axisymmetric toroidal vortex of the wake has been observed up to Re N ¼ 210. This same behaviour is exhibited for the isolated particle shown in Fig. 11 A, which is not surprising given that Re N ¼ 200. For the case of the nine particles this axisymmetry in the wake is broken as shown in Fig. 11 B. The reason for this early instability in the

toroidal vortex and an increase in the azimuthal velocity. The axisymmetric toroidal vortex eventually breaks into two counter rotating vortices. Additional DNS simulations were undertaken to investigate the influence of particle spacing on the length of the wake, and particularly to determine the minimum spacing required so that the wake is no longer influenced by the surrounding particles. The results (for Re N ¼ 200) are shown in Fig. 12 for dimensionless wake length, W * , as a function of dimensionless particle spacing between particles, L * . It can be seen for very close particle spacing then W * o 1; and it steadily increases to unity at L * equal to 6. Therefore, it can be concluded that the effect of the surrounding particles can be neglected when the centre-to-centre particle spacing is more than 6 d p .

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

9

2 x 100, (-)

u/

TURBULENT INTENSITY, u iRMS

80

 
 
 

70

 
70  
 
 

60

 
60  

50

 

40

 
40  
40  
40  
40  

30

 
30  

20

 
20  
80     70     60   50   40   30   20  

10

10

0

0

0

200

400

600

800

REYNOLDS NUMBER, Re (-)

Fig. 9. Average ( ) axial and radial ( m ) turbulent intensities vs Re N at V L ¼ 0.047 m s 1 .

0.01 0.001 0.0001 0.00001 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY, k, (m
0.01
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY, k, (m 2 /s 2 )

NORMALIZED RADIAL DISTANCE, r/R, (-)

Fig. 10. Turbulent kinetic energy radial profile vs Re N at V L ¼ 0.047 m s 1 [ Re N ¼ 51( D ), 164( J ), 276( m ), 437( ), 795( )].

4.2.2. Normalized settling velocity

The simulated normalized settling velocities (shown as solid lines) for 1, 2, 9, 27, 100, 180 and 245 particles are plotted as a function particle Reynolds number in Fig. 13 . It can be seen that the time averaged settling velocity of the particle in the presence of other particles decreases with an increase in the number of particles surrounding it. This is in line with the hindrance effect observed in particles settling in swarm. In the presence of eight other particles, at Re N ¼ 1, the normalized average settling velo- city, V S , is 5.5% less than that for a single particle, V S N , settling in an infinite liquid. For a system of 27 particles the average settling velocity was found to be 0.606, which is 39.4% lower than V S N ; whilst for 100 particles V S is only 27% of V S N . The DNS results show clearly that the particle settling velocity decreases with an increasing number of particles, or solids volume fraction, A S ,

within the computational domain. Given that a decrease in

, within the computational domain. Given that a decrease in Fig. 11. Wake of the sphere

Fig. 11. Wake of the sphere at Re N ¼ 200 [(A) settling in the infinite medium; (B) Settling in the presence of eight other surrounding particles].

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 DIMENSIONLESS WAKE LENGTH (-)
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
DIMENSIONLESS WAKE LENGTH (-)

123456

Fig. 12. Wake length vs particle spacing for Re N ¼ 200.

particle velocity is a consequence of an increase in the drag coefficient, the simulation result is consistent with the findings of Joshi (1983) and Pandit and Joshi (1998) who used an energy balance approach to derive the following relationship for the particle drag coefficient, C D , as a function of A L :

C D

C D 1

¼ A

4 :8

L

ð

9 Þ

In creeping flow the drag coefficient in an assemblage of particle is increased due to (i) increased true fluid velocity within the interstices between the particles, (ii) increased velocity gradients resulting from more zero slip boundary condition surfaces; and (iii) increased length of the fluid flow through the assemblage of particles. In turbulent flow the same conditions prevail, with enhanced momentum transfer, and hence higher drag as the solids concentration is increased.

10

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12 Fig. 13. Average velocity of the
Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12 Fig. 13. Average velocity of the

Fig. 13. Average velocity of the particles: 1, single particle; 2, nine particles; 3, 27 particles; 4, 100 particles; 5, 180 particles; 6, 245 particles, DNS (solid line),

————, Richardson and Zaki (1954) For 1 o Re 1 o 200 n ¼ 4 : 45 þ 18 d p = D Re

For 200 o Re 1 o 500 n ¼ ð 4 : 45 Þ Re

0 : 1

1

0 :1

1

.

Also shown in Fig. 13 , is the corresponding normalized settling velocity predictions using the correlation of Richardson–Zaki (1954) where the liquid void fraction, A L , used for the R–Z calculation was that obtained from the DNS for the different number of particles. It can be seen that the DNS simulations are in good agreement (maximum deviation of 24%) with the R Z correlation. Interestingly, the R–Z correlation is based on a very large number of experimental studies, typically for systems with a homogeneous dispersion of a very large number of particles (at least 2000). Whilst the current DNS simulations are for a relatively small number particles. It can be seen from Fig. 13 that the agreement is increasing with increasing number of particles where the influence of the wall on the wake of an individual particle in the bulk assemblage is less. Ideally, more particles should be included in the simulations. For this study, however, a 64 IBM Power4 processors having 256 GB RAM was required to satisfactorily resolve the computational domain of 6.5 million nodes for the 245 particles at Re N ¼ 200. Further increase in either the numbers of particles or Reynolds numbers will require much bigger domains. To do this, the code will need to be fully parallelized using domain decomposition technique in order to perform simulations within a reasonable time frame.

4.2.3. Particle–particle and particle–wall collisions

The time sequence at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 s for the sedimentation of 180 particles at Re N ¼ 200 is shown in Fig. 14 . The images show that at different time intervals different particles come in contact with each other, which is qualitatively in agreement with experi- mental observations. For the simulations in this study a simple lubrication model was used to account for both the particle– particle and particle–wall collisions. The lubrication model is really only valid for low Reynolds numbers, and at best an approximation at higher Reynolds numbers. Moreover, the model does not account for the experimentally observed clusters, espe- cially at higher solids concentrations, where two or more particles remain in contact with each other for some time. The

incorporation of a collision model that captures all of the dynamics is an area of on-going DNS research.

4.2.4. Energy dissipation rate

The computed energy dissipation rate, e , was calculated from the three components of instantaneous velocity and nine velocity gradients at 12 points in the computational domain using the expression:

2

e ¼ 2

@ u 1

@ x 1

2

@ u 2

@ x 2

2

@ u 3

@ x 3

þ 2

þ 2

þ

þ 2

u

1

@

2

@

2

x

@ u 1 @ u 2 @ x 2 @ x 1

þ

@

u

1

@

x

3

2

þ

@

u

2

@

x

1

2

þ

þ 2

@ u 2 @ u 3 @ x 3 @ x 2

þ 2

2

@

u

2

@

x

3

þ

@ u 3 @ u 0 @ x 1 @ x 3

1

@

u

3

@

x

1

2

þ

@

u

3

@

x

2

2

ð 10 Þ

The computed averaged energy dissipation rate for 245 parti- cles at Re N ¼ 51, with up to 3500 time steps was found to be 0.303 m 2 s 3 . This value compares favourably with the experi- mental value of 0.36 m 2 s 3 obtained by a volume-averaged energy balance over the refractive index matched fluidized bed used in this study 4 at the same Re N ¼ 51. The local energy dissipation rate computed from the PIV mea- surements at the point equivalent of 0.6, 8.7, 0.6 in the computa- tional domain is shown in Fig. 15 as a function of normalized time,

t*. Two peeks can be clearly seen at t* ¼ 34.8 and 43.5 during the

measurement time. The first peak of approximately 4.0 m 2 s 3 corresponded to the approach of a particle to the measurement position, whilst the second peak of 5.5 m 2 s 3 corresponded to the departure of the particle. The period between these two peaks corresponded to the time when the particle occupied the sampling volume and hence a no liquid velocity vectors were measured and a zero local energy dissipation rate was recorded. The peaks in the local energy dissipation rate at the surface of the particle represent an increase of between 10 and 18 times than that of the average energy dissipation rate of 0.36 m 2 s -3 . The flow patterns (including the energy dissipation rate) in the vicinity of the particle interface and in the bulk have different roles to play in terms of industrial operations. The flow pattern near the particle surface governs the heat and mass transfer characteristics at the particle–fluid interface, whereas the flow pattern in the bulk governs the solid and liquid phase dispersions. Typically, high values of particle–fluid heat and mass transfer coefficients are desired along with low levels of particle and fluid phase dispersion so that plug flow can be achieved. These two characteristics are achieved by high and low levels of energy dissipation rate, respectively. This behaviour is reflected in Fig. 15 as a particle transits through the sampling location, and for this reason it is perhaps not surprising that fluidized beds are so widely used for heat and mass transfer applications. However, there are some limitations. First, the low dissipation rate in the bulk results in low value of mass and heat transfer coefficients at the container wall. Second, there may be some practical cases where complete bulk mixing is desired in the bulk. For achieving these process objectives an optimum selection of design (includ- ing column diameter and height) and the operating parameters (such as particle size and density, superficial liquid velocity, liquid viscosity and density) is required.

5. Conclusions

Flow visualization experiments were performed using particle image velocimetry and refractive index matching of the solid and

4 PIV experiment 1 as listed in Table 2 .

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

11

et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12 11 Fig. 14. Sedimentation of 180 particles

Fig. 14. Sedimentation of 180 particles at different time intervals for Re N ¼ 200 [(A) t ¼ 0; (B) t ¼ 3; (C) t ¼ 6; (D) t ¼ 9; (E) t ¼ 12].

t ¼ 3; (C) t ¼ 6; (D) t ¼ 9; (E) t ¼ 12]. Fig.

Fig. 15. Local energy dissipation rate vs time for Re N ¼ 51 [measurement taken at the point (0.6, 8.7, 0.6)].

liquid phases to understand the characteristics of turbulence in a fluidized bed. For the Reynolds number in the range of 51–759 the experimental measurements revealed that the turbulence intensity was constant in both the radial and axial directions, thus establishing the homogenous nature system. Complemen- tary DNS simulations provided increased spatial resolution of the velocity field that could be obtained by the PIV measurements. The computational domain, moving in the downward direction with velocity equal to the averaged velocity of particles in the swarm, comprised 1, 9, 27, 100, 180 and 245 particles. For each case, the wake of individual particle was observed to attenuate with increase in the volume fraction of particles. The averaged particle slip velocity decreased with increase in the number of surrounding particles, and compared reasonably with the Richardson and Zaki (1954) correlation. Finally, the local energy dissipation rate was computed from the DNS simulation, and for Re N ¼ 51, the energy dissipation rate near the surface of the particle was found to be approximately 18 times the volume averaged energy dissipation in the fluidized bed. Such a variation in energy dissipation rate distribution would need to be taken into consideration when designing fluidized beds given that heat and mass transfer will be controlled by what is occurring at the

particle surface whilst mixing of the liquid and solid phases will be controlled by the dissipation rate in the bulk.

Nomenclature

c 0

fluctuating concentration (kmol m 3 ) drag coefficient of a single particle in infinite med- ium (–) drag coefficient of a single particle in the presence of neighbouring particles (–) diameter of the particle (m) unit vector in the direction of gravity Froude number (V 2 1 = gd p ) (–)

F dimensionless redefinition of interaction force in the most convenient form (–)

e g

Fr

d P

C D

C D N

S

G representation of gravitational force in Eq. (6)

^

h distance between particle and wall or particle and particle (m)

grid size (m) dimensionless particle spacing between particles (–)

p

L

h

*

L

Re N

r i

t

t *

U ?

u

^

u

u

u

v 0

V i

V L

i

L

L

0

V S 1

V s

extension of the p L to the entire domain O (–) Reynolds number based on the particle (d p V sN r L /m L ) (–)

dimensionless radius of i th particle (–)

time (s) normalized time (–)

velocity component perpendicular to the wall or

particle (m

Velocity of fluid in i th direction (m s 1 )

dimensionless fluid velocity (–)

^

s 1 )

^

extension of the u L to the entire domain O radial fluctuation velocity (m s 1 ) axial fluctuation velocity (m s 1 ) volume of the i th particle superficial liquid velocity for fluidization (or) hin- dered settling velocity of the particle in sedimenta- tion (m s 1 )

terminal settling velocity

interstitial velocity (m s 1 )

(m s 1 )

W wake length (m)

( W n ¼ W / d p ) before the dimension (–)

Greek symbols

A L

A S

volume fraction of fluid volume fraction of solid

12

R.K. Reddy et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 92 (2013) 1–12

r p

r S , i

r L

O L

O

O S

m L

density of solid particle (kg m 3 ) density of i th solid particle (kg m 3 )

density of fluid (kg m 3 ) fluid domain

entire computational domain solid domain molecular viscosity of fluid (kg

m 1 s 1 )

e energy dissipation rate (m 2 /s 3 )

Subscripts

i particle species

L liquid phase

S solid phase

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