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BEOWULF

Ilonlron:

C. J.

CLAY AND SONS,

CAMBKIDGE UNIVEESITY PKESS WAREHOUSE,


Ave
ffilassoio:

Majria Lane.

263,

ARGYLE STREET.

eamtriige:

ILetpjig:

DEIGHTON, BELL AND F. A. BROCKHAUS.

CO.

^ia

gotfe:

MACMILLAN AND

CO.

BEOWULF
EDITED

WITH TEXTUAL FOOT-NOTES, INDEX OF PROPER NAMES, AND ALPHABETICAL GLOSSARY,

A.

J.

WYATT,

M.A. LOND., B.A. CANTAB.,

SOMETIME SCHOLAR OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE.

CAMBRIDGE:
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
1894.

[All rights reserved.']

$*'

^^.^%^
,4^^"

PKINTED BY

C.

J.

CLAY, M.A., AND

SONS,

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

PREFACE.
A
LENGTHY apology
is

for

preparing an English edition

of the " Beowulf"

perhaps hardly necessary.

The

earlier

English editions are long since out of print, and the

poem

has therefore been almost unobtainable, except in the

German
these

editions of

Heyne and Holder \


ill

Excellent as

may be

in several ways, they are

adapted

for

the

average English student, besides having one or more very

marked

defects.

Holder's foot-notes are as unreliable as

his text is reliable.

Heyne's glossary, like that of most


he
freartificial

German
which

editions, stands self-condemned, in that

quently forgets the absurd,


it is

order of letters on

based.
;

Furthermore, his glossary amounts to


this of itself tends to rob the

a translation

and
felt

work of

much

of

its

educative value for the serious student.


therefore that an English edition
all

It has

been

needed

for

after

the

"Beowulf"

is

essentially

was an

English

poem
is

which

should give the readings of the MS.

in foot-notes wherever they were departed from in the


1

There
;

a translation of Heyne's edition by two American pro-

fessors

but they have taken the trouble to render their text perfectly worthless by appropriating all Heyne's emendations and omitting his notes which give the readings of the MS.


VI
text, should provide

BEOWULF.

an alphabetical glossary, and should furnish a due amount of help in difficult passages and no more. This need I have attempted to supply. I have of

made abundant use of the labours of my predeThe debt of an editor of "Beowulf" to the At glossaries of Grein and Heyne is necessarily great.
course
cessors.

the same time nothing has been accepted on mere authority.


it is

glance at the glossary will suffice to show that

no translation from the German.


line,

Of the

text, in

the same way, every

every stop, almost every word,

has been carefully considered.


formation that in

The

genealogical tables

and the index of proper names give, in a concise form, in-

many
The

cases has

hitherto

had

to

be

sought from various sources^

The Manuscript.

excellent edition, with autotypes

and

transliteration of every folio of the MS., prepared for


is

the Early English Text Society by Prof. Zupitza,


of equal authority with the MS.
itself,

almost

and
is

is

therefore quite
criti-

invaluable to the editor, the autotypes being above


cism.

Upon

these the present

work

based.

The

trans-

literation of a few lines here will serve to

show some of
to

the more marked

characteristics of the unique extant MS.

(Cott. Vitellius A. xv. in the

British

Museum), and

make apparent how


from the MS.
:

far

and in what

particulars, besides

those indicated in the foot-notes, the edited text differs

student

For details connected with the literary history of the poem, the is referred to Ten Brink's Early English Literature (Bell) Morley's English Writers, Vol. i. (Cassell) Brooke's Early English Liteand Ten Brink's monograph in Quellen und rature, Vol. I. (Macmillan)
1
;

Forschungen, lxii.

Complete bibliographies

are

given

in Wiilcker's

Grundriss (1885), and Garnett's Translation of Beoioulf (1892).

PREFACE.
489* duguSe
]>e

VU

)?a

deaS fornam *site nu to

490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498

symle

*]

on

sael

meoto *sige hreS

secgii

swa

*J>aw8es geat msecgum geador aitsom ne *on beor


J>in sefa hwette.

sele

bene ger3rmed

*]73er

swiS ferhj^e

sittan eodon *]?rySum dealle ]>egn

nytte be heold *se]?e on handa bser

hroden ealo wsege *scencte


wses hseleSa
*i

scir

wered
lytel

scop hwilum sang *hador on heorote


]7ser

dream *duguS un

dena

wedera.

946 947 *bearn gebyrdo nu ic beowulf }>ec *secg betsta 948 me for sunu wylle *freogan on ferh)7e heald 949 forS tela. *niwe sibbe nebiS ])e senigre gad

950 951 *worolde wilna Jpe icge weald hsebbe *ful 952 oft ic for laes san lean teoh hode *hord 953 weorj7unge hnahran rince *s8emran set 954 saecce )?u ]>e self hafast. *d8e dum gefremed 955 956 ^ )7in lyfaS *awa to aldre alwal da )7ec *gode 957 for gylde swa he nu gyt dyde. * beowulf 958 ma]?elode beam ec ]7eo wes *we "^p ellen weorc 959 estum miclum *feohtan fremedon frecne 960 961 ge neS don. *eafoS uncu]?es upe ic swi]7or *'p 962 Su hine selfne geseon moste *feond on 963 frsetewum fyl werigne. *ic him hraedlice 964 heardan clam mu *on wsel bedde wrij7an 965 |7ohte *'p he for hand gripe minum scolde

Here

have followed Zupitza

in the division of the words,


suffices to

but a mere glance at the autotypes


1

show the
numbers

The

asterisks

mark the beginnings

of the verse-lines, the

of

which are given in the margin.


VIU

BEOWULF.
:

truth of what he himself says

" It is often

very

difficult,

if not impossible, to decide whether the scribe intended one or more words." Several things are obvious from a perusal of the above

passages
(1)

That the

lines of the MS.

do not correspond with

the verse-lines of the poem.


(2)

That the punctuation of the MS.

is

meagre and

unreliable.
(3)
letters.
is

On

That proper names are not written with capital the other hand, the first word after a full-stop

not infrequently Avritten with a capital.


(4)

That vowel-length is not marked as a rule. That one word is sometimes written as two or (5) even three words, and that two words are sometimes
written as one word.

That hyphens are unknown to the scribes. It would seem that the scribes were mere copyists, not writing from memory nor from dictation, and that sometimes at least they did not understand what they were copying. It is impossible to illustrate, by the quotation of
(6) (7)

passages like the above, the divergences of the MS. in the

method
two

of writing

illustrations
full
it is

and must

spelling the
suffice.

same word. One The word ond, "and,"


11.
*].

or
is

written in

only three times, in

600, 1148, 2040.

Elsewhere

represented by the symbol


{ace.

The word
1.

ondlong occurs in the form "*]langne"

m.) in

2115,

"andlongne"
1.

(ace.

2938.
1.

{gen.) in 1. 196, "mon cynnes" These are only a few examples of the inconsistencies with which the MS. teems.

in

110,

The "moncynnes"
1955.

2695, "ondlonge" {ace. f.) in word mon-cynn occurs as "mancynne" {dat.)

m.) in

1.

{gen.) in

1.

PREFACE.

IX

Marks
tit,

of length.

The

following vowels are the only:

ones marked long in the MS.


Ml, 300
gar,

33; an, 100; wat, 123; wop, 128; wat, 210; bat, 211; bad, 264
;

bad, 301; ar, 336


see,

bar, 357; hat, g^n, 386


;

an, 449
;

aas,
;

507
bat

537
;

564, 579
;

mot, 603
;

gad, 660
;

nat, 681

see,

690

742
sar,

stod,

759

abeag, 775
;

ban, 780
;

wic,

821
;

see,

895
;

hat, 897

975

fah, 1038
ar,

ban, don, 1116

blod, 1121

sse,

1149

win, 1162

1223; win 1233; wat, 1274; mc, 1275; had, 1297; har, 1307; bad, 1313; run 1325; wat, 1331; ar, 1388; aris, 1390; ga, 1394; ham, 1407; 1445 ; dom, 1491, 1528 ; brun, 1546 god, 1562 ger, 1587 ; sge, 1652 rad, 1883 see, 1882 bad, 1720 see, 1850 lac, wat, 1863 ; god, 1870

mod, 1167;

1168; bruc, 1177;

ler,

1187;

rsed,

1201;

see,

Mn
lie

scir,

1895;
;

see,

1896, 1924;
;

scan,

1965;
;

fus,

1966; hwil, 2002;


;

2080

rof,
stol,
;

2084

don, 2090

com, 2103
for,

lie,

2109

d6m, 2147

Hrogg,r

2155;
2376;

2196; an, 2210


;

(see note); fser,


;

2230

(see note); bad,


;

2258
;

an, 2280

woe, 2287

bad, 2302

2308

god, 2342

wid, 2346
;

dom

sar,

2468; man, 2514; harne stan, 2553; swat, 2558


fane, 2655

swaf, 2559

bad, 2568; wac, 2577; swac, 2584; god, 2586; wic, 2607; Wiglaf, 2631:
gar, 2641
;

dom, 2666
;

stod,

2679
;

swac, 2681
stod,

fyr, 2689,

2701
2858

wis,

2716

bad, 2736

lif,

2743, 2751
;

2769

dom,
;

2820^

ad, 3010 ; fus, 3025 com, 2944, 2992 Wiglaf, 3076; bad, 3116; fus, 3119; hrof, 3123; ad, 3138;
;

rad, 2898

rof,

3063

rec,

3144

ban-hus, 3147.

Hyphens.

It will

have been seen that the MS. gives no

help in one of the most difficult problems that beset the


editor of 0. E. poems, the question of the use of hyphens.

Grein and Sweet discard them altogether.


question whether this
it is
is

I cannot but

not to shirk one's duty.

At

least

a method that I have not been able at present to


it is.

bring myself to adopt, tempting as


course is as to "

The

difficulty of

where to draw the line " where to use a hyphen or to write as one word, where to use a hyphen or The former is the chief difficulty, write as two words. and here as elsewhere I have endeavoured to find the path
"of least resistance."
are not

Prepositional prefixes in

my

text

marked

off

by a hyphen from the following word

Xll

BEOWULF.
"

Beowulf.

Zupitza

"

is

the E. E. T. S. edition already

mentioned.
vowel-length.

A, B, Wlilcker, and Zupitza, do not mark

The names

of the proposers of the chief


for credit's

emendations adopted in the text are given


sake.

Rejected emendations are quoted but sparsely

only

when they

are backed

by considerable authority, or
Points of
far as

when I was in doubt as to the true reading. grammar are discussed in the notes only in so
affect

they

the question of readings.

have indulged but


for dis-

sparingly in the luxury of personal emendations, because

they are obviously the greatest disqualification


charging duly the functions of an editor.
Glossary.

The plan on which the

glossary

is

arranged

must be tested by experience. Some decisions which had to be taken when I began to work on it may prove to have
been mistaken
;

certainly I

am

not concerned to defend

them here. I have endeavoured to furnish the requisite amount of help and no more. Every passage that struck me as really difficult I have translated under what appeared to

me

to be the crucial word, but I wish

it

to

be

distinctly understood that

my

renderings are meant to be

suggestive and not authoritative.

Acknowledgments.

It can

but be a pleasure

for

me

to

make this public acknowledgment of the ready, willing, and efficient help which I have received, and without which the date of publication would have been seriously
delayed.

Mr

C. Sapsworth, M.A., gave

me

his notes

on

the

grammar

of the poem, which have been of use in

several ways.

The labour

of collating every line of the


all

autotypes of the MS. with the texts of


editions
son,

the principal

was done almost entirely by my wife, Mr D. JohnB.A., and other friends and in the preparation of
;

PREFACE.
the glossary I have had the invaluable cooperation of
friends,

Xlll

my
I
it

Mr H.

C. Notcutt, B.A.,
is

can only say that their help

and Mr D. Johnson. as warmly appreciated as

was cordially given. One debt demands separate mention.

The Eev.

Prof.

Skeat, Litt. D., has kindly spared time,

from very great pressure of other work, to read the proofsheets, and has made many valuable suggestions which are

embodied
than
this.

in
I

the book with

no other

acknowledgment
to dedicate this

should ask him to allow

me

edition to him, as a small token of

my

gratitude, were I

not of opinion that I should thereby be conferring far


greater honour on

my

book than any that such a dedica-

tion could bring to his name.


I have but to add that I alone am responsible for the work as it stands that I shall be grateful for criticisms and suggestions, especially from teachers and students and that Mr William Morris has taken the text of this edition as the basis of his modern metrical rendering of
;

the

lay.

A.

J.

WYATT.

Cambridge,

March, 1894.

ARGUMENT.
whose ancestry the poem war builds a great hall, Heorot, But a monster for feasting and the giving of treasure (11. 1 85). named Grendel, enraged by the daily sounds of revelry, attacks the hall, makes a meal of fifteen thanes, and carries off fifteen more, Thus Heorot is deretiu'ning with similar intent the next night. serted, and remains so for twelve years (11. 86 193). Then Beowulf, a mighty warrior of the Geats famous for the strength of his grip,

Hrothgar, king

of the Danes, with

opens, in the pride of his success in

hearing of Grendel's ravages crosses the sea with fourteen comrades,

men killed and monster and pulls ofi" his whole arm. Grendel escapes to his haunts, and dies (11. 194852). The following night, when the Danes are again in possession of the hall and Beowulf is lodged elsewhere, Grendel's mother breaks in, and revenges the death of her son by slaying Aeschere, a noble Dane Beowulf undertakes the pursuit and revenge; he (11. 853 1309).
keeps watch in Heorot, and, after seeing one of his
eaten, grapples with the

tracks the she-monster to her lair in the bottom of a mere, and slays

her there.

Seeing Grendel's corpse, he severs the head from the


it

body, and bears


(11.

back with him in triumph to Hrothgar's court

13101798). Loaded with rich gifts, the hero returns to his own land, and recites his adventures to Hygelac, his uncle, the king of the Geats On the death of the latter, Beowulf refuses the (11. 17992199). throne for himself, and acts as guardian and adviser to the young
king Heardred,

who

is,

however, slain in battle.

Then Beowulf becomes king


for fifty years, until a

of the Geats, whom he rules wisely dragon begins to lay waste the land (11. 2200

ARGUMENT.
2400).
all his

XV
ever,

The

old hero's spirit is

undaunted as

but deserted by

chosen warriors save one, although he succeeds in quelling the fiery "drake", he himself meets with his death in the terrible
encounter
(11.

2401

2820).

With the burning

of his body the

poem

ends

(11.

28213182).
several episodes, the chief are the

Of the
Breca
(11.

506

ff.),

swimming-match with Sigemund and the dragon (11. 874 fF.), and the
fF.).

Finn-episode

(11.

1068

For the connexion between "The Fight at Finnsburg" (Appendix) and the Finn-episode in "Beowulf" see Finn in the index of Persons and Places.

EEEATA.
L. 27, for "frean" read

"Frean."

L. 59, for "feower" read " feower."


L. 63, for "Scilfinges" read "Scilfingas";
63, for

"MS.

L. 112, for
L. 366, for

'hea-So scilfingas'" read "orcneas" read " orcneas."

and in the note on 1. "See note on 1. 2453."

"wrixlan" read "wrixlan."


"recced."
"bli^e."

L. 434, for "recced" read


L. 436, for "bli'Se" read

L. 454, for "Hraedlan" read "Hred'*lan"; and in place of the note on 1. 454 read "MS. 'hrsedlan'; of. 1. 1485." L. 484, for

"morgen

tid "

read " morgen-tid."


" begen."

L. 501, for "si^" read


LI. 536, 769, for

" si^\"

"begen" read

L. 674, for "-geatwe" read "-geatwe." L. 706, for "metod" read " Metod." L. 759, for " up-lang " read "up-lang." To the note on 1. 762 add " Cf. 1. 797."

L. 902, for "ellen;" read "ellen,". L. 1292, for "ofste" read " ofste."
LI. 1382, 1430, 2096, for

L. 1479, for L. 1617, for L. 2135, for

"onweg" read "on weg." " for^-gewitenum " read "for^ gewitenum.' "ffittren" read " aettren."

L. 2066, for "-wffilmum" read " -wselmum."

"wselmes" read "wffilmes." L. 2439, for "mercelses" read " mercelses." LI. 2539, 2755, for "-sercean" read " -sercean."
L. 2546, for
L. 2598, for

"waelm" read " wselm." "bugon" read "bugon,".

L. 2713, for " swelan " read " swelan."

Note on
P. 136,

L. 3119, for

"and note" read "(note), and cf. eafor, 2152." "-geanvum" read " -gearwum." add inverted commas at end of note on 1. 3155.
1.

2964, for

BEOWULF.
Hw8et
!

)?eod-cynmga

in gear-dagiim we Gar-Dena frym gefrunon,


ell en

Fol. 129*.

hu Sa
5

8e]?elingas

fremedon.

Oft Scyld Seeling

sceaf^ena ]?reatum,

monegum
Egsode

mi"eg)?um

meodo-setla ofteah.

eorl,

sySSan ^rest wearS

fea-sceaft funden;

he

]78es

frofre

gebad,
)7ah,

weox under wolcnum, 08 Yddt him ^ghwylc


10 ofer hron-rade

weorS-myndum
]?ara

ymb-sittendra

hyran
;

scolde,

gomban gyldan

)78et

wses god cyning.

D^m
15

eafera wses

seffcer

cenned

geong in geardum,
folce to frofre
)>aet
;

Ipone

God sende

fyi'en-Searfe ongeat,

hie

^r drugon

aldor-[le]ase

Letters supplied in the text, but found neither in the

MS. nor

in

Thorkehn's transcripts, are printed within square brackets.


deviations from the

All other

MS. are indicated in the text by the use of italics, and the reading of the MS. is given in a footnote. 15. MS. '-jJ,' as usual. Zupitza says " f generally means [net, but sometimes, it would seem, t>a." If ]pd be adopted, it must refer to fyrenIn latter half of same line the MS. is defective. ^earfe.
:

W.

B.

2
lange hwile.

BEOWULF.

Him

]}ses

Lif-frea,

wuldres Wealdend,

worold-are forgeaf;

(bl^d wide sprang), Beowulf W3es breme Scede-landum in. Scyldes eafera gode gewjrrcean, 20 Swa sceal [geong g]uma Fol. on fseder *[wi]ne, fromum feoh-giftum eft gewunigen )78et hine on ylde )7onne wig cume, wil-gesi)7as, lof-d^dum sceal leode ge listen
;

129^.

25 in m^g]7a gehw^re

man

ge]?eon.

Him
hi

Sa Scyld gewat

to gescsep -hwile

on frean w^re hyne j^a eetb^ron to brimes faroSe, sw^se gesij^as, swa he selfa b^ed,
fela-hror feran

30 )7enden wordum weold wine Scyldinga, leof land-fruma lange ahte. pger a3t hySe stod hringed-stefna
isig

ond

iit-fCis,

8e]7elinges fser;

aledon

)?a

leofne j^eoden,

35 beaga bryttan

on bearm

scipes,

m^rne be

mseste.

p^r

wses

madma

fela,

of feor-wegum

frsetwa gel^ded.

hyrde ic cymlicor ceol gegyrwan hilde-w^pnum ond heaSo-w^edum, 40 billum ond byrnum him on bearme
;

Ne

laeg

18, 19.

In Heyne and Socin's edition, these lines stand Beowulf waes breme, blsed wide sprang
Scyldes eafera[n]

Scede-landum

in.

20.
21.

MS. MS.

Grein's reading adopted in text. defective at corner. Zupitza transliterates "


defective.

rme," follow-

ing Conybeare and Kemble, but says:

"What

in the facsimile looks like

part of a letter before

7ie

(sic)

is

Thorpe suggested hearme = "in

his father's

owing to a small hole in the MS." bosom."

BEOWULF.

madma

msenigo,
iieht

)?a

him mid scoldon


lacum teodan,
forS

on fiodes

feor gewitan.

Nalses hi hine l^ssan

)7eod-gestreonum,

)7on[ne] J>a dydon,

45

|?e

hine

set

frum-sceafte

onsendon
Fol. 130*.

ienne ofer ySe

umbor-we*sende.

pa gyt

hie

him asetton
;

segen g[yl]denne

leton hohn beran, heah ofer heafod, him wass geomor geafon on gar-secg m5d. Men ne cunnon 50 murnende

sefa,

secgan to soSe,
hseleS

sele-rgeden(ie,

under heofenum,

hwa

f'c'em hlseste

onfeng.

Da

waes on

burgum

Beowulf Scyldmga,

leof leod-cyning,

longe forage
(feeder ellor hwearf,

55 folcum gefr^ge
aldor of earde),

o]> )78et him eft onw5c heah Healfdene heold J>enden lifde, gamol ond guS-reouw, glsede Scyldingas.
;

D^m feower beam forS gerimed weoroda r^swa 60 in worold wocun, Heorogar, ond HroSgar ond Halga
hyrde
47.
51.
1.

til

ic,

]?8et

Elan cwen

[Ongen)7eowes wses]

MS. MS.

defective at corner.
'sele raedenne.'

The emendation

is

Kemble's,

following

1346.
62.

MS. 'hyrde

ic
is

p elan cwen,' without any lacuna.

Grundtvig

suggested that elan

the last two syllables of Onelan, Onela being the


of the princess is lost.

son of Ongen>eow, and that the name emendation in the text is Ettmiiller's.

The

12

4
HeaSo-Scilfinges

BEOWULF.
heals-gebedda.

pa

wses HrdSgare

here-sped gyfen,
J^set
]78et

65 wiges weorS-mynd,
georne hyrdon,
o5S

him
on

his

wine-magas

seo geogoS geweox,

mago-driht micel.
J>8et

Him
men

mod beam,
Fol.

heal-reced

hatan wolde,
gewyrcean,
130^

*medo-8erii micel

70 )7on[n]e yldo

beam

^fre gefrunon,
eall gedt'elan

ond

psev

on innan

geongum ond ealdum,


buton
folc-scare

swylc him

God

sealde,

ond feorum gumena. Da ic wide gefrsegn weorc gebannan 75 manigre msdgpe geond j^isne middan-geard, folc-stede frsetwan. Him on fyrste gelomp ^dre mid yldum, ]?set hit wearS eal gearo, heal-serna mgest scop him Heort naman, se 'pe his wordes geweald wide hsefde. 80 He beot ne aleh, beagas d^lde,
;

sine set symle.

Sele hlifade
;

heah ond horn-geap


laSan
)73et

heaSo-wylma bad
]>a,

liges.

Ne

wses hit lenge

gen,

se ec^-hete

a]7um-swerian

85
63.

sefter wsel-niSe

wsecnan scolde.
For the form gebedda applied
278,

MS.

'

hea'So

scilfingas.'

to

woman Heyne compares /or^^re^i^/a,


'

applied to Judith's female attendant,

"Judith" 127. See Sievers' 0. E. Grammar, Kemble ]?8et [he] heal-reced.' 68.
84.

Note.

MS. 'secg hete'; Grain 'ecg-hete.' Cf. 1. 1738, and Seafarer 70. MS. 'aj?um swerian': o)>ww = son-in-law, and Bugge suggested that a^um-swerian is a compound belonging to the same class as the suhtergefcederan of 1. 1164, and meaning son-in-law and father-in-law.' This makes excellent sense of an otherwise difficult passage, the reference being to Ingeld, who married Hrothgar's daughter Freawaru (1. 2022)^ and to the events referred to in 11. 2020 69.
'

BEOWULF.

Da
]788t

se ellen-g^st

earfoSlice

)7rage gej^olode,

se

j^e

in J^ystrum bad,

he dogora

gehwam
;

dream gehyrde
hearpan sweg,
]>e

hliidne in healle

]7^r wses

90

swLitol

sang scopes.
se

Ssegde se

cuj^e

frumsceaft fira
*cwa33
]78et

feorran reccan,

^Imihtiga

eorSan worh[te],

Fol. 132^.

wlite-beorhtne wang,
gesette sige-hre]?ig

swa wseter bebGgeS; sunnan ond monan

land-buendum, ond gefrsetwade foldan sceatas leomum ond leafum lif eac gesceop cynna gehwylcum, J^ara Se cwice hwyrfa]?. Swa Sa driht-guman dreamum lifdon 100 eadiglice, oG Sset an ongan
;

95 leoman to leohte

fyrene fre[m]man,
wses se

feond on helle

grimma g^st
se
;

Grendel hat en,


]>e

m^re
105

mearc-stapa,

moras heold,

fen ond fsesten


Avon-s^eli

fifel-cynnes eard

wer weardode hwile, si)7San him Scyppend forscrifen hsefde. In Gaines cynne ]7one cwealm gewrsec ece Drihten, j^aes ]>e he Abel slog.
Rieger 'ellor-gsst,' adopted by Earle;
807, 1617, &c.

86.
92.

cf. 11.

101.

MS. defective at corner. MS. defective at edge.


it

healle for helle, because

On

the other hand, in

1.

Earle adopts Bugge's emendation of "so simple, and gives so much relief"! 142 he adopts Ettmiiller's hel-^egnes for healis

'^egnes.

105.

Both changes are needless. Almost all editions adopt the usual form won-salig.
Sievers
forscrifen hsefde
(l'on[n]e

106 8.

in Caines cynne
ece Drihten),

cwealm gewraec

BEOWULF.

Ne

gefeah he
for
J^y

)7gere fsehSe,

ac he hine feor forwrsec,

110 Metod

mane, man-cynue fram. Danon untydras ealle onwocon, ond orcneas, eotenas ond ylfe
f>a wic5

swylce gi*gantas,

Gode wunnon

Fol. 132^.

lange fmge;

he him

Saes lean forgeald.

II.

115 Gewat 5a neosian,

sy]7San niht
hit

becom,

hean huses,

hu

sefter beor-J>ege

Hring-Dene gebun hsefdon.


sef^elinga gedriht
;

Fand

)?a

swefan

aefter

S^r inne symble

sorge ne cuSon,

120 wonsceaft wera.

Wiht unh^lo,

gearo sona wses, grim ond gr^dig, reoc ond rej^e, ond on raeste genam )7ritig |7egna ]7anon eft gewat hiiSe hremig to ham faran,
;

125 mid )7^re

wsel-fylle

wica neosan.

Da
)?a

wses on uhtan

mid ^r-dsege

Grendles guS-crseft
wses sefter wiste

gumum
wop up

imdyrne
ahafen,

micel morgen-sweg.

Mc'ere )?eoden,
sset,

130

3e)?eling c'er-god,

unbliSe

]7olode SryS-swyS,

)?egn-sorge dreah,
last
l?a3t

sySj?an hie

]7ses

laSan
wses

sceawedon,

wergan gastes; laS ond longsum.

gewin to Strang,
Fol.
iss*^.

Na3s hit lengra *fyrst,

120.

Sievers 'wera[s].'

BEOWULF.
135 ac ymb ane niht morS-beala mare
f^hSe ond fyrene
gerumlicor
;

eft gefremede ond no mearn

fore

wses to
]>e

faest

on fsun.
hwier

pa wees eaS-fynde,
140 bed
sefter

him

elles

rseste [sohte],

burum,

Sa him gebeacnod waes,

gessegd soSlice,

sweotolan tacne
;

heal-Segnes hete
fyr

heold hyne syS|?an


se

ond

fgestor,

]>^m feonde setwand.

Swa

rixode

ond wiS rihte wan

oS ])set idel stod 145 ana wiS eallum, Wses seo hwil micel husa selest.

twelf wintra tid

torn gel?olode

weana gehwelcne, wine Scyldm^a, forSam [syS)?an] wearS sidra sorga undyrne cu5, 150 ylda bearnum ]7a3tte Grendel wan gyddum geomore,
;

hwlle wis E[ro]7gar,


fyrene ond fgehSe
singale s^ece
;

hete-niGas waeg,
fela missera,

sibbe ne wolde

155 wis manna hwone


feorh-bealo feorran,

maegenes Deniga
feo ]?ingian,

wenan J^orfte ne J>^r nsenig witena to hanan fohnum. beorhtre bote


139.

Grein
7.

[sohte]'; Wiilcker '[rymde].'


:

No gap

in

MS.

146

Sievers

htisa selest

(waes seo hwil micel)

twelf wintra tid


147.
148.

MS. 'XII..' MS. scyldenda


'

'

Thorpe Scyldinga.'
'

149.

Kemble's emendation, required for the alliteration

no gap

in

MS.
156. 158.

MS. 'fea'; Kemble 'feo.' MS. 'banu': Kemble 'banan.'

8
*[Atol] Sgl^ca

BEOWULF.
ehtende waes,
duguj^e ond geogope,
sin-nihte heold
Fol.

l33^

160 deorc dea)?-scua,


mistige m5ras

seomade ond syrede,


;

men ne

cunnon,
scri)7a5.

hwyder hel-runan

hwyrftum
oft

Swa

fela fyrena

feond man-cjaines,

165 atol an-gengea,


heardra hynSa
sinc-fage sel
;

gefremede,

Heorot eardode, sweartum nihtum


;

no he

)?one gif-stol

gretan moste,

ma)7(5um for Metode,

ne his myne wisse.

170 p8et wses wrsec micel

wine Scyldinga,

Monig oft gesaet rice to rune, r^d eahtedon, hwset swiS-ferhSum selest w^re
modes
brecSa.

wis f^r-gryrum
wig-weor)?unga,
)79et

to

gefremmanne.
a3t

175 Hwilum hie geheton

hcerg -trsbinm.

wordum b^don,
geoce gefremede

him gast-bona
hyht

wis )?eod-)7reaum.
he}>enra
;

Swylc wses )7eaw hyra,


helle

gemundon

180 in mod-sefan,

Metod

d^da Demend,
wuldres Waldend.
]?urh sliSne niS
159.

hie ne cu]?on, ne wiston hie Drihten God,

*ne hie hiiru heofena

Helm

herian ne

cii]?on,

Fol.
134*.

Wa

biS ])^m 3e sceal

sawle bescufan
Thorpe
'[Atol]';

MS.

defective at corner.

Eieger '[ac

se],'

without a period. 167 9. Heyne punctuates

sweartum nihtum
(no he J?one gif-stol

gretan moste,

ma>^um
175.

for metode,

ne his

myne

wisse)

MS.

'hraerg'; Grundtvig 'haerg-.'

BEOWULF.
185 in fyres
a3fter
faej^m,
;

frofre

ne wenan,
'pe

wihte gewendan
deaS-daege

wel biS )7^ra

mot

Drihten secean,
freo3o wilnian.

ond to Faeder faej^mum

III.

Swa

Sa m^el-ceare
;

maga Healfdenes

190 singala seaS ne mihte snotor haeleS wean onwendan; waes ]7aet gewin to swyS, la)? ond longsum, ]>e on 5a leode bec5m, nyd-wracu ni]7-grim, niht-bealwa m^st. Higelaces f>egn, paet tram ham gefraegn Grendles d^da; 195 god mid Geatum, se waes mon-cynnes maegenes strengest on ]7fem da3ge ]?ysses lifes, ae]7ele ond eacen. Het him yS-lidan

godne gegyrwan;
200
ofer

cwaeS,

he guS-cyning
waes

swan-rade

secean wolde,
]7a

m^rne J^eoden, Done siS-faet him


lyt-hwon logon,

him

manna

)7earf.

snotere ceorlas
*]7eah he

him

leof Wc'ere

Fol.

134''.

hwetton hige-[r]ofne,
205 Haefde se goda

h^l sceawedon. Geata leoda


]7ara
]7e

cempan gecorone,
findan mihte
;

he cenoste

fiftena
;

sum

lagu-craeftig
204.

sund-wudu sohte mon,


MS.
MS.
'

secg wisade,

land-gemyrcu.

defective.

of the first letter left,

Zupitza says: "ro/?ie only the lower part which may have been r, ]?, /, s, or tt?."

207.

xv".''.'

10

BEOWULF.
;

210 Fyrst forS gewat flota wses on ySum, bat under beorge. Beornas gearwe on stefn stigon streamas wundon sund wis sande secgas b^ron on bearm nacan beorhte frsetvve, 215 guS-searo geatolic; guman ut scufon,
;

weras on

wil-si*?,

wudu bundenne.
winde gefysed
dogores
fugle gelicost,
oj^res

Gewat
o5
)78et

)?a

ofer

Wt^g-holm

flota fami-heals

ymb

an-tid

220 wunden-stefna
|78et

gewaden

haefde,

Sa liSende

land gesawon,

brim-clifu blican,
side s^-naessas;
eoletes aet ende.

beorgas steape,
]7a

wses sund liden panon up hraSe

225 Wedera leode


sa^-wudu sSldon;

on wang stigon,
syrcan hrysedon,
f>ancedon,

giiS-gew^do;
]>ses
]?e

Gode

him

yj?-lade

eaSe wurdon.

*pa
230
se

of wealle geseah
]>e

weard Scildinga,
beorhte randas,

Fol. 135^

holm-clifu

healdan scolde,
hine fyrwyt brsec

beran ofer bolcan


fyrd-searu fuslicu
;

mod-gehygdum, hwset ]7a men w^ron. Gewat him ]7a to waroSe wicge ridan
218.

Almost

all editors

read fdmig-heals, but the MS. form must


hora prima?''

be of significance for the pronunciation.


219.

MS.

'an

tid.'

Grein's Glossary gives: "an-tid


an-tid = and-tid

/.

Cosijn contends

for

or ond-tld,

'corresponding time,

mean 'about the same hour So Heyne and Socin. Earle thinks "we ought to look rather at the phrase than at the words" (!), and objects to the hyphen. But without it we should expect 'ymb ane tid.'
the same time,' so that the phrase would
of the second day.'

BEOWULF.
235
|?egn Hrot5gares,

11

J^rymmum cwehte me]7el-wordum msegen-wudu mundum, " Hwset syndon ge searo-hsebbendra


]?e
J^iis

fraegn:

byrnum werede,
ofer lagu-stn'ete

brontne ceol

U'edan

cwomon,
?

240 hider
]?e

ofer

holmas

[hringed-stefnan]

Ic wses ende-sgeta,
on land

geg-wearde heold,
laSra ngenig

Dena

mid

scip-herge

sceSJ^an

ne meahte.

N5

her

ciiSlicor
;

cuman ongunnon
ne ge leafnes-word

245 lind-hsebbende guS-fremmendra

maga gemedu.
eorla ofer eorj7an,

N^fre

gearwe ne wisson, ic maran geseah Sonne is eower sum,


nis \ddt seld-guma
nsef^ie
ic

searwum 250 wgepnum geweorSad,


secg on
;

him

his wlite leoge,

^nlic an-syn.

Nil

frum-cyn witan,
leas[e] sceaweras,
fur)7ur feran.

^r ge

eower sceal fyr *heonan,

Fol. 135^.

on land Dena
ge feor-buend,
ofost is selest

Nu
;

255 mere-liSende,
to gecySanne,

min[n]e gehyraS

an-fealdne ge)?oht

hwanan eowre cyme syndon."

240 1. MS. 'hider ofer holmas le wa3s' &c., without gap. Thorkelin and Wiilcker read Ic for le, but Zupitza says: "Ze no doubt, not 7c." Various suggestions have been made for the missing half-hne. That Heyne adopts Ettmiiller's 'helmas baron,' in the text is Wiilcker's.
but this
genious
:

is

hardly felicitous after holmas.


hider ofer holmas?
waes ende-sffita.

Bugge's emendation

is

in-

[Hwile

ic

on wealjle

250.

253.
255.

MS. nsefre Kemble nafne.' MS. 'leas'; Ettmiiller 'lease.' MS. 'mine'; Kemble 'minne.'
'
'

'

12

BEOWULF.
IV.

Him
260
"

se yldesta

ondswarode,

werodes wisa,

word-hord onleac

We synt gum-cynnes Geata leode heoiS-geneatas. ond Higelaces folcum gecy]?ed, Wees min fseder 8e)7ele ord-fruma Ecg)7eow haten ^r he on weg hwurfe gebad wintra worn, hine gearwe geman 265 gamol of geardum wide geond eor]?an. witena wel-hwylc
; ;

We

)7urh holdne hige

hlaford J^inne,

sunu Healfdenes,
leod-gebyrgean
;

secean cwomon,

wes

]?u.

us larena god.
micel ^rende

270 HabbaS we to Deniga frean


;

]>8em.

mgeran
]?3er

ne sceal
wene.

dyrne

sum
is,

wesan,

J^ses

ic

pu wast
sceaSona

gif hit

swa we
]?9et

so)?lice

*secgan hyrdon,
ic

Fol. 136.

mid Scyldingum

nat hwylc,

275 deogol d^d-hata, eaweS ]7urh egsan

hynSu ond
J>urh

hra-fyl.

mmne

sefan

deorcum nihtum uncuSne niS, Ic y^es HroSgar mseg r^d gelseran,


feond oferswySe]?,
^fre scolde

hu he frod ond god 280 gyf him ed-wendan

b5t eft cuman, bealuwa bisigu, coh^an wurSa)? ond )7a cear-wylmas
oSSe a sy]7(5an
274.

earfoS-)?rage,

Zupitza says:

"now

only scea

left."

Only Thorkelin's
ditrch

first

transcript has scea'^ona.


275.

Grein's Glossary gives


?

"dSd-hata m. der
'

Thaten hasst

Oder verfolgt

oder died-hata facinora spondens vel moliens

Earle

adopts the latter reading, and translates

author of deeds.'

BEOWULF.
]7rea-nyd
)7olaS,

13

)7enden )?^r

wunaS
saet,

285 on heah-stede

Weard

ma]?elode,
:

husa selest." S^r on wicge


"

ombeht unforht

^Eghwa^fres sceal
wel
is

scearp scyld-wiga

gescad witan,
se
j^set
]>e
Jis

worda ond worca,


290 Ic
]?9et

j^enceS.

gehyre,

hold weorod

frean Scyldinga.

Gewita]? forS beran


ic

w^pen ond
swylce
ic

gewjedu,

magu-)7egnas

eow wisige mine hate

wis feonda gehwone

flotan eowerne,

295 niw-tyrwydne

nacan on sande,
o]>
J^oet

arum

healdan,

eft

byreS

ofer lagu-strea*mas

leofne
to

mannan
gifej^e biS,

Fol. 136".

wudu wunden-hals
God-fremmendra
300
]78et

Weder-mearce.

swylcum

j7one hilde-r^s

hal gedigeS."
;

flota stille bad, Gewiton him ]7a feran seomode on sale sid-f8e)?med scip, on ancre fa3st. Eofor-lic scionon

299.

Grundtvig's needless emendation gil^-fremmendra

is

followed

by some editors and by Earle.

3013.

Heyne puts
'

"flota

faest" in a parenthesis,

with a semi-

colon at the close.


302. MS. sole.' For the emendation cf. 11. 226, 1906, and 1917, and mod. "riding on a hawser." The MS. reading is not impossible. It is from sol, mod. Kent, sole, a muddy pool. 303 5. These lines have given rise to much discussion and many suggestions. Bugge takes eofor as the subject of heold, ferh- (for feorh-) wearde, "life-guard," as the object, and Uc-sclonon, "of handsome form," as the dat. sing, of an adj. referring to Beowulf. Grein's Glossary gives scionon as a second form of scinon, pret. 303. pi. of sclnan, "shine," but adds: "wenn letzteres nicht zu einem redupl.

Verbum scdnan

sceon gehort."

This supposition

is

quite needless

in

14

BEOWULF.
ofer hleor-ber[g]an,

gehroden golde,
ferh wearde heold.

305 fah ond fyr-heard Gu)7mod grummon,


;

guman
]?9et

onetton,
[sjael

sigon setsomne,
geatolic
]79et

o)?

hy

timbred,

ond gold-fah,

ongyton mihton
fold-biiendum

wses fore-mferost

on ]}^m se rica bad 310 receda under roderum, ofer landa fela. lixte se leoma [h]of modigra Him ]?a hilde-deor ]78et hie him to mihton torht getgehte,

gegnum gangan
315 wicg gewende,
"

gu5-beorna

sum

word
;

asfter cwgeS:

M^l

is

me

to feran

Feeder al-walda

mid ar-stafum
siSa

eowic gehealde
Ic to ste wille

gesunde

wis *wra?5 werod

wearde healdan."

Fol. 137*.

V.

320 Str^t wses stan-fah,

stig wisode

gumum

setgsedere.

GuS-byrne scan
hring-iren scir
)7a

heard hond-locen,

song in searwum,
in hyra

hie to sele furSam

gryre-geatwum

gangan cwomon.

1.

3170 we find a pret.

pi.

riodan = ridon, "rode," of the same ablautw-umlaut.


'

class,

showing the same

effect of

Sievers 376.
'

304.

MS.

'hleor beran'; Grein


pi.,

hleor-beran, dat.

sg.,

visor? ; Gering

'hleor-ber[g]an,' ace.
306.

cheek-guards.

307.

Kemble 'gu-mod[e]. MS. aeltimbred Grein


'
'

'ssel

timbred.'

312.

MS.

'of,'

in spite of the alliteration.

BEOWULF.
325 Setton
Sc'e-mel^e

15

side scyldas,

rondas regn-hearde,

wiS
;

]78es

recedes weal,

bugon

]?a

to bence

byrnan hringdon,
garas stodon,
setgaedere,

guS-searo

gumena

s^'e-manna searo,

samod
;

330

8esc-holt

ufan gr^g
gewur|7ad.

wses se iren-]7reat

wgepnum

pa

Sier

wlonc hseleS
:

oret-mecgas

aefter

cepelum fraegn

"Hvvanon ferigeaS ge f^tte scyldas, gr^ge syrcan ond grim-helm as, Ic eom HrdSgares 335 here-sceafta heap ? ar ond ombiht. Ne seah ic el-)7eodige modiglicran. )?us manige men

Wen
340

ic "pset

ge

for wlenco,

nalles for wrsec-siSum

ac for hige-*)?rymmum,

HroSgar sohton."

Fol. 137^.

Him

]?a

ellen-rof

andswarode,

wlanc Wedera leod


heard under helme
beod-geneatas
Wille
ic
; :

word
"

sefter sprsec,

We

synt Higelaces

Beowulf is min nama. asecgan sunu Healfdenes,

345

m^rum
)79et

|?eodne,

min
gif he

ierende,
iis

aldre J^inum,

geunnan
wa?s

wile,

we hine swa godne


(]?8et

gretan moton."

Wulfgar ma]7elode
wses his mod-sefa

Wendla
gecySed,

leod,

manegum
" Ic )?8es

350 wig ond wis-dom):


frean Scildinga,
332.

wine Deniga,

frinan wille,
due to the hale^
for the sense
11.

MS.
For

'

hffilejjum

'

evidently a scribal blunder


cf.
1.

of the previous line.

Grein '8e)?elum';

392,

and

251

2.

dret- see Sievers 43,

N.

4.

338.
344.

Heyne reads Wen' for Wene. Cf. 11. 442 and 525. The editors from Kemble downwards have adopted the more
;

usual form of the dat., suna

but see Sievers

270.

16

BEOWULF.
beaga bryttan, swa ]>xi bena eart, )7eoden m^rne, ymb )?mne siS, ^dre gecySan, ond )7e ]>a, ondsware

855

?Se

me

se

goda

agifan j^enceS."
]>ser

Hwearf

J>a

hrsedlice,

HroSgar

sset

eald ond

unhar

mid

his eorla gedriht

eode ellen-rof, ]?8et he for eaxlum gestod Deniga frean cuj^e he duguSe )?eaw. Fol. 360 Wulfgar maSelode *to his wine-drihtne "Her sjmdon geferede, feorran cumene ofer geofenes begang, Geata leode
;
:

138\

)7one yldestan

oret-mecgas

Beowulf nemnaS.
365
J>oet

Hy
min,

benan
wiS
)7e

synt,

hie, ]?eodeii

moton

wordum
tSinra

wrixlan

gegn-cwida,

no Su him wearne geteoh glsedman HroSgar.


wyi^Se ]?inceaS
se aldor deah,

Hy

on wig-getawum

eorla gesehtlan;

huru

370 se ]7^m heaSo-rincum

hider wisade."

VI.

HroSgar maj^elode,
" Ic

helm Scyldinga:
Ecgl?eo haten,

hine cuSe

cniht-wesende

W3es his eald fseder


367.

'glsednian'; Grein and Wiilcker Kemble and Thorpe took gladman to be the oblique case Bugge supports the reading of the MS., of a noun glcedma, 'gladness.' and practically decides the sense in which it is to be taken, by quoting the gloss ''Hilaris glaedman" (Somner p. 74, col. 2, 1. 21). MS. 'ealdfaeder.' This compound meaning 'grandfather, an373.

Thorkelin (B) and Kieger

'glffidman.'

cestor,' occurs in the

forms

ealdfceder, ealdefceder ;

but

its

use here

is

BEOWULF.
Sim to ham forgeaf HreJ^el Geata is his eafora iiii 375 angan dohtor; sohte holdne wine. heard her cumen,

17

Donne
]?a

ssegdon

]?8et

s^-lif>ende,

Se gif-sceattas

Jpyder to )7ance,

Geata fyredon )78et he )?rit*tiges


on his mund-gripe Hine halig God
ic

Fol. 138^.

380 manna msegen-crseft


hea)?o-r6f hsebbe.
for

ar-stafum

us onsende,
]?8es
;

to

West-Denum,

wen

hsebbe,

wis Grendles gryre

ic

)7^m godan sceal


beodan.

385

for his m6d-)7r9ece

madmas
samod

Beo bu on

ofeste,

hat in gan
setgsedere
;

seon sibbe-gedriht

gesaga him eac wordum,

j^set

hie sint wil-cuman

[pa wi5 duru healle Deniga leodum." word inne ahead; 390 Wulfgar eode,]
"

Eow

het secgan

sige-drihten min,
]78et

aldor East-Dena,

he eow^er

8e]?elu
safely

can,

a strain to the meaning of the passage, and we

may

assume that

the scribe has run two words into one, as in numerous other instances.

Eald feeder makes excellent sense. 37-5. MS. 'eaforan'; Kemble 'eafora.' Thorpe 'Geatum,' adopted by Bugge and Earle. 378.
is

The change

not absolutely necessary, because the genitive can have the same
379.

meaning, "for the Geats."


386.

MS. -xxx tiges.' Heyne reads 'hat


'

[hig] in

gan' for metrical reasons (but see


(i.e.

"Beitrage"
of seon.

x. 268),

and takes

sibbe-gedriht

the Danes) as the object

But sibbe-gedriht certainly refers to Beowulf's company, as in The whole phrase may 1. 729, and is the accus. -subject of in gan seon. be rendered "bid the band of warrior-kinsmen go into the presence."
Cf.
11.

396, 347, 365.

389

90.
B.

No gap

in MS., though the lack of alliteration seems con-

clusive as to a defect in the text.

The emendation

is

Grein's.

W.

18

BEOWULF.
ond ge him syndon
heard-hicgende,
ofer s^-wylmas,

hider wil-cuman.
in eowrum guS-geatawum, HroSgar geseon;

395

Nu

ge moton gangan

under here-griman,
l^taS hilde-bord

her onbidan,

wudu, wsel-sceaftas, worda gej^inges." Aras ]7a se rica, ymb hine rinc manig,

400

l^rySlic J^egna

heap;

sume
)7a

]>ser

bidon,

heaSo-reaf heoldon,

swa him

se

*hearda bebead.

Fol.

Snyi'edon retsomne,

secg wisode,
[hyge-rof eode,]

under Heorotes hrof;


heard under hehiie,

J>8et

he on heoSe gestod.
scan,

405 Beowulf maSelode


searo-net seowed
"

(on

him byrne

smi)7es or-)?ancum):
!

Wses ]?u, HroSgar, hal Ic eom Higelaces ond mago-Segn; haBbbe ic m^rSa fela ongunnen on geogo]>e. Me wearS Grendles j^ing 410 on minre e)7el-tyrf undyrne cu5

m^g

secgaS sse-liSend,

|78et

pes sele stande,

reced selesta,
idel

rinca

gehwylcum

ond unnyt, siSSan ^fen-leoht under heof'enes hador beholen weorJ?eS. 415 pa me ]?8et gelserdon leode mine,

395.

Ettmiiller 'gii'S-getawum';

cf. 11.

2636, 368.

See also Sievers

43, N. 4, 403.

404.
407.

and 260, N. No gap in MS. Grein's emendation adopted. Thorpe 'lieo[r]5e.'


;

Editors substitute W.S.


MS'}>ffis.'

ices for

North, loas.
J
)

411. 414.

Heyne and Socin 'ha^or.' The length of the a is uncertain. Hddor would mean 'brightness, serenity.' Grein's Glossary has " hea'Sor, heador, hador {oder a, ea?) n. receptaculum ; dat. hafa'S mec on headre
:

Ra. 663."

BEOWULF.
J7a

19

selestan,

snotere ceorlas,
j^set

]7eoden HroSgar,
for|?an hie

ic ])e sohte,

maegenes
Sa

craeft
ic

min[n]e cu)7on

selfe ofersawon,

of

searwum cwom,

420 fah from feondum, f^ler ic fife geband, ySde eotena cyn, ond on ySiim slog
niceras nihtes,
nearo-j^earfe dreah,

wrgec

*Wedera

niS
;

(wean ahsodon),

Fol. 139^

forgrand

gramum
]?yrse.

425 wis )?am agliecan,


Sing wis
Ic

ond nu wiS Grendel ana gehegan


]?e

sceal,

nu

Sa,
wille,

brego Beorht-Dena,
eodor Scyldinga,
])set

biddan
anre bene,

SCi

me

ne forwyrne,

wigendra

hleo,

430 freo-wine
])ddt

folca,

nu

ic )7us

feorran com,

ic

mote ana
ic

[ond] minra eorla gedryht,

|?es

hearda heap,

Heorot

fgelsian.

Hsebbe
for his

eac geahsod,

)?9et

se

^gl^ca
recceS
sie,

won-hydum
forhicge,

w^pna ne

435

ic )?aet ]7onne

min mon-drihten,
]78et

swa me Higelac modes bliSe^


o]?Se

ic

sweord bere
;

sidne scyld,

geolo-rand to gu)?e
fon wis feonde,

ac ic

mid grape
feorh sacan

sceal

ond
S^er

ymb

440

laS wis la]7um

gelyfan sceal

Dryhtnes dome

se ^e hine deaS nimeS.


wille,

Wen

ic ]>set

he

in p?em. giiS-sele
418.

gif he wealdan mot, Geatena leode

Grein 'mm[n]e';
2.
'

cf. 1.

255.
J^es
'

431 the

MS. ana minra


from before
\>es

7 {ond)

eorla gedryht 7 to before minra.

&c.

Grein transposed

443.

MS.

'geotena.'

22

20
etan
iiiiforhte,

BEOWULF.

FoL 140^ swa he *oft dyde Na )7U minne )7earfb 445 msegen HreS-manna. ac he me habban wile hafalan hyclan, gif mec deaS nimeS d[r]eore fahne, byreS blodig wsel, byrgean ]?enceS, unmurnlice, eteS an-genga no Su ymb mines ne ]?earft 450 mearcaS mor-hopu
;

lices

feorme

leng sorgian.
gif

Onsend Higelace,
beadu-scruda betst,
hrsegla selest
;

mec

hild nime,

J?9et

mine breost wereS,


laf,

]78et

is

Hraedlan

455 Welandes geweorc.

G^S

a wyrd swa hio

seel."

VII.

HroSgar maj^elode, "F[or w]ere-fyhtum

]?u,

helm Scyldinga wine min Beowulf,


:

usic sohtest. ond for ar-stafum f^hSe m^ste, Gesloh J>in faider to hand-bonan 460 wear)? he Hea)7olafe Sa hine Wedera cyn mid Wilfingum habban ne mihte. for here-brogan
;

panon he gesohte
ofer

SuS-Dena
folce

folc
Fol. l40^

ySa gewealc,
fur)>um weold

Ar-*Scyldinga
Deniga,

465 Sa

ic

ond on geogoSe heold


454.

gimme-rice

Ettmiiller 'Hrelan,' gen. of Hrela

= Hreel,

Beowulf's ma-

ternal grandfather; adopted by


457.

MS. MS. MS.

'fere fyhtum.'

Heyne and The reading

Earle.
in the text

was suggested by

Grundtvig.
461. 465.

'gara'; Grundtvig 'Wedera.'

See

11.

225, 423, &c.

'deninga.'

See

11.

155, 271, &c.

BEOWULF.
hord-burh
hselej^a.

21

Da
;

wses Heregar dead,

min yldra

m^g
f^hSe

unlifigende,
se waes betera
feo J^ingode
;

beam
470
Si?55an

Healfdenes
]?a

Sonne
hrycg

ic.

sende
ealde

ic

Wylfingum
;

ofer wseteres

madmas
is

he

me

aj^as

sw5r.

Sorh

me

to secganne

on sefan min urn

gumena fengum,
475 hynSo on Heorote fe'-niSa gefremed wig-heap, gewanod;
;

hwyet

me

Grendel hafaS

mid his hete-)7ancum, is min flet-werod, hie wyrd forsweop

on Grendles gryre.
|?one dol-sceaSan

God ea)?e mseg d^da getw^fan.


beore druncne

480

Fill oft

gebeotedon

ofer ealo-wiege
)?9et

oret-mecgas,

hie in beor-sele

bidan woldon
ecga.

Grendles gu)?e

mid gryrum

Donne

wses )7eos medo-heal

on morgen

tid,

485 driht-sele dreor-fah,


eal *benc-]7elu

l?onne dseg lixte,


Fol. 141.

blode bestymed,
;

heall heoru-dreore

ahte
|7a

ic

holdra

]>y

h'es,

deorre dnguSe,

]7e

deaS fornam.

Site nil to symle ond ons^l meoto, 490 sige-hreS secgum, swa ]7in sefa hwette." pa W8es Geat-maecgum geador setsomne

on beor-sele
479.

bene gerymed

MS.
90.

'sc^a'San,' the e in a different

hand. This passage has given

489
rise to

MS. 'on
is

sael

meoto

sige

hreS secgu.'
I

much
Meoto

discussion; the conjectures are too

numerous

to be given

here.

have followed Heyne in adopting Miillenhoff's interpretation, taking meoto = meotu ("with it- umlaut produced by inflectional ii; Sievers 106. S)=metu, pi. of met, 'thought ; cf. metian,
the chief difficulty.
'

'meditate upon,' Psalm 118. 174.

22
l;^r swiS-ferh)7e

BEOWULF.
sittan eodon,

J^rySum dealle.

pegn nytte beheold,


bser

495 se

'pe

on handa

hroden ealo-w^ge,

scencte scir wered.

Scop hwilum sang


)7fer

hador on Heorote

waes ha?leSa dream,

duguS unlytel

Dena ond Wedera.

VIII.
U7iieY^ ma]7elode,

Ecgiafes beam,

frean Scyldinga, J'e set fotum sset onband beadu-mne (wses him Beowulfes si5, modges mere-faran, micel 9ef-)?unca, for)7on ]>e he ne upe, ]78et ^nig oSer man Fol. l4l^ middan-geardes ^fre *m^iSa pon ma ]7onne he sylfa) 505 gehedde under heofenum " Eart ]?u se Beowulf, se ]?e wiS Brecan wunne, ymb sund flite, on sidne s^

500

S^er git for

wlence

wada cunnedon,

on deop wseter ond for dol-gilpe ne)7don ? Ne inc ^nig mon, 510 aldrum belean mihte ne leof ne laS, sorh-fullne siS, )?a git on sund reon
]?^r git eagor-stream

earmum

j^ehton,

mgeton mere-strata,

mundum

brugdon,

515 glidon ofer gar-secg;


wintrys wyhn.
499.

geofon yj^um weol,

Git on wseteres ^ht

MS.

'HvNfer^.'

51516.

Grein-Wiilcker
'

geofon-ySum

weol wintrys wylm.'

Other editions needlessly change ivylm to xvylme or loylmum.

BEOWULF.
seofon niht swuncon;
haefde

23
J^e

he

set

sunde

oferflat,

mare msegen.

on HeaJ^o- R^mas 520 Sonon he gesohte lond Brondinga, leof his leodum
freoSo-burh fsegere,
)7^r

pa hine on morgen-tid holm up setbser; sw^sne eSel,


he
folc ahte,
]?e

burh ond beagas. sunu Beanstanes

*Beot

eal wi3

Fol.

142'^.

so5e gel^ste.

wyrsan ge)?ingea, 525 Donne wene ic to f>e Seah )7u heaSo-r^sa gehwc'er dohte,
grimre guSe,
gif )?u Grendles dearst

nean bidan." Beowulf maj^elode, beam Ecgj^eowes wine min ?7?iferS, 530 " Hwget )7u worn fela, druncen ymb Brecan sprsece, beore SoS ic talige, saegdest from his siSe.
niht-longne fyrst
:

)?3et

ic

mere-strengo

maran

ahte,
o)7er

earfe)7o

on y}>um,

Sonne ^nig

man.

cniht-wesende 535 Wit )?8et gecw^don (w^ron begen ]7a git ond gebeotedon j^set wit on gar-secg ut on geogoS-feore), ond j^a^t gesefndon swa. aldrum neSdon )7a wit on sund reon, Hsefdon swurd nacod, wit unc wiS hron-fixas 540 heard on handa werian ]?ohton. No he wiht fram me
; ;

flod-y);um feor
519.
520.
e'^el;

fleotan meahte,

MS. MS.

'hea>oraemes.'
'swffisne
-

Si

-'

The O.E. name


used here and in
initial is

of this runic character


1.

was

hence the character

is

913 for the word e^el.

530.

MS. 'hun
There

fer'S.'

The

always h in the MS., although

the word always alliterates with vowels.


534.
is this

to be said for the emendation eafe\>o, " strength,"

that

it is

a closer parallel to mere-strengo than the reading of the

MS.

24
hra]7or

BEOWULF.
on holme
fyrst,
;
;

no

ic

fram him wolde.


Fol. 142^.

Da
545
fif

wit 8et*somne nihta

on s^ w^ron
o)? ]>set imc flod todraf, wedera cealdost,

wado weallende
nipende niht

ond norJ>an wind,


hreo wseron
y)>a.

heaSo-grim ondhwearf;

Wses mere-fixa m5d onhrered lic-syrce min, 550 ]>ser me wi5 laSum
heard hond-locen,
beado-hrsegl broden

helpe gefremede

on breostum

Igeg,

golde gegyrwed.

Me

to

grunde teah

fah feond-scaSa,

faeste haefde

555 grim on grape ])set ic agl^can


hilde-bille
;

hwspj^re

me

gyfe)?e wearS,

orde ger^hte,

hea)7o-r^s fornam
]?urh

mihtig mere-deor

mine hand.

Villi.

Swa mec gelome


560 j^reatedon
nses hie
]7earle.

laS-geteonan
Ic

him

J^enode

deoran sweorde,

swa
J^set

hit gedefe wses

G^re

fylle

gefean hsefdon,
hie

man-ford^dlan,

me

f>egon,

symbel ymb-s^ton
565 ac on mergenne
be yS-lafe
548.

si'e-grunde

neah;
Fol. 143*.

mecum *wunde

uppe l^gon,
cf.

MS. 'yhwearf;

'yswarode,'

1.

258.

be an
hverfr.

adj.,

which he glosses

'versatilis, volubilis,'

Grein takes hwearf to and compares Icel.

BEOWULF.
sweo[r]dum
aswefecle,
]79et

25
syS)7an

na

ymb

brontne ford

brim-liSende

lade ne letton. Leoht eastaa com, 570 beorht beacen Godes brimu swaJ>redon,
;

J78et

ic Sc'e-nsessas

geseon mihte,

windige weallas.

Wyi^d

oft

nereS

unf^gne
Hw{ie]?ere

eorl,

]7onne his ellen deah.

me

ges^lde,

)78et ic

575 niceras nigene.

No

ic

mid sweorde ofsloh on niht gefrsegn


heardran feohtan,

under heofones hwealf


ne on eg-streamum
hwce^ere
si]7es

earmran mannon
feore gedigde,

ic

fara feng

werig.

Da mec No

s^
ic

oj7b8er,

580

flod sefter faroSe,

on Finna land,
wiht fram
]?e

wadu
billa
set

weallendu.

swylcra searo-niSa

secgan hyrde,

brogan

Breca n^fre git

heaSo-lace,

ne gehwae)?er

incer,

585 swa deorlice

d^d gefremede
(no
ic ]?8es

^gum
]?eah

sweordum

[fela] gylpe),

Su ]?inum broSrum
;

to

banan wurde,
*helle scealt
Fol. 143^.

heafod-m^gum

J>ses

]7U in

werhSo dreogan. jjeah ]nn wit duge. 590 Secge ic ]>e to soSe, sunu Ecglafes,
J?8et

nc'efre

Gre[n]del swa fela


stve

gryra gefremede,
and part
of
o.

567.

(first

MS., defective at corner, has only transcript) 'sweodum.'

Thorkelin

MS. 'hwa>ere.' MS. 'wudu.' Seel. 546. 586. The emendation is Grein's; Kluge suggested '[geflites].' Heyne, followed by Harrison and Sharp, assumes the loss of two half lines after sweordum, with the unpleasant consequence that the numbers of his lines
578.
581.

are one too


591.

many

throughout the rest of the poem.

MS.

'gredel.'

26
atol ^gl^ca,

BEOWULF.
ealdre J?inum,
gif
J>in

hynSo on Heorote, sefa swa searo-grim,


595 ac he hafaS onfunden,
atole ecg-frsece,

hige wiere,

swa

)7u self talast


)7a

j^set he eower leode

fi^hSe ne }>earf,

swiSe onsittan,

Sige-Scyldinga

nymeS nyd-bade,
leode Deniga,

n^negum

araS

ac he [on] lust wigeS,

600 swefeS ond sende|?, secce ne wene)? to Gar-Denum. Ac ic him Geata sceal eafoS ond ellen ungeara nu
giife gebeodan.
to

G^]>

eft se ])e

mot

medo modig,

si]?)7an

morgen-leoht

605 ofer ylda

beam

o|?res

dogores,

sunne swegl-wered,

suj^an scineS."

pa wses on salum
*brego Beorht-Dena;

sinces brytta,

gamol-feax ond gu5-rof;

geoce gelyfde
Fol.

gehyrde on Beowulfe

144\

610

folces

hyrde

faest-r^dne gej^oht.

Dser wses

h8ele)7a hleahtor,

hlyn swynsode,
forS,

Eode Wealh|;eow word w^ron wynsume. cwen HroSgares, cynna gempidig,


grette gold-hroden

guman on
;

healle;

599.

Kemble's emendation

cf. 1.

618.

600.

Thorpe

'saecce,'

followed by most editors.

Secce

is

a dialectal

form

see Sievers 151.

Thorpe makes Geata (weak and is followed by Earle. Heyne takes ea/b'S ond ellen Geata as subject, gfcSe as object. He adds "ic Geata, 'ich der Geaten' oder 'ich unter den Geaten,' ist bedenklich." Surely this is what Coleridge calls the "wilful ingenuity of blundering." What is to prevent ic being taken as the subject, and eafo^ ond ellen Geata as the object?
601.
ic.

Thorpe and Heyne suppress


eafo'^

form) the subject,

ond

ellen the object,

BEOWULF.
615 ond
)7a

27

freolic

wif

ful

gesealde

^rest East-Dena
bsed hine bliSne
;

ej?el-wearde,
set
)7gere

heor-]>ege,

leodum leofne he on lust gej?eah symbel ond sele-ful, sige-rof kyning. 620 Ymb-eode |?a ides Helminga dugu};e ond geogoj^e d^l c'eghwylcne,
sinc-fato sealde,
]?8et
o]>

)73et

s^\ alamp,

hio Beowulfe,

beag-hroden cwen,
medo-ful
getbser;

mode

gel7ungen,
leod,

625 grette Geata


wis-faest
)79et

Gode
)?8es

]?ancode

wordum, heo on ^nigne

Se hire se willa gelamp,

eorl gelyfde
J^set

fyrena frofre.
wsel-reow wiga,

He

ful ge]7eah,
Fol.
144''.

*9et

Wealh|7eon,

630 ond )7a gyddode Beowulf ma]7elode,


"Ic
J>8et

gi]?e

gefysed
Eeg)?eowes:

beam
]?a

hogode,

ic

on holm gestah,
gedriht,

s^-bat gesset
]>set

mid minra secga


eowra leoda
o|?Se

ic

anunga

635 willan geworhte,

on

wgel

crunge
sceal

feond-grapum
eorlic ellen,

fsest.

Ic

gefremman

o)?Se

ende-da3g

on

]?isse

meodu-healle
]7a

minne gebidan."
wel licodon,
eode gold-hroden

Dam

wife

word
;

640 gilp-cwide Geates


freolicu

folc-cwen
eft

to hire frean sit tan.

pa wses

swa ^r
oj?

inne on healle

]?ryS-word sprecen,
sige-folca sweg,

Seod on s^luni,
J^set

semninga

645 sunu Healfdenes


^fen-rseste
;

secean wolde

wiste |7^m ahh'Scan

28
to ]7^m heah-sele

BEOWULF.
hilde ge}>inged,

siSSan hie sunnan ]eoht


o)?Se

geseon [ne] meahton,


scriSan

nipende

niht ofer ealle,

650 scadu-helma gesceapu wan under wolcnum.


grette
]?a

cwoman,
eall

Werod

aras

guma

o)?erne,

HroSgar Beowulf,
win-cTernes *geweald,

ond him h^l ahead, ond }>aet word acwseS:

FoI.

655 "Nsfre
si)75an

ic

^negum men

Sry]?-a8rn

hond ond rond buton J>e nii 5a. Hafa nu ond geheald husa selest,
ic

^r alyfde, hebban mihte,

1^5^

Dena

gemyne
gif ]?u

m^r|7o,

msegen-ellen cyS,

660 waca wiS wra]?um.


)?8et

Ne

biS

j^e

wilna gad,

ellen-weorc

aldre gedigest."

X.

Da him

Hroj7gar gewat

mid

his h8ele]?a gedryht,

eodur Scyldinga,

ut of healle

wolde wig-fruma

Wealh]7eo secan,
Hsefde kyning[a] wuldor

665 cwen to gebeddan.


Grendle to-geanes,
648.

swa guman gefrungon,


'[ne],' is

Thorpe's simple emendation,

now

generally adopted.

Bugge proposed, in addition, to regard oh^e (1. 649) as equivalent to 07id, as in 1. 2475, and the suggestion is adopted by Heyne. Earle defends the usual meaning or " There is something of alternative between twilight and the dead of night." 652. Grein-Wiilcker complete the first half line by [glaedmod],' Heyne by '[giddum].' 665. MS. *kyning,' at end of line; there is room for an a, but no
: '

trace of one.

BEOWULF.
sele-weard aseted;

29

sundor-nytte beheold

ymb

aldor Dena,

eoton-weard ahead.
georne

Hum

Geata leod

tmwode

670 modgan msegnes, Metodes hyldo. Da he him of dyde isern-byrnan,


hehii of hafelan,

sealde his hyrsted sweord,

irena cyst,

ombiht-J7egne,

ond gehealdan het

hilde-geatwe.

675 Gesprsec |?a se goda gylp-worda sum, Beowulf *Geata, Fol. 145^ ^"er he on bed stige: " No ic me an here-wi^smun hnagran talige
gu)7-geweorca
forl^an ic

)?onne Grendel hine

hine sweorde
)7eah
ic

swebban
he

nelle,

680 aldre beneotan,

eal msege.

Nat he

}>ara

goda,
fjeah

]>set

me ongean

slea,

rand geheawe,
ni)7-geweorca
;

Se he rof sie

ac wit on niht sculon


gif he gesecean

secge ofersittan,

dear

685 wig ofer wiepen,


m?erSo deme,

ond

si)?San

witig

God

on swa hw9e)?ere bond,

halig Dryhten,
)?ince."

swa him gemet


hea)7o-deor,

Hylde hine
690
snellic

)?a

hleor-bolster onfeng

eorles andwlitan,

ond hine

ymb monig

s^-rinc

sele-reste gebeah.
]7ohte,
)?8et

Nsenig heora
eft
folc

he )7anon scolde he afeded wses

eard-lufan
o]?3e

^fre gesecean,
{^c^er

freo-burh,

668.

Thorpe

'

eoton

(ace.)

weard (nom.) abead'; Heyne 'eoton

(dat.)

weard seems

(ace.) abead.'

The

difficulty of the uninflected accus. eoton-ioeard

less

677.

Thorpe

than those presented by these readings. wrestmum,' Grein wasmum.'


'

'

684.

MS.

'het.'

30

BEOWULF.
ac hie haefdon gefmnen,
]>^t hie ger to fela micles

695 in J7^m win-sele

wsel-deaS fornam,

Denigea
frofor

leode.

wig-speda gewiofu,

Ac him Dryhten forgeaf Fol. *Wedera leodum


)?8et

146.

ond fultum,
crseft
;

hie feond heora

Surh anes

ealle

ofercomon,
gecy)?ed,

700

selfes
]}Sbt

mihtum mihtig God


wide-ferh'S.

soS

is

manna cynnes

weold

Com

on wanre niht

scriSan sceadu-genga.
]7a
]?3et

Sceotend sw^efon,
healdan scoldon,
pset wses
J^a

horn-reced

705

ealle
)79et

biiton

anum.

yldum
nolde,

cu)?,

hie ne moste,

metod

se syn-sca]7a

under sceadu bregdan;


wra)7um on andan

ac he wseccende

bad bolgen-mod

beadwa

ge]?inges.

XI.

under mist-hleo]7um Godes yrre beer; mynte se man-scaSa manna cynnes sumne besyrwan in sele )?am hean. Wod under wolcnum, to 'pses ]>e he win-reced, 715 gold-sele gumena, gearwost wisse,
of

710

a com

more

Grendel gongan,

fa^ttum fahne
}>3et

ne wses

]?8et

forma

siS,

he Hro)?gares
hsele,

ham

gesohte.

N^fre he on aldor-dagum
heardran
702.

^r *ne

sif>San Fol. 146^

heal-Segnas fand.

Tborkelin 'ride';

"now

nothing

left

but part of the perpen-

dicular stroke of the

first letter."

BEOWULF.
720

31

Com

)?a

to recede
;

rinc siSian

dreamum bed^led
fyr-bendum
faest,

duru sona onarn,


sy]?6an he hire

folmum

[hr]an;

onbned

]7a

bealo-hydig,

5a [he ge]bolgen wses,

recedes mu]?an.

Ra]?e sefter ]?on

725 on fagne

flor
;

feond treddode,

eode yrre-mod
ligge gelicost

him

of

eagum stod

leoht unfseger.

Geseah he in recede
Bwefan sibbe-gedriht

rinca manige,

samod

?etggedere,

730 mago-rinca heap.

pa

his

mod
e'er

ahlog;

mynte
lif

]79et

he ged^lde,

]?on dseg

cwome,

atol aglgeca,

anra gehwylces
)?a

wis

lice,

him alumpen

waes

wist-fylle wen.

Ne

wses

]?9et

wyrd

]?a

gen,

735

])det

he

ma

mdste

manna cynnes

pryS-swyS beheold ]7a niht. hu se man-scaSa mgeg Higelaces, gefaran wolde. under f;^r-gripum yldan )7ohte, Ne )78et se agl^ca forman siSe 740 ac he ge*feng hraSe slcBpendne rinc, slat unwearnum,
Sicgean ofer

Fol. 131<\

bat ban-locan,
unlyfigendes
722.
of the

blod edrum dranc,


;

syn-sn^dum swealh

sona hsefde

eal gefeormod,
the facsimile
before hrdn,

MS. defective at edge. Zupitza's transliteration of MS. has '[gehrjan.' There is room for two letters
is

no evidence for ge-. On the contrary, whilst hrlnan usually governs the dat., gehrman more commonly takes the accus. {pace Grein). MS. faded at edge. Kemble, Grein- Wiilcker, and Heyne '[he] 723, Zupitza says: "Now bolgen is still distinct, and before it I abolgen.' think I see traces of two letters of which the first seems to have been g
but there
;

but what preceded this

is

entirely faded."

32
745
fet

BEOWULF.
ond folma.
]?a

FoiS near

setstop,

nam

mid handa
;

hige-]7ihtigne

rinc on raeste

r^hte ongean
;

feond mid folme


inwit-J?ancum

he onfeng

hra]?e

ond wiS earm gesset. fyrena hyrde, 750 Sona j^set onfunde middan-geardes, ]?8et he ne mette eor]?an sceatta, on eh^an men maran mund-gripe he on m5de weaf5 no ]?y ^r fram meahte. forht, on ferhSe wolde on heolster 755 Hyge wses him hin-fus, secan deofla gedrseg; ne wses his drohtoS ^r gemette. swylce he on ealder-dagum Gemunde )?a se goda mteg Higelaces
; ;

fleon,
]7^r,

^fen-sprSce,

iip-lang astod

760 ond him

fgeste

wiSfeng

fingras burston
eorl fur)?ur stop.

eoten wses ut-weard;

se m^ra, *hweeT he meahte swa, Fol. 131^ gewindan ond on weg J^anon widre wiste his fingra geweald fleon on fen-hopu pset (he) wa?s geocor si5, 765 on grames grapum. to Heorute ateah. J78et se hearm-sca)7a Denum eallum wearS, Dryht-sele dynede cenra gehwylcum, ceaster-biiendum, Yrre wSron begen eorlum ealu-scerwen. Reced hlynsode 770 repe ren-weardas.
;
;

Mynte

752.
762.

Many
MS.

editors normalise to
at

'

sceata.'

See Sievers
Wiilcker,

230.

defective

corner.

Ettmiiller,

Heyne

'\>sei.'

Zupitza's transliteration 'hwar,' as if there were no doubt as to the reading, but his foot-note runs " Mvcer (hiv with another ink, and crossed
:

out in pencil) B,
765.

cer

A now
;

only the lower part of r

left."

MS.

'\>set

he

waes.'

Grein suggested the accepted emendation

the omission of he.

BEOWULF.
)7a

33
se win-sele

wses

wundor
;

micel,

J^set

wiShsefde hea)70-deorum,
fseger fold- bold

)78et

he on hmsan ne
fseste wses

feol,

innan ond utan

ac he ]78es iren-bendum

pser fram 775 searo-)7oncum besmi]7od. mine gefrsege, medu-benc monig,

sylle

abeag

golde geregnad,
]78es
]>set

)7ger

)?a

graman wunnon;

ne wendon ^r
hit

witan Scyldinga,

780

6etlic

a mid gemete manna ^nig, t5brecan meahte, ond ban-l^g,


nym]7e liges
fsej^m
Fol. 147*.

listum tolucan,

swulge on swaj^ule.

Sweg *up astag


NortS-Denum stod

niwe geneahhe
atelic egesa,

anra gehwylcum,

785

)7ara J^e of

wealle

w5p gehyrdon,
godes ondsacan,

gryre-leoS galan
sige-leasne sang,
helle haefton.

se

]>e

sar wanigean Heold hine fseste, msegene strengest manna wses


)7ysses lifes.

790 on ]7gem dsege

XIL
genige J7inga Nolde eorla hleo cwealm-cuman cwicne forlgetan,

)7one

ne his lif-dagas
780. 788.

leoda

^nigum
Cf.
'

MS.

'hetlic';

Grundtvig 'betlic'
'

1.

1925.
is

Zupitza and others

helle-hgefton,
-a7i

but nothing

gained by
-07i is

making them a compound.

For
'

of the

weak declension,

not

uncommon.
Almost alLeditors
insert
to' before
'

fseste.'

W.

B.

L-^

34
nytte tealde.

BEOWULF.
peer genehost braegd

795

eorl

Beowulfes
j^eodnes,

ealde

lafe,

wolde frea-drihtnes

feorh ealgian,

m^res
Hie

Sser hie
]7a

meahton swa.
hie gewin drugon,

f>9et

ne wis ton,

heard-hicgende
sawle secan

hilde-mecgas,

800 ond on healfa gehwone


:

heawan

J>6hton,

)7one syn-scaSan

^nig

ofer eorj^an

irenna cyst,

guS-billa nan,

gretan nolde

ac he sige-wsepnum

*forsworen hsefde,

Fol.

l47^

805 ecga gehwylcre. on S^m daege


earmlic wurSan,

Scolde his aldor-gedal


J^ysses lifes

ond
se

se ellor-gast

on feonda geweald

feor si?5ian.
)7e

Da

)79et

onfunde,

fela

^ror

810 modes myrSe


)78et

manna cynne
he fag wiS God,
l^stan nolde,

fyrene gefremede,

him

se lic-homa

ac hine se
hsefde be

modega

m^eg Hygelaces
wses gehwsej^er

honda;
laS.
;

oSrum

815 lifigende

Lic-sar gebad

atol seglgeca

him on eaxle wearS


;

syn-dolh sweotol

burston ban-locan.
giiS-hreS gyfe)?e
;

seonowe onsprungon, Beowulfe wearS


scolde Grendel )7onan under fen-hleoSu,

820 feorh-seoc
811.

fleon

Kemble
god),'

first

inserted 'wass' after 'he.'

Heynehas:

'

(he

was

which appears to me a distinct enfeeblement of the MS. reading. Fag comes at the beginning of a line in the MS., and Heyne says it cannot be settled whether or not wees stood before it. This is very misleading. "There was no room for wees before fag'' (Zupitza),
fag

wi^

as a glance at the facsimile suffices to show.

BEOWULF.
secean wyn-leas wic
)7get
;

35
]>e

wiste

geornor,

his aldres wses

ende gegongen,

dogera dseg-rim.
aefter

Denum
se

eallum wearS
feorran com,

]?am wsel-ri^se
)>a

willa gelumpen.
)?e

825 H.iefde

gefielsod,

ier

snotor ond swyS-ferhS


;

sele HroSgares,
Fol. 148.

niht-weorce gefeh, genered wiS *niSe Hsefde East-Denum ellen-mer)7um.

Geat-mecga leod 830 swylce oncyj^Se


inwid-sorge,
'pe

gilp gelaested,
ealle gebette,

hie ier drugon


j7olian scoldon,

ond

for

]7rea-nydum

torn unlytel.

pset wses tacen sweotol,

sy]?5an hilde-deor

hond alegde,
(pmr wses eal geador

835 earm ond eaxle


Grendles grape)

under geapne

hr[of].

XIII.

Da
ymb

wses on morgen,
)7a

gif-healle

ferdon folc-togan

840 geond wid-wegas


laj^es lastas.

mine gefr^ge, monig feorran ond nean wundor sceawian,


giiS-rinc

No

his lif-gedal

sarlic J^uhte

secga ienegum,
trode sceawode,

]7ara J7e tir- leases

on weg )7anon, 845 niSa ofercumen on nicera mere, feorh-lastas bser. fiege ond geflymed,

hu he werig-mod

836.

MS.

defective at edge.

Cf.

1.

926.

32

36

BEOWULF.
Dser waes on blode
atol

brim weallende,
eal

ySa geswing

gemenged
Fol 148^

baton heolfre,

*heoro-dreore, weol
siSSan

850

deaS-fsege deog,
in fen-freo5o

dreama

leas

feorh alegde,
;

h^)7ene sawle

)?8er

him

hel onfeng.

panon

eft

gewiton

eald-gesiSas,

swylce geong manig

of gomen-waj^e,

mearum rid an, 855 fram mere modge beornas on blancum. D^r wses Beowulfes
mserSo
)?9ette

m^ned

monig
be

oft gecwaeS,

suS ne norS

s^m tweonum

ofer eormen-grund o]7er n^nig selra n^re 860 under swegles begong

rond-hsebbendra,

rices w}TSra.

Ne

hie hiiru wine-drihten

wiht ne logon,
wses god cyning.

glsedne HroSgar,

ac

]73et

Hwllum

hea)?o-rofe

hleapan leton,

feal we mearas, 865 on geflit faran, fsegere )?uhton, S^r him fold-wegas

cystiim cuSe.

Hwilum

cyninges

}>egn,

guma

gilp-hlaeden,

gidda gemyndig,

se Se eal-fela

eald-gesegena

870 worn gemunde, soSe gebunden.


siS

word

of>er

fand

Beowulfes
wrixlan

Secg eft ongan snyttrum *styrian,


spel gerade,

Fol. 149*.

ond on sped wrecan

wordum
849.

wel-hwylc gecwseS,
'
'

in the text.

MS. 'hat on heolfre,' and so Wiilcker. Grein hatan = hdton The readmg in the text is much easier than that of the
1.

MS., and

1423 turns the probability in

its

favour.

870

1.

Rieger and Bugge put 'word... gebunden' in a parenthesis.

BEOWULF.
875
}>8et

37
secgan hyrde

he fram Sigemunde[s]
imcuj7es fela,

ellen-dsedum,

Wselsinges gewin,
)?ara ])e

wide

siSas,

gumena beam

gearwe ne wiston,

fsehSe ond fyrena, buton Fitela mid hine, 880 )?onne he swulces hwret secgan wolde earn his nefan, swa hie a w^ron
set

niSa

gehwam

nyd-gesteallan

haefdon eal-fela

eotena cynnes

sweordum ges^ged.
885
sefter

Sigemunde gesprong

deaS-daege

syJ>San wiges

dom unlytel, wyrm acwealde, heard

he under harne stan, ana geneSde beam, frecne d^de ne waes him Fitela mid Saet J^aet swurd ]7urhwod 890 hw8e]7re him gesgelde, wraetlicne wyrm, )?8et hit on wealle setstod,
hordes hyrde
;

8e)7elinges

dryhtlic iren

draca morSre swealt.


elne gegongen,

Hsefde agl^ca
]78et

he beah-hordes

brucan m5ste
Fol.

895

selfes

baer

dome; on bearm
;

*ste-bat gehleod,
scipes

149^

beorhte frsetwa

Wselses eafera

wyrm

hat gemealt.

Se W3es wreccena
ofer wer-]7eode,

wide m^rost

wigendra he

hleo,

900 ellen-dsedum
875.

pses ser onSah.


'

in

itself,

880.

MS. 'Sigemunde.' Grein's emendation Sigemundes' is good and is the more probable in that the next word begins with s. Heyne normalises to swylces.'
'

895.
897.

Many

editors normalise to

'

gehlod.'

Sievers 392, N. 3.

Earle adopts Scherer's emendation 'hat[e],' with heat.


'

Cosijn's emendation aron 'Sah,' with honours throve, is adopted 900. by Heyne and by Earle. For dron = drum cf. scypon 1. 1154, and heaf-

38

BEOWULF.
SiSSan Heremodes
eafoS
hild sweSrode,

ond

ellen;

he mid eotenum wearS

forS forlacen, on feonda ge weald forsended. Hine sorh-wylmas snude he his leodum weart5, 905 lemede to lange eallum aepelingnm, to aldor-ceare. ^rran m^elum Swylce oft bemearn
;

swiS-ferh)7es siS

snotor ceorl monig,


to bote gelyfde,

se

J>e

him

bealvva

910

Jpset

fset

Seodnes

beam

geJ>eon scolde,
folc

fseder sej^elum onfon,

gehealdan,

hord ond hleo-burh,


eSel Scyldinga.

hselej^a rice,
]?ger

He

eallum wearS,
cynne,

manna mgeg Higelaces hine fyren onwod. 915 freondum gefsegra;

Hwilum flitende mearum m^ton.


scofen

fealwe strgete

wees morgen-leoht * Eode scealc

ond scynded.

monig

Fol. 150".

swit5-hicgende

to sele J?am
;

hean

920 searo-wundor seon


of bryd-bnre,

swylce self cyning

beah-horda v/eard,

tryddode

tir-fsest

cystum gecyj^ed,
medo-stig gemset

getrume micle, ond his cwen mid him


m8egj>a hose.

don 1. 1242, and for the phrase cf. weor^-myndum \)dh 1. 8. Nevertheless I cannot bring myself to abandon the clear reading of the MS., which makes at least as good sense as many another passage. 902. MS. 'earfo^,' retained by Wulcker; cf. 1. 534. On the other hand, see 11. 602, 2349. MS. ae^ellingum.' 906. 911. There appears to be no sufficient reason for making a compound, /(der-ce>e^u7?t, here, as the editors do. Cf. 11. 21, 1479. 915. Some editors mark the close of this episode by a space between this line and the next. There is nothing more than a dot in the MS., not a fresh line, nor even a capital to Inoilum.
'

BEOWULF.

S9

XIV.
he to healle geong, 925 HroSgar maj^elode geseah steapne hrof stod on stapole, ond Grendles bond golde fahne
;

"Disse ansyne
lungre gelimpe.

Al-wealdan
Fela
;

)7anc

ic laj^es

gebad,

930 grynna wunder

set

Grendle

a mseg

God wyrcan

sefter

wundre,
]79et

wuldres Hyrde.
ic ^nigra widan feore

Dset wses ungeara,

me

weana ne wende
b5te gebidan,

to
J>oniie

blode fab,

935 husa
Sara

selest

beoro-dreorig stod;

wea wid-scofen
]7e

witena gebwylcne,
]79et

ne wendon,

bie wide-ferbS

leoda land-geweorc

laj^um beweredon

Nu scealc bafaS Fol. l50^ *scuccum ond scinnum. dged gefremede, 940 )?urb Dribtnes mibt mr ne meabton Se we ealle Hwset )?9et secgan mseg snyttrum besyrwan, swa 5one magan cende efne swa bwylc m8eg)?a,
!

sefter

gum-cynnum,

gyf beo gyt


este wsere
ic,

lyfaS,

945

)?8et

byre eald Metod

bearn-gebyrdo.
secg betsta,

Nu
me
;

Beowulf,

])ec,

for

sunu wylle
beald forS tela

freogan on ferbj^e

Ne biS ])e [njsenigra gad niwe sibbe. j^e ic geweald bsebbe. 950 worolde wilna, lean teobbode, Ful oft ic for l^ssan
945.

949.

Heyne eald-metod.' MS. aenigre.'


'
'

See note on

1.

1776.

40
hord-weor]7unge,

BEOWULF.
hnahran
rince,
self hafast

ssemran

set

saecce.

pu
]>eet

]>e

dsedum gefremed,
955 awa to
aldre.

]7in

[dom] lyfaS
!"

Al-walda

]>ec

gode forgylde,
"

swa he nu gyt dyde

Beowulf ma}>elode,

beam

Ec[g]]?eowes

estum miclum, frecne geneSdon feohtan fremedon, upe ic swij7or, 960 eafoS uiicu)?es geseon moste, )73et Su hine selfne
)7set

We

ellen-weorc

feond on frsetewum
Ic hine hrsedlice

fyl-werigne.

*heardan

clammum
scolde

Fol. 151*.

on wsel'bedde

wri]?an )7ohte,

965

)79et

he

for mund-gri-pe

minum

licgean lif-bysig,
ic

butan
)?a
;

his lie swice

hine ne mihte,

ganges getw^man
feorh-geniSlan
;

Metod nolde, no ic him ]?8es georne

astfealh,

wses to fore-mihtig

970 feond on

fepe.

Hw8e)?ere he his folme forlet


last weardian,
;

to lif-wra)7e

earm ond eaxle


fea-sceaft

no

]>^r i'enige

swa
;

)?eah

guma

frofre

gebohte

no ]>y leng leofaS la3-geteona 975 synnum geswenced ac hyne sar hafaS in Tz^d-gripe nearwe befongen, balwon bendum S^r abidan sceal
;
;

maga mane
954. 963.

fah

miclan domes,

Kemble's emendation.

No gap

in

MS.
is

965.

MS. 'him.' MS. 'hand


MS. 'mid

gripe.'

Kemble's emendation

required for the

sake of the alliteration.


976.

gripe';

Thorpe mtS-gripe
'

'

Bugge

'nyd-gripe.'

BEOWULF.

41

hu him
980

scir

Metod

scrifan wille."

Da

wses swigra secg

sunu Ec[g]lafes

on gylp-spr^ce
si)75an sej^elingas

guS-geweorca,
eorles crsefte

ofer

heanne hrof

feondes fingras,

foran

hand sceawedon, ^ghwylc


;

985 W3es steda nsegla gehwylc


h8e)7enes hand-sporu,

style gelicost,
Fol.

*hilde-rinces

15P.

egl
)78et

unheoru

seghwylc gecwgeS,

him heardra nan


'pset

hrinan wolde

iren ser-g5d,

Sses

ahl^can

990 blodge beadu-folme

onberan wolde.

XV.
E)a wses haten hrej^e

Heort innan-weard
fela
|7t'era

folmum gefrgetwod
wera ond
995 web
sefter

wses

wifa,

"pe

pset win-reced,

gest-sele, gyredon.

Gold-fag scinon
w^undor-slona fela
]?ara }>e

wagum,

secga gehwylcum,

on swylc

staraS.

Waes

J78et

beorhte bold

tobrocen swiSe,
fsest,

eal inne-weard
984

iren-bendum

5.

Suggestions too numerous to mention have been

made

for

the emendation of these lines.


edition.

Heyne adopts

a fresh one with each


1.

new

Sievers considers the second half of

984 metrically deficient,

and proposes:
feondes fingras
stI'Sra naegla
:

foran ^ghwylc waes


style gelicost.

986.

MS.

'hilde hilde rinces,' the first hilde being the last


first

word on

the page, the second the


'the text

word

overleaf.

In such cases

italics in

seem needless.

For hand-sporu

see Sievers 279.

42
heorras tohlidene

BEOWULF.
;

hrof ana genses


aglseca

1000

ealles ansund,

]>d se

fyren-dsedum fag
aldres orwena.
to befleonne,

on fleam gewand,

No

}>8et

ySe byS
]>e

fremme

se

wille

ac gesacan sceal

sawl-berendra,
ni)7Sa bearna,

1005 nyde genydde,


grund-biiendra,
|7."er

gearwe stowe,
leger-bedde
fsest

his lic-homa

swefe)? sefter symle.


]78et

pa wses s^l ond


Healfdenes sunu

msel,
;

to healle
self

*gang

Fol. 152^

1010 wolde

cyning

symbel

f>icgan.

Ne gefrsegen ic )7a m^gpe sel ymb hyra sinc-gyfan


Bugon
]7a

maran weorode
geb^ran.

to

bence
;

bl^d-agende,

fylle gefsegon

fegere gep^gon

1015 medo-ful manig

magas

)?ara,

1000.

These lines, as given in Holder's edition, show the principal emendations that have been suggested
1002
5.
:

MS.

'J>e.'

No
to befleonne

>8et y'Se by'5

(fremme
ni)>'Sa

se

J?e

wille!),

ac gesecan sceal
n}'de genydgd

sawl-berendra [gehwa],
bearna.
'

B blaedagande.' The MS. now and de on the next line. 5. Bugge proposed to put these two lines in parentheses, because of "the difficulty of finding an antecedent for }>t7ra." Heyne (5th This can only be on the edition) and Earle adopt the suggestion. What a master of principle of two difficulties choose the greater. the parenthesis- style the "scop" must have been, to keep his hearers
1013.

Thorkelin

'bleed agande,'

has only 1014

bleed left,

waiting for the subject of

hiigoii,

past two other finite verbs with a

diffe-

rent subject, until four lines lower down!

And what

is

to hinder the

antecedent of ]?dra being implied in blad-cigende, in speaking of a court

BEOWULF.
on sele J>am hean, Heorot innan wses HroSgar ond HroJ^ulf.
swiS-hicgende,
'

48

freondum afylled
peod-Scyldingas

nalles lacen-stafas

)7enden fremedon.

hearn Healfdenes 1020 Forgeaf )?a Beowulfe segen gyldenne sigores to leane, helm ond byrnan hroden hilte-cumbor, manige gesawon m^re maS)7um-svveord
beforan beorn beran.

Beowulf gej^ah
he )7^re feoh-gyfte
;

1025

ful

on

flette.

No

for

scotenum

scamigan Sorfte

ne gefraegn
in

ic freondlicor

feower
fela

madmas

golde gegyrede
ealo-bence
]>SBS

gum -manna
oSium

gesellan.

1030

Ymb

helmes hrof

heafod-beorge

wirum bewunden ]>3dt him fela *laf^

wala utan heold,


frecne ne

meahton

Fol. 152'>.

where everyone was doubtless related


clan?
1020.

to everyone else,

as in a Scotch

MS. 'brand.' MS. 'scotenum'; Grein 2 scoterum Wlilcker sceotendum,' Heyne quotes oxenum, nefenxim, as examples for which cf. 11. 703, 1154. of similar weak dat. pis. 1030 1. The MS. has 'heafod beorge wirum be wunden walan utan Ettmuller 'wala,' adopted by Grein. If we leave the MS. readheold.' ing unaltered, there is a choice of difficulties. Either we must take icalan as subject and heafod-beorge as object, with a striking violation of grammatical concord in the verb heold; or we must (with Heyne and Socin) take heafod-beorge as a weak fem. noun in the nom. and walan as object, with considerable loss to the sense. The nom. pi. scur-beorge ("Euin"
1026.
'
'

'

5) also tells

against the latter view, which has no support from analogy.

1082.

Thorkelin 'laf (now gone in the MS.).

On

account of this

reading,

Bugge ("Beitrage"
it

xii.

92)

supports

Thorpe's emendation
line,

meahte, confirming

by the form scur-heard in the next

and by a

reference to Sievers: "der erste halbvers ist nach den untersuchungen

44

BEOWULF.
sciir-heard sce)7San,

)7onne scyld-freca

ongean gramum
1035 Heht 3a eorla hle6
fgeted-hleore

gangan
flet

scolde.

eahta mearas
teon,

on

in under eoderas;

j^ara

anum

stod

sadol
}78et

searwum

fah,

since gewur)?ad

wses hilde-setl

heah-cyninges,

1040 Sonne sweorda gelac sunu Healfdenes efnan wolde n^fre on ore Iseg wid-cu)7es wig, Sonne walu feollon. Ond (5a Beowulfe bega gehw8e)7res eodor Ingwina onweald geteah, 1045 wicga ond w^pna; het hine wel brucan.
;

Swa

manlice

mgere )?eoden,
hea}7o-r^sas geald

hord-weard
se

hselej^a,

mearum ond madmum,


J7e

swa hy

naefre

man

lyhS,

secgan wile

soS setter rihte.

XVI.
1050

Da
on

gyt

]7ara J^e
]78ere

^ghwylcum mid Beowulfe


;

eorla drihten,

brim-lade teah,

medu-bence maJ^Sum gesealde, yr*fe-lafe ond )?one ^nne heht golde forgyldan, J?one Se Grendel ^r 1055 mane acwealde, swa he hyra ma wolde,
Sievers' ("Beitrage" x. 455) metrisch unrichtig."

Fol. 153.

It is a curious commentary on this last reason, that Sievers himself quotes the line, with the form lafe, among the examples of his type A ("Beit." x. 273).

1051.

MS.

'leade.'

BEOWULF.

45

God wyrd forstode, mannes mod. Metod eallum weold he nu git deS gumena cjnines, swa
nefne him witig

ond

Sges

for]7an biS

andgit

^ghwger
se
]>e

selest,

1060 ferhSes
leofes

fore-)7anc.
la]7es,

Fela sceal gebidan


longe her

ond

on Syssum win-dagum

worolde bruceS.

p^r
fore

wses sang ond sweg

samod

getgsedere

Healfdenes

hilde-wisan,

1065 gomen-wudu greted,


Sonne heal-gamen
sefter
"

gid oft wrecen,


Hro)7gares scop

medo-bence

m^nan

scolde

Finnes eaferum,

Sa hie se f^r begeat,

hseleS Healf-Dena,

Hnsef Scyldinga,

1070 in Fres-wsele

feallan scolde.

Ne huru

Hildeburh herian J^orfte Eotena treowe; unsynnum wearS

1068 9. There are one or two difficulties here. (1) Heyne, followed by Earle, makes the episode begin with 1. 1069. I agree with Wiilcker and Bugge in regarding 1. 1068 as the commencement, partly because this helps to get rid of the difficulty of (2) the government of eaferum. Kemble '[be] Finnes eaferum'; Heyne and Socin 'Finnes eaferum [fram].' I follow Grein in regarding eaferum as an instr. pL, with reference to feallan scolde. (3) Bugge ("Beitrage" xii. 29) has shown that the emendation Healfdenes for Healf-Dena is misleading, the latter being a tribal name, such as we find in
goes on to explain
11.

1,

116, 383, 392.

(4) I

cannot follow Bugge, when be

hcele"^

as ace. pi,, anticipated by


its

hw

in the previous line.

This

is to force hie

from

natural and obvious meaning, as referring to


;

He quotes as a parallel the hit of 1. 1705 but the cases are not analogous, in that hit cannot possibly refer to anything gone before. I therefore take hcele'^, with Heyne and Earle, as nom. sing., Hncef
eaferum.

Scyldinga being a parallel expression to hale'^ Healf-Dena.


1070.

MS.

'infr es waele':
es

a letter erased, then

intended to write,

is

"r altered from some other letter, after it on an erasure: that fres is all that the scribe shown by a line connecting r and e." Zupitza.

46
beloren leofum

BEOWULF.
set

)?am ^md-plegan,

hie on gebyrd hruron bearnum ond bro9rum; Fol. 153''. f^aet wses geomuru ides. 1075 gare *wunde Hoces dohtor Nalles holinga sy]7San morgen coin, meotod-sceaft bemearn, geseon meahte heo under swegle 5a
;

mor)7or-bealo maga,

]>^v he[o] i^r ni^ste heold

Wig ealle fornam 1080 worolde wMine. nemne feaum anum, Finnes J>egnas, on ]}^m meSel-stede )78et he ne mehte
wig Hengeste
ne
)7a

wiht gefeohtan,

wea-lafe
;

wige for)7ringan
ac hig

1085 )?eodnes Segne


]>8st

him gepingo budon,

gerymdon, ond heah-setl, )78et hie healfie geweald wis Eotena beam agan moston, feoh-gyftum Folcwaldan sunu ond set Dene weor)7ode, 1090 dogi-a gehwylce Hengestes heap hringum wenede, sinc-gestreonum efne swa swi9e swa he Fresena cyn fsettan goldes,
hie

him

oSer flet

eal

healle

on beor-sele

byldan wolde.

1095

Da

hie

getmwedon
;

fseste frioSu-Wt^re

on twa healfa Fin Hengeste


Fol. 154.

aSum *benemde, weotena dome wea-lafe J^aet he j^a arum heolde, J^set S^er senig mon wsere ne brsepe, 1100 wordum ne worcum
elne unflitme

ne

)7urh inwit-searo

^fre gemi'enden,

6eah hie hira beag-gyfan


1073. 1079.

banan folgedon

MS. MS.

'hild';
'he.'

emended

for the alliteration.

'

BEOWULF.
Seoden-lease,
l^a him swa geJ>earfod waes. Frysna hwylc frecnan spruce

47

Gyf
1105

)?onne

Sees morj^or-hetes

myndgiend

wiere,

)7onne hit sweordes ecg

sySSan scolde.

As

wses gesefned,

ond icge gold


Here-Scyldinga
waes on bi^l gearu
e)7-gesyne

ahsefen of horde.
betst beado-rinca

1110

set

y^m. ade waes

swat-fah syrce,
eofer iren-heard,

swyn
;

eal-gylden,

manig awyrded wundum sume on wsele crungon. Het 5a Hildeburh set Hnsefes ade 1115 hire selfre sunu sweoloSe befaestan, ban-fatu baernan ond on b^l don earme on eaxle ides gnornode, geomrode giddum. Gu5-rinc astah. Wand *t6 wolcnum wsel-fyra mgest, Fol. 1120 hlynode for hlawe hafelan multon, ben-geato burston Sonne blod setspranc laS-bite lices. Lig ealle forswealg, gc^sta gifrost, )7ara Se ]>^r guS fornam bega folces waes hira blsed scacen.
3e)7eling
; ; ;

154''.

XVII.
1125 Gewiton him Sa wigend
wica neosian

freondum befeallen,
1104.
nensprgece.

Frysland geseon,
'frecnen
spraece';

Zupitza's transliteration

Wiilcker 'frec-

1118.

Grundtvig
gfcS-rtc

'gii^-rec' (but
1.

he read Hue for rinc in the MS.).

Skeat supports this reading by

3144,

and Elene 795: "rec astigan,"


locel-fyr in

and compares

with the compound

the next line.

48

BEOWULF.

hamas ond hea-burh.


wael-fagne winter
el[ne]
;

Hengest Sa gyt

wuiiode mid Finn

1130

]?eah

eard gemunde, un/litme on mere drifan he [ne] meahte holm storme weol, hringed-stefnan
])e
;

won wis winde


is-gebinde,

winter j]>e beleac


Sset oj^er

op

com
deS,

gear in geardas,

swa nu gyt
sele bewitiaS,

1135

]7a

Se syn gales

wuldor-torhtan weder.
fseger foldan
;

Da

wses winter scacen,

gist

bearm fundode wrecca, of geardum he to gyrn-wraece


;

swiSor *]7ohte,

]7onne to sse-lade,

Fol. 155*.

]7urhteon mihte, 1140 gif he torn-gemot inne gemunde. ]78et he Eotena beam Swa he ne forwyrnde worold-rsedenne, ]7onne him Hunlafing hilde-leoman, billa selest, on bearm dyde
;

1128

9.
;

MS. 'mid

finnel unhlitme';

Heyne *mid Finne


1.

[ealles]

unhlitme'
1130.
648.

Kieger suggested the emendation in the text from

1097, and

has been followed by Grein and Wiileker.


Grundtvig's emendation; Grein read ne in place of
/je.

Cf.

1.

I have preserved the MS. reading. which Zupitza transliterates 'hun-lafing.' We constantly find proper names divided into two parts in the MS., e.g. 'hro^ gar,' 1. 339; 'hun lafing,' therefore, may stand equally well for Hunlafing or for Hun Lafing. There is much in this whole episode which is still obscure and uncertain, and until more light is thrown upon it, I adhere to the MS. and to Grein's explanation of the text. While accepting generally Moller's reconstruction of the Finn saga (for which see his "Das altenglische Volksepos"), I cannot adopt his emendation ivorod-

1142

4.

In this

difficult

passage

In

1.

1143,

it

has 'hun

lafing,'

rcedenne,

which

is

accepted by Bugge

(who, however, assigns to


Socin, and Earle.

it

signification different

from

Moller's),

Heyne and
to

For

one thing, the form loorod is unknown

O.E. poetry. With regard to this

BEOWULF.
1145
]?3es

49
ecge cuSe.
eft

w^ron mid Eotenum


Fin
set

Swylce ferhS-frecan
sweord-bealo sliSen
sij^San

begeat

his selfes

ham,

grimne gripe
sorge
;

GuSlaf ond Oslaf

sefter s?e-siSe

1150 setwiton weana d^l


forhabban in
feonda feorum,

m^ndon, ne meahte w^fre mod


5)a waes heal hroden

hrej^re.

swilce Fin slaegen,

ond seo cwen numen. Sceotend Scyldinga to scypon feredon


cyning on
corj^re,

1155

eal in-gesteald

eorS-cyninges,

swylce hie
sigla,

set

Finnes
to

ham
Hie on

findan meahton
sfe-lade

searo-gimma.

drihtlice wif

Denum

feredon,
Fol. ISo''.

l^ddon *to leodum." 1160 gleo-mannes gyd.


beorhtode benc-sweg

LeoS wses asungen,

Gamen
;

eft astah,

byi-elas sealdon

pa cwom WealhJ?eo forS gan under gyldnum beage, ]}^r )7a godan twegen
win of wunder-fatum.

s^ton suhter-gefsederan
setgsedere,

)?a

gyt wses hiera sib

1165 ieghwylc oSrum try we.


particular emendation
tion (for

Swylce

J>^r

Unfer]} )?yle

and to the whole of Bugge's ingenious argumentawhich see "Beitrage" xii. 32 37) wherein he surmises that Hun is identical with the Hiln of "Widsith" 33, and that Lufing is the name of a sword which Hun laid upon Hengest's breast when the latter, the better to compass his revenge, "did not refuse to declare himself Finn's liegeman" (an interpretation which involves a material depar-

ture from Holler's reconstruction of the saga)

my opinion

of all this is

simply "not proven."

And

if

not proven,

it is

much more complicated


I think,

than Grein's explanation, and not a whit more consistent, as


with the accepted reconstructions of the whole saga.
1151. 1165.

Bugge 'roden' = reddened). MS. 'hun fei>,'


(

W.

B.

50
set

BEOWULF.
fotum
ferh)7e
Ipset

saet

frean Scyldinga

gehwylc hiora his


he his

treowde,
micel,
)7eah
]>e

he haefde mod n^re

magum

ar-fsest set
"

ecga gelacum.
fulle,

Sprsec Sa ides Scyldinga:


freo-drihten min,

Onfoh j^issum

1170 sinces brytta; ]>Zi on s^lum wes, gold-wine gumena, ond to Geatum spree mildum wordum, swa sceal man don. Beo wis Geatas glsed, geofena gemyndig; nean ond feorran ])u nu [freoSo] hafast.
1175

Me man

saegde,

]>set

*]>u

Se for sunu wolde


is

Fol. 156.

here-ri[n]c habban.

Heorot

gefselsod,
]>n

beah-sele beorhta;

bruc J^enden

mote
l^f

manigra meda, folc ond rice,


glsedne Hro)7ulf,

ond )?mum
Ic
]>set

magum

)7onne Su forS scyle

1180 metod-sceaft seon.

minne can
he
)7a

geogoSe wile

arum
wene

healdan,

gyf

)7u er

j^onne he,

wine Scildinga,
ic,
)78et

worold ofl^test

he mid gode
gif he
J^set

gyldan wille
eal

1185 uncran eaferan,

gemon,

hwaet wit to willan

ond to wor9-myndum

umbor-wesendum ser arna gefremedon." Hwearf ]>h bi bence, ]>ser hyre byre w^ron, HreSric ond HroSmund, ond hselej^a beam,
1190 giogoS aetgsedere Beowulf Geata,
1171.
1174.
1.
;

j^ser

se

be

y^m
'

goda s^et, gebroSrum tw^m.


which
I

MS.

'spraec'

No gap

in

MS.

Ettmiiller

[fri^u],'

have

spelt as in

188.

1176.
1178.

MS. 'hereric' MS. defective at edge AB 'medo.'


;

'

BEOWULF.
XVIII.

51

Him

wses ful boren,

wordum bewsegned,
1195
hrcjegl

ond freond-la]?u ond wunden gold


Fol. 156^.

estum geeawed, earm-[h]reade twa, heals-beaga nicest, ond hrin*gas,


on foldan
gefr^egen haebbe.
selran hyrde
syj>5an
ic

]?ara 'pe ic

NSnigne
to
])ceYe

under swegle
hele]7a,

hord-madmum
1200
sigle

Hama

aetwaeg

byrhtan byrig
sinc-fset,

Brosinga mene,
ried.

ond

searo-niSas fleah

Eormenrices,

geceas ecne

pone bring hsefde


nefa Swertinges,
si5]7an

Higelac Geata,

nyhstan

siSe,

he under segne

sine ealgode,

1205 W9el-reaf werede;


1194.
1199. 1200.

hyne wyrd fornam,

MS. 'earm reade'; Grein earm-[h]reade.' MS. 'here Ettmiiller hare. MS. 'fealli';Leo, Grundtvig, Cosijn, Bugge
' ;
' '

'fleah.'

Bugge's

argument
the saga

is

conclusive ("Beitrage" ''Fleah


is

xii.

69

ff.).

Feolan never governs an

confirmed by the fact, that according to from the enmity of Eormenric'." [Earle's note on 1. 1201 is somewhat misleading. He says that Bugge "finds that Hama entered religious life, and that this is the proper sense of geceas ecne rad.'' Bugge's own words are: "Ich verstehe geceas ecne rad so:
accus., SiSjieo7i does.

Hama

in reality 'fled

gieng'."

wurde ein frommer mann, so dass er, als er starb, zur seligkeit einThe cloister, to which Hama retired after he had fled from Eormenric, Bugge thinks is referred to in \>^re byrhtan hyrig (1. 1199), for the Thidrekssaga says that Hama brought much gold and silver to
'er

the cloister.

See "Beitrage"

xii.

70, 71.]
1.

1205. Wiilcker 'Wyrd,' with a capital, here and in


else,

477, but

nowhere

with 477). Heyne uses a capital initial in 11. 455, 477, 2420, 2526, 2574, 2814, but not in this line. Neither of these
not even in 2814
(cf.

editors ever uses a capital for the

names

of the Christian Deity.

fair

record of inconsistencies.

42

52

BEOWULF.
sy)7San he for wlenco

wean ahsode,

f^hSe to Fiysum.
eorclan-stanas,
ofer

He

)?a

frsetwe wseg,

ySa ful, he under rande gecranc. rice )7eoden; feorh cpiinges, 1210 Gehwearf |?a in Francna faej^m ond se beah somod; breost-gew^du wyrsan wig-frecan wsel reafedon Geata leode sefter gu5-sceare Heal swege onfeng. hrea-wic heoldon. heo fore ]>^m. werede sprsec 1215 WealhSeo ma]7elode, " Bruc Sisses beages, Beowulf leofa, *ond J^isses hrsegles neot, Fol. 157. hyse, mid h^le, )7eo[d]-gestreona, ond gel7eoh tela cen ]?ec mid craefte, ond )?yssum cnyhtum wes ic 'pe )78es lean geman. 1220 lara liSe Hafast )7u gefered, )?3et 5e feor ond neah
;

ealne wide-ferhj?

weras ehtigaS,

efne swa side swa sae bebugeS windge [e]ard-weallas. Wes, )?enden 1225 se)7eling eadig ic ]>e an tela sinc-gestreona. Beo )7u suna minum d^dum gedefe, dream healdende.
;

]?ii

lifige,

Her

is

peghwylc eorl

o)?rum getrywe,

modes milde,

man-drihtne hol[d]
]?eod eal gearo.

1230 )?egnas syndon gepwseve,


1212.
1218.

1224.
572.

MS. 'reafeden.' MS. ']peo ge streona.' MS. 'wind geard weallas';


in the text
is

Ettmiiller 'windige weallas,'

cf.

1.

The emendation

Kemble's.

1225.

Wiilcker puts a

comma

after a\>eling,

making

it

a vocative.

It

seems to
possible.

me

that such breaks in the half-line are to be avoided wherever


11.

Cf.

130, 2188, 2342.

1229.

MS.

'hoi.'

BEOWULF.

53

Druncne dryht-guman, doS swa ic bidde." Eode J?a to setle. pSr waes symbla cyst, druncon win weras wyrd ne cu)?on, geo-sceaft grimme, swa hit agangen wearS 1235 eorla manegum. SyJ>3an iSfen cwom, ond him Hrofgar gewat to hofe sinum, rice t5 rseste, reced weardode unrim eorla, swa hie oft ^r dydon. Benc-]7elu beredon hit geond-br^ded wearS 1240 beddum ond bolstrum. Beor-scealca sum fus ond f^ge flet-raeste ge*beag. Fol.
; ;

157^.

Setton him to heafdon

hilde-randas,
]>^y

bord-wudu beorhtan
ofer 8e]?elinge

on bence waes

y)7-gesene

1245 hea)7o-steapa hehu,


)7rec-wudu )?rymlic.
|?8et

hringed byi'ne,

Ws

)7eaw hyra,

hie oft wieron


set

an wig gearwe
ge gehwsej^er
)7ara

ge

ham

ge on herge,

efne swylce miSla,

swylce hira man-dryhtne


tiki.

1250

]?earf

ges^lde

wses seo ]7eod

XIX.
Sigon
)7a

to shepe.

Sum

sare angeald

gefen-rseste,

swa him

ful oft

gelamp,

si)?San gold-sele
1234.
1247.

Grendel warode,

MS. 'grimne'; Ettmiiller 'grimme.' MS. 'anwig gearwe'; Ettmiiller (adopted by Grein) 'anwigZupitza
:

gearwe,' ready for single combat.

1253.
is

*^icarode

MS.

as well as

AB

the parchment under

wa

rather thin, and besides there

is

a blot on the two letters."

Hence the

word has several times been misread farode.

;;

54
unriht sefnde,
sefter

BEOWULF.
o]> J)8et ende becwom, synnum. pset gesyne wear)?, j^sette wrecend )?a gyt wid-cuj? werum,

1255 swylt

lifde sefter laj^um,


sefter

lange ]7rage

gu5-ceare

Grendles modor,
yrm]?e gemunde,

ides, agl^c-wif,

1260 se

]}&

wseter-egesan

wunian
bre)?er,

scolde,

cealde streamas,
to ecg-banan

si)?San Cai/i

wearS

angan
;

fsederen-m^ge

he

)7a

fag gewat,
fleon,
Fol. 158.

mor]?re gemearcod,

1265 westen warode.


geo-sceaft-gasta
;

*man-dream panon woe fela


se set

wges )?^ra Grendel sum,

heoro-wearh hetelic,
wseccendne wer
p?er

Heorote fand

wiges bidan.

him agl^ca setgr^pe wearS he gemunde msegenes strenge, gim-fseste gife, t5e him God sealde, ond him to Anwaldan are gelyfde, frofre ond fultum Sy he )?one feond ofercwom, gehn^gde helle gast. pa he hean gewat, 1275 dreame bedded, dea)7-wic seon, man-cynnes feond. Ond his modor J^a gyt
1270
hw8e)7re
;

ond galg-mod gegan wolde si5, suna dea^ wrecan com )7a to Heorote, S^r Hring-Dene 1280 geond J^set sseld sw^fun. pa Sser sona wearS
gifre

sorh-fulne

ed-hwyrft eorkim,
1261.
1271.

si]?tSan

inne fealh

MS. *camp.'
Thorpe, Grein, Sweet
cf.

*gin-faeste.'

For the change

of n to

before labials,

hlim-bed,

1.

3034,

and

see Sievers, 187, N.

1278.

MS. *sunu>eod.'

Ettmiiller's emendation.

BEOWULF.
Waes se gryre l^ssa swa biS msegpa. crseft, wig-gryre wifes, be w^pned-men, hamere gepuren, 1285 )?onne heoru bunden,
Grendles modor.
efne

55

swa

micle,

sweord swate fah

swiii ofer helme,

ecgum *dyhtig

andweard

scireS.

Fol. iss'^.

Da

wees on healle

heard-ecg togen

sweord ofer setlum,

1290 hafen handa byrnan side, Heo wsbs on

fsest
)7a

manig helm ne gemunde,


sid-rand

hine se broga angeat.

ofste,
)?a

wolde ut )7anon

feore beorgan,

heo onfunden waes

hraSe heo 8e)?elinga

1295

fseste

befangen;

)7a

anne hsefde heo to fenne gang.

Se wees Hr6)?gare on gesiSes had be


rice rand-wiga,

hselej^a leofost

s^m tweonum,
heo on
raeste abreat,
Sger,

)7one Se

bl^d-fsestne beorn.

Naes Beowulf
ger

1300 ac waes
gefter

oj^er in

geteohhod

ma)75um-gife
folme

mgerum Geate.
;

Hream wearS in Heorote


cuj^e
;

heo under heolfre genam


waes

cearu waes geniwod,

geworden
1305
)?8et

in wicun.

Ne

f3et

gewrixle

til,

hie on

ba healfa

bicgan scoldon
waes frod cyning,
Fol. 159^

freonda feorum.

pa

har hilde-rinc,
sy?5)?an

on hreon *mode,
unlyfigendne,

he aldor-]?egn
biire

)7one deorestan

1310 Hra)7e waes to

deadne wisse. Beowulf

fetod,

sigor-eadig secg;
1291.

samod ^r-daege
'\>e

Heyne, Sweet, and others emend

hine,'

whom

at

once

ingenious, logical, pedantic, and unnecessary.

5Q
eode eorla sum,

BEOWULF.
9e)7ele cempa mid gesiSum, ]>sdr se snotera bad, hw8e)7re him AZ-walda ^fre wille

self

1315

sefter wea-spelle

w^Tpe gefremman.
fyrd-wyrSe

Gang 5a
mid
)?3et

aefter flore

man

his hand-scole

(heal-wudu dynede),

he

}>one

wisan

frean Ingwina,

frsegn gif

wordum n^gde him w^re

1320

aefter

neod-laSu

niht get^se.

XX.
HroSgar ma)7elode,
"

helm Scyldinga:

Ne

frin )7u sefter

Denigea leodum. Yrmenlafes yldra broj^or, 1325 min mn-wita ond min r^d-bora, eaxl-gestealla, Sonne we on orlege
hafelan weredon,
eoferas cnysedan.

s^lum sorh is geniwod Dead is ^schere,


;

J^onne hniton fe]?an,

*Swy[lc] scolde eorl


swylc JEschere wses.

Fol. 159^.

wesan,
[9e}>eling]

^r-god,

1330 Wears him on Heorote to hand-banan W3el-g3est w^fre ic ne wat hwadder


;

1314.

1317.

MS. 'alf walda.' Cf. 11. MS. 'hand scale.' Cf.

316, 955.
1.

1963.

authority or support for the form scale, which


1318.

There seems absolutely no is retained by most editors.


is

AB

'

hnaegde ';

now

de gone.

The

/j

prosthetic.

"Wordum

nffigan (negan)" occurs

Elene 287, 559, Exodus 23, etc'


253,

1320.

1328.

MS.

Sweet 'neod-lae'; but see Sievers defective at corner; AB 'swy


in

N.

2.

scolde.'

1329.

No gap
MS.

MS.
Toller gives three instances of hwceder=hwider.

1331.

'hwajjer.'

BEOWULF.
atol
fylle
j?e

57

Sse wlanc
gefr^gnod.

eft-siSas teah,

Heo

]7a

fiehSe wrc,

]7u

gystran niht

Grendel cwealdest

1385

)?urh

h^stne had
he to

forl7an

heardum clammum, lange leode mine

w anode ond wyrde.


ealdres scyldig,

He

aet

wige gecrang

ond nu

6]>er

cwom

mihtig man-scaSa,

wolde hyre m&eg wrecan,


]>egne

1340 ge feor hafaS


)7aes

fiehSe gestieled,

]>e

]?incean

mseg

monegum,
greote)?,
ligeS,

se

)7e

aefter sinc-gyfan
;

on sefan

hre)?er-bealo hearde
se
'pe

nu

seo hand

eow wel-hwylcra
lond-buend,

wilna dohte.

1345 Ic

)78et

leode mine,

sele-riedende,
)79et

secgan hyrde,
swylce twegen

hie

gesawon

micle mearc-stapan
ellor-gc'estas
;

moras healdan,
waes,

3^ra o5er

1350

J78es

)?e

hie gewislicost

gewitan meahton,
wraec-lastas *tr8ed,
Fol. 160*.

idese onlicnes;

65er earm-sceapen

on weres wsestmum
nsefne he waes
]7one

mara on gear-dagum
no hie him ^nig wses
;

)7onne

^nig man
cunnon,

oSer,

Grendel nemdo?z
feeder

1355 fold-buende
hw8e|7er

^r acenned
windige
^aessas,

dyrnra gasta.
frecne fen-gelad,

Hie dygel lond

warigeaS, wulf-hleo]7u,

S^r fyrgen-stream 1360 under ngessa genipu nij^er gewiteS,


1344.
1351.

Sweet 'seo >e'; but

cf. 11.

1887, 2685.

1354.

MS. MS.

'onlic naes'; Zupitza 'onlic-nass';

Sweet

'onlic, wses.'

defective at edge;

AB

'nemdod'; Zupitza 'neindo[n].'

58
flod

BEOWULF.
under foldan.
J^set

Nis
se

)7get

feor

heonon

mil-gemearces,
ofer ]>eem hongiaS

mere

stanrfeS,

hri7?i^e

bearwas,

wudu wyrtum fsest, wseter oferhelmaS. 1365 p^r mseg nihta gehw^m niS-wundor seon,
fyr on flode.

No

J^ses

frod leofaS

gumena beama, J^get j^one grund wite. Deah )?e hivS-stapa himdum geswenced, heorot hornum trum, holt-wudu sece,
1370 feorran geflymed, ^r he feorh seleS, aldor on ofre, ?er he in wille hafelan [hydan]. Nis ]78et heoru stow;
J>onon yS-geblond

up

astigetS

won
1375

to

wolcnum,

)?onne

wind

styref

laS gewidru,

oS Sset lyft drysma)?,

roderas reotaS.
eft set *]>e

Nu
^'^er

is

se

r^d gelang
ne const,
Fol. l60^

anum.

Eard
]>\i

git

frecne stowe,

findan miht

fela-sinnigne secg;

sec gif )?u dyrre.


feo leanige,

1380 Ic fe

]7a

f^hSe
golde,

eald-gestreonum,

swa
gyf

ic
]?u

wundnum
1362.

^r dyde, onweg cymest."

1363.

MS. MS.

'stane.'
'hrinde.'

The emendation

is

based on the discovery by

Dr Morris
the Preface
1372.

of the phrase hrlmige hearioas in the Blickling Homilies (see


vi, vii).

in MS. Thorpe's emendation. MS. 'wun' at end of line, 'dini' or 'dmi' on next "certainly not duw"; A 'dmi'; B *dini'; Zupitza 'dini.'

No gap

1382.

line,

'

BEOWULF.

59

XXI.
Beowulf maj^elode,

beam
guma;

EcgJ^eowes
selre bi3

"Ne
1385
)7set

sorga, snotor

^ghw^m,

he his freond wrece,


sceal
lifes

)7onne he fela murne.

Ure ^ghwylc
worolde
;

ende gebidan
])e

wyrce se
;

mote
driht-guman

domes Sr
1390
Aris, rices

deaj^e

]?9et

bi3

unlifgendum
Grendles
Ic hit
]>e

SBfter selest.
;

weard

uton hraj^e feran,

magan
gehate
:

gang sceawigan. no he on hehn

losa)?,

ne on foldan

fsej^m,

ne on fyrgen-holt,

ne on gyfenes grund, ga ]>8er he wille. ge]?yld hafa 1395 Dys dogor ]7ii weana gehwylces, swa ic ]>e wene to." Ahleop t5a se gomela, Gode j^ancode, mihtigan Drihtne, }>3es se man ge*spra3C. pa wses HrdSgare hors geb^ted,

Fol. 161 \

1400 wicg wunden-feax


geatolic gen[g]de
;

wisa fengel
gum-fe]?a stop

lind-hsebbendra.
sefter

Lastas

w^ron
for

wald-swa]7um
;

wide gesyne,

gang ofer grundas 1405 ofer myrcan mor,


1390.
217,

gegnum

mago-J>egna bser

Sweet
1.

'ra)>e,' for

the sake of the aUiteration; but see Sievers

N.

1395.
authority,

Heyne "Sys dogor,' accus. of duration and see Sievers 289, and "Beitrage"

but the form


312.

%s

lacks

x.

1401.
1404.

MS. 'gende.' Heyne adopts


: '

the emendation of Sievers,


[>ier

who

considers the

line metrically deficient

heo]

gegnum

for.

60
)?one selestan
)7ara J^e

BEOWULF.
sawol-leasne,

mid HroSgare
)7a

Ofereode

8e)7elinga

ham beam

eahtode.

steap stan-hliSo,

stige nearwe,

1410 enge an-pa5as,


neowle nsessas, he feara sum
wisra
o]7

uncu3 gelad,
nicor-husa fela

beforan gengde

monna

wong

sceawian,

)79et

he f^ringa

fyrgen-beamas
hleonian fimde,
waeter under stod

1415 ofer harne stan


wyn-leasne

wudu

dreorig ond gedrefed.

Demmi

eallum waes,

winum

Scyldinga,

weorce on mode

to ge]7olianne, Segne monegum, 1420 oncyS eorla gehw^m, syS]?an ^scheres on ]7am holm-clife hafelan metton.

Flod blode weol

(folc to ssegon),

*hatan

heolfre.

Horn stundum song


FeJ^a eal gesset

Fol.

161^

fuslic f[yrd]-leoS.

1425 gesawon 5a
sellice

sefter wsetere

s^-dracan,

wyrm-cynnes sund cunnian,


nicras licgean,
oft

fela,

swylce on nses-hleoSum

Sa on undern-m^l

bewitigaS

sorh-fulne siS on segl-rade, 1430 wyrmas ond wil-deor; hie onweg hruron bitere ond gebolgne, bearhtm ongeaton, guS-horn galan. Sumne Geata leod
of flan-bogan
feores getwSfde,
J^aet

yS-gewinnes,

him on

aldre stod

1435

here-strsel hearda;

he on hohne wses

1424.

MS.

defective at

edge;

'f...';

Zupitza

'f[yrd]-,'

adopting

the emendation of Bouterwek (1859).

BEOWULF.
sundes
Hraej^e
]>e

61

sienra,

5e hyne swylt fornam.

wearS on

ySum

mid eofer-spreotum

heoro-hocyhtum

hearde genearwod,

niSa gen?eged ond on nses togen, 1440 wundorlic wi^g-bora weras sceawedon gryrelicne gist. Gyrede hine Beowulf eorl-gew?edum, nalles for ealdre mearn
;

scolde here-byrne
sid

hondum gebrdden,
sund cunnian,
beorgan
hre)7re
cu)?e,

ond searo-fah,

1445 seo Se ban-cofan


]>8dt

him hilde-grap

ne mihte,
;

eorres inwit-feng

aldre gescej^San

ac se hwita helm
se
]?e

*hafelan werede,

Fol. 162.

mere-grundas

mengan

scolde,

1450 secan sund-gebland


worhte

since geweorSad,

befongen frea-wrasnum,

swa hine fyrn-dagum

w^pna

smiS,

wundrum
)78et

teode,

besette swin-licum,

hine sySj^an no

brond ne beado-mecas

bitan ne meahton.

1455 Nses
)79et

]>set

]?onne

m^tost

msegen-fultuma,
Syle HroSgares;

him on
wses

Searfe lah

wses l^^m hseft-mece


)?9et

Hrunting nama
eald-gestreona

an foran

ecg wses iren,

ater-tanum fah,
;

1460 ahyrded hea)7o-swate

niefre hit set hilde

ne swac

manna ^ngum,
se Se gryre-siSas folc-stede fara
;

|?ara ]?e hit

mid mundum bewand,


siS,

gegan
nses
f>set

dorste,

forma
2206,

1439.

Sweet

'ge[h]nffiged.'

Grein) wrongly gives the

But MS. reading

see

1.

where Toller

(after

as gelmagdan.

1459. Heyne and Socin adopt Cosijn's emendation, dter-tmrum, "with poison drops," which is supported by Sievers.

62
)78et

BEOWULF.
hit ellen-weorc

sefnan scolde.

1465 Huru ne gemunde


eafo)7es crseftig,

mago Ecglafes )73et he ^r gesprsec


he
;

wine druncen,

]>a,

j^aes

wyepnes onlah

seh^an sweord-frecan

selfa

ne dorste
forleas,
Fol.
162''.

aldre genej^an, under ySa gewin )?8er he dome 1470 driht-scype dreogan
;

ellen-*m^r5uni.
syS)7an

Ne

wses J^sem

oSrum swa,
haefde.

he hine to gu5e

gegyred

XXII.
Beowulf ma]7elode,
"

Ge)7enc

nil,

se miera

beam Ecg)7eowes maga Healfdenes,


:

1475 snottra

fengel,

nu

ic

eom

siSes fus,

gold-wine gumena,
gif ic aet )7earfe

hwset wit geo spr^econ:


j^inre scolde

aldre linnan,

j^set

'5u

me

a w^re

forS-gewitenum

on faeder st^le.

1480

Wes

]7U

mund-bora
gif

minum

mago-j^egnum,
;

hond-gesellum,
swylce
]7U

mec hild nime ])e ])\i me sealdest, 5a madmas,


Higelace onsend.

HroSgar

leofa,

Geata dryhten, Maeg )?onne on 'p^m golde ongitan 1485 geseon sunu Hrec^les, )7onne he on J^aet sine staraS, godne funde ]?aet ic gum-cystum
beaga bryttan,
1471.
at the

breac ]?onne mdste.

AB

mffirdam'; Thorpe 'maer'Sum'; Zupitza 'maer^um': "


is still distinct,

mw
a

end of the word


r'S.'"

and before um
minum.

think

I see

considerable part of
14801485.

Heyne divides this MS. 'hrffidles.'

line wrongly, after

BEOWULF.

63
lafe,

Ond

)7u

Unhr^ l^t
w^g-sweord,
;

ealde

wrsetlic

wid-cuSne
ic

1490 heard-ecg habban

man me mid Hrimtinge


Fol. 163.

dom
efste

gewyrce,

*o)?Se

mec deaS nimeS."


Weder-Geata leod

Miter ]>^m wordum

mid

elne,
;

nalas ondsware

bldan wolde

brim-wylm onfeng

1495 hilde-rince.

Da

wses hwil dseges,

ongytan mehte. ^r he ]7one grund-wong se Se floda begong Sona ]>set onfunde, hund missera, heoro-gifre beheold glim ond grSdig, J>a3t )?a^r gumena sum

1500 ael-wihta eard

ufan cunnode.
guS-rinc gefeng

Grap
atolan

\>a,

togeanes,
;

clommum
lice
;

no

]>y

^r

in gescod

halan

bring utan ymbbearh,

Surhfon ne mihte, )79et heo )7one fyrd-hom laj^an fingrum. 1505 locene leotSo-syrcan, j^a heo to botme com, Bser )?a seo brim-wyl[f],
hringa J^engel
to hofe sinum,

swa he ne mihte no

(he ]>eah modig wses)

w^pna gewealdan;
1510 swe[n]cte on sunde,
hilde-tuxum
ehton agl^can.
1488.

ac bine

wundra

Iffses

fela

s^-deor monig
se eorl ongeat,

here-syrcan brsec,

Da

MS. 'himferS.' MS. brim wyl.' 1508. MS. 'ijaem'; Grundtvig (adopted by Heyne) 'J>es'; Grein Grein's emendation makes admirable sense. I would retain the '>eah.' MS. reading in preference to ]>(Bs, which Heyne supports by parallel passages. It is undeniable that \>cbs is common enough with the meaning "so" (see 1. 1509); but what can be feebler than to be told, half way
1506.
'

through the poem, that Beowulf


1510.

is

brave enough to wield his weapons?

MS.

'swecte.'

64
J78et

BEOWULF.
he
[in]

niS-sele

nat-hwylcum

wses,

him nienig wseter wihte ne sce)?ede, 1515 ne him for hrof-sele hrinan ne mehte
)?^r

fler-gripe flodes

*fyr-leoht geseah,

Fol. 163*^.

blacne leoman

beorhte scinan.

goda grimd-wyrgenne, mere-wif mihtig msegen-r^s forgeaf 1520 hilde-bille, ho?id swenge ne ofteah, hring-m^l agol }>3et hire on hafelan gr^dig gu3-leoS. Da se gist onfand,
]>a.

Ongeat

se

J>8et

se

beado-leoma
eet j^earfe

bitan nolde,

aldre sceJ^San,

ac seo ecg geswac


;

1525 Seodne

Solode ^r fela
oft gescser,
siS

hond-gemota,
f^ges fyrd-hrsegl

helm
;

Sa wyes forma
]?aet

deorum madme,
Eft wses an-rged,

his

dom

ala^g.

nalas ehies

Iset,

1530 m^rSa gemyndig, m^g Hy[ge] laces. wr^ttum gebunden Wearp 6a wunde?i-m^l
yrre oretta,
stiS
)?8et

hit

on eorSan

Iseg,

ond styl-ecg;

strenge getruwode,

mund-gripe msegenes.

Swa

sceal

man

don,

gegan ]7ence3 1535 l?onne he set giiSe longsumne lof, na ymb his lif cearaS. Gefeng ]7a be eaxle (nalas for f^hSe mearn)
1513.

Thorpe

'[in].'

Grein (followed by Heyne)

'ni'S-sele,'

aula in

profundis; Sweet 'nrS-sele,' hostile hall.


482,

and a long

as syllable is required for the scansion {see "Beitrage " x. 297).

The

line is of the

same type

1520. 1530.
1537.

MS. 'hord swenge'; Sweet 'swenge hond,' without explanation. MS. 'hylaces.' 1531. MS. 'wundel msel.'
Sweet adopts Eieger's emendation
'

feaxe,'

apparently for the

sake of the alliteration

a wanton change, for gefeng alliterates normally

with fceh^e.

BEOWULF.
Gu(5-Geata leod
brsegd
)?a

65

Grendles modor,
)?a

beadwe heard,
])Sdt

he gebolgen
gebeah.

waes,

1540 feorh-geniSlan,

heo on

flet

Heo him eft hraSe grim^man grapum,


oferwearp
]>si

hand-lean forgeald

ond him togeanes feng;

Fol.

fe]7e-cempa,

werig-mod )?get he on

wigena strengest,
fylle wearS.

1545 Ofsset

]>a.

J?one sele-gyst,

ond hyre sea^ geteah

brad, brun-ecg,

wolde hire

beam
la^g

wrecan,

angan

eaferan.

Him
;

on eaxle

breost-net broden

]?3et

wis ord ond wiS ecge

gebearh feore, ingang forstod.

1550 Hsefde Sa forsiSod under gynne grund,


here-net hearde,

sunu Ecg]?eowes Geata cempa,


helpe gefremede,

nemne him heaSo-byrne


geweold wig-sigor,

ond halig God


witig Drihten,
hit

1555 rodera R^dend


ySelice
1541.
;

on ryht gesced
eft astod.
glosses hand-lean alone) adopt
eft.

syj^San

he

Heyne and Sweet (who however

Kieger's emendation and-lean, alliterating with

So, in

1.

2094,

Heyne

reads ond-lean for hond-lean, "mit Eiicksicht auf die Allitteration. "
the other hand,
it is

On

unfortunate that the alliteration

is

not decisive in the

case of either line.

reward,"

is

distinctly over-redundant, containing as

Moreover, the phrase and-lean forgieldan, "to repay it does the re- notion
(here, also, in eft
is

in both and-

in the first half-line).

and /or-, as well as in the word lean itself Cf. 11. 114, 1584. Thus no case

made
seax.'

out for

setting aside the clear readings of the

MS.
by Sweet)
'

1545.

MS.

'seaxe'; Ettmiiller (followed


;

Geteon

always takes an accus.


1546.

cf. 1.

2610 and hrdd, brUn-ecg, 1546.


brun-ecg,'

Heyne 'brad [ond]

on metrical and syntactical

grounds.
1555.

Wiilcker has a colon after gesced and no stop after y^ellce.

W.

B.

66

BEOWULF.

XXIII.
Geseah Sa on searwum
eald sweord eotenisc,

sige-eadig

bil,

ecgum
]>set

l?yhtig,

wigena weorS-mynd 1560 buton hit waes mare


;

[wees]

w^pna

cyst,

Sonne ^nig mon oSer


giganta geweorc.
freca Scyldinga

to beadu-lace

setberan meahte,

god ond

geatolic,
)7a

He

gefeng

fetel-hilt,

hreoh ond heoro-grim

hring-m^l gebrsegd,
Fol. iQi^

1565 aldres orwena


|78et

yrringa *sloh,

hire wi3 halse


;

heard grapode,
bil eal
;

ban-hringas brsec

Surhwod
flet

f^gne fl^sc-homan Sweord waes swatig;

heo on

gecrong.

secg weorce gefeh.

leoht inne stod, 1570 Lixte se leoma, efne swa of hefene hadre scineS

rodores candel.

He
;

sefter

recede wlat,

hwearf

]7a

be wealle

Wc'epen hafenade

heard be hiltum

Higelaces Segn
Nses seo ecg fracod

1575 yrre ond an-r^d.


hilde-rince,

ac he hra]7e wolde

Grendle
Sara
)?e

forgy

Man

guS-r^sa
to

fela,

he geworhte

oftor micle

West-Denum Sonne on ^nne siS,


heorS-geneatas
sk'epende
frset

1580 )7onne he HroSgares


sloh on sweofote,
folces

Denigea

fyf-tyne men,

ond oSer swylc


laSlicu lac.

ut offerede,
)78es

He him
1559.

lean forgeald,

Kemble's emendation.

BEOWULF.
1585
re)?e

67
raeste

cempa,

to Sees

]7e

he on
fer

geseah

guS-werigne
aldor-leasne,

Grendel licgan,

swa him

gescod
sprong,

hild set Heorote.


sy]?San

Hra wide
;

he sefter deaSe 1590 heoro-sweng heardne

drepe ]?rowade,
oiid hine )7a heafde becearf.
Fol. 165*.

gesawon snottre *ceorlas, on hohii wliton, )7a 3e mid HroSgare eal gemenged, }>9et waes yS-geblond brim blode fah. Blonden-feaxe 1595 gomele ymb godne on geador spr^con, eft ne wendon, l78et hig ]?8es oeSelinges }>a8t he sige-hreSig secean come
]?get

Sona

mserne J^eoden,
f8et

]?a Sees

monige gewearS,
abroten hsefde.

hine seo brim-wylf

1600 J)a com non daeges; nses ofgeafon hwate Scyldingas gewat him ham j7onon gold-wine gumena. Gistas setan
;

ond on mere staredon wiston ond ne wendon, j^aet hie heora wine-drihten 1605 selfne gesawon. Da )?9et sweord ongan
seoce,
a^fter hea)7o-swate

modes

hilde-gicelum,
]78et

wig-bil wanian;
)79et

wees

wundra sum,

hit eal
'

gemealt

ise gelicost,

1599.

1602.

1604.

MS. abreoten.' MS. secan.' wiscton Kemble


'
'

'

Sweet

'

Heyne and
authority.

Socin)

'

wiston
it is

'=:

wiscton, ivished.

wyscton Cosijn (followed by This last hypothesis lacks


'

Probably

merely a case of the blending of two construcloendon,

tions

wiston,

"knew," would require ne gesdivon; ne

"did not
It is

expect," requires gesawon only; the latter construction prevails.


possible, however, that ne

has dropped out after the -ne of


:

selfne

in that

case the meaning would be

" they knew, and did not merely expect, that

they should not see their lord himself again."

52

68

BEOWULF.

Feeder onU'eteS, Sonne forstes bend se geweald hafaS 1610 onwindeS w^l-rapas, ]>set is soS Metod. s^la ond mcpla Weder-Geata leod, Ne nom he in |?Sm wicum, maSm-Shta ma, J>eh he ])iev monige geseah,
;

ond )7a hilt somod, buton ]7one hafelan sweord ^r gemealt, 1615 since fage wses l>a?t blod *to )?a?s forbarn broden m^l ^
;

-Pol 165".

hat,

^ttren ellor-g^st,

se J>^r inne swealt. se


)?e

Sona W8es on sunde,


wig-hryre wraSra,

wseter

^r set saecce gebad up )?urhdeaf;

1620 w?eron yS-gebland


eacne eardas,
oflet lif-dagas
}>a

eal gef^lsod,

se ellor-gast
]7as

ond

h^enan gesceaft.

Com

)?a

to lande

lid-manna helm
haefde.

s^e-lace gefeah, swiS-mod swymman, )?ara ]>e he him mid 1625 msegen-byrj^enne

Eodon him
|?8es

J^a

togeanes,

Gode

j^ancodon,

SrySlic )7egna heap,


)7e

)?eodnes gefegon,

hi hyne gesundne

geseon moston.
Hej^ne has

1610.
iccel-rd'pas,

Sweet adopts Kemble's emendation, wceg-rdpas.

and in his glossary:

"cf. wgell, wel, wyll, Quelle, Flut;

leax
is

sceal

on

wffile

mid

sceote scri^an,

Gnom.

Cott. 39."

Sweet gives the same


ic^le,

passage, in his " A.S. Eeader " xxviii. 39,

marked

and there

no

doubt he

is

right (more's the pity he departs from the

MS. reading
as a

here).

Heyne

identifies

wal with

icell,

"a well" (more common

weak noun).

It is clear that

he has confounded two words.


find: ''Fons, well, 178. 8;

In the Wright-Wiilcker

Glossaries

we

Gurges, wael, 178. 13."

The

vowel of the latter word is long, as shown by the common Lancashire weel, noted by Somner in 1659, and still in use; so also in all the cognate
languages,
e.g.

in

modern Plattdeutsch Weel, and Heyne himself,

in the
Vfsel,

glossary to his Kleinere and. Denkmdler (1867) has: "uuiil (A.S.


gurges), Abgrund,''

BEOWULF.

69

Da

wses of

f't'em

hroran

helm ond byrne


fag.

Lagu dnisade, 1630 limgre alysed. wsel-dreore woeter under wolcnum,


Ferdon
forS ]?onon

fe]?e-lastum

ferh)7um faegne,
ciipe striete,

fold-weg mc'eton,

cyning-balde

men
bi'eron

hafelan 1635 from J>^m holm-clife earfoSlice heora ^ghw9e)?rum

fela-modigra

feower scoldon

on

)7c^m wsel-stenge

weorcum
to sele

geferian

to ]7fem gold-sele

Grendles heafod,

1640

o]?

Saet

*semninga

comon

Fol. 166^

frome, fyi'd-hwate,
;

feower-tyne

Geata gongan gum-dryhten mid, meodo-wongas modig on gemonge, ealdor Segna, Da com in gan
1645 d^d-cene

traed.

mon

dome

gewur)7ad,

hsele hilde-deor,

pa

wses be feaxe

HroSgar gretan. on flet boren


]>2eY

Grendles heafod,
egeslic for

guman

druncon,

eorlum
wraetlic

ond

J7^re idese

mid;

1650 wlite-seon

weras onsawon.

XXIV.
"

Beowulf ma)7elode, beam Ecgj/eowes sunu Healfdenes sie-lac, Hwaet we j^e ]7as lustum brohton leod Scyldinga,
:
!

tires to tacne,

)7e

J>u

her to locast.

1655 Ic

)78et

unsofte

ealdre gedigde,

wigge under wsetere


earfoSlice
;

weorc gene]?de
wses

."^trihte

70 guS getw^fed, Ne meahte ic

BEOWULF.

set

nymSe mec God scylde. hilde mid Hrimtmge

)?eah j^set w^pen duge; 1660 wiht gewyrcan, ylda Waldend, ac me geuSe wlitig *hangian )79et ic on wage geseah eald sweord eacen (oftost wisode

Fol. 166'\

winigea leasiim),

]>8et

ic

Sy w^pne gebr^d.
)?a

1665 Ofsloh Sa

set

J7^re ssecce,

me

siel

ageald,

buses hyrdas.

pa

]?set

hilde-bil

forbarn, brogden m^l,

swa
Ic
]?set

]?set

blod gesprang,

hatost hea]?o-swata.

hilt |?anan

feondum setferede, fyren-di'eda wra?c, 1670 deaS-cwealm Denigea, swa hit gedefe wses. Ic hit l^e J?onne gehate, )7set )7u on Heorote most
sorh-leas swefan

mid

)?mra secga gedryht,

ond |7egna gehwylc duguSe ond iogoj^e


;

j^inra leoda,
]7set J>u

him ondr^dan ne J7earft,


healfe

1675 )7eoden Scyldinga,


aldor-bealu eorliim,

on

J>a

swa

]7n

^r

dydest."
rince,

Da

wses gylden hilt

gamelum
hit

harum
1680
sefter

hild-fruman,

on hand gyfen,

on ^ht gehwearf, Denigea frean, ond ]?a ]?as worold ofgeaf wundor-smi)?a geweorc; Godes ondsaca, grom-heort guma, ond his modor eac, morSres scyldig, worold-cyninga on geweald gehwearf Fol. 167\ 1685 S^m selestan be *s^m tweonum,
enta ^r-geweorc;

deoHa hryre,

1681.

Miillenhoff and

Bugge

reject

ond as superfluous.
is

It is certainly

very unusual at the beginning of a sentence which

only a parallel ex-

pansion of what precedes.

BEOWULF.
Sara
sceattas d^lde. ]>e on Sceden-igge HroSgar maSelode, hylt sceawode, ealde lafe, on S^m wses or writen

71

fyrn-gewinnes,

sySJ^an flod ofsldh,

1690 gifen geotende,


frecne geferdon
;

giganta cyn;
)?8et

wiES fremde ]?eod


]?8es

ecean Dryhtne
)7urh wseteres

him

ende-lean

Swa
1695

W9es

Waldend sealde. on S^m scennum sciran goldes


rihte gemearcod,

wylm

]?urh run-stafas

geseted ond ges^d,


irena cyst,
\vreo)7en-hilt

hwam

l?8et

sweord geworht,
se wisa sprsec

^rest w^re,

ond wyrm-fah.
;

Da
]>e

snnu Healfdenes

swigedon
se

ealle

1700

" pset,

la!

mseg secgan,
folce,

s63 ond riht

fremeS on

feor eal
]?8et

gemon,

eald eSel-weard,

5es eorl
is

w^re

geboren betera.

Bl^d

ar^red
Eal
hit ge}>yldum

geond wid-wegas,
healdest,

wine min Beowulf,


)7ii

1705 Sin ofer |?eoda gehwylce.

msegen mid modes snyttrum.


gelsestan
freoSe,

Ic

j^e

sceal

mine
to

swa wit furSum spn^con


leodum
)?iniim,

Su

scealt

frofre weorj^an

eal lang-twidig

*hseleSum to helpe.
1686. 1702. 1707.

Ne

wearS Heremod swa

^gii,

MS. Bugge
'

scedenigge,' in one word.

suggests '^aet

'Se

eorl nseie.'

Wiilcker and

Heyne
"S

'freode,' taking that to be the reading of

the MS.
left

Zupitza

"I think the MS.


and the right half

half of the cross stroke in


is discernible,

has/reoS*?, not freode; although the has entirely faded, yet the place where it
of
it is left."

was

72

BEOWULF.

Ar-Scyldingum 1710 eaforum Ecgwelan, ac to wgel-fealle ne geweox he him to willan, Deniga leodum ond t5 deaS-cwalum
breat bolgen-mod
eaxl-gesteallan,
o]>

beod-geneatas,
]>?et

he ana hwearf,

1715 mSre

)7eoden,
J^e

Deah
forS

mon-dreamum from. mgegenes wynnum, hine mihtig God


ofer ealle

esifepnm, stepte

men,

gefremede,

hwsej^ere
;

him on

ferhj^e

greow

breost-hord blod-reow

nallas beagas geaf

1720

Denum
])?et

sefter
]78es

dome;

dream-leas gebad,

he

gewinnes

weorc ]?rowade,

leod-bealo longsum.

Du
ic j^is

]7e

her be
J^e

J>on,

gum-cyste ongit

gid be

awrfec wintrum frod.

1725 hu mihtig God


)7urh sidne sefan

Wundor manna cynne


;

is

to secganne,

snyttrii bryttaS,

eard ond eorl-scipe

he ah eab^a geweald.
l^teS hworfan

Hwilum he on

lufan

monnes mod-geJ?onc 1730 seleS him on e]?le


to healdanne

m^ran
eorj^an

cynnes,

wynne,
Fol. 168*.

hleo-burh wera,

worolde dlas, *gedeS him swa gewealdene side rice, J^aet he his selfa ne ma^g
his

unsnyttrum

ende ge)7encean.
;

1735

WmiaS he on
adl ne yldo,

wiste

n5 hine wiht dweleS


ne gesacu ohw^r,

ne him inwit-sorh

on sefa[n] sweorceS,
1734.
foist in
1.

With admirable and shameless audacity Heyne and Wiilcker


Cf.

for at the beginning of this line without a word of comment.

942.

1737.

MS.

defective at edge; Zupitza 'sefa[n].'

BEOWULF.
ecg-hete, eoweS,

78
eal worold

ac

him

wendeS on

willan.

He

)wt wyrse ne con,

XXV.
1740 oS |7iet him on innan ofer-hygda d^l weaxeS ond wridaS, )7onne se weard swefeS, sawele hyrde biS se sl^p to fsest,
;

bisgum gebunden,
se
]7e

bona swiSe neah,


fyreniim sceoteS.

of flan-bogan
hrej^re

1745 ponne biS on

under hehn drepen him bebeorgan ne con wom wundor-bebodum wergan gastes )?inceS him to lytel, ])d?t he lange heold;
biteran str^le
;

gytsaS grom-hydig,

nallas
]?a

on gylp seleS

1750 f^^^e beagas,

ond he

forS-gesceaft

forgyteS ond forgymeS,

wuldres *Waldend,

him ^r God sealde, Fol. 168''. weorS-mynda d^l.


J^aes J^e

Hit on ende-staef
l^set

eft

gelimpeS,

se lic-homa

l?ene gedreoseS,
(sJioios).^

Grein 'ne gesaca (adversary) ohwar eeg-hete eowe'S

On
is.

the

whole

I prefer to abide

by the MS. reading, although examples are wanting


its

of eotcan

used intransitively, as

compound
But
it

ff^eowan frequently

1739.

The MS. has a stop


o'S
\>(et

after con, the usual space with the

number

XXV, and then

a large capital 0.

seems impossible

to begin a

fresh sentence with

"until," as Earle does.

Grein makes the


295, rei in

break in the middle of


1747.

N.

1)

1. 1739, Heyne after 1. 1744. Heyne 'wom'; cf. 11. 1758 and 3073. But loUm (Sievers scans better and makes better sense. Bebeorgan takes ace.

1758; but that passage alone

is iusuflficient to settle its

usual construction,

and no other instance of


1748.

its

occurrence

is

known.
It is

Zupitza: "fo imperfectly erased between he and lange.''


all

inserted in the text of


1750.

the editions.

MS.

'fffidde.'

74

BEOWULF.
f'^ge gefealleS;

1755

fehS o)7er

to,

se

])e

unmurnlice

madmas

d^le)?,

eorles ^r-gestreon,

egesan ne gymeS.

Bebeorh

]>e

Sone bealo-niS,

Beowulf
selre geceos,

leofa,

secg betsta,

ond

]>e

)?8et

1760 ece r^das; oferhyda ne gym, m^re cempa. Nu is ]7ines msegnes

blied

ane hwile
]78et

eft

sona

biS,

'pec

adl oSSe ecg

eafoj^es getwi^feS,

oSSe fyres feng,

oSSe flodes wylm, o5Se gares


fliht,

1765 oSSe gripe meces,


o53e atol yldo
forsiteS
;

oS3e eagena bearhtm ond forsvvorceS; semninga biS, )78et Sec, dryht-guma, deaS oferswySeS. Swa ic Hring-Dena hund missera 1770 weold under wolcnum, ond hig wigge beleac manigum m^gpa, geond f>ysne middan-geard sescum ond ecgum, pset ic me ^nigne under swegles begong gesacan ne tealde.

Hwaet me j^ses on 1775 gyrn sefber gomene,


!

e]?le

edwenden cwom,
Grendel wearS,
Fol. 169*.

seo]7San

eald gewinna, *ic


)?8ere

ingenga min
singales wseg
pses sig
pses Se ic

s5cne

mod-ceare micle.
ecean Dryhtne,

Metode

j^anc,

on aldre gebad,

1780

]>aet

ic

on )7one hafelan

heoro-dreorigne
starige.

ofer eald
1757. 1774. 1776.

gewin

eagum
Cf.
11.

Grein 'egesan'

(oivner).

MS.

'ed wendan.'

280, 2188.

Most editors 'eald-gewinna.' I have avoided such compounds, except where clearly indicated by the absence of inflection in the adj. Cf. 11. 373, 945, 1781 (where no editor makes a compound of eald geivin),
with 853, 1381, 2778.

BEOWULF.
symbel-wynne dreoh, unc sceal worn fela si]?3an morgen biS." ma]7ma gemtviira, geong sona to, 1785 Geat wa3S glaed-mod, swa se snottra heht. setles neosan, ellen-rofiim pa wees eft swa '^t

75

Ga nu

to setle,

wigge weorj^ad

flet-sittendum

fsegere gereorded

Niht-helm geswearc DuguS eal aras; 1790 deorc ofer dryht-gumum. beddes neosan, wolde blonden-feax Geat un^/emetes wel, gamela Scylding.

niowan

stefne.

rofne rand-wigan,

restan lyste
siSes

sona him sele-]?egn

wergum,

1795 feorran-cimdum,
se for

forS wisade,

andrysnum

ealle beweotec?e
'py

]7egnes J^earfe,

swylce

dogore
reced hliuade

heaJ>o-li5ende

habban

scoldon.
;

Reste hine

]?a

riim-heort

1800 geap ond gold-fah;


o]7
]78et

gsest inne swsef,

hrefn blaca

heofones
*(5a

wynne
Fol. 169''.

bli(5-heort

bodode

com beorht scacan


ScaJ^an onetton,

[sunne ofer grundas].


1783.

Wiilcker 'wlg-geweor^ad'

Heyne
I

(following Cosiju,

who com-

pares "Elene" 150) 'wigge-[ge]weorJ?ad.'

have followed the MS., for

which

"Elene" 1196. MS. unig/metes. MS. 'beweotene.' 1796. Heyne 'hllvade'; other editors 'hllfade.' Sievers 1799. No gap in MS. Wiilcker has 1803. 'Sa com beorht [leoma]
cf.

1792.

194.

scacan [ofer scadu].

Heyne

'Sa

com

beorht [sunne]

scacan [ofer grundas].

There

is

the same objection to both these emendations, that they sup-

76

BEOWULF.

w^ron
1805 fuse to

8eJ>elingas

eft to

leodum

fsLYemie;

wolde feor )7anon


ceoles neosan.

cuma Heht

collen-ferhS
]7a

se

hearda
ssegde

Hrunting beran

sunu Ecglafes,
leoflic iren
;

heht his sweord niman,

him

j^^es

l?^nes J>anc,

1810

cwieS,

he

|?one giiS-wine
;

godne

tealde,

wig-craeftigne

nales wordiim log


pset wses

meces

ecge.

Ond
1815

J?a

siS-frome,
Wc'eron,

modig secg. searwum gearwe,

wigend

eode weorS

Denum

?e]?eling to

yppan,

)?^r se o)?er waes,

hcele hilde-deor

HroSgar

grette.

XXVI.
Beowulf ma)7elode,
"

beam
]78et

Ecg)?eowes

Nu we

sS-liSend

secgan wyllaS

feorran-cumene,

we

fundia]?

1820 Higelac secan willum bewenede


;

wt"eron her tela


;

]?u

us wel dohtest.

pose two lacnnae instead of one. To avoid this, I have interchanged sunne and scacan in Heyne's reading; of the consequent separation of adj. and noun there are frequent examples in the poem (cf. 255). 1805. MS, 'farene ne.' [In reality, far is now gone but there is no doubt, from Thorkelin's transcript, what the MS. reading was. In all
.1.
;

such cases, in order to avoid needless


as that of the extant MS.]

detail, I give the indubitable

reading

1809. MS. leanes Miillenhoff Irenes.' It is possible that the passage means that Unferth gave his sword to Beowulf. Grein takes this view, for he glosses suitu (1808) as nom. and so apparently do Heyne and Socin (though they gloss sunu as accus.!). But se hearda applies to Beowulf
' '

'

much

better than to Unferth;

cf. 11.

401, 1963.

1816.

MS.

'helle.'

BEOWULF.
Gif
ic

77

)?onne on eor]:'an

owihte masg
tilian,
ic

]7inre

mod-lufan

maran
Sonne
ic

guraena diyhten,

gyt dyde,
Fol. 170*.

1825 guS-geweorca
Gif
ic ]yset

beo gearo sona.


ofer floda begang,

ge*fricge

fset ]7ec

ymb-sittend

egesan }>ywaS,

swa
ic

]?ec

hetende

hwilum dydon,
J^egna bringe, Ic on Higelace wat,
J^eah

Se ]?usencla

1830

hselej^a to helpe.

Geata dry lit en,


folces hyrde,

Se he

geong
ic j^e

sy,

j^aet

he mec fremman wile


]?set

wordum ond weorcum,


ond ])e to geoce 1835 msegenes fultum,
ge]?ingec^, J^eodnes

wel herige,

gar-holt here,
)7^r Se biS

manna

J^earf.

Gif him j^onne Hrej^ric

to

hofum Geata
he mseg
]?i^r

beam,

fela

freonda findan;

feor-cy]?Se beoS

selran gesohte, J>^m )?e him selfa deah." 1840 HroSgar maj^elode him on ondsware wi^tig Drihten "pe )?a word-cwydas on sefan sende ne hyrde ic snotorlicor on swa geongum feore guman Jnngian )?u eart ma^genes Strang ond on mode frod, 1845 wis word-cwida. Wen ic talige, gif ])set gegangeS, )?9et Se gar nymeS, hild heoru-grimme, HreJ^les eaferan,
;

adl

o)?i5e

iren

ealdor Sinne,

folces hyrde,

ond

])\i

]nn feorh hafast,

1833. 1836.

1837.
1841.

MS. 'weordum yworcum,' probably MS. 'hre>rinc.' Cf. 1. 1189. MS. 'ge)>inged.' MS. 'wigtig.'

a slip of the scribe.

78
1850
]>8et
)7e

BEOWULF.
*S^-Geatas
h8ele]7a,

selran nsebben

Fol. 170^

to geceosenne

cyning ienigne,

hord-weard

gyf

)7ii

healdan wylt

maga
licaS

rice.

Me

]>m mod-sefa
leofa Beowulf.
]>sdt

leng swa
]>i\

Avel,

1855 Hafast

gefered,

J^am folcum sceal,

ond Gar-Denum, ond sacii restan, inwit-ni)7as, ]>e hie ^r drugon; wesan, )7enden ic wealde widan rices, manig oj^erne 1860 ma)7mas gem^ne;
Geata leodum sib gem^ne,

godum gegrettan
sceall

ofer ganotes ba?5


ofer hea]7u

hring-naca
luf-tacen.

bringan

lac

ond

Ic

)?a

leode wat

ge wis feond ge wiS freond fgeste geworhte, ealde wisan." 1865 ^ghwses untile

Da
1854.

git him eorla mago Healfdenes,

hleo

inne gesealde,

maj^mas twelfe,
'leng

Bugge and Heyne 5:

swa

sel' {the longer the better)

tempting emendation. But if one finds gross anomalies in accidence in the "Beowulf," why should one look for a flawless syntax?
1857.
1862.

MS.

'ge maenum.'
of. 1.

Kluge 'heafu';

2477.

Sievers supports this emendation

on metrical grounds ("Beit."


to be

x. 245).

certain

amount

of deference is

paid to metrical conclusions, but they should hardly suffice of them-

selves to set aside

an otherwise unexceptionable MS. reading. But Sievers

also calls hea\>u "unverstandlich" ("Beit." x. 235).

None

the less the

evidence of

meaning is not contemptible. The compound he(vSo-lVSend occurs in 11. 1798 and 2955 (in the latter case parallel to manmim), andin "Andreas" 426; hea'^o-sigel in "Riddles" 72. 16. Sievers makes the first syllable short in "Beowulf" 1798 and 2955 ("Beit." x. 300) if this means that he regards healSu, "war," as the first part of these compounds, his supposition goes far towards making the four above-cited
its

existence and

passages "unverstandlich."
1867.

MS.

*.xii.'.

BEOWULF.
het [h]ine

79

mid

]}sem

secean on gesyntum,

lacum leode swsese snude eft cuman.

1870 Gecyste

)?a

cyning sej^elum god,

]7eoden Scyldinga,

Segn betstan, ond be healse genam hruron him tearas


;

blonden-feaxum.

Him

wses bega wen,


Fol. 171^

ealdum, in-*fr5dum,

ofres swiSor,

1875

]78et

h[i]e seoSSan
mej>le.

geseon mdston,

modige on
]>8dt

Waes him

se

man
fsest

to ]7on leof,

he

)7one

breost-wyhn

forberan ne mehte,

ac

fter

him on hre]?re deorum men


wiS blode.

hyge-bendum
dyrne langaS

1880

beam
since

Him

Beowulf

J^anan,

guS-rinc gold-wlanc,

grses-moldan traed

hremig;

s^-genga bad
se
]?e

age[n]d-frean,

on ancre rad.

pa
1885

W9es on gange

gifu HroSgares

oft gesehted.

pset wses an cyning


o]>
)?8et

^ghwses orleahtre,
msegenes wynnum,
1868.

hine yldo

benam
scod.

se

)?e

oft

manegum

1875.

MS. MS.

'inne.'
'he.'

187980.
heorn to

MS.

'beorn'; Grein 'beam.'


secretly longeth" (he

mean "the hero


:

Heyne takes dyrne langa'S makes heorn nom., whereas

langian is an impers. verb and takes an accus. of the person). Thorpe and Grein render "a secret longing burnt." Neither rendering is free from objection. Beorn is an unexampled form of the pret. of heornan (Sievers 386, N. 2). But on the other hand, I can find no example of dyrne used as an adv. fast agrees with langcv^ much better than with heorn, even if the latter could be nom. the rare occurrence of a pres. tense amid a succession of preterites these considerations seem decisive
;

against Heyne's interpretation.


1883. 1885.

MS.

'agedfrean.'
is

colon

usually placed after gecehted, and Earle remarks that

; ;

80

BEOWULF.

XXVII.
Cvvom
)7a

to flode
;

fela

modigra

haeg-stealdra

hring-net bt^ron,

Land-weard onfand 1890 locene leoSo-syrcan. swa he a^r dyde eft-siS eorla, of hliSes nosan no he mid hearme
*g3es[tas] grette,

ac

cwseS

J?8et

wilcuman

him tdgeanes rad, Wedera leodum

Fol. 171^.

1895

sca)7an scir-hame

to scipe foron.

siB-geap naca pa wges on sande hringed-stefna hladen here-w^dum, moest hlifade mearum ond maSmum
;

ofer

HroSgares
gesealde,

hord-gestreonum.

1900

He

]?Sm bat-wearde
])set

bunden golde
he sySj^an wses

swurd on meodu-bence
yrfe-lafe.

ma]7me 'py weor)?ra, Gewat him on nacan

drefan deop wreter,


what
follows

Dena land

ofgeaf.

is

"the

gist of their talk as

they went."
:

I take it to be

reflection of the scop.

How

could the Geats say

"until old age deprived

him, &c."? 1888 9.

Wiilcker and

Heyne

'

fela-modigra/haeg-stealdra [heap]';

of.

1.

1637.
1893.

MS.

defective at corner.

'ges' (followed

by a blank space)

Grundtvig
1895.

'gaes[tas].'

MS.

defective at edge.

'sea wan' (so

Heyne);

'sca}?an' (so

Zupitza and Wiilcker). but the second syllable


is

The

first syllable sea- is still

perfectly distinct
line. The same meaning

missing at the beginning of the next

word

scaiva is not found elsewhere; sca]pan occurs with the


1.

as here in
1902.

1803.
j^y

MS. 'majjma

weor>re,' which Thorpe emended.


Sievers
is

1903.

Grein '[yS-]nacan,' for the alliteration.

contented

to let on alliterate.

BEOWULF.
1905 pa wses be mseste
segl sale fsest;

81

mere-hr^egla sum,

no

Y^eY

sund-wudu )?unede; weg-flotan wind ofer ySum


sse-genga
for,

siSes getwc^fde;
fleat

famig-heals

forS ofer ySe,

1910 bunden-stefna ]?8et hie Geata


cupe nsessas;
lyft-geswenced,
Hra)?e wses
set

ofer brim-streamas,
clifu

ongitan meahton,

ceol

up

ge)?rang

on lande stod. * holme hyS-weard gearu,


tid
leofra

Fol.

172^

1915

se

f>e

^r lange

manna

fus set faroSe

feor wlatode;
sid-fsej^me scip
J^y

s^lde to sande

oncer-bendum 1920 Het


)7a

fsest,

l^s

hym

y]7a

Srym

wudu wynsuman
up beran
ond
fraetwe

forwrecan meahte.
8e)7elinga gestreon,
;

ftet-gold

uses

him

feor j^anon

to gesecanne

sinces bryttan,
]?ger

Higelac HreJ^ling,
selfa

set

ham wunaS

mid gesiSum
betlic,

s^-wealle neah.

1925 Bold wses


hea
wis,

brego rof cyning,


swiSe geong,
)?eah Se wintra lyt

healle,

Hygd

wel f>ungen,

under burh-locan
Hsere)7es dohtor;

gebiden hsebbe
uses hio

hnah swa
wseg,

J^eah,

1930 ne to gneaS

gifa

Geata leodum,

ma)7m-gestreona.

M5d DrySo

1914.

1918.
1923.

MS. 'geara.' MS. oncear bendum.'


'

Wiilcker

'

wunade.'

Sievers regards this and the next


11,

hne

,as

oratio recta.

But

cf.

the present tenses in


'

1314, 1928.

1925.

Grundtvig 'brego-rof
B.

(so

Heyne).

W.

; ;

82

BEOWULF.
fremu n^nig
folces
]?8et

cwen,

firen

ondrysne
frea,

dorste

deor gene)7an

swgesra gesiSa,

nefne sin

1935

)73et

hire

an dseges

eagum

starede
Fol. 172'^.

ac

him wsel-bende
;

*\veotode tealde
hra]?e seoJ?San waes

hand-gewri)7ene
sefter

mund-gripe mece gej^inged, ]7get hit sceaden-m^l scyran moste, 1940 cwealm-bealu cySan. Ne biS swylc cwenlic j^eaw
idese to efnanne,
]?8ette

J7eah Se hio

^nlicu sy,

freoSu-webbe

feores

ons^ce
mseg.

aefter lige-torne

leofne

mannan.

Huru
)?8et

)7set

onhohsnod[e]

Hemminges
\ms gefremede,

1945 Ealo-drincende
inmt-niSa,

oSer s^dan,

hio leod-bealewa

sySSan ^rest wearS

gyfen gold-hroden
seSelum diore,

geongum cempan,
flet

sySSan hio Oifan

1950 ofer fealone


1932.
'

flod

be fseder lare
"We have elision of final e before a
of the forms
251, N.
'

Suchier firen-ondrysne.'
11.
1.

vowel in
frofor in

338 and 442.

But perhaps the true explanation


'

698 and^rew here will be found in Sievers

1934.

Heyne

'

sin-frea.

Zupitza transliterates sinfrea


'

presumably
is

a misprint for 'sin-frea';

cf.

sin-nihte,

1.

161, etc.

There

a distinct

space between the n


1935.

and/ in

the MS.

Zupitza

'an-dffiges,'

apparently supporting Leo's Cm-dceges,

"the whole day." Suchier '&ndseges' = andeges, "eye to eye." 1939. A most difficult line. Bugge sceaden msel (so Suchier and Zupitza). Suchier translates ("Beit." iv. 500 ff.) " damit die Klinge
'
'

offenbaren mochte, es sei entschieden "

Bugge

"

nachdem

die Sache

entschieden war," both making sceaden qualify


X.

hit.

Sievers ("Beit."

313) supports the reading in the text.

hostile sxoord decide.

The second hand

in the

Heyne 'scea'Sen-mal scyran,' MS. begins with inoste.


See "Beitrage"
x. 501.

1942.
1944.

Rieger 'onsece' (so Suchier).

MS. 'on hohsnod hem

ninges.'

BEOWULF.
si6e

83

gesohte

S^r hio sySSan well


gode m^re,
lifigende breac,

in gum-stole,
lif-gesceafta

hiold heah-lufan

wiS

h9ele]?a brego,

1955

mine gefr^ge, bi s^m tweonum, ])one selestan ForSam Offa *w8es, eormen-cynnes. gar-cene man, geofum ond guSum wisdome heold wide geweorSod; ponon EomZ^r woe 1960 eSel sinne. Hem[m]inges mseg, haeleSum t5 helpe,
ealles

mon-cynnes,

Fol. 173^.

nefa Garmundes,

niSa

crseftig.

XXVIII.
Gewat him 8a
sylf aefter

se

hearda

sande

mid his hond-scole s^-wong tredan,


hi siS drugon,

1965 wide waroSas;


sigel

woruld-candel scan,

suSan fus;

elne geeodon,

to Sses

]>e

eorla hleo,

bonan OngenJ^eoes geongne giS-cyning

burgum

in innan,

godne gefmnon

Higelace waes 1970 hringas d^lan. snude gecySed, si3 Beowulfes wigendra hleo, ]78et S^r on worSig lifigende cwom, lind-gestealla,
heaSo-laces hal
t5 hofe gongan.

swa se rica bebead, 1975 HraSe wses gerymed, flet innan-weard. feSe-gestum
Gesaet
1956.
)?a

wis sylfne,

se Sa ssecce genses,

1960.

MS. 'J>s.' MS. 'geomor'; Bachlechner 'Eomier'; Grein 'Eomor.'

62

84
raseg wiS

BEOWULF.

m^ge,

*syS3an man-diyhten
holdne gegrette

Fol.

ns^.

J>urh hleoSor-cwyde

1980 meaglum wordum.

Meodu-scencum hwearf
HsereSes dohtor,

geond

)73et

A^a^-reced

lufode Sa leode,

liS-w^ge bser

hse^um to handa.
sinne geseldan

Higelac ongan
in sele }>am hean

1985

fsegre fricgcean,

hyne fyrwet
siSas

brsec,

hwylce Si'e-Geata

w^ron
leofa Biowulf,

"Hu
)7a

lomp eow on

lade,

Su f^ringa

feorr

gehogodest

sa3cce secean

ofer sealt wgeter,

1990 hilde to Hiorote?


wic^-cuSne

Ac

t5u

HroSgare

wean
?

wihte gebettest,
Ic Sges mod-ceare
siSe

m^rum
leofes

Seodne

sorh-wylmum
mannes.

seats,

ne trnwode
grette,

Ic Se lange bsed,

1995

J>8et

lete

Su )7one wsel-gsest wihte ne Su5-Dene sylfe geweorSan

guSe wis Grendel.


]?8es

Gode

ic }>anc secge,

Se ic Se gesundne

geseon moste."
EcgSioes
Fol. 174".

Biowulf ma?5elode,

beam
Zupitza:

2000* "pset
1981.

is

undyrne,
reced.'

dryhten Higelac,
''side

MS.

'hffit^'^.^

added over the line in the


:

same hand

Kemble 'heal- reced.' 1983. MS. 'he nu.' Zupitza :" between and 7i a letter (I think "S) erased." Grein 'haslum.' Bugge defends 'H^num' (so Heyne and Socin), which he regards as a contracted form meaning "dwellers on the heath" (of Jutland). But the fact that he identifies the "Geatas" with the Jutes
I think, but

with another ink,"

inevitably discounts his opinion.

1985.

Wiilcker

'

(hyne fyrwet brc)

'

but

11.

232, 2784,

show that

these words have an interrogative force, and are therefore a true parallel
to

what precedes.
1991.

MS. 'wi'; Thorpe

*wid-.'

BEOWULF.
[m^re] gemeting,
hwylc [orleg-]hwil

85
fira,

monegum
])ser

uncer Grendles

wearS on Sam wange,

he worna

fela

Sige-Scyldingum 2005 yrmSe to aldre


;

sorge gefremede,
ic Saet

eall gewrsec,

swa
se

[ne]

gylpan

J^earf

Grendeles
laSan cynnes

maga

[^nig] ofer eorSan


J?e

uht-hlem

]?one,

lengest leofaS

f[enne] bifongen.

Ic S^r furSum

cwom

2010 to Sam hring-sele


sona

Hr5Sgar gretan;

me

se

m^ra

mago
setl

Healfdenes,
cuSe,

sySSan he m5d-sefan

minne

wis his sylfes sunu

get^hte.

Weorod

wses on

wynne;

ne seah

ic

widan feorh
cwen,

2015 under heofones hwealf

heal-sittendra

medu -dream maran.


friSu-sibb folca,
flet
;

Hwilum m^ru
eall

geond-hwearf,

bgedde byre geonge


secge *[sealde],

oft hio

beah-wriSan
Fol.

^r

hio to setle geong.

lU^.

2020 Hwilum for [dJuguSe dohtor HroSgares eorlum on ende ealu-wsege bser, )?a ic Freaware flet-sittende
2001.
2002.

MS.
MS.

defective at corner,
'

and

in

1.

2002.

Grein '[msere].' Grein


begylpan

Thorpe

[orleg-].'

2006.
[ne].'

defective at edge,

and in

11.

2007, 2009.

'

can find no other instance of gielpan with an accus. against it, hegielimn is found in no other edited text, and it supposes an omission where there is no gap
'swal,'

In favour of this reading,

has 'swabe,'
;

and

in the

MS.
Kemble
'[ffinig].'

2007.
2009.

'fee'

and a blank; B 'fer..'; Kemble

fsr-bifongen

'

(so

Wiilcker); Grundtvig 'fenne bifongen' (so Heyne).

2019.

2020.

MS. MS.

defective at corner.

MS.
in
11.

'hie.'

defective at edge,

and

2023, 2024, 2026.

86

BEOWULF.

nemnan

hyrde,

]>^r hio [nsejgled sine

hseleSum sealde.

Sio gehaten [wses],

gladum suna Frodan 2025 geong, gold-hroden, wine Scyldinga, [h]afaS ]78es geworden
rices hyi'de,
)78et

ond

J^set

r^d

talaS,
dsel,

he mid Sy wife
leod-hryre

wsel-f^hSa

ssecca, gesette.

Oft, [no] seldan,


lytle hwile
]7eah seo

hwSr

2030

seffcer

bon-gar bugeS,

Mseg )79es )?onne of)7yncan )7ara leoda, ond )?egna gehwam on flett g^5, ]?onne he mid fsemnan 2035 dryht-bearn Dena duguSa biwenede
2023.
2029.
line in the
s

bryd duge. Seoden HeaSobeardna

Grein's emendation.

Heyne's emendation
MS., which
is

of.

1.

3019, and Ps. Ixxiv.

4.

Oft ends a

defective at the beginning of the next Hne, the

oi seldan being gone.


for wo."

"I do not

think there was before seldan room

Kolbing and Wiilcker think there was. 2032. Kemble "Seodne.' In his favour, o/l)?/?ica7i always takes a dat. pers., and "Seoden is not a defensible dat. form; against, 'Seoden is the

enough

Zupitza.

clear reading of the MS.,


all its

and he would be a bold

man who

should correct

grammatical anomalies.
This
is

2035.
biiverede,

the

MS. reading
But
it is

of this difficult line.

Grein emended

"among
1.

the company," making drijlit-hearn explanatory of he

in the previous line.


to the "Seoden of

natural to take he, as


the

2032.

He retains

Heyne does, to refer MS. reading and renders: " [while]

a noble scion of the

more

satisfactory to
1.

Danes attended upon the knights." It is much assume the omission of the conjunction \>(St at the
)>(bs

beginning of

2035, correlative with

in 2032, to take dxigu^Sa as

nom. to bilvenede, and to regard this as one of the frequent instances in O.E. poetry of a plural subject with a singular verb in a subordinate
clause.
Cf.
11.

2164,

1051, 2130, 2251, &c.

The gain

to the sense is

immense:

"It displeased the prince of the Heathobards,

[that]

his

doughty warriors should attend on a noble scion of the Danes." For the omission of }pat cf. 1. 801, and see the note on 1. 2206, a parallel passage; the explanation there suggested applies with equal force here, where
]ponne (2032) is correlative with \)07ine (2034).

BEOWULF.
on him gladiaS
)7enden hie

87
lafe

gomelra

heard ond hring-m^l,

HeaSobear[d]na gestreon,

Sam w^pniim
[XXIX.]

wealdan moston,

oS Sset hie forlc'eddan

to

Sam

lind-plegan

2040

swc'ese gesiSas

ond hyra
beore,
se Se eall

sylfra feorh.

ponne cwiS

aet

se Se

beah *gesyhS,

Fol. 175*.

eald sesc-wiga,

gem [an],
sefa),

gar-cwealm gumena
onginneS geomor-mod

(him biS grim


higes cunnian,

geong[um] cempan
ond
J^aet word acwyS mece gecnawan,

2045

f>urh hreSra

gehygd

wig-bealu weccean,

'Meaht

Sa,

min wine,

]7one )?in feeder

to gefeohte bser

under here-griman

hindeman

siSe,

])8er hyne Dene slogon, 2050 dyre iren, weoldon woel-stowe, sySSan WiSergyld sefter hselej^a hryre, hwate Scyldungas

Iseg,
?

Nu

her ]7ara banena

byre nat-hwylces
flet

frsetwum hremig

on
rihte

g^S,

2055 morSres gylpe[S],


]?one
]7e

ma5|?um byreS, r^dan sceoldest.' ManaS swa ond myndgaS mc'ela gehwylce
ond
]7one
Sli

mid

2037.
2039.

capital at the beginning of this Hne, such as one finds elsewhere only at the beginning of a new fit. (Cf. But the number xxix is wanting, and the next break is at 1. 1740.)
1.
1.

MS. 'hea^abearna.' The MS. has a large

number is xxxi. Wiilcker makes the 29th fit begin with and the 30th with 1. 2067. Heyne makes one break instead of two, and that after 1. 2031. 2042. MS. defective at corner and edge, here and in 11. 2044, 2055. 2051. MS. 'wi-Ser gyld.' Heyne 5 '{syS^an wi^er-gyld laeg),' when vengeance failed. But cf. Widsi^ 124.
2144, where the

2014,

88

BEOWULF.

sarum wordum,
)78et

oS Sset s^l cymeS,


)?egn
fore fseder

se

f^mnan
bite
;

d^dum

2060

seffcer billes

blod-fag swefeS,

ealdres scyldig

him

se oSer )7onan
Fol. ITS'',

losa3 *[li]figende,

con him land geare.

ponne bioS brocene


aS-sweord
eorla,

on ba healfe

[syS]San Ingelde

2065 weallaS
sefter

wsel-niSas,

ond him wif-lufan


colran weorSaS.

cear-wselmum
HeaSobear[d]na

py

ic

hyldo ne telge, unf^cne,


Ic sceal forS sprecan
J^set

dryht-sibbe d^l,
freond-scipe fsestne.

Denum

2070 gen ymbe Grendel,


sinces brytta,

Su geare cunne,

to

hond-r^s

hsele'Sa.

hwan sySSan wearS SySSan heofones gim


gsest yrre

glad ofer grundas,


eatol ^fen-grom,

cwom,

user neosan,
ssel

2075

Seer

we gesunde

weardodon.
hilcZ

peer wses Hondscio

onssege,
Iseg,

feorh-bealu

f^gum

he fyi^mest

gyrded cempa;

him Grendel

wearS,

2080

to mu5-bonan, m^erum magii-]?egne, lie call forswealg. leofes mannes

2062.

MS.

defective at corner

'figende'; Thorkelin 'wigende' (so

and edge here and in two following lines. most editors); Heyne 'lifigende'
it);

(so Zupitza).

2063.

AB
;

'orocene' (B with a stop before

Kemble
:

*[a]brocene'

(so Zupitza)

other editors as text.


'a'S- swear's.'

2064.

Zupitza

His foot-note runs

" There
is it

is

a stroke

through d in
2067.

sioeord,

but without the usual head, nor

quite distinct."

MS. 'heao bearna.' MS. 'hilde.' In support of Eieger's emendation cf. 1. 2483. 2079. MS. 'mffiru magu (i.e. magum) >egne.' But see 11. 293, 408, etc. The mistake is due to "repetition." In 1. 158 we have the opposite error
2076.
of "anticipation."

; ;

BEOWULF.

89

No 3y ser ut Sa gen idel-hende bealewa gemyndig, bona bl6dig-to5, gongan wolde of Sam gold-sele min costode, ac he msegnes rof Glof hangode 2085*grapode gearo-folm.
Sid

Fol. 176^

searo-bendum faest; eall gegyrwed sio wses orSoncum ond dracan fellum. deofles crseftum
syllic,

ond

He mec

J?^r

on innan

unsynnigne,

2090 dior d^d-fruma, manigra sumne sySSan ic on jriTe


;

gedon wolde hyt ne mihte swa,


upp-riht astod.

To lang
yfla

ys to reccenne,

hu
J>ine

i[c

S]am leod-sceaSan

gehwylces

hond-lean forgeald;
min,
leode
losade,

2095

)?^r ic, J^eoden

weorSode weorcum.
lytle hwile

He onweg

lif-wynna br[ea]c
sio swiSre

hwsej^re

him

hand on Hiorte, 2100 mddes geomor,

swaSe weardade ond he hean Sonan, mere-grund gefeoU.

Me

)7one wael-r^s

wine Scildunga
sySSan mergen com,

fgettan golde

fela leanode,

manegum maSmum,

geseten ha^fdon. ond we to symble Gome*la Scilding, 2105 p^r waes gidd ond gleo.
fela fricgende,

Fol.
176^.

feorran rehte

hwilum hilde-deor hearpan wynne, hwilum gyd awrsec gome?i-wudu grette, hwilum syllic spell soS ond sarlic
;

2085.

2093.
2108.

MS. MS. MS.

'geareo.'

defective at edge here

and in

line 2097.

'huiedam.'

'gomel.'

90
2110 rehte
aefter rihte

BEOWULF.
rum-heort cyniiig;

eldo gebunden, hwilum eft ongan gioguSe cwiSau gomel gu5-wiga

hilde-strengo
]7onne he

hreSer inne weoll,

wintrum frod
Sset

worn gemunde.
niht

2115 Swa we ]>^v iiine o5 mode naman,


o'Ser to

ondlangne dseg

becwom

yldum.

pa
;

wses eft hraSe

gearo gyrn-wrsece
siSode sorh-full

Grendeles modor,

2120 wig-hete Wedra.


hyre

sunu deaS fornam, Wif unhyre


beorn acwealde
feorh iiS-genge.

beam

gewrsec,

ellenlice;

]7^r wses ^schere,

frodan fyrn-witan,

sySSan mergen cwom, NoSer hy hine ne moston, Denia leode, 2125 deaS-w6rigne

bronde forbaernan,
leofne

ne on h^\ hladan
* hio
]?8et

mannan

lie

setbaer

Fol.

177-'.

feondes f8eS[mum
pset waes

unjder firgen-stream.

HroSgare

hreowa tornost,
lange begeate.
Sine
life

2130

)?ara ]?e

leod-fruman

pa

se

Seoden mec

healsode hreoh-mod,
eorl-scipe efnde,

]>8dt

ic

on holma ge)?ring
gehet.
ciiS,

ealdre geneSde,

m^rSo fremede
2135 Ic Sa

he

me mede
J^e

Saes waelmes,

is

wide

grim7ie, gryrelicne
2126. 2128.

gnmd-hyrde

fond.

MS. *b^r

= bfel).
Zupitza 'ffelSrunga [un]der,' and in a

Grein's emendation.

with unga written over the dots with another ink B now nothing preserved but /ce'S and part of a letter which may have been r, m, or 7i; the word has been torn asunder.''
foot-note: "fadr
;

2136.

MS. 'grimme.'

; ;

BEOWULF.
peer

91

unc hwile wses


heolfre weoll,

hand-gem^ne
ond
ic

holm
in

heafde becearf

Sam

[grund-Jsele
;

Grendeles modor

2140 eacnum ecgum


feorh oSferede
;

unsofte fonan
n^es ic fsege )7a
eft

gyt

ac

me eorla hleo maSma menigeo,

gesealde

maga

Healfdenes.

XXXI.

Swa

se Seod-kyning

]:eawum lyfde

2145 nealles ic Sam leanum forloren hsefde, msegnes mede, ac he me *[maSma]s geaf, sunu Healfdenes, on [minjne sylfes dom,
Sa
ic Se,

Fol.
l^?*^.

beorn-cyning,

bringan wylle,
eall set Se

estum gey wan.

Gen
ic lyt

is

2150

lissa

gelong;

hafo

heafod-maga

nefne, Hygelac, Sec."


eafor, heafod-segn,

Het Sa

in beran

heaSo-steapne helm,

hare byrnan,
:

2155

gyd aefter wraec HroSgar sealde, snotra fengel sume worde het, )?9et ic his ^rest Se est ges^gde
guS-sweord geatolic,
"

Me

Sis hilde-sceorp
;

cwaeS

J>3et

hyt hsefde

Hiorogar cyning,
;

leod Scyldimga,
2137.

lange hwile

Wiilcker and

2139.
2146.

No gap

in

Heyne 'hand gemane,' but cf. MS. Grundtvig's emendation.

Ger. handgemein.

MS. defective at corner here and in next line. Grundtvig '[sinjne.' 2152. Zupitza and most editors 'eafor-heafod-segn.' But, as compounds of three words are as rare in O.E. poetry as compounds of two words are common, it seems better to make two parallels. 2157. This line has constantly been mangled (see Heyne or Wiilcker) through misreading the 'est' of the MS. as eft. Cf. 1. 2165.
2147.

92

BEOWULF.
syllan wolde,
)?eah

2160 no Sy ^r suna sinum hwatum Heorowearde,


breost-gewc'edu.

he him hold

Wt'ere,

Briic ealles well."

Hyrde

ic,

J^^t }>am

frsetwum
weardode,

feower mearas

lungre gelice
;

last

2165 aeppel-fealuwe he him est geteah meara ond maSma. Swa sceal *m^g don,
nealles inwit-net

Fol. 178.

53rum bregdon,
deaS ren[ian]

dyrnum

craefte

Hygelace wses 2170 niSa heardum nefa swySe hold, ond gehwseSer oSrum hrof>ra gemyndig.
hond-gesteallan.

Hyrde

ic, ]78et

he Sone heals-beah
Sone

Hygde
])e

gesealde,

wrsetlicne

wundur-maSSum,
]7rio

him Wealh-

Seo geaf,
Seod[nes] dohtor,

wicg somod
;

2175 swancor ond sadol-beorht


aefter

hyre sySSan wges,

beah-Sege,

br[e]ost geweorSod.

Swa bealdode guma guSum

cuS,

beam EcgSeowes, godum d^dum,


nealles druncne slog
nses

dreah sefter dome, 2180 heorS-geneatas ac he man-cynnes


;

him hreoh

sefa,

mi'este cr^efte
}>e

gin-faestan gife,

him God

sealde,

heold hilde-deor.

Hean

wses lange,

swa hyne Geata beam godne ne tealdon, 2185 ne hyne on medo-bence micles wyrSne Fol. *drihten wereda gedon wolde swySe [wenjdon, ]?8et he sleac w^re,
aeSeling unfrom.

ITS*^.

Edwenden cwom
and
in
1.

2168. 2187.

MS. MS.

defective at edge here


defective at edge.

2174.

Grein's emendation; see "Crist" 309.


BEOWULF.
tir-eadigum

93

menn

torna gehwylces.
in gefetian,

2190 Het 5a eorla hleo


heaSo-rof cyning,

HreSles lafe
nses

golde gegyrede

mid Geatum Sa

sinc-maS)7um selra

on sweordes had

bearm alegde, ]?8et he on Biowulfes seofan )?usendo, 2195 ond him gesealde
bold ond brego-stol.

Him

wses

bam samod

on Sam leod-scipe
eard, eSel-riht,

lond gecynde,

oSrum swiSor

side rice,

]?am 5^r seba wses.

ufaran dogrum 2200 Eft )78et geiode sySSan Hygelac laeg, hilde-hlsemmum, ond Hear[dr]ede hilde-meceas to bonan wurdon, under bord-hreoSan on sige-]?eode Sa hyne gesohtan

2205 hearde hilde-frecan,


niSa

HeaSo-Scilfingas,

gen^gdan

nefan Hererices

sySSan * Beowulfe
2202.

brade rice
see
1.

Fol. 179^

MS.
")j8et

'hearede.'

But

2375.
I take the con-

2206.

All editors put a full stop at the close of this line, leaving the

sense of

geiode etc." very lame or very obscure.


);>cst

struction of the passage to be as follows:

(1.

2200), as in

many

other

passages in the
"this," and
is

poem

(cf. 11.

1846, 1591), has a forward reference like

mod.
11.

anticipatory of a substantive clause, which usually begins


\>cet
;

with a correlative

this

substantive
is

clause

is

contained in
1.

2207

(first half),

but the conjunction

omitted here, as in

2035,

perhaps because
2207.

sy'^'San (2207) is correlative

with sy'^'&an (2201).

The foHo that begins here


:

(179^) with the

takes rank with the last folio of


portions of the
in fol. 179 has

all (198^)

as the most defective

word "beowulfe" and illegible

MS. Zupitza says "All that is distinct in the facsimile been freshened up by a later hand in the MS." Sometimes the later hand has altered the original reading, and not for the better Zupitza transliterates e.g. in 1. 2209, wintra has been changed to lointru.
the readings of the later hand.

94

BEOWULF.
on hand gehwearf.
fiftig

He

geheold tela

wintra

(waes 5a frod cyning,

oS Sset an ongan 2210 eald e)7el-weard), draca rics[i]an, deorcum nihtum hord beweotode, se Se on hea[iim] hl^we stig under Iseg stan-beorh steapne p^r on innan 'giong eldum uncuS.
;

2215 niSa nat-hwylc h^Snum horde


2210.

::::::: gefeng hond ::::::::


Cf.
1.

Later hand

'

on.'

100.

2211. 2212.

AB

'ricsan,'

now

gone.
;

MS. very

indistinct

nothing in

AB

between hea and hord.

Zupitza 'hea['5o]-hl8ewe,' and in a foot-note: "what is left of the two letters after hea justifies us in reading them 'So." As I can assign no
satisfactory

meaning

to hea'So-hlceice,
hffi^e' (so
'

have emended as in the

text.

Grein suggested 'heare


2213.

Heyne).

Later hand

stearne.'
I

2215

2231.

Here

have closely followed Zupitza's transliteration,

except in one particular.


division into lines.

Much is very doubtful readings, punctuation, Zupitza gives only the lines of the MS., without
marks with an
illegible

division into verse lines, except that he

asterisk

and

numbers every
" as

fifth line of

the poem.

In

passages he employs
I differ

many colons

as letters

seem to have been

lost."

from Zupitza,

as well as from Grein and Heyne, in the division and numbering of

Between /a/i ne and Wofes they make I make it one line and a half, as in the text. Zupitza's arrangement of these two and a half lines (using exactly the number of letter spaces he gives in his transliteration) would
these lines, and with good reason.
lines

two

and a

half,

2217

(2)

2219

be this

2217 2218
2219

ne he
:
: :

>ffit

syS-San

t>[eah] [e he]
: : : :

slgepende be syre

de

Compare
half.

this

with the text and

it

will be seen that the material,


is

which

comfortably

fills

a line and a half,


11.

hopelessly inadequate for two and a


first

On

the other hand, in


first

2229 and 2230 they make the

sceapen

conclude the
half of 2230.

half of 2229 and the second sceapen

But, besides the improbability of

come in the first the same word being re-

BEOWULF.
:

95
sySSan
syi*e
: : : : :
: :

since fah

ne he

'pset

J>[eah] 3[e he]


}>eofes crsefte

sl^pende
)?8et

be
:

de

sie Siod
]79et

2220

folc

beorna

he gebolge[n]

wses.

peated in two following lines, Zupitza puts forty dots between sceapen and
sceapen,

and

this is certainly below rather

than above the number of


(all

missing

letters, for

the

first

seeapen comes at the beginning


fol. 179"^

but a

space for four letters) of the last line of


sceapen closes the
first line

in the MS.,

of

fol.

179*^ (cf.

11,

2295

7,

and the second where scire and

two following folios). Hence the arrangement of 11. 2228 30 in the text, which makes my linenumbers again correspond with those of Grein. In this rearrangement I have been anticipated by Bugge (see below), although I arrived at the
utan- stand in exactly the
relative positions in

same

same conclusion quite independently. Innumerable emendations of this passage have been suggested (see Wiilcker), of which I give only a very few. I have punctuated only where
the connected sense
2217.
is

tolerably certain.

Zupitza

''fah originally fac, but h written over c."

Heyne

'facne'; Wiilcker 'fahne.'

2218.

Zupitza:

"The

traces left between

J?

and

slcepende I think

justify us in reading \>eaTi "Se he."

The

letters within

square brackets

here and in
literation,

11.

2225, 2227, 2228, 2230, he omits, however, in his trans-

although suggesting them in foot-notes.


see

"syre1 do not
2219.
possible to say

any trace

of the first letter

having ever been /."

Z.
imline.

Zupitza puts nine colons between

"SiocZ

and

folc,

but

it is

how they

are to be divided between this

and the next

2220.

"ri in bolgen faded."


11.

Z.
2214
se
ff.

Grein's reconstruction of

is

as follows

per on innan giong

2215

ni'Sa nat-hwylc,

neodu gefeng
sy'S'San

has'Snum horde
since fahne

hond-bollan hwylcne
]psev
J?ffit

he

genam

readan goldes,
slffipende

bereafod wear's

be fyre
:

sinces hyrde
>Eet

(2220)

jpeofes crasfte

siSSan )jeoden onfand,


>aet

2220 This

bealu-leas folc-biorn,

he gebolgen waes.
it is

may

be compared with the text.

In some respects
I

preferable to

Bugge' s more recent reconstruction, which

append

BEOWULF.

XXXII.
Nealles

mid gewealdum

wyi-m-horda
se 3e

crseft

[sohte], sylfes willum,

him

sare gesceod

ac for )7rea-nedlan
hseleSa bearna

)?[eow] nat-hwylces
fleah,

hete-swengeas

2225 [semes]
)?8et

j^earfa,

secg syn-bysig.
: :

ond 5^r inne fealh, Sona ^etid[d]e,


gyst[e
pffir

Sam

gryre-]broga stod
on innan giong

2215

ni'S'Sa

nat-hwylc,
;

neode to gefeng

hse'Snum horde

hond aetgenam
ne he
j^ast

sele-ful since fah;

syS'San ageaf,

jjeah 'Se

he sliepende
:

besyrede hyrde

Jjeofes craefte t>aet se ^ioden onfand, 2220 by-folc beorna, baet he gebolgen waes. 2221. '^weoldum the later hand instead of loealdum, the a being still recognisable. Nothing after liorda [i.e. between it and crcefty Zupitza. 2222. Grein's emendation. No gap in MS.

2223.

Zupitza
\>

'

t)[egn],'

and

in a foot-note

between

and nat

justify us in reading egn {\>egn K.)."

"the traces of three letters So Grein. On

the other hand, Thorpe,

who made

a careful collation of the


leaves a blank.

three years before Kemble's

first edition,

MS. in 1830, As ))egn seems

from the whole context to be an impossible name

for the " fea-sceaftum


5.

men "

(1.

2285), I read

]peoio
'

with Wiilcker and Heyne


is left,

2224. 2225.
oernesJ"

Later hand
"

fleoh.'

To judge from what

the second word of this line was

Z.
*weall.'

which

left, but w stands on an original/, and what seemed to be another I in Thorkelin's time may have been the remnant of an original /i." Z. Thorpe inwlatode (so Heyne 5). 2226. Grein [Waes] s5na in \>a. tide. Zupitza ^'imoatide, no doubt, the second hand." What did the second hand mean? My own conjecture is given in the text. " The indistinct letter after gyst seems to have been e. The 2227. Z. traces of the third word allow us to read gi'yre."

AB

"Now

only loeal
;

is still

recognisable

'

'

'

'

BEOWULF.
hwseSre [earm-]sceapen
*

97

Fol. 179'\
[)7a

2230 .... sceapen


sinc-fset [geseah].

hyne] se f^r begeat

p^r

wses swylcra fela

in

Sam

eor3-[hu]se

^r-gestreona,

swa hy on gear-dagum
eormen-lafe
sej^elan
]?c^r

gumena

nat-hwylc,

cynnes,

2235 )?anc-hycgende
deore maSmas.

gehydde,

Ealle hie deaS fornam

^rran m^lum,
leoda duguSe,

se

ond se sua. Sa gen S^r lengest hwearf,

wears wine-geomor,

wende

]?ses

yldan,

2240

]78et

he lytel

fsec

long-gestreona

brucan moste.

wunode on wonge
niwe be
pser
naesse,

Beorh eall gearo waeter-ySum neah,


nearo-crseftum
fsest;

on innan bser

eorl-gestreona

2245 hringa hyrde


2228.
line]

hard-fyrc^ne d^l,
left,

"According to the traces


"
\>a

the

first

word

[i.e.

in the

MS.

may have been mrw." Z.


hine before se
?

2230.

" Z.
"fas freshened up, but
of the
s

Wiilcker

'fies.'

Zupitza

seems

to stand

on

an

original

"
r.

2231.

After the

first line

new

folio,

the illegibility

is

confined
Wiilcker
is.

to the edges of the next three lines.


'

Heyne's emendation.
for geseah.
I

scir

'

or

'

seah,' thinking there is not

room

think there

Zupitza has six dots.


2237.
2239.
" Si the later hand, but
i

seems

to

stand on an original e."

Z.
later

'weard' (so Wiilcker and Heyne); Zupitza 'wearlS' (almost


first

the only instance in which he transliterates the reading of the


"

hand).

The last letter of the first word was originally ^, although the hand has not freshened up the stroke through the d." Z.
"n'/ide the later hand, but ivende the first."

Z.
:

Wiilcker 'wiscte.'

2244. 2245.

'Hnnon the later hand, but o stands on an original a." Z. Zupitza 'hard-wyr'Sne,' and in a foot-note "xo (or/?) and the
B.

W.

'

98
fgettan goldes,
"

BEOWULF.
fea

worda cwseS

Heald

f>u

nu, hmse,

nu

hseleS

ne mostan,

eorla ^hte.

Hwset
;

hyt ^r on Se
ijra gehwylcne,
]?is

gode begeaton

guS-deaS fomam,
]7ara Se

2250 feorh-bealo

frecne,

leoda minra,

[lif]

ofgeaf;
Fol.
180.

gesawon sele-dream.
oSSe fe[o]r[mie]
drync-fget deore;

* Nah
fseted

hwa sweord wege,


ellor scoc.

w^ge,
[hyr]sted golde

dug[u5]

2255 Sceal se hearda helm

f^tum
)7a

befeallen;

feormend swefaS,

Se beado-griman

bywan

sceoldon

ge swylce seo here-pad,


ofer borda gebrsec

sio 9st hilde

gebad

bite irena,

ne maeg byrnan bring 2260 brosnaS aefter beorne; wide feran sefter wig-fruman Nis hearpan wyn, hseleSum be healfe.
stroke through d in
reading, I

wyrSne not freshened up."

am

suspicious of the later hand.

Though adopting its The form hard occurs

nowhere
2246. 2247.
ce;

else in

"Beowulf."

"/ec later hand, but originally /ert."

Z.

"mcestan later hand, but I think I see an original o under the

2250.
/,

a also seems to stand on another vowel (w or o?)." Z. "reorh bealc later hand, but the first r stands on an original
o."

and c on an original MS. 'fyrena.'


2251.
"]pa7ia later

Z.
;

hand, no doubt
:
:

nor do

I see

any sign

of the third

letter

having originally been r." Z. Zupitza 'sele-dream

2252.

2253.
2268.

MS.

defective at corner

and edge here and

in

11.

2254, 2255, and

Grein's emendation, supported by Zupitza,

who

says that the reCf.


1.

maining traces of the word in the MS. make fetige impossible.

2256.

MS. 'seoc' 2256. MS. 'feormynd.' Cf. 1. 2761. 2262. MS. 'n^s' (so Heyne). Cf. 11. 1923, the MS. reading. But here the change of tense
2254.

2486, where I have kept


is

too harsh.

BEOWULF.

99

gomen gleo-beames,
geond
fela
sael

ne god hafoc

swingeS,

ne se swifta mearh

2265 burh-stede beateS.


feorh-cynna

Bealo-cwealm hafaS
forS onsended."

Swa giomor-mod
an
aefter

giohSo

m^nde
wylm

eallum,

unbliSe hwe[op]
oS Sset deaSes

daeges ond nihtes,

2270 hran
se Se

set

heortan.

Hord-wynne fond
opene standan,
biorgas seceS,
nihtes fleogeS

eald uht-sceaSa

byrnende

nacod niS-draca,
fyre befangen;

hyne fold-buend

2275*[swiSe ondn"e]da[S].

He
]?^r

gesecean sceall

Fol. 180'^.

hmsan, waraS wintrum frod;


[ho]r[d on]

he h^Sen gold
sel.

ne byS him wihte 3y


]?reo

Swa
2280

se 5eod-scea5a

hund wintra

heold on

hmsan
;

hord-aerna

sum
bser

eacen-crgeftig,

o5 5get hyne an abeal/i

mon
fitted

on mode

man-dryhtne
frioSo-w^re bsed

w^ge,

hlaford sinne.

Da

wses hord rasod,

onboren beaga hord;

bene getiSad Frea sceawode


siSe.

2285 fea-sceaftum men.


fira

fyrn-geweorc
Zupitza

forman
'for'5.'

2266.
e,

AB
is

'feor^S';

He

says:

"There
'

is

a dot under

which
2275

besides very indistinct."


1.

Underdotting

is

equivalent to erasure.
feorr.'

Heyne

considers

808 conclusive in favour of his reading


defective

6.

MS.

and

illegible at

top and corner.

Zupitza's

emendations.
2279.

2280.
2284.

MS. 'hrusam.' MS. 'abealch.'


Bugge suggests 'beaga dM' on the ground that the
repetition

of hord is a mistake of the scribe.

72

'

100

BEOWULF.

pa

se

wyrm on woe,
seffcer

stone Sa

stane,

wroht wses geniwad steare-heort onfand


forS

feondes fot-last;

he to

gestop

dracan heafde neah. 2290 dyrnan crsefte eaSe gedigan Swa mseg unfgege se Se Waldendes wean ond wrgee-siS, Hord-weard sohte hyldo gehealde]?. wolde guman findan, georne sefter grunde,

2295

J>one

]?e

him on sweofote
;

sare geteode
Fol.
1^1*-

hat ond hreoh-mod


ealne utan-weardne

*h\dew oft ymbehwearf

ne S^r fenig

mon

on )?^m westenne.
bea[du]-weorces
;

HwseSre hilde gefeh,

hwilum on beorh
he
f'aet

sethwearf,

2300

sine-fset sohte
Saet hsefde

sona onfand,
goldes gefandod,

gumena sum

heah-gestreona.
earfoSlice,

Hord-weard onbad o5 Sset ^fen cwom


beorges hyrde,
lige forgyldan

wses Sa gebolgen

2305 wolde

se laSa

drinc-fBet dyre.

pa wses
ac

dseg sceacen

wyrme on

willan;

no on wealle \eng

bidan wolde,
fyre gefysed.

mid

bgele for,

Waes se fruma egeslie swa hyt lungre wearS 2310 leodum on lande, sare geendod. on hyra sinc-gifan
2296. 2298.

MS.

'hlsewu'; Grundtvig
;
'

'hlw nu'
'

(so

>aere

A a blank

Grein

hs^e,' for the alliteration

Wiilcker and Heyne). " now


;

nothing but the lower part of the perpendicular stroke of \> left" (Z.). Heyne '[wses] on J>Sre westenne.' Grein inserts loces after iie in the
previous line.
2299. 2305.

2307.

MS. MS. MS.

defective at edge.
'

fela
Iseg
'

'

Bugge 'se a Thorpe leng.


'

laa.'

'

BEOWULF.

101

XXXIII.

Da

se gsest

ongan
;

gledum spiwan,
bryne-leoma stod no S^r aht cwices
*wolde.
Fol.

beorht hofu bsernan

eldum on andan
2315 laS
lyft-floga
]?8es

leefan

181^

Wses

wyrmes wig

wide gesyne,

nearo-fages niS
hii se gii3-sceaSa

nean ond feorran, Geata leode

hatode ond hynde. 2320 dryht-sele dyrnne,


hsefde land-wara
bt'ele

Hord eft gesceat, ^r dseges hwile


lige befangen,

ond bronde

beorges getmwode,

wiges ond wealles;

him seo wen


broga gecySed

geleah.

pa

wses Biowulfe
s5Se,

2325 sniide to
bolda

selest,

)?9et his sylfes ham, bryne-wyhnum mealt,

gif-stol Geata.

pset

Sam godan

wges

hreow on hreSre, wende se wisa,


2330
ofer ealde riht,

hyge-sorga m^st;
J?3et

he Wealdende

ecean Dryhtne,
breost innan weoll

bitre gebulge

|?eostrum ge]?oncum,

swa him ge]?ywe ne

wses.

Haefde lig-draca
ea-lond iitan,

leoda fsesten,

eorS-weard Sone,

2335 gledum forgrunden;

him Saes gOS-kyning, Wedera J^ioden, wrsece leornode. wigendra hleo Heht him )?a gewyrcean
eall-irenne,

eorla dryhten,
;

wig-bord wrsetlic
2325.

*wisse he gearwe,
;

Fol. 182'^.

MS. 'him'

(so Wiilcker)

Conybeare 'ham.'

102

BEOWULF.
)?set

2340

him holt-wiidu
^r-god
lifes,

he[lpan] ne meahte,
Icen-ds^ga.

lind wis lige.


sej^eling

Sceolde

ende gebidan,

worulde
)7eah
?Se

ond

se

wyrm

somod,

hord-welan

heolde lange.

hringa fengel, 2345 Oferhogode Sa weorode gesohte, ]>set he ]7one wid-flogan no he him J?^ ssecce ondred, sidan herge
;

ne him ];8es wyrmes wig for wiht dyde, eafoS ond ellen, forSon he i^r fela,

2350 nearo ne?5ende,


hilde-hlemma,
sigor-eadig secg,

niSa gedigde,

sySSan he HroSgares,
sele f^lsode,

ond

set

guSe forgrap

Grendeles

m^gum

laSan cynnes.

No

pset l^sest wses

]}ser mon Hygelac sloh, 2355 hond-gemot, sySSan Geata cyning guSe r^sum,

frea-wine folca

HreSles eafora,
bille

Fres-londum on, hioro-dryncum swealt


J^onan Biownlf

gebeaten;

com
FoL 182^

2360

sylfes crajfte,

sund-nytte dreah
*[ana]
]7rittig

hsefde

him on earme
]7a

hilde-geatwa,

he to hohne

[st]ag.

Nealles Hetware
2340.
2341.

hremge

l7orf[t]on

2347.
it

MS. MS. MS.

defective at corner.

'>end';
'>a'
(

= >am).

Kemble 'ISn.' Cf. 1. 2591. Wulcker retains the MS. reading and defends

in a note,

dat. ebenso
258. 1).

which one can only suppose to be a misprint: "Da on mit wie mit accus. verbunden wird." Scbcc is fern. (Sievers
Not one of the sixty odd compounds
here and in two following hnes.

2356.
of gil^ is

Zupitza 'gu^e-raesum.'

formed in

this

way.
at

2361.

MS.
'

defective

corner,

Zupitza

XXX.'

Grein's emendation.

BEOWULF.
feSe-wiges,
;

103

]>e

him

foran ongean

2365 linde bi^ron lyt eft becwom fram ]7am hild-frecan hames niosan. Oferswam Sa sioleSa bigong sunu EcgSeowes,
eft to leodum, earm an-haga, hord ond rice, him Hygd gebead bearne ne tmwode, 2370 beagas ond brego-stol

)7^r

)78et

he wis aol-fylcum

e)7el-stolas

heal dan cuSe,

Sa waes Hygelac dead.


findan meahton

No
set

Sy ^r fea-sceafte

Sam

seSelinge

senige Singa,

2375

)?9et

he Heardrede

hlaford wgere,
ciosan wolde
folce

oSSe fone

cynedom
hi^ie;

hwaeSre he

on

freond-larum heold,

estum mid
2380
ofer

are,

oS Saet he yldra wearS,

Weder-Geatum
hsefdon

weold.

Hyne

wraec-msecgas

s^ sohtan, suna Ohteres hy forhealden helm Scylfinga,


s^-cyninga,
sine brytnade,
]>set

)?one selestan
)7ara Se in

Swio-rice

m^rne
2385 he
]?er

*]7eoden.

Him

to

mearce wearS;

FoI.
ISo".

orfeorme

feorh-wunde hieat

sunu Hygelaces. Ond him eft gewat OngenSioes beam hames niosan, sySSan Heardred Iseg, let Sone brego-stol Biowulf healdan, 2390 Geatum wealdan
2377.
;

sweordes swengum,

]78et

wses god cyning.

2383.

MS. hi MS. "5e


'

'

= him)

e,' the first at the

Thorpe hme.' end of a


'

line, the

second at the be-

ginning of the next.


2385.

Grein 'on feorme'; Moller 'for feorme' (so Heyne

5).

104

BEOWULF.

XXXIV.
Se
Sges leod-hryres

lean

gemunde

uferan

dogrum
side

Eadgilse wearS
folce gestepte

fea-sceaftum freond,
ofer

s^

sunu

Oh teres,
;

he gewryec sySSan 2395 wigum ond w^pnum cyning ealdre bineat. cealdum cear-siSum, genesen hgefde, Swa he niSa gehwane sliSra geslyhta, sunu EcgSiowes,
ellen-weorca,

2400

]>e

o3 Sone anne dseg, he wi9 |7am wyrme gewegan sceolde.


)?a

Gewat
hsefde

twelfa sum,

torne gebolgen,
;

dryhten Geata
J?a

dracan sceawian

gefmnen,
;

bealo-ni3 biorna

hwanan sio f^hS aras, him to bearme *cwom Fol.

183^.

2405 ma3)7um-f8et m^re )?urh Sges meldan hond. Se wges on Sam Sreate )?reotteoJ>a secg,
se Saes orleges
hseft

or onstealde

hyge-giomor
wisian.

sceolde hean Sonon


ofer willan giong,

wong
2410 to

He

Sees

Se he eorS-sele

hl^w under hrusan


yS-gewinne,
wrgetta ond wira.
2393.

anne wisse, holm-wylme neh,


unhiore,

se wees innan full

Weard

Heyne

'feond, folce gestepte,' with a different interpretation of

the whole passage: sunu (2394) nom., cyning (2396)

MS. reading, retained in the text, sunu is By supporting the exiled Eadgils against
revenge on the Swedes.

accus.,

= Eadgils. With the and cyning = Onel&.


ff.,

Onela, Beowulf obtains his


xii.

See Bugge, "Beit."

11

and Eadgils

in

Index of Persons and Places.


2401.

MS.

'.xn.'

BEOWULF.
gearo guS-freca,

105

gold-maSmas heold,
na^s
)?8et

2415 eald under eorSan;


to

ySe ceap

gumena genigum. gegangenne niS-heard cyning, Gesset Sa on nsesse heorS-geneatum, )7enden htelo ahead Him wses geomor sefa, gold-wine Geata. wyrd ungemete neah, 2420 wgefre ond wsel-fus, gretan sceolde, se Sone gomelan sundur ged^lan secean sawle hord,
lif

wis

lice

no

)7on

lange wees

feorh 8e]7elinges

fl^sce

2425 Biowulf ma)?elade,


"Fela
ic

bewunden. beam EcgSeowes


guS-rsesa genses,

on giogoSe

orleg-hwila;

ic )?8et eall
}>a

gemon.

*Ic wses syfan-wintre,


frea-wine folca,
aet

mec

sinca baldor,

Fol.
184*.

minum

feeder

genam

2430 heold mec ond hsefde HreSel cyning, geaf me sine ond symbel, sibbe gemunde
nses ic

him

to

life

laSra owihte

beorn in burgum

)?onne his bearna hwylc,

Herebeald ond HgeScyn, oSSe Hygelac min. 2435 Wses )?am yldestan ungedefelice

m^ges dgedum
his frea-wine,

mor)7or-bed stred,
of horn-bogan,

sy35an hyne HseScyn


miste mercelses

flane geswencte,

ond his mieg


blodigan gare.

ofscet,

2440 broSor oSerne,


hreSre hyge-meSe
geSeling
2421.
11.

p8et waes feoh-leas gefeoht,


;

sceolde hwaeSre
ealdres linnan.
is fern,

fyrenum gesyngad, swa ]7eah

unwrecen
'

Wiilcker

seo.'

Wyrd

elsewhere in the poem; but

cf.

1344, 2685.

106

BEOWULF.

Swa

bis geomorlic

gomelum

ceorle

2445 to gebidanne, )?set his byre ride giong on galgan; ]7onne he gyd wrece,
sarigne sang,
]7onne his

hrefne to hroSre,
eald ond in-frod,

sunu hangaS ond he him helpan ne maeg, ^nige gefremman.

2450 Symble biS gemyndgad


*eaforan ellor-siS
to gebidanne
;

morna gehwylce

oSres ne

gymeS

Fol. 184^

burgum d^da

in innan

yrfe-weardas,
)7urh deaSes

fonne se an hafaS

nyd

gefondad.

2455 GesyhS sorh-cearig


win-sele westne,
reote berofene;
hseleS in

on his suna bure


wind-gereste,

ridend swefaS,
;

hoSman

nis

J7c'er

hearpan sweg,

gomen

in

geardum,

swylce 5^r iu wgeron.

XXXV.
2460 GewitetS ]?onne on sealman, sorh-leoS gseleS )?iihte him eall to rum, an sefter anum wongas ond wic-stede. Swa Wedra hehn heortan sorge aefter Herebealde weallinde wseg; wihte ne meahte 2465 on Sam feorh-bonan f^ghSe gebetan; no Sy e'er he )?one heaSorinc hatian ne meahte laSum deedum, )?eah him leof ne wses.
;

He
2448.

Sa mid

f'c'ere

sorhge,

]>e

him

sio sar

belamp,

gum-dream
Kemble
this.
'

ofgeaf,

Godes leoht geceas;


is

helpe.'

There

no other certain instance


1.

of the

weak

form than
2453.

Possibly the scribe was thinking of the infinitive.


sing, in -as see Sievers 237, N.
Cf.
11.

For gen.

63, 2921.

BEOWULF.
swa deS eadig mon, 2470 eaferum l^fde, )?a he of life gewat. lond ond leod-byrig, Sweona ond Geata, pa *w3es synn ond sacu wroht gem^ne, ofer [w]id waeter
here-niS hearda,
sytSSan

107

Fol.
l^^^-

HreSel swealt
eaferan Wc'eran

2475 oS5e him OngenSeowes


frome, fyrd-hwate,
ofer heafo healdan,

freode ne woldon

ac
oft

ymb Hreosnabeorh
gefremedon.
wees,

eatolne inwit-scear
paet mjeg-wine

2480 f^hSe ond fyrene,


]?eah Se oSer his

mine gewrgecan, swa hyt gefr^ge


ealdre gebohte,

heardan ceape

H^eScynne wearS,

gutJ ons^ge. Geata dryhtne, m^g oSerne pa ic on morgne gefrsegn on bonan st^lan, 2485 billes ecgum Eofores niosaS ]7^r Ongen)?eow
;

gomela Scylfing bond gemunde hreas [heoro-]blac feorh-sweng ne ofteah. f^hSo genoge, ]?e he me sealde, 2490 Ic him l7a maSmas, swa me gifeSe wes, geald set giiSe, he me lond forgeaf, leohtan sweorde
guS-helm toglad,
; ;

eard, eSel-wyn.
]?8et

Nses him ^enig


oSSe to

J>earf,

he t5 GifSum,

Gar-Denum,
Fol. 185^.

secean ]7urfe 2495 oSSe in Swio-rice, weorSe gecypan *wyrsan wig-frecan, beforan wolde, symle ic him on feSan
MS. MS.

2473.

defective at corner.

2478.

'ge ge fremedon.'

Cf.

11.

986

(see note), 2383.

2486. 2488.

Grein 'niosade'; but

cf. 11.

1923, 1928, etc.

No gap

in

MS.

Grein's emendation.

108

BEOWULF.

ond swa to aldre sceall ana on orde, )?enden J>is sweord ]?olaS, ssecce fremman, oft geh'este, 2500 ]73et mec ^r ond siS
sySSan
ic for

dugeSum

Dseghrefne wearS
Fres-cyning[e],

to hand-bonan,

Huga cempan.
bringan moste,

Nalles he Sa frsetwe

breost-weorSunge,

2505 ac in campe gecrong cumbles hyrde, sej^eling on elne; ne wses ecg bona, heortan wylmas, ac him hilde-grap
Nil sceall billes ecg, ban-hus gebraec. ymb hord wigan." hond ond heard sweord, beot-wordum spraec, 2510 Beowulf maSelode,

niehstan siSe

" Ic
;

geneSde
gyt

fela

guSa on geogoSe

ic wylle,

frod folces weard,

f^hSe secan,
gif

m^rSum fremman,
2515 of eorS-sele
Gegrette Sa

mec

se

man-sceaSa

ut geseceS."

gumena gehwylcne,
:

hindeman siSe, hwate helm-berend, " Nolde ic sweord beran, sw^se gesiSas Fol. l86^ *gif ic wiste hu wsepen to wyrme, 2520 wis Sam agl^cean elles meahte gylpe wiSgripan, swa ic gio wiS Grendle dyde
ac
ic Sier

heaSu-fyres

hates wene,
forSon ic

[oJreSes
2503.
'

ond attres;

me

on hafu

MS. frescyning.' MS. 'cempan.' 2514. Kemble 'mffirt5o,' supported by Bugge on the analogy of 11. 2134, 2645. But the argument from analogy may be pushed too far, and it is even possible ih&t fremman is intrans., as in 1. 1003. 2523. MS. 'ret5es yhattres'; Heyne 're'Ses and-hattres,' ^erce heat
2505.

coming against one.

Grein's emendation in text.

Cf.

1.

2557.

BEOWULF.

109

Nelle ic beorges weard bord ond byrnan. fotes trem, 2525 oferfleon swa uiic wyrd ac line sceal weorSan set wealle,
geteoS,

Me tod manna
l^aet ic

gehwses.

Ic

eom on m5de
gylp
ofersitte.

from,

wis ]7one gnS-flogan


hwseSer

Gebide ge on beorge 2530 secgas on searwum,


gefter wael-r^se

byrnum werede,
sel

msege

wunde gedygan
Nis
)78et

uncer twega.
pcet

eower

siS,

ne gemot mannes

nefn[e]

min

anes,

he wis agl^cean
Ic

eofoSo d^lej

2535 eorl-scype efne. gold gegangan,


feorh-bealu frecne,

mid

elne sceall

oSSe guS nimeS,


frean eowerne."

rof oretta, Aras Sa bi ronde hioro-sercean bser heard under helme, strengo getruwode stan-cleofu, 2540 under ne biS swylc earges siS. anes mannes; *se Se worna fela, Geseah 5a be wealle,

Fol. 186".

gum-cystum god,
hilde-hlemma,

guSa gedigde,
)?onne hnitan feSan,

stream ut j7onan 2545 sto[n]dan stan-bogan, wses )?^re human wselm brecan of beorge heaSo-fyrum hat ne meahte horde neah
; ;

unbyrnende ^nige hwile for dracan deep gedygan


2525.

lege.
Ettmiiller '[feond] oferfleon'

This line
but this

is

metrically deficient.

(so Grein),

still

leaves the second half-line defective.


is

Heyne
unhyre.

considers that the second half- line


2533.

wanting, and supplies

/ea?jrf

2584.
2545.

MS. MS. MS.

defective at edge.
'

wat.'

'stodan.'

110

BEOWULF.

2550 Let Sa of breostum, Sa he gebolgen wses, Weder-Geata leod word ut faran, stearc-heort styrmde stefn in becom heaSo-torht hljmnan under harne stan; hete waes onhrered, hord-weard oncniow 2555 mannes reorde nses Sier mara fyrst
;

freode to friclan.

From

merest

cwom

oruS agl^cean

ut of stane,
hruse dynede.

hat hilde-swat;

Biorn under beorge

bord-rand onswaf

2560 wis (5am gryre-gieste, 5a waes hring-bogan


soecce to seceanne.

Geata dryhten;
heorte gefysed

god guS-cyning,

Sweord e'er gebr^d gomele lafe,


ieghwaeSrum wses

ecgum unslaw; 2565 bealo-hycgendra StiS-mod gestod


winia bealdor,

*broga fram oSrum.


wiS steapne rond
Sa se

Fol. 187^.

wyrm gebeah

snude tosomne

he on searwum bad. Gewat Sa byrnende gebogen scriSan,


;

2570 to gescipe scyndan. Scyld wel gebearg life ond lice l^ssan hwile

mserum

)7eodne,

)7onne his

myne

sohte,

S^r he )?y fyrste forman dogore wealdan moste, swa him wyrd ne gescraf 2575 hreS let hilde. Hond up abr^d
MS. 'un/glaw.' "A letter erased between I and a in glaio: was e is not quite certain." Z. As there is all the appearance of an uncompleted alteration, I have adopted Bugge's emendation.
2564.
it

that

Heyue adopts Miillenhoff's emendation, scri^an shoving himself, advancing, which the latter' bases on a gloss, "per praeceps, ni^erscife [?], marg. ni'^ersceoteucle" (Haupt
2570.
'

MS. g

scipe.

'

'

to,/gescife scyndan,'

ix.

468 b).

BEOWULF.
Geata dryhten,
incge
lafe,
]?a3t

Ill

gryre-fahne sloh
sio

ecg gewac

brun on bane,

bat unswiSor,
)?earfe hsefde,

]7onne his Siod-cyning

2580 bysigum gebfeded. pa wses beorges weard sefter heaSu-swenge on hreoum mode, wearp wael-fyre wide sprungon
;

hilde-leoman.

HreS-sigora ne gealp
gii5-bill geswac swa hyt no sceolde,

gold-wine Geata;

2585 nacod
se

set niSe,

iren ser-god.
)7set

Ne
j7one

waes

J^aet

eSe

siS,

m^ra

maga EcgSeowes
ofgyfan wolde
;

grund-wong
2590
elles

sceolde [ofer] willan

wic eardian
Fol. 187''.

hwergen,
Ic'en-dagas.

swa *sceal ^ghwylc mon


Nses Sa long to Son,

al^tan
]?8et

Sa agl^cean hy eft gemetton. Hyrte hyne hord-weard, hreSer c"eSme niwan stefne nearo Srowode
;

weoll,

2595 fyre befongen, se 5e ^r folce weold. Nealles him on heape hand-gesteallan,


seSelinga

beam,
ac

ymbe gestodon
hy on
holt

hilde-cystum,
ealdre burgan.

bugon
weoll

Hiora in

anum

2600

sefa wiS

sorgum;

sibb ^fre ne maeg

wiht onwendan,
2577.

]?am Se wel j^enceS.


Thorpe 'Incges'; and "Ing-wine" in
cf.

MS.

'incgelafe.'
67),

East-Danes {Rujie-poem
2589.

this

"Ing," King of the poem.


(cf.
1.

No gap
willan'

in

MS.
3077).

Kieger 'ofer willan'

2409);

Grain

wyrmes
2596.

(cf. 1.

MS.

'heand.'

'

112

BEOWULF.

XXXVI.
Wiglaf W8es haten,
leoflic lind-wiga,

Weoxstanes sunu,
leod Scylfinga,

m^g

iElfheres;

geseah his mon-diyhten


hat J^rowian;
)?e

2605 under here-griman

gemunde Sa Sa

are,

he him

ivr forgeaf,

wic-stede weligne
folc-rihta gehwylc,

Wt'egmundinga,

swa

his fseder ahte;

ne mihte Sa forhabban,

2610 geolwe
p9et

hond rond gefeng, gomel swyrd geteah. waes mid eldum Eanmundes laf,
linde,

*suna Ohtere[s],

]?am

get

ssecce wearS,

Fol. 188^

wr8ecca[n] wine-leasum,

Weohsta?i bana

meces ecgum,

ond his

magum

setbser

hringde byrnan, 2615 brun-fagne helm, eald sweord etonisc, }>8et him Onela
his gaedelinges

forgeaf,

fyrd-searo
l^eah Se

fCislic

guS-gew^du, no ymbe Sa f^hSe

spraec,

he his broSor

beam

abredwade.

2620

He
bill

frsetwe geheold

fela missera,

ond byrnan,

o3 Saet his byre mihte

eorl-scipe efnan

swa

his ^r-fseder;

geaf him Sa mid


geghwses unrim,

Geatum
J?a

guS-gew^da

he of ealdre gewat
wses forma siS

2625 frod on forS-weg. geongan cempan,

pa
J^get

he guSe r^s

mid

his freo-dryhtne

fremman

sceolde
his

ne gemealt him se mod-sefa,


2612.
2613.

ne

m^ges

laf

MS. MS.
'

'ohtere.'

defective at corner.

MS.
2628.

weohstanes.

MS.

'mffigenes'; Ettmtiller 'mieges.'

'

BEOWULF.
]>cet se wyrm onfand, gewac set wige gegan hsefdon. 2630 sySSan hie togsedre word-rihta fela, Wiglaf maSelode (him wses sefa geomor) ssegde gesiSum " Ic Sset *miSl geman, ]>sev we medii }>eguii, ussum hlaforde we geheton ];onne
;

113

Fol.

1^^^*

2635

in bior-sele,
]79et

tSe

us Sas beagas geaf,

gif

gyldaii woldon, we him Sa gfiS-getawa )?earf gelumpe, him )7yslicu

helmas ond heard sweord.


geceas

De

he usic on herge

sylfes wiUum, to Syssum siS-fate ond me )?as matSmas 2640 onmunde usic m^erSa, gode tealde, )7e he usic gar-wigend }>eah Se hlaford us hwate helm-berend, ana a35hte )7is ellen-weorc folces hyrde, to gefremmanne,

geaf,

2645 forSam he manna m^st

m^rSa gefremede,
se dseg

d^da
)79et

dollicra.

NCi

is

cumen,
to,

ure man-dryhten

msegenes behofaS
]?enden hyt sy,

godra guS-rinca;
helpan hild-fruman,

wutun gongan

2650 gled-egesa grim.


]78et

God wat on mec,


]>aet

me

is

micle leofre,

minne lic-haman

mid minne gold-gyfan

gled faeSmie.
)?set

Ne
2629.
2645.

]?ynce5
'

me

gerysne,
'

we rondas beren

2652.
1.

Thorpe J>8et. MS. >a MS. 'fora'; Zupitza for'San.' So also 1. 2741. MS. and Zupitza 'fae'Smi^'; hence Wiilcker 'fse^miae'
'

(cf.

2126,

and Sievers
in

361).
e is

In "reced"

(1.

1981) Zupitza
It is

is

not sure that


e

the
into
(1.

mark under
(B

the
(1.

not a mere flourish.


it

used to convert
(e

"bl"

2126), but

also occurs under the

of "ssecce"

1989).

W.

B.

114
eft to earde,

BEOWULF.

nemne we
Ic

ffiror

msegen
Fol. 197*.

2655 fane gefyllan,

*feorh ealgian

Wedra
)78et

Seodnes.

wat geare,
}>9et

nseron eald gewyrht,

he ana scyle
sweord ond helm,

Geata duguSe
gesigan
set

gnom
;

J^rowian,
sceal

saecce

urum

2660 byrne ond byrdu-scrud,

bam

gemsene."
wig-heafolan bser

Wod
"

J?a

|?urh ]?one wael-rec,

frean on fultum,

fea

worda cwseS

Leofa Biowulf,

l^st eall tela,

2665

l78et

geara gecw^de, swa Su on geoguS-feore be 3e lifigendum Su ne alsete scealt nu dgedum rof, dom gedreosan; ealle msegene aeSeling an-hydig,
feorh ealgian;
ic

3e ful-fetu."

^fter Sam wordum

wyrm

yrre cwom,

2670

atol inwit-gsest,

oSre siSe

fyr-wylmum fah
manna. bord wis rond
laSra

fionda nios[i]an,

Lig-y5um forborn byrne ne meahte geongum gar-vvigan geoce gefremman;


;

2675 ac
2655.

se

maga geonga

under his m^ges scyld


MS. now

The numbers
fol.

of the folios are given as they stand in the

Fol. 131 follows


it

146.

"

The

old

number

of this leaf is 197

but

stands between 188 and 189, and the old

number has been changed

to 189 in pencil." Z.

2659.

MS.

'

uru

: >

';

Zupitza 'urum
before
it

sceal,'

and in a foot-note

" sceal within dots and with a a


'5

'5

added

in the left margin, whereas

over a colon with a


to be inserted."

it is

comma under it marks the From a misunderstanding of


and
in
11.

place in the line where


this device

have arisen

the frequent misreadings of this line.


2671.

MS.

defective at edge, here

2676, 2678.

BEOWULF.
elne geeode,
)?a

115

his

glediim forgrunden.
in[^rSa] gemunde,
hilde-bille,
)7aet
;

agen w[aes] pa gen guS-cyning


msegen-strengo sloh

hyt on heafolan stod

2680

Nsegling forba3rst, ni)7e genyded sweord Biowulfes, geswac set ssecce *gomol ond gneg-mc^l. Him )7set gifeSe ne )?a3t him irenna ecge mihton

wses, Fol.
IQ?''.

helpan

set

hilde

wes sio

hond

to strong,

2685 se Se meca gehwane,

mine gefn'ege, )7onne he to ssecce bser swenge ofersohte, w^pen wund[r]um heard nses him wihte Se
;

sel.

pa
2690

wges ]7eod-sceaSa

J^riddan sISe,

frecne fyr-draca,
n'fcsde

f^hSa gemjmdig,
J^a

on Sone rofan,

hat ond heaSo-grim,


biteran

heals eahie

him rum ageald, ymbefeng


weoll.

banum;
;

he geblodegod wearS
swat

sawul-driore

ySum

XXXVII.

Da

ic a3t )7earfe

[gefrsegn] ellen cySan,

|7eod-cyninges

26.95 andlongne eorl


crseft

ond cenSu,
}>8es

ne hedde he

heafolan
J^ier

swa him gecynde wees; (ac sio hand gebarn


he his nidges healp),
Thorpe 'wundrum' "Phoenix" 63, lounclrum
See
11.

modiges mannes,
2678.

Kemble's emendation.

2687.

MS. 'wundu'; Wiilcker 'wundum.'


cf.

convincing emendation;

loundrum

lorcetllce

heah "Wanderer"
2694.

98.

No gap
MS.

in

MS. Kemble's emendation.


cf. 1.

2484, 2752, etc.

2698. also
1.

'mffigenes' (so Wiilcker);

2628 and foot-note.

See

2879.

82

116

BEOWULF.

)79et he |7one niS-ggest nioSor hwene si oh, 2700 secg on searwum, )?8et Sset sweord gedeaf fah ond i^ted, f>9et Sset fyr ongon sweSrian sySSan. pa gen sylf cyning geweold his gewitte, wsell-seaxe gebrSd biter ond beadu-scearp, ]78et he on byrnan waeg; 2705 forwrat Wedra *helm wyrm on middan. Fol. 189^. Feond gefyldan, ferh ellen wrsec, ond hi hyne )7a begen abroten hsefdon,

sib-se3elingas

swylc sceolde secg wesan,


paet

]>egn set Searfe.

Sam
sio
?er

)?eodne wses

2710

siSas[t]

sige-hwile

sylfes di'edum,

worlde geweorces.
]?e

Da

wund

ongon,

him

se eorS-draca

geworhte,
)78et

swelan ond swellan;


l^set

he

sona onfand,

him on breostum

bealo-niS weoll,

2715 attor on innan. Da se seSeling giong, ]?8et he bi wealle wis-hycgende gesset on sesse, seah on enta geweorc,

hu Sa stan-bogan
ece eorS-reced

stapulum

fseste

innan healde.
heoro-dreorigne,
]?egn

2720 Hyne

)7a

mid handa
his,

)?eoden mierne,

ungemete

till,

wine-dryhten
hilde-saedne,

wsetere gelafede
his hel[m] onspeon.

ond
:

Biowulf ma)7elode

2725 wunde wsel-bleate


2710.

he ofer benne sprsec, wisse he gearwe,


Kemble
*

Grundtvig's emendation.

srSes

sige-hwil

'

Grein

'si'Sast sige-hwila.'

2719.

Heyne
on MS.
1.

'heoldon.'

For the tense

of. 11.

1923, 1928, 2486;


cf. 1.

for the sing, verb with pi. subject in a subordinate clause

2164,

and and

see the note

2035.

2723.

defective at edge, here

and in

1.

2727.

BEOWULF.
)78et

117

he dseg-hwila
;

gedrogen haefde
Sa wses eall sceacen

eorSan wynn[e]
dogor-gerimes,

deatS

ungemete neah
syllan wolde
gifeSe

"Nu ic suna minum ]?8er me 2730 giiS-gew^du,


i^nig yrfe-*\veard
lice gelenge.

swa fter wurde

Fol. 189^.

Ic Sas leode heold


naes se folc-cyning
t'enig Sara,

fiftig

wintra;

ymbe-sittendra

gretan dorste, 2735 fe mec guS-winum Ic on earde bad egesan Seon.


miel-gesceafta,

heold miii tela,

ne aSa on unriht.

sohte searo-niSas,

ne

me

swor

fela

Ic Sses ealles

2740 feorh-bennum seoc Waldend fira forSam me witan ne Searf )7onne min sceaceS morSor-bealo maga, Nu 5u lungre geong lif of lice. under harne stan, hord sceawian
2745 Wiglaf
leofa,

maeg habban; gefean

nil se

wyrm
ic

ligeS,

swefeS sare wund,

since bereafod.
]>ddt

Bio nu on

ofoste,

^r-welan,

gold-yeht ongite,

gearo sceawige
]?8et

swegle searo-gimmas,

ic

Sy

seft

maege

2750

sefter
lif

maSSum-welan
leod-scipe,

min aUetan
|7one ic longe heold."

ond

XXXVIII.

ic

snude gefrasgn

sunu Wihstanes

sefter

word-cwydum

wundum

dryhtne

hyran heaSo-siocum,

hring-net beran,

118

BEOWULF.

u?zder beorges hrof. 2755 brogdne beadu-sercean, Geseah 3a sige-hreSig, J>a he bi sesse geong, maSSum-sigla fealo, Fol. IW. mago-]?egn *modig

gold glitinian

wundur on

wealle,

grunde getenge, ond J^aes wyrmes denn,


orcas stondan,

2760 ealdes tiht-flogan; fyrn-manna fatu,

feormend-lease,

pier wses helm monig hyrstum behrorene. earm-beaga fela eald ond omig,

searwum ges^led.

Sine eaSe mseg,

gum-cynnes gehwone 2765 gold on gTund[e], oferhigian, hyde se Se wylle.


segn eall-gylden Swylce he siomian geseah hond-wundra m^st, heah ofer horde, of Sam leoma stod, gelocen leo?5o-crseftum ongitan meahte, 2770 J>9et he pone grund-wong
;

wrsete giondwlitan.

Nses

Sees

wyrmes

]>^v

ac hyne ecg fornam. onsyn ^nig, Da ic on hl^we gefrsegn hord reafian,


eald enta geweorc, anne mannan, biman ond discas 2775 him on bearm hladon segn eac genom, sylfes dome
;

beacna beorhtost.
2755.

Bill ier

gescod

2757.
275

MS. 'urder.' Most editors normalise


150, 3).

to 'fela' or 'feola.'

But

see Sievers

and

2765.
2766.

MS.

defective at edge.

Grein '[hord] oferhigian' (surpass).

No gap
Thorpe
cf.
11.

in

MS.
'

2769. 2771.

MS. 'leoman.' MS. wraece,' here and


'

in

1.

3060.

'

wraete

in both

2775.

MS.
MS.

'hlodon.'

For

infin.

in

-on

308,

etc.,

and see

Sievers 363,

1).

2777.

'serge scod.'

Kemble

'^r-gescod,' brass-shod sheathed in


,

BEOWULF.
(ecg wses iren)
eald-hlafordes

119

]7am Sara

maSma

mund-bora wses
hioro-weallende

2780 longe hwile,


hatne

lig-egesan wseg

for horde,

middel-nihtum,

*o3

}>a3t

he morSre swealt.
brsec,

FoL
l^O"^.

Ar

W8es on ofoste,

eft-siSes georn,

frsetwum gefyrSred;

hyne fyrwet

2785 hwseSer collen-ferS


in

cwicne gemette

Sam wong-stede
])^r

Wedra
he hine

)?eoden,

ellen-siocne,

a^r forlet.

He

Sa mid l^am

maSmum
;

m^rne
eft

|?ioden,

dryhten sinne, 2790 ealdres set ende

driorigne fand

he hine
oS
f>set

ongon

wseteres weorpan,

wordes ord

breost-hord )7urhbr8ec.

[Beowulf maSelode,]
ealles Sane,

gomel on gio/^Se "Ic Sara frsetwa


2795 Wuldur-cyninge,

gold sceawode

Frean
)?e

wordum
ic

secge,
starie,

ecum Dryhtne,
)?3es
bi-ass.

her on

Se ic moste

minum leodum
1.

This has the support of Thorpe and Grein, but lacks analogy;
1587,
'

for the reading in the text cf.

and

11.

1615, 2562, and 2973.

2778.

Eieger
reading,
*

'

eald-hlaforde

= the

dragon), supported by Earle.

The MS.

eald-hlafordes,

'

is

understood by Bugge and Heyne of

Beowulf, by Miillenhoff and Wiilcker of the former possessor of the hoard.

The reading

of the latter is

"segn eac genom,


beacna beorhtost,
(ecg waBS iren)
bill

aergescod

ealdhlafordes,

J>am etc."

That

11.

2780

82

refer to the dragon,

and are inconsistent with what

we
11.

are told of the former owner, will be seen by a comparison with

223170.
2792.
2793.

No gap
MS.

in

MS.

*giogoe'; Thorpe 'giohe.

120

BEOWULF.

^r swylt-dapge

swylc gestiynan.

Nu

ic

on

maSma
;

hord

2800 frode feorh-lege,


leoda J?earfe

mine bebohte fremmaS gena


ic

ne mseg

her leng wesan.

HataS heaSo-miere
beorhtne
se seel to
sefber biele

hl^w gevvyrcean
aet

brimes nosan

gemyndum

minum leodum

2805 heah
)7ast

hlifian

on Hrones n^esse,
sySSan hatan

hit s^-liSend

Biowulfes biorh,
ofer *floda

Sa Se brentingas
feorran drifaS."
Fol. 191.

genipu
of healse
;

Dyde him
2810

bring gyldenne

]?ioden j^rist-hydig

pegne gesealde,
gold-:^hne hehn,
het hyne briican well.
usses cynnes,
ealle

geongum gar-wigan,
beah ond byrnan,
"

pu eart ende-laf W^gmundinga;

wyrd

{orsweo2}

2815 mine magas


eorlas on elne;
paet wes J^am

to metod-sceafte,
ic

him
cier

aefter sceal."

gomelan

ging^ste word

breost-gehygdum,
;

he bSl cure,

hate heaSo-wylmas him of h?'eSre gewat 2820 sawol secean soS-fsestra dom.
2799.

MS. 'minne,'
Thorpe 'ge
nii'; so

2800. 2814.

MS.

'for/speof.'

Grein and Heyne. Why? Kemble 'forsweof (so Grem and Heyne).

But when the MS. reading is certainly wrong, it is surely better, by a change of two letters, to obtain the pret. of a verb already used in this poem (1. 477), and found in the past part, in " Genesis" 391, than, by a change of one letter only, to set up a verb, of whose existence there is no
other evidence.
2819.

MS.

'hwse'Sre.'

Kemble's emendation.

2820.
1.

No number

in the

MS.

after this hne, but there is a space,

and

2821 begins with a large capital.

BEOWULF.

121

[XXXIX.]
f)a

ws gegongen
]>9dt

guraaii

unfrodum

earfoSlice,

he on eorSan geseah
lifes set

]7one leofestan

ende
Iseg,

bleate geb^ran.

Bona swylce

2825 egeslic eorS-draca bealwe gebi^ded. wyrm woh-bogen


ac hine irenna

ealdre bereafod,

Beah-hordum leng
wealdan ne moste,
ecga fornamon,

hearde, heaSo-scearde

homera

lafe,

2830

]>set

se wid-floga

wundum

stille

hreas on hriisan
nalles *8efter lyfte

hord-serne neah

lacende hwearf

Fol. 191^

middel-nihtum,

maSm-^hta wlonc
ac he eorSan gefeoll

ansyn ywde,
2885
for Sses

hild-fruman

hond-geweorce.
lyt

Hum
]78et

l?8et

on lande

manna Sah
dyrstig w^re,
orebe geraesde,

maegen-agendra,
]?eah 5e

mine gefrSge,

he d^da gehwses

he wis attor-sceaSan

hondum styrede, 2840 oSSe hring-sele weard onfunde gif he wseccende Biowulfe wearS buon on beorge.
dryht-maSma
diel

deaSe forgolden;

hsefde c'eghwseSer
2821.

ende gefered

tion"; in
2828.

1.

MS. 'gumu unfrodu,' doubtless another instance of "anticipa158 the MS. has 'banu folmu,' MS. 'him'; so Heyne and Wiilcker. In all other instances MS.
'

forniman governs the accus.


2844.
(aec. pi.)

aBghwe"Sre

'

Kemble
cf.
1.

'aeghwseSer.'

ende

(worn.).'

But

3063; besides, aghivcelSer

Grein 'seghwse'Sre is found no-

where

else in the pi.

122

BEOWULF.
lifes.

2845 l^nan
]?8et

Nges Sa lang to Son,


holt ofgefan,

5a hild-latan

tydre treow-logan

tyne a^tsomne,

Sa ne dorston

i^r

dareSum lacan

miclan J>earfe on hyra man-dryhtnes 2850 ac hy scamiende scyldas b^ran, gu5-gew^du, ])mr se gomela Iseg; wlitan on Wi[g]laf. He gewergad sset, feSe-cempa, frean eaxlum neah, wehte hyne wsetre him wiht ne speo^(;. 2855 Ne meahte he on eorSan, Seah he uSe wel, feorh gehealdan, on Sam frum-gare ne Sses Wealdendes [willan] wiht oncirran. Fol. 192. Wolde dom *Godes d^dum r^dan gumena gehwylcum, swa he nu gen deS. 2860 pa W9es set Sam geongum grim ondswaru eS-begete, )?am Se ^r his elne forleas. Wiglaf maSelode, Weohstanes sunu, sec[g] sarig-ferS seah on unleofe " peet la mseg secgan, se Se wyle soS specan, 2865 J78et se mon-dryhten, se eow Sa maSmas geaf, eored-geatwe, ]?e ge ]>ser on standaS, oft gesealde J>onne he on ealu-bence heal-sittendum helm ond byrnan,
;
!

]?eoden his )?egnum,

swylce he J^ryc^licost
findan meahte,

2870 ower
2852.
2854.

feor oSSe
'wilaf.'

neah

MS. MS.

'speop.'
' '

2857.

Thorpe reads willan

for wiht (so Wiilcker).


' '

Heyne's emenda-

tion in text.

It is easier to believe

that the scribe omitted a word, than

that he wrote 2viht for willan.


2863.

2869.

MS. MS.

'sec'
'kydlicost.'

BEOWULF.
J?9e^

123

he genunga

guS-gewt"edu

wraSe forwurpe,
Nealles folc-cyning

Sa hyne wig beget.


fyrd-gesteallum

gylpan

]?orfte

hwseSre him
'pset

God

uSe,

2875 sigora Waldend, ana mid ecge,


Ic

he hyne sylfne gewrsec


wses ehies
)?earf.

)7a

him
lytle

him

lif-wraSe

setgifan set guSe, ofer

meahte ond ongan swa

j^eah

m^ges helpan. min gemet 2880 Symle wses ]>y siemra, |7onne ic sweorde drep
ferhG-geniSlan
;

fyr unswiSor

weoU
frong

of gewitte.

TFergendra to lyt
]>a,

ymbe

J^eoden,

hyne

sio *]?rag

FoL
192^

becwom.

Nu
2885

sceal sinc-)7ego

ond swyrd-gifu,

eall eSel-wyn,

lufen
'p^re

eowrum cynne, alicgean; lond-rihtes mot mjeg-burge monna feghwylc


sy3San seSelingas
fleam eowerne,

idel hweorfan,

feorran gefricgean

2890 dom-leasan
eorla

d^ed.

DeaS

biS sella

gehwylcum

j^onne edwit-lif."

XL.

Heht Sa
2881.
swrSor.'
(2880),

J>8et

heaSo-weorc

to

hagan biodan

MS. 'fyrun {"u altered from a") swi^or.' Grein 'fyr ran This makes Beowulf, instead of the dragon, the subject of 7vas
spoils the passage.

and

For "unswrSor,"

cf.

I.

2578.

2882.

2884

MS. MS.

'fergendra.'
'hu.'

124

BEOWULF.

up

ofer e^-clif,

)?^r

]>eet

eorl-weorod
sset,

mod-giomor bega on wenum, 2895 bord-hsRbbende, ond eft-cymes ende-dogores


morgen-longne dseg
leofes

monnes.
spella,

Lyt swigode
se Se naes gerad,

niwra

ac he soSlice

ssegde ofer ealle:

2900

"

Nu

is

wil-geofa

Wedra

leoda,
foest,

dryhten Geata,

deaS-bedde

wunaS

wael^reste
ligeS

wyrmes dsedum.
ealdor-gewinna

Him

on efn

siex-bennum seoc; 2905 on Sam agl^cean

sweorde ne meahte

^nige

J>inga
siteS

wunde gewyrcean.
ofer Biowulfe,
eorl ofer

Wiglaf

byre Wihstanes,
Fol.

unlifigendum, oSrum *heafod-wearde healdeS hige-m^Sum Nu ys leodum wen 2910 leofes ond laSes.
orleg-hwile,

193^

sySSan under[ne]
fyll

Froncum ond Frysum


wide weorSeS.

cyninges

Wses

sio

wroht scepen

sySSan Higelac cwom heard wiS Hiigas, on Fresna land, 2915 faran flot-herge hilde gehngdon, ]>^Y hyne Hetware
elne geeodon,
]78et

se byrn-wiga

mid ofer-msegene, bugan sceolde,


nalles fraetwe geaf

feoll

on feSan

2920 ealdor dugoSe.


MS. 'ecg clif 2893. weapons in O. E.
2909.
;

Us
Kemble
cf.

woes a sySSan

'eg-clif.'

Cf.

1.

577.

Ecg

is

used only

of

Sievers 'bige-me'5e';

1.

2442.
Cf.
1.

2911.

MS.

'under.'

Grein's emendation.

127.

BEOWULF.
Merewioingas
milts imgyfeSe. sibbe o?55e treowe
cut5,

125

Ne

ic to

Sweo-Seode
;

wihte ne wene
}>8ette

ac wees wide

ealdre besnySede OngenOio wiS Hrefna-wudu, 2925 Hi^Scen Hre)7ling i^rest gesohton ]7a for onmedlan
GuS-Scilfiiigas. Geata leode fa3der Ohtheres, Sona him se froda ondslyht ageaf, eald ond eges-full, bryd aheorde, 2930 abreot brim-wisan, golde berofene, gomela io-meowlan ond Ohtheres, Onelan modor feorh-genitSlan, ond 3a folgode

o3 Sset hi oSeodon

earfoSlIce

2935 in Hrefnes holt


Besaet 3a sin-herge

hlaford-lease.

sweorda

lafe
Fol. 193^.

wundum werge
earmre teohhe
cwa?,t5,

*\vean oft gehet

ondlonge niht

he on mergenne

meces ecgum
Frofor eft gelamp

2940 getan wolde,

sum[e] on galg-treowu[m]

[fuglum] to gamene.

sarig-modum
sy3"5an hie

somod ^r-dsege,
horn ond

Hygelaces

byman
2453.

2921.

2922.
2929.

The change the text can alliterate with vowels. Such cases as this and that of the name "Unferth," always Hunfer'S in the MS. but alliterating with vowels, tempt strongly to the abandonment of
is

Wulcker 'Merewioinga.' See note on MS. 'te.' MS. 'hond slyht,' here and in 1. 2972.
//

1.

necessary, unless one admits that

the rule.
2930.

Cf.

1.

1541 (and note), and see Sievers 217, N.

1.

2940

MS. and Zupitza 'bryda heorde.' 1. MS. 'sum on galg treowu to gamene.'

Thorpe 'sume' and

'fuglum,' comparing Judith 297: "fuglum to frofre."

126
gealdor ongeaton,

BEOWULF.
)?a

se

goda com

2945 leoda dugoOe

on

last faran.

XLI.
Wses
sio

swat-swaSu

Sw[e]ona ond Geata,

W3el-rSs weora,

wide gesyne,

hu 5a folc mid him f^hSe towehton. Gewat him Sa se goda mid his gaedelingum,
2950
frod, fela-geomor,

fsesten secean,
vifor

eorl Ongen]7io

oncirde

haefde Higelaces

hilde gefrunen,

wlonces
]?3et

wig-crseffc;

wiSres ne tmwode,
onsacaii mihte,

he s^-mamium

2955 heaSo-liSendiim, hord forstandan, beam ond bryde; beah eft )7onan eald under eorS-weall. pa ws Sht boden

Sweona leodum,
freoSo-wong )7one

segn Higelace[s]
forc^

ofereodon,

2960 sj^San HreSlingas t5 hagan )?rungon. ecgum sweorda, psdY wearS OngenSiow blonden-fexa, on bid wrecen,
)?8et

se j7eod-cyning
'swona.'

Safian sceolde

2946.

MS.

Grein and Heyne retain the MS. reading; the latter explains: *'Dasauf der Flucht entrissene Banner der Schweden kam in Hygelacs Hande." But it is a far cry from giving chase to the capture of the
2958.

banner, not to mention the violent zeugma in boden.

Bugge supports
ist

Kemble's emendation, adopted in the text: "Das erhobene banner

das

merkmal
2959.

der verfolguug."

MS.
MS.

'

ford.'

Heyne thinks freoi^o-icong may


by
'5oe?

be a proper name.

Would

it,

in that case, be followed

2961.

'sweordu.'

BEOWULF.
Fol. Hyne yrringa w^pne ger^hte, 29G5 Wulf Wonreding swat ^drum sprong )7get him for swenge

127
194*

Eafores *anrie dom.

Nses he forht swa Seh, forS under fexe. ac forgeald hraSe gomela Scilfing, wael-hlem )7one, wyrsan wrixle

2970 sySSan Seod-cyniiig J^yder onch*de. sunu Wonredes Ne meahte se snella ondslyht giofan, ealdum ceorle hehn Sr gescer, ac he him on heafde bugan sceolde, ]79et he blode fah
2975
feoll

on foldan

nses

he fgege

|?a git,

ac he hyne gewyrpte,

)7eah Se

him wund

hrine.

Let se hearda brad[n]e mece,

Higelaces f>egn
J^a

his broSor la3g,

eald sweord eotonisc,

entiscne helm
;

2980 brecan

ofer bord-weal

Sa gebeah cyning,
his nicBg wriSon,

folces hyrde,

wses in feorh dropen.


]?e

Da
)78et

wseron monige,
Sa
hie wsel-stowe

ricone ar^rdon,

him gerymed

wearS,

wealdan moston,

rinc oSerne, 2985 ]7enden reafode iren-byrnan, nam on OngenSio ond his helm somod; heard swyrd hilted

hares hyrste

Higelace

bser.

He

5[am] fr^etwum feng,


[for]

2990 leana

*leodum,

ond him fsegre gehet Fol. 194^. ond geheste swa


;

2964.

Heyne
MS. MS.

'Eofores.'
1.

But

see

1.

2757 and note.

2972. 2978.
2989.

See note on

2929.

'brade.'

defective at corner, here


is

and

in the next line.


first

2990.

word

missing in the MS. in the

half of this line.

"

128

BEOWULF.
geald )7one guS-r^s

HreSles eafora,
lofore

]>R

he to

Geata dryhten, ham becom,

ond Wulfe

sealde hiora gehw?eSi'um

2995 landes ond locenra


oSwitan

mid ofer-maSmum, hund jmseiida beaga ne Sorfte him Sa


;

lean

mon on middan-gearde,
geslogon

sySSa[n]

hie

Sa mSrSa

ond Sa lofore forgeaf


ham-weorSiinge,

angan dohtor,

hyldo to wedde.

ond se feond-scipe, p8et ys sio f^hSo Sses Se ic [wen] hafo, 3000 wsel-niS wera,
)?e lis

seceaS to

Sweona
l?one Se

leoda,

sySSan hie gefricgeaS


ealdor-leasne,

frean iiserne

Sr geheold

wis hettendum

hord ond rice

3005

sefter hseleSa hryre,

hwate Scil/ingas,
oSSe furSur gen
'

folc-red fremede,

has two dots, Zupitza three. Kemble on.' "Daniel" 720: " he f or leodum lygeword gecwaetJ.

For for leodnm

cf.

MS.

'gelaesta.'

2996.

MS.

'

sy'S'Sa.'

3000. 3001.
106. 23,

No gap
Heyne
and Ps.

in

MS.

Kemble's emendation.

Cf.

1.

383.

'leode.'

For the

pi.

leoda see Wulfstan (ed. Napier)

71. 10.

3005.

MS.
1.

'Scildingas.'

Miillenhoff considered this line a careless

repetition of
'

2052.

It is the easiest

Scyldingas,'

and in a foot-note: "Hence

in consequence of the fall

of the difficulty. Thorpe would appear that Beowulf, of Hrothgar's race, was called to rule also over
it

way out

the Danes (Scyldings)."

The punctuation
1. 1.

in the text allows Scijljingas to


is

be taken in apposition with hie in


parallel with hord ond rice in
if

3002, which
I

intolerably forced, or

the line

is

favour the latter interpretation, " to be kept, and can only suppose that the term " Scylfingas
3004.

could be applied equally, on the ground of

common
is called

ancestry, to both

Swedes and Geats.

See

1.

2603, where Wiglaf

"leod Scylfinga."

'

BEOWULF.
eorl-scipe efnde.
)78et

129

Nu

is

ofost betost,

we

)7eod-cyning

\^v sceawian,

]7e us beagas geaf, ond ]7one gebringan, Ne seel anes hwset 3010 on ad-faere. ac ]?ier is maSma hord, meltan mid ]7am modigan,

gold unrime,

grimme
j^a

gecea[po]d,

ond nu
3015

set

siSestan
;

sylfes feore

beagas [gebohjte
feled )7eccean,

sceall

brond

fretan,
Fol. 195*.

*nalles eorl

wegan

maSSum

to

gemyndum,

ne maegS scyne

hring-weorSunge, habban on healse golde bereafod, ac sceal geomor-mod,


oft,

nalles

t'ene,

el-land tredan,

3020 nu

se here-wisa

hleahtor alegde,

gamen ond

gleo-dream.

ForSon

sceall

gar wesan,

monig morgen-ceald,
hsefen on handa,

bewunden, nalles hearpan sweg

mundum

wigend weccean,
3025 fus ofer f^gum
earne secgan

ac se

wonna hrefn
^te speow,

fela reordian,

hu him
hwata

set

)7enden he wiS wulf

wsel reafode."

Swa

se secg

sec^ende wses
fela

laSra spella;

he ne leag

Weorod eall aras; 3030 wyrda ne worda. under Earna uses, eodon unbliSe
wundur sceawian. sawul-leasne Fundon Sa on sande ]7one \q him hringas geaf hlim-bed healdan,
wollen-teare,
3007. 3012. 3028.

MS. MS.

'meis.'

Kemble's emendation.

Me
1.

is is

a possible reading.

defective at corner, here


'

and in

3014.

Grein and Zupitza secg-hwata. MS.' secg gende,'probablydue to "repetition." ButseeSievers216,N.l. Grein (after Grimm) 'hlin-bed.' See note on 1. 1271. 3084.

W.

B.

130
3035 ^rran

BEOWULF.

m^lum; )7a wses ende-daeg j^set se guS-cyning, godum gegongen, wundor-deaSe swealt. Wedra ]?eoderi,

Mr

hi )?^r gesegan

syllicran wiht,

wyrm

on wonge
;

wiSer-rsehtes

'psev

3040 laSne licgean


Se wses

wses se leg-draca,

grimlic gryr[e],
fiftiges
;

*gledum besw^led.
fot-gemearces

Fol.

195''.

lang on legere
nihtes hwilum, 3045 dennes niosian

lyft-wynne heold

nySer
;

eft

gewat
fa^st,

wses Sa deaSe

hsefde eorS-scrafa

ende genyttod.

Him

discas lagon

bunan ond orcas, ond dyre swyrd, swa hie wi?5 eorSan omige, )7urh-etone,
big stodan
|?8er

fsetSm

3050 ]7usend wintra


]7onne wses
'psdt

eardodon;
eacen-crseftig,

yrfe

iu-monna
]78et

gold,

galdre bewunden,

hrinan ne moste Sam hring-sele nefne God sylfa, gumena ^nig,


sealde J^am 3e he wolde

3055 sigora SoS-cyning,


(he
efne
is

hord manna gehyld) swa hwylcum manna,

openian,

swa

him

gemet

Suhte.
3035.
304,

MS.
2.

'asrrun' ("t< altered

from a by erasure."

Z.)
(cf.
1.

Sievers

N.

3041.

MS.

defective

at

corner.

Heyne

'gryre-gsest'

2560),

based on Kolbing's statement that there is room for from four to six letters on the missing corner. This seems more than doubtful. B gry
.

'

. .

'

would appear from the facsimile that the corner of the folio was defective from the very first and that certainly not more than one letter is missing. This is confirmed by the fact, that if the corner had been perfect there had been ample space for two or three letters after la'^ne at the end of the bottom line but one.
Zupitza 'gryr[e]' simply.
It

BEOWULF.
XLII.

131

pa

W8es gesyne,

)?8st

se

si(5

ne Sah
ofsloh

)7am Se unrihte

inne gehydde

3060 wrae^e under


;

wealle.

Weard ^r

feara sumne }>a sio fiehS gewearS Wundur hwar ]?onne gewrecen wraSlice. ende gefere eorl ellen-rof lif-gesceafta, )?onne leng ne mseg

3065

medu-seld buan. mon mid his [majgiim *]?a he biorges weard Swa wses Biowulfe,
sohte, searo-niSas
)7urh hwset his
;

Fol. 196^.

seolfa

ne

ciiSe,

worulde gedal
diope
)?a Sset ]>sqy

weorSan sceolde.

Swa
)78et

hit o5

domes dseg

benemdon

3070 ]?eodnas m^re,

dydon,

synnum scildig, se secg w^re hell-bendum fsest, hergum geheaSerod, wommum gewitnad, se Sone wong stride.
Naes he gold-hwse^;

gearwor hsefde

^r gesceawod. 3075 Agendes est Wihstanes sunu: Wiglaf maSelode, " Oft sceall eorl monig anes willan
wrgec adreoga?i,

swa us geworden

is.

Ne
3080
)?8et

meahton we gel^ran

leofne J^eoden,

rices hyrde,

ned ^nigne,
gold-weard
'wraete.'

he ne grette
'wrffice';

]7one,
2771.

3060.
3065.

MS. MS. MS. MS.

Thorpe

Cf.

1.

defective at corner.

Wiilcker has a question-mark after buan.


3078. 3074.
(after

'strade.'

Cf.

1.

3126.

'gold-hwaete.'

Thorpe and Wiilcker gold-hwaete


'

':

Grein

Bugge) 'Nass ("not") he gold-hwaste (agreeing with


'

est)

gearwor etc'

Sievers

gold-hwetes

'

(agreeing with agencies).

3078.

MS. 'adreoge^.'

92

132
lete

BEOWULF.
hyne
licgean,
j^ser

he longe

wfles,

wicum wunian

o3 woruld-ende

Hord ys gesceawod, heold on heah gesceap. waes ]?9et gifeSe t5 swiS, 3085 grimme gegongen;
)7e

Sone [)?eod-cyning]
]?cer

]?yder ontyhte.
)7set

Ic W8es

inne

ond
J^a

eall

geondseh,
wses

recedes geatwa,
nealles sw^slice,

me gerymed
alyfed

si5

8090 inn under


micle mid

eorS-Aveall.

Ic on ofoste gefeng

mundum
;

msegen-byrSenne
Fol.
196'^.

hord-gestreona,

hider *ut setbser

cyninge

minum

cwico wses

]?a

gena,

wis ond gewittig.

Worn

eall gesprsEJC

ond eowic gretan het, 3095 gomol on gehSo, seffcer wines d^dum ba3d ]?8et ge geworhton
in b^el-stede

beorh }7one hean,

swa he manna wges wide geond eorSan, wigend weorS-fullost brucan moste. he burh-welan 3100 )?enden
micelne ond mserne,

Uton

nil efstan

oSre [siSe]
searo-gej^rsec,
ic

seen ond secean

wundur under wealle;


3084.

eow

wisige,

MS.

'heoldon,' or not impossibly 'heold on.'

Heyne 'Heoldon
Wiilcker 'woruld-

heah
ende,

gesceap,' wir erhielten ein schweres Schicksal.


/

healdan heah-gesceap.' These appear to me equally unsatisfactory, have therefore suggested an emendation, which, if it lacks analogy, yet seems to give the sense required: "We could not dissuade him; he held (on) to his high fate, or he held on {adv.) his high fate." Grein and

and

Toller give several instances of the intrans. use of healdan, and of on used

See also Matzner's 0. E. Diet., p. 405, col. 1 among other passages there quoted is: "hald hardiliche o f tu haues bigunuen," St. Kath. 676. No gap in MS. Grein's emendation. Grundtvig '>>eoden.' 3086.
adverbially.
;

3101.

No gap

in

MS.

BEOWULF.
neon sceawiaS ]78et ge genoge Sie sio bi'Sr gearo 3105 beagas ond brad gold. j^onne Ave ut cymen, ^dre gesefned,
frean userne, ond )?onne geferian mannan, )7^i' he longe sceal wgere gej^olian." on Sges Waldendes byre Wihstanes, 3110 Het 6a gebeodan haeleSa monegiim, hsele hilde-dior, ]?set hie b^l-wudu bold-agendra,
leofne

133

feorran feredon,

folc-agende,
:

godum

togenes

"

Nu

sceal gled fretan

wigena strengel, 3115 (weaxan wonna leg) isern-scure, )?one Se oft gebad strengum gebgeded |7onne stri^la storm
scoc ofer scild-weall,
sceft nytte heold,

fec^er-gearwum fus

flane full-eode."

3120 Huru se snotra


acigde of corSre
syfone [getjsomne,

sunu Wihstanes
*cyni[n]ges J^egnas
)?a

Fol. 198*.

selestan,

eode eahta
hilde-rinc

sum under inwit-hrof; sum on handa bser

se Se on orde geong. 3125 eled-leoman, hwa 'pset hord strude, Nses (5a on hlytme, ^nigne d^l S3^5an orwearde on sele wunian, secgas gesegon

3104.

3119.
3121.

Heyne 'nean.' See Sievers 150. 3. MS. 'feeder gearwu.' Kemble's emendation.
This
folio,

the

last, is terribly

mutilated with tears and holes.

MS.
gone."

'cyniges.'

3122.

That "now"

Zupitza '[to]-somme,' and in a foot-note: "now to entirely is misleading, for apparently it was just as entirely
In the absence of evidence in
2847.
its

gone in Thorkelin's time.


cetsomne with Grein
;

favour, I read

cf. 1.

134
l^ne licgan;

BEOWULF.
lyt genig mearn,
iit

3130

)78et

hi ofostlIc[e]

geferedon
leton

dyre maSmas.

Dracan ec scufun,

wjrm
p^r

ofer weall-clif,

weg niman,

flod fseSmian,

frsetwa hyrde.

wses

wunden gold
;

on wgen hladen,
nsesse.

3135 ^ghwses unrim

sej^elin^ boren,

har hilde[-rinc],

to

Hrones

XLIII.

Him Sa gegiredan Geata leode ad on eorSan unwaclicne, helm[um] behongen, hilde-bordum, 3140 beorhtum byrnum, swa he bena wa3S
alegdon Sa tomiddes
haeleS hiofende,

m^rne

j^eoden

hlaford leofne.

Ongunnon

blSl-fyra m^st ]>si on beorge wigend weccan wud[u]-rec astah


;

3145 sweart ofer

SAvioSole,

swogende

leg

wope bewunden
3130.

(wind-blond gel^eg),

3134.

3135.
3136.

MS. MS. MS. MS.

defective at edge.
'f.'

Thorpe p^r.'
'

'ffi>elinge.'

'hilde

to.'

"I

am

unable to decide whether there

is

an

erasure of one letter after hilde or an original blank."

Z.

Thorpe's

emendation.
3139.

MS.

'

helm.'

Grein's emendation.

3144. 3145.

Hole in MS.

MS.

'

swicSole.'

difficult

word.

Toller gives two or three

instances of
fir-

su-ice, sioicc (?),

"scent, smell."

Skeat suggests "smelling


See glossary.

tree."

wood," from O.E. ^ol{l), Icel. }pollr, "a Grein connects with stva'^ul (1. 782).

thole, a peg," originally "fir-

MS.

'let';

Thorpe

'leg.'

135

BEOWULF.
o?5

)73et

he Sa ban-hus

gebrocen hsefde,

Higum unrote mon-dryhtnes cw[e]alm mod-ceare m^ndon


hat on hreSre.

3150 swylce giomor gyd


sorg-cearig

*[sio

geo-]meowle

Fol.

198^

fbjunden heorde
.
. .

s^lSe geneahhe,

)79et

hio hyre ::::::: gas

hearde

de

wsel-fylla

wonn
:

des egesan

3155 hySo
3149.

d.

Heofon rece swe[a]lg.

3150.

MS. torn at "Almost all

foot.

that is legible in this page freshened

up in a

late

hand." Z. 3150 5, I have treated these six mutilated lines in the same way as 11. 2214 20, that is to say, the text is an accurate reproduction of Zupitza's transliteration of the MS. The only changes are the division
into verse-lines,

and the addition

of length-marks, etc.;

the letters in

square brackets also are added from Zupitza's foot-notes.


part
it is

For the most


division into

needless to give the foot-notes themselves.

The

and again same conclusion as he quite independently that this passage contains six verse-lines and not seven, as in Heyne, Wiilcker, etc. For example, Heyne makes two half-lines between egesan and heofon, where, according to Zupitza, there is room in the MS. for only twelve Similarly, Wiilcker makes a whole line between ivonn and hy^o. letters. Since the rearrangement and renumbering in the text are confirmed by
lines is not absolutely certain, but again I agree with Bugge,

I arrived at the

the alliteration and by Bugge's restoration below, they may be considered This makes the total number of lines in the poem one less proven.

3182 (Wiilcker 3183, Heyne 3184). With respect to geo-meowle Zupitza says
'

'

"This reading is confirmed

by the word written over meowle, which is neither con nor on, but, without any doubt, (the Latin) auus." "The first two letters after hearde look like on or an, the letter 3153. before de may have been e, as the stroke that generally connects e with a
following letter 3155.
is

preserved."

Z.

is,

Bugge's reconstruction of this passage (see "Beit." apart from the last half-line, hardly to be improved upon

x.

110

11)

3150 swylce giomor-gyd

sio

geo-meowle

136

BEOWULF.

Geworhton 5a
[w^]g-liSendum

Wedra

leode

hl[few] on [hJliSe,

ond betimbredon
3160 beadu-rofes been
;

heah ond brad, wide g[e]syne, on tyn dagum


se wses

bronda

lafe

wealle beworhton,
fore-snotre

swa hyt weorSlicost


findan mihton.

men

Hi on beorg dydon
eall

beg ond

siglu,
ier

swylce hyrsta,

swylce on horde

8165 niS-hedige

men

genumen
)?9er

hsefdon

forleton eorla gestreon

eorSan healdan,
hit nil

gold on greote,

gen lifaS eldum swa unnyt, swa hi[t iierojr wses. pa ymbe hl^w riodan hilde-deore
3170
as}>elinga

beam

ealra twelfa,

woldon [ceare] cwiSan, kyning mgenan, word-gyd wrecan, ond ymb w[er] sprecan;
Beowulfe bunden-heorde song sorg-cearig, srede geneahhe, >8Bt hio hyre hearm-dagas hearde ondrede, wsel-fylla worn, wigendes egesan,
aefter

He

adds
3157.

hyn'So ond hasft-nyd, heof on rice wealg. "For the whole passage cf. 11. 301620. Beowulf's aged widow

(geo-meowle) was perhaps

Hygd

cf .

11.

2369

ff.

Zupitza 'hi:: on
hlceiv after leode:

make out
3158.

Seel. 3169.

and in a foot-note: "I am unable to the two last letters seem to me to be rather eo.'" Thorpe 'hlie.'
li'Se,'

The remainder
Heyne:
he.
: : :

of this page

is

frequently illegible or defective,

both at the edges and elsewhere.


3160.
''be Idfe

so

MS. nach Zupitza."

This

is

an error;

Zupitza has no
3168.
3171.

Zupitza 'hi

:r.'

Kemble's emendation.
Possibly the missing word
is

Zupitza '::::'; Grein *Qeare.'


Zupitza 'w::'; Grein 'wer.'

wdpe, as in "Gen." 996.


3172.

BEOWULF.
ond his ellen-weorc swa hit ge-de[fe] bi3, duguSum demdon, wordum herge, 3175 ]?98t mon his wine-dry hten ferhSuni freoge, )7onne he forS scile
eahtodan eorl-scipe,
of

137

Kc-haman

[liene]

weorSan.

Swa begnornodon
hlafordes [hry]re,

Geata leode
heorS-geneatas

3180 cwiedon

]?8et

he wgere

wyruld-cyning,

manna
leodum
3174. 3177.

mildiist
liSost,

ond mon-[Sw]^rust, ond lof-geornost.

Hole in MS.
Zupitza: ''lachamanllS., but there can be
lie is

little

doubt that

lac instead of

owing only
'

to the late

hand."

Zupitza '::::'; Kemble


3179. 3181.

'liene.'

Zupitza

re';

Thorpe

'hryre.'

MS. torn
list

at foot.

For a

of the words
,

and

syllables, the vowels of

which are marked

long in the

MS.

see the Preface.

APPENDIX.
THE FIGHT AT FINNSBURG^.
(See

"Beowulf"

11.

1068

li.)

*
)>a

[hor]nas byrna^ n^fre?"


hea'So-geong cyning
:

Hleo^rode

"Ne
ne

^is ne dagatS eastan,

lier "Sisse healle

ne her draca ne hornas ne byrna'5,


hlynne'S,
]pes

fleoge'5,

5 ac fer forb beratJ,


gylle'5 gi'ffig-hama,

fugelas singa^,

gu5-wudu

scyld scefte oncwy^.


wa'Sol under
Se -Sisne

Nu
;

scyne'S

mona

wolcnum

folces ni'S

nu arisa^ wea-d^da, fremman willa'S.

10 Ac onwacnigeat5 nu,

wigend mine, habba^ eowre linda, hiegea'S on ellen, winna'S on orde, wesatS on mode."

pa
J>a

aras
to

manig gold-hladen
drihtlice

"Segn,

gyrde hine his swurde;

dura eodon

15 SigefertS and Eaha,

cempan, hyra sword getugon,

and aet oj^rum durum Ordlaf end Gu)>laf and Hengest sylf; hwearf him on laste.

pa

gyt Garulf

Gu'Sere styrode,

* "Fragmenti poetici singulare folium, in codice MS. homiliarum Semi-Saxoniearum qui extat in Bibliotheca Lambethana." Hickes i.
192. The MS. is now lost. Hickes's readings are denoted by H., but they are given only when they have been considerably altered in the text. 2. 'hearo geong' H.
3.
5.
'

eastun
landa

'

H.
hie gea}?

'her' H.
'
'

11.
12.

H.

'

'

H,

'winda^'H.

APPENDIX.
)>aet

139
sl\>e

hie

swa

freolic feorh

forman

20 to
nil

^ffire

healle

durum

hyrsta ne b^ran,

hyt ni>a heard


frffign ofer eal

anyman wolde
undearninga,
leod,

ac he

deor-mod
" Sigefer]?

heeled,
is

hwa "Six duru heolde. ic eom Secgena min nama (cweS he),
Fela
is

25 wreccea wide cu^.

ic

weana gebad,

heardra hilda
swaetSer
"Sii

'5e

gyt her witod,

sylf to

me

secean wylle."

pa

waes

on wealle

wael-slihta gehlyn,

sceolde cellod bord

ceiium on handa,
Buruh-^^elu dynede,

30 ban-helm berstan.
o'S
[I'ffit]

ast "Sffire

gu^e

Garulf gecrang,

ealra arest

eor^-buendra,

Gu'Slafes sunu,

Hwarf

[fjlacra

ymbe hyue godra fela. hraefen, wandrode hrw


;

35 sweart and sealo-briin

swylce eal Finns-buruh

swurd-leoma stod fyrenu ware.


set

Ne
ne

gefraegn ic neefre wurjjlicor


sel

wera hilde

sixtig sige-beorna

geb^ran,
sel forgyldan,

nsefre

swanas swetne medo


fif

40 "Sonne Hn^fe guldan

his hteg-stealdas.

Hig fuhton
driht-gesi'Sa,

dagas,

swa hyra nan ne


haslet

feol

ac hig "Sa duru heoldon.

pa

gewat him

wund

on wag gangan,
his

Sffide J?8et

his byrne

abrocen wiere,

45 here-sceorp unhror,

and eac waes


folces hyrde,

helm

"Syrl.

Da
hu

hine sona frsegn


"Sa

wigend

hyra wunda genson,

oS'Se hwae^er

^^ra hyssa

19.

'he' H.
'

25.

26. 28. 29.


34.

'

'

H. H. healle H.
wrecten
'

faela

'

H.

'

weuna H.
'

heordra
'

'

'

sceolde Celaes bor'S

genumon handa H.
' '

'

Hwearflacra hraer

39.
45.

'

'

H. ne nefre swa noc hwitne medo here sceorpum hror H.


'
'

H.

'

GENEALOGICAL TABLES.
(1)

THE DANISH ROYAL FAMILY.


Scef or Sceaf
Sc'yld

Beowulf (not the hero)


I

Healfdene
I
\

71

Heorogar

Hro^gar = Wealhjjeow
I

Halga
Hro'Sulf
(?)
1

Ongen)>eow

(?)

= Elan (?)

HretSric

Hro^mund

Ingeld = Freawaru

(2)

THE GEAT ROYAL FAMILY.


Swerting
I

Hreel
EcgJ>eow = a daughter

Herebeald

Hae'Scyn

= Hygelac Hygd
Heardred

Beowulf

Eofor=:a daughter

(3)

THE SWEDISH ROYAL FAMILY.


Ongenl>eow=Elan
' I

(?)
1

Onela

Ohthere

Eanmund

Eadgils

PERSONS AND PLACES.


Abel, slain by Cain, 108.

^imere.

Wiglaf

is

called "

kinsman of ^Elfhere," 2604.

^schere, Hrothgar's dearest counsellor and comrade in arms, slain and carried off by Greudel's dam in revenge for her son, 1294 1340,

21202130.
Ar-Scyldingas, 464, Honom'-Scyldings, a
dingas.

name

of the

Danes; see

Scyl-

Beanstan, Breca's father, 524.


Beorht-Dene, 427, 609, Bright-Danes
;

see Dene.

Beowulf the Dane (not the hero of the poem), 18, 53, an ancestor of the Danish king Hrothgar. Beowulf the Geat (the second scribe, who begins in the MS. in 1. 1939,
2681, 2807

favours the spelling Blowulf, 1987, 1999, etc.; gen. Biowulfes, 2194, dat. Biowulfe, 2324, 2842, 2907, 3066), the hero of the
;

poem,
1.

first

mentioned in
is

1.

194, as " Hygelac's thane," first


;

named

in

343.

He

the son of

Ecgtheow

his mother's

name

is

not given,

but she was the daughter of Hrethel, king of the Geats, and therefore The whole poem is a record of Beowulf's life, sister of Hygelac.
exploits, death,

and burial

but a few facts deserve special mention.

After his seventh year he was brought up at the court of his grandfather, Hrethel,

(2428

34).

with his uncles, Herebeald, Hsethcyn, and Hygelac In his youth, he was for a long time despised as sloihful

and unwarlike (2183


slayer"
(2502)

9),

but

when he grew up

his

hand had the


hand(2684
ff.).

strength of thirty other men's (379).

It is therefore as a "

that he attains his chiefest fame

He

accompanied Hygelac in his

fatal expedition against the

Hetware,

and saved

his

own

life,

after the fall of the


ff.).

Geat king, by swimming

home

across the sea (2359

He

refused the throne, offered

him

142

BEOWULF.
by Hygelac's widow (2369 ff.) acted as guardian and protector to Hygelac's son Heardred (2377), and on the death of the latter
;

became king of the Geats, whom he ruled for fifty years (2209). Beowulf is a hero worthy of our only great English epic, a warrior " sans peur et sans reproche." His love of fighting, his eagerness for praise (3182), his touch of braggadocio, were far from being faults in the eyes of the " scop," and he has some of the qualities of true greatness in the closing words of the poem he is called the mildest, gentlest, and kindest of men. The Beowulf who took part in Hygelac's historical expedition against the Hetware is probably historical too but the Beowulf of the four great exploits of the poem, the swimming match with Breca, and the contests with Grendel, wdth his dam, and with the dragon, has probably stepped into the place of the mythical
: ;

Beowa

of the Old English royal genealogies.


(524),

Breca, son of Beanstan

and a chief of the Brondings


is

(522).

Beowulf's swimming-match with Breca

the subject of Unferth's

taunt

(11.

506

ff.).

Brondingas, 521, see Breca. Brosinga mene (Icel. Brisinga men), the famous Brising necklace or
collar.

" This necklace

is

the Brisinga-men

the costly necklace of

Freyja, which she

won from
told in the

the dwarfs and which was stolen from

her by Loki, as

is

Edda."

Kemble.
(11.

The

circlet

given to Beowulf after the slaughter of Grendel can

only be compared to the Brosings' (or Brisings') necklace which

Hama
Cain
is

carried off

when he
xii.

fled

from Eormenric

1195

ff.).

See

Bugge in "Beitrage "


Dseghrefn
{dat. 2501), a

the ancestor of Grendel (111, 1265).

brave warrior of the Hugs, seems to have killed


(cf. 11.

Hygelac in the battle

120711 with 25034).

Beowulf was

his " hand-slayer " (2502).

Dene

{gen.

Dena

242,

Deniga 271, Denia 2125), the Danes, the subjects of


in the Scede-lands (19), in Sceden-ig (1686),
(1685).

Hrothgar.
in the

They dwell

"between the seas"

They are called by various other names poem: Beorht-Dene, Gar-Dene, Hring-Dene, in supposed
;

East-Dene, Nor'S-Dene, Su^allusion to their warlike character Dene, West-Dene, in supposed allusion to their wide distribution
;

Scyldingas,

etc.,

Ingwine, and Hre'Smen,

all of

which

see.

Eadgils, younger son of Ohthere.

What

is

told of the brothers Eadgils

as in the case of the other allusions

and Eanmund in the poem, and episodes, must have been

PERSONS AND PLACES.


originally intended for hearers

143
to

who were supposed

know

all

about

For us, the order and nature of the events referred to are sometimes by no means clear, especially when we can get little help from external sources. In this particular instance, however, it is not difficult to read between the lines, and put together a complete story, and we have the Scandinavian accounts to help us. Eanmund and Eadgils are banished from Sweden for rebellion (2379 ff.), and take refuge at the court of the Geat king, Heardred. The fact of their finding an asylum with his hereditary foes (see Ongentheow) seems to have so enraged the Swedish king Onela, their uncle, that he invades Geatland (2202 ff.) and succeeds in slaying Heardred (2384 ff, ), but allows Beowulf to succeed to the Geat throne unmolested (2389 90). Heardred is the second Geat king (see Hasthcyn) who had fallen by the hands of the Swedes, and Beowulf at a later time (2392) balances the feud by supporting Eadgils in his subsequent invasion of Sweden, in which the latter This version of the story slew the king, his uncle Onela (2391 ff.). is confirmed by reference to the Norse accounts, in which A^ils (= Eadgils) slays Ali ( = Onela) on the ice of Lake Wener (see 1. 2396). Heyne (followed unfortunately by Brooke) seems to pervert and distort this simple story almost beyond belief. He says (the square
them.

brackets are mine)

'

The

relations of Ohthere's sons to Hygelac's

son appear according to the text to be as follows.

Ohthere's sons,

Eanmund and

Eadgils, have revolted against their father (2381)

[why

their father rather

than Onela?], in consequence of which they have One of them to quit Sweden (2379) and come to Heardred (2380). kills the latter under mysterious circumstances (2385) [2385 does not
say so]
;

it

must have been Eanmund,


cf.

whom Weohstan

slays

on the
for

spot therefor,

2612.

Eadgils escapes to his

home

(2387,

" Ongen>Ioes beam" here means

his grandson Eadgils, for "


cf.

beam "

can be used in the sense of descendant,

Daniel 73:

"Israela

beam")

[special pleading! "Israela

beam " = the

children of Israel.

What

possible inference

can there be from this to the meaning


go to Daniel, in preference to referring
better to take

"grandson"?
to

And why

to the seven instances of this use of "

Beowulfl

How much

beam " in "beam"

his
to
!],

own glossary mean son, as


where in the

in every other case of its singular use in the

poem

meantime his father Ohthere seems to have died [!]. After Beowulf has become king of the Geats (2389), his thoughts turn to taking%is he becomes his enemy [the MS. has revenge on Eadgils (2391) "freond" !!]. Eadgils invades the land of the Geats (2393 4 read
;

144

BEOWULF.
"gestepte" from "gesteppan," and not "gestepte" from "gestepan"),

but is killed by Beowulf (2396) [then "Beowulf" is the subject of " wears " (2392), " sunu Ohteres " (2394) is the subject of " gestepte,"

and "he"

(2395) again refers to

Beowulf!

And

Eadgils has mean-

time become king of Sweden (2396)].' See also Eanmund. I have treated this question thus fully in the hope of ending a misinterpretation,

which has obtained some vogue.


See Eofor.
;

Eafor {gen. 2964).

Eanmund, 2611, elder son of Ohthere see Eadgils. He is slain by Weohstan (2612 ff.), who strips him of the armour given him by his uncle Onela (2616). Weohstan " spake not about the feud, although he had slain his (Onela's) brother's son (2618 9)." These words accord much better with the supposition that Weohstan had slain a " friendless exile " (2613) in a private quarrel, of which he was half ashamed, than that he had avenged Heardred's death upon his

murderer.
Earna-nses, 3031, Eagles-ness, near the scene of Beowulf's fight with the

dragon.
East-Dene, 392, 616, East-Danes
Ecglaf, 499, father of Unferth.
;

see Dene.

EcgHow

(Ecg>eo, 373; gen. Ecg>Ioes, 1999) father of Beowulf the Geat; married the only daughter of Hrethel, king of the Geats and father of Hygelac (3735). Having slain Heatholaf, the Wylfing, Ecgtheow seeks protection at the court of Hrothgar in
;

the early days of his kingship


settles the

Hrothgar accepts his


ff.).

fealty,

and

feud by a money-payment (459

Ecgwela, 1710: "the descendants of Ecgwela, the Honour-Scyldings," Grein takes him to be the founder of the older i.e. the Danes. dynasty of Danish kings, which ended in Heremod.
Elan, 62 (see note), daughter of Healfdene, sister of Hrothgar, and wife
of

Ongentheow

(?),

king of the Swedes.

Eofor {dat. lofore, 2993, 2997), a Geat warrior, son of Wonred, brother He comes to the aid of his of Wulf, and son-in-law of Hj^gelac.
brother
latter,

Wulf

in his single

combat with Ongentheow, and

slays the

Hygelac liberally thus avenging the death of Haethcyn. rewards both the brothers, and gives his only daughter to Eofor
(2484
ff.,

2961

ff.).

Eomser, 1960, son of Offa and Thrytho (q. v.). Eormenric, 1201, king of the Ostrogoths see Brosinga mene.
;

Eotenas, 1072, 1088, 1141, 1145, the people of Finn, king of Friesland. Finn (Fin 1096, 1146, 1152 ; gen. Finnes 1068 etc.), king of Friesland

PERSONS AND PLACES.

145

The some(1126), son of Folcwalda (1089); his queen is Hildeburh. what obscure Finn episode in "Beowulf" (11. 1068 1159) is evidently part of a Finn saga, of which only the merest fragment, called the Fight at Finnsburg (see Appendix), is extant. Various attempts have been made to reconstruct the saga from these materials, the

chief point wherein they differ being as to the relative places of the

"Fight" and the Finn episode


follows

in the restored connected


11.

story.

Bugge, in accordance with his interpretation of

1142

(see note),

Grein in arguing that the night attack described in the

"Fight" took place when Hnaef was killed, before the events deMoller, on scribed in the "Beowulf" episode, i.e. before 1. 1068.
the other hand, contends that the proper place of the " Fight " is between lines 1144 and 1145. His outline of the story is briefly as
follows
:

Finn, king of the Frisians, had carried


of

off

Hildeburh, daughter
father

Hoc

(1076), probably with her consent.


fugitives,

Her

Hoc seems
tight

to

have pursued the

and

to

have been slain in the

which

ensued on his overtaking them. After the lapse of some twenty years
Hoe's sons, Hnffif and Hengest, were old enough to undertake the duty of avenging their father's death. They make an inroad into
Finn's country and a battle takes place in which

many

warriors,

among them Hnsef and


Peace
is

a son of Finn (1074, 1079, 1115), are killed. therefore solemnly concluded, and the slain warriors are

burnt (10681124).

As the year is too far advanced for Hengest to return home (11. ff.), he and those of his men who survive remain for the winter in the Frisian country with Finn. But Hengest's thoughts dwell constantl}^ on the death of his brother Hnaef, and he would gladly welcome any excuse to break the peace which had been sworn by
1130

both parties.
Frisians,

His

ill

concealed desire for revenge


it

is

noticed by the
initiative

who

anticipate

by themselves taking the

and

attacking Hengest and his

men

whilst they are sleeping in the hall.


It

This
in

is

the night attack described in the "Fight."

would seem

that after a brave and desperate resistance Hengest himself falls


this
fight

at

the hands of Hunlafing (1143), but two of his

retainers, Guthlaf
their

and

Oslaf, succeed in cutting their

way through

The}'- return with fresh troops, attack and slay Finn, and carry his queen Hildeburh off with them (11251159).

enemies and in escaping to their own land.

Finnas, 580, the Finns.

The

sea

washed Beowulf up on

their land,

Finland, at the end of his swimming-match with Breca.

W.

B.

10

;; ;

146
Fitela,

BEOWULF.
879, 889 (Icel. Sinfiotli), son of
also his

Sigemund by

his sister Signy,

and therefore

nephew

(881).

See Sigemund.

Folcwalda, 1089, the father of Finn. Francan, 1210, see Froncan. Freawaru (ace. Freaware 2022), daughter of Hrothgar and Wealhtheow,

and wife

of Ingeld.

See Ingeld.

Fresan, 1093, 2915, see Frysan. Fres-cyning, 2503, the king of the West Frisians

see

Frysan

(2).

Fres-lond

(pi.),

2357, the land of the

West

Frisians.

See Frysan

(2).

Fres-wsel, 1070, the


fell.

North Frisian
(q. v.).

field or place of battle,

where Hnaef

See Finn.

Froda, 2025, father of Ingeld

I
Hygelac was defeated and

Froncan

{gen.

Francna

1210), the Franks.

Netherlands, by a combined and Hugs (1202 &., 2912 &.). Fiysan {ge7i. Fresena 1093, Frysna 1104, Fresna 2915), the Frisians. There are (1) the North Frisians, the people of Finn (q. v. 1068 ff.) (2) the West Frisians, who combined with the Franks and Hugs The land of the former is called against Hygelac (1202 ff., 2912 ff.).
slain, in his historical invasion of the

army

of Frisians, Franks,

"Frys-land" in
Gar-Dene,
1,

1.

1126, that of the latter "Fres-lond"

(pi.)

in

1.

2357.

Frys-land, 1126, the land of the North Frisians.


1856, Spear-Danes
;

See Frysan

(1).

see Dene.

Garmund, 1962. Eomaer is said to be the "grandson of Garmund," who was therefore the father of Offa (q. v.). He is the Wasrmund of the genealogies of the Chronicle, in which Offa and Eomaer also appear see Parker MS. 626 and 755 a.d.
Geat, 640, 1301, 1785, 1792, the Geat
(i.e.

Beowulf).

Geata (weak form or gen. pi.?), 374, 1191, 1202, etc. Geatas {O.Norse Gautar, Swed. Gotar; gen. Geatena 443), the Geats, the people to whom the hero Beowulf belonged. They lived in South Sweden, between the Danes on the south and the Swedes on the
north.

They are
{dat.

also called Gu"5-Geatas, Hre'Slingas, Sse-Geatas,

Weder-Geatas, and Wederas.

Geat-mecgas
Heorot.

referring to

Bugge identifies them with the Jutes. Geat-maecgum 491, gen. Geat-mecga 829), Geat men, the fourteen Geats (207) who accompanied Beowulf to
(supposed to be) the Gepidae
etc.,

Gif^Jas, the Gifths,

see

1.

2494.

Grendel
dat.

{geii.

Grendles 195, 2002,


etc.),

Grendeles 2006, 2118, 2139, 2353

Grendle 666, 2521,

the famous monster, slain by Beowulf.


ff.).

See Argument.
is

He

is of

the kindred of Cain (1265

His father

unknown

(1355).

PERSONS AND PLACES.

147

Grendles modor (Grendeles modor 2118, 2139), Grendel's mother or dam, the slaying of whom is Beowulf's second great exploit. See Argu-

ment.
female;

She
cf.

is
11.

sometimes spoken of as a male, sometimes as a


1260, 1379, 1392, 1394, 1497, 2136 with 1292
ff.,

1339,

1504

ff.,

1541

if.

Gd^-Geatas, 1538, War-Geats


GH'Slaf, 1148, a

see Geatas.

Danish warrior under Hnaef and Hengest.


;

See Finn.

Ga-Scilfingas, 2927, War-Scylfings

see Scylfingas.

Hsere, 1929, 1981, the father of Hygd, Hygelac's wife.


Hie'Scyn

(H^Scen 2925,

dat. Hre'Scynne 2482), second son of Hrethel,

king of the Geats.

He

accidentally kills his elder brother Herebeald


ff.)
;

with a bow and arrow during his father's lifetime (2435

succeeds

to the throne at his father's death (2483), but falls in battle at

Eavenswood

Halga, 61, " the good "

of the Swedish king Ongentheow (2923 ff.). younger brother of Hrothgar. He is thought to be the father of Hrothulf (1017, etc.), because he is identified with the historical Helgi, the father of Rolf Kraki ( = Hrothulf). at the
(til),
;

hand

Hama, 1198

see

Brosinga mene.

Healfdene, 57, king of the Danes, son of Beowulf the Scylding, and father of Hrothgar, " the son of Healfdene " (189, etc.).

Healf-Dene, Half-Danes, the tribe to which Hnsef belongs

see

1.

1069.

Heardred, son of Hygelac and Hygd.


succeeds his father as king of
acts as his counsellor

under age (2370) he the Geats, so that Beowulf for a time


still

While

and protector

(2377).

He

is

slain

by Onela

(2200

if.,

2385

ff.).

HeatSo-Beardan {gen. Hea'So-Beardna 2032


the tribe to which Ingeld
of Beowulf.
(q. v.)

etc.),

Heathobards, Lombards,

belongs.

Hea'Solaf, 460, a warrior of the Wylfings, slain

by Ecgtheow, the father


is

HeatSo-Rsimas, 519, Heathoremes, the people on whose shores Breca


cast after his

swimming-match with Beowulf.


sg.

Heao-Scilflngas {gen.
see Scylfingas.

Hea'So-Scilfingas 63), 2205, Battle- Scylfings

Helmingas,

620,

Helmings.

Hrothgar's
of

queen,

Wealhtheow,

is

"a

woman
Hemming,
(q. V.)

of the Helmings."

1944, 1961.

"Kinsman

Hemming"
Danes

describes both Offa

and his son Eomaer.

Hengest, 1083, 1091, took


Finn.

command

of the

after

Hnaf's

fall.

See

Heorogar (Heregar 467, Hiorogar 2158), 61, eldest son of Healfdene, and elder brother of Hrothgar (468). He did not leave his armour to his

102

148
son
;

BEOWULF.
but Hrothgar gives
ff.).

it

to

Beowulf, and Beowulf gives

it

to

Hygelac (2155

Heorot (Heort 78, dat. Heorute 766, Hiorte 2099), the hall Heorot or Hart, which Hrothgar built (67 ff.)- I* "^as deserted for twelve years because of Grendel's ravages (145 ff.). Beowulf's encounter
with the monster takes place in the hall, on the roof of which his arm is afterwards exhibited as a trophy (710 ff.).

Heoroweard, 2161, son of Heorogar (q. v.). Herebeald, 2434, 2463, eldest son of the Geat king Hrethel, accidentally
killed with an arrow by his brother Hathcyn (2435 ff.). Heremod, 901, 1709, a Danish king (see Ecgwela), is twice introduced as a kind of stock example of a bad and cruel king. In the end he is betrayed into the hands of his foes (903). Heardred is called " Hererices nefa." Possibly he was Hereric, 2206. the brother of Hygd. Here-Scyldingas, 1108, the Army-Scyldings see Scyldingas. netware, 2363, 2916, the Hattuarii, the tribe against whom Hygelac made
;

the raid in which he met his death. HUdeburh, 1071, 1114, daughter of Hoc

(1076),

and wife

of Finn.

See

Finn.
Hnsef, 1069, 1114,
fell

in the fight with

Finn on the "Fres-wael"

(1070).

See Finn.

Hoc, father of Hildeburh (1076); see Finn. Hondscio, 2076, the one of Beowulf's fourteen comrades, in his expedi-

Danish kingdom, that Grendel devoured before attacking Beowulf (740 ff., 2076 ff.). Hrefna-wudu, 2925, Kavenswood, where Ongentheow slew Hsethcyn.
tion to the

Also called
Hrefnes-holt, 2935.

See above. Hreosna-beorh, 2477, the scene of Onela and Ohthere's marauding vasions of Geatland after the death of Hrethel.

in-

Hreel {gen. weak form Hre^lan 454, gen. Hre-Sles 1485), king of the Geats; he was son of Swertiug (1203), father of Hygelac, and grandfather of Beowulf (373 f.), to whom he left his coat of mail He died of grief at the loss of his eldest son Herebeald (454).
(2435
ff.),

who was

accidentally shot by his


;

own

brother H^thcyn.
1.

Hreling, son of Hrethel


to Hffithcyn.

applied in

1.

1923 to Hygelac, and in

2925

Hrelingas, 2960, the people of Hrethel, the Geats. See Geatas. HretS-men, 445, "triumph-men," a name of the Danes see Dene.
;

Hre-Krlc, 1189, 1836, elder son of

Hrothgar.

PERSONS AND PLACES.


Hring-Dene, 116, 1279, Ring-Danes
;

149

see Dene.

Hrones-nses, 2805, 3136, "Whale's Ness."

Beowulf, in his dying speech,


is to

names this place as the site of the barrow which ashes and perpetuate his name.
HrotJgar, king of the Danes, second son of Healfdene.
see the genealogical tables

hold his

For his family

on

p. 140.

He

is

one of the chief persons

in the poem, the builder of the hall Heorot

thus he prepares the way for the coming of the hero.


Hro^ulf,

which Grendel ravages See Argument.

HrotSmund, 1189, younger son of Hrothgar. 1017, 1181, probably the son of Hrothgar's younger brother

Halga (q. v.). He the hope that he


kindness to him,

lived at the
will be

if

Danish court. Wealhtheow expresses good to their children in return for their he survives Hrothgar (1180 ff.). It would seem

that this hope was not destined to be fulfilled (1164

5).
v.),

Hrunting, 1457, 1490, 1659, 1807, the sword of Unferth (q. lends to Beowulf for his fight with Grendel's mother.

which he

Hdgas, 2502, 2914, the Hugs; see Froncan. Hilnlafing-, 1143, the son of Hunlaf; the warrior of Finn who slew Hengest. See Finn, and the note on 11. 1142 4.

Hygd, 1926, 2172, 2369, daughter of Haere^ (1929), wife of Hygelac (q. v.), and mother of Heardred. See 1926 ff., and Hygelac. Hygelac {usually spelt Higelac, 435, etc. Hygelac 2151, etc. gen. Hyge;

Ifices

1530, 2386, 2943, Higelaces 194, etc.; dat. Hygelace 2169, Hige-

lace 452, etc.), the reigning king of the Geats during the greater part
of the action of the

poem;

see

Argument.

He

is

the third son of

Hrethel, and uncle to Beowulf; see genealogical tables.


his brother Hrethcyn was defeated and slain by Ongentheow Ravenswood (2924), Hygelac came quickly in pursuit (2943) and put Ongentheow to flight (2949); but though, as the leader of the attack, he is called " Ongentheow's banesman" (1968), the actual slayer was Eofor (q. v.), whom Hygelac rewards with the hand of his only daughter (2977 ff.). At the later time of Beowulf's return from his expedition against Grendel, Hygelac, who is still young (1831), is married to Hygd, who is herself "very young" and has not long been queen (1926 8) she would seem then to have been

When

at

his second wife.

Hygelac came by his death in his historical invasion of the


Netherlands, which
is

four times referred to in the


ff.),

poem

(1202

ff.,

and occurred between 512 and 520 a.d. Ingeld, 2064, son of Froda (2025), and prince of the Heathobards. Beowulf tells Hygelac that Hrothgar's daughter Freawaru is promised
2354
ff.,

2501

ff.,

2914

150
in marriage to Ingeld,

BEOWULF.

and that the Danish king hopes thereby to Beowulf goes That this 9). was actually the case we learn from WicUl'^ 45 49
terminate the feud between the two peoples (2024 ff.). on to foretell that these hopes will prove vain (2067

"HroSwulf and Hro'Sgar heoldon


sibbe ffitsomne suhtorf^drau,

lengest

si^San hy forwracon Wicinga cynn and Ingeldes ord forbigdan,

forheowan

aet

Heorote Hea'Sobeardna

Kym."
i.

Grein's Bibliothek,

252.

Ingwine, 1044, 1319, "friends of Ing," Ingsvones, a name of the Danes. See Dene. Of Ing we read in the Rune-poem, 67 8 (ed. Wiilcker)

" (Ing) waes aerest

mid Eastdenum

gesewen secgun."

He

has been identified with Sceaf and Frea.

lofor, 2993, 2997, see Eofor.

Merewloing- {gen. Merewioingas 2921), the Merwing or Merovingian king of the Franks.
Nsegling, 2680, the

name

of the sword Beowulf used in his encounte

with the dragon.


Nor^J-Dene, 783, North-Danes
Oflfa,
;

see Dene.

1
and father
of Eomser.
etc.),

1949, 1957, king of the Angles ("Offa weold Ongle," Wlds'i^ 35); son
of

Garmund, husband
{gen.

of

Thrytho

(q. v.),

Ohthere

Ohteres 2380, 2394, 2612, Ohtheres 2928

son of the

Swedish king Ongentheow, and father of


of the rebellion of

Eanmund and
Sweden

Eadgils.
at the time

Onela, 2616, 2932, brother of Ohthere, and king of

Eanmund and

Eadgils.

He

invades the land of

the Geats, slays Heardred (2387), and then retreats before Beowulf. At a later time Beowulf avenges his late king by supporting Eadgils in an invasion of Sweden, in which Onela is slain (2391 ff.). See
Eadgils.

OngenJ>eow {nom. Ongenheow 2486, Ongen]?io 2924, 2951, OugenJ?Iow 2961; gen. Ongen>eowes 2475, Ongenl^eoes 1968, OngenKoes 2387; dat. Ongen>Io 2986), king of the Swedes, and father of Onela and

and Geats, which and more fully in 11. 2910 98. In retaliation for the marauding invasions of Onela and Ohthere (2475), Hathcyn invades Sweden, and takes Ongentheow's queen. Elan (? 62), prisoner. Ongentheow then invades the land of her captor, whom he slays, and rescues his wife; but in his hour
Ohthere.
early strife between the Swedes
is

The

centres round his name,

told in

11.

2472

ff.,

PERSONS AND PLACES.

151

of triumph he is attacked in his turn by Hygelac near Ravenswood, and falls by the hand of Eofor (q. v.). Oslaf, 1148, associated with Gu'Slaf (q. v.) in avenging Hnasfs death.

See Finn.
Sse-Geatas, 1850, 1986, Sea-Geats
;

see Geatas.

Scede-land

(pi.),

19,=:Sceden-ig

(q. v.).

Sceden-Ig- {dat. Sceden-igge 1686; 0. Norse Skaney), Scandia, the

most

southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the

Danes; here used as a name


Scefing, 4, son of Scef or Sceaf,

for the

whole Danish kingdom.


(q. v.).

i.e.

Scyld

Scyld, 4, 19, 26, son of Sceaf,

and the mythical founder


i.e.

of the Scylding

dynasty.

See

11.

152.
Hrothgar.

Scylding (Scilding 2105), 1792, the Scylding,

Scyldingas (Scyldungas 2052; gen. Scildunga 2101, Scyldunga 2159, Scyldinga 30, etc.), 58, etc., the Scyldings, descendants of Scyld
{q. v.),

the

name

of the reigning Danish dynasty,

to include the

Danish people.

Here-Scyldingas,

commonly extended They are also called Ar-Scyldingas, Sige-Scyldingas, and peod-Scyldingas (q. v.). See
i.e.

Dene.
Scylfing (Scilfing 2968), 2487, the Scylfing,
Scylfingas, 2381, the Scylfings, the

Ongentheow.

name

of the reigning Swedish dynasty,

the Danes.
(q. v.).

extended to the Swedish people in the same way as "Scyldings" to They are also called GuS-Scylfingas, Hea^o- Scylfingas
If the

MS. reading

of

1.

2603

is correct,

Beowulf's kinsman Wiglaf

belongs to the family of the Scylfings as well as to that of the

Wgegmundings

(2814).

In that case the relations


:

may

be those

suggested in the following table

Scylf

WtTgmund
Ecg)jeow

Ongen^eow
Weohstan
Wieflaf

Beowulf

Sigemund, 875, 884, son of Waels, and father and uncle of Fitela. In our poem Sigemund slays the dragon ; in the famous later versions of the Volsunga Saga and the Nibelungenlied, it is Sigemund's son,
Sigurd or Siegfried,
Vdlsmifja Saga.

who

does the deed.

See

11.

874

900,
of the

and the
Danes;

Sige-Scyldingas, 597,
see Scyldingas.

2004, Victory-Scyldings, a

name

152
SlltJ-Dene, 463, 1996,

BEOWULF.
;

South-Danes see Dene. Sweon, 2472, 2946, 2958, 3001, the Swedes, called also " Sweo->eod," and their country " Swio-rice." They are ruled by the Scylfing dynasty.
Their

home was

in

Sweden, north
(q. v.).

of the Geats.

Sweo-J)eod, 2922,

= Sweon
Hygelac

Swerting, 1203.

is

called " grandson (nefa) of Swerting."

SwIo-rice, 2383, 2495, the land of the Swedes,

modern Svea
of the

Kike.

See

Sweon.
peod-Scyldingas, 1019, People-Scyldings, a
Scyldingas.

name

Danes;

see

pryHo, 1931, wife of the Angle king Offa, and mother of Eomsr,
introduced in contrast to Hygd, in
is

is

much

the

same way

as

Beowulf. She is at first the type of a cruel, But by her marriage with Offa (who seems to be her second husband) she is subdued and changed, until her fame even adds glory to his. See 11. 193162. UnfertJ, 499, 530, 1165, 1488 (his name is always " Hunfer S " in the MS., but alliterates with vowels), son of Ecglaf, and spokesman He is (1165, 1456) of Hrothgar, at whose feet he sits (500, 1166). of a jealous disposition (503 5), and is twice spoken of as the murderer of his own brothers (587, 1167). For his "flytiug" with Beowulf see 11. 506 606. He afterwards lends his sword Hrunting for Beowulf's encounter with Grendel's mother (1455), but it fails the hero at need (1522, 1659). Beowulf returns it to its owner (1807). Wsigmundingas, 2607, 2814, Wffigm.undings, the family to which both Beowulf and Wiglaf belong. See Scylfingas. Wsels, 897, father of Sigemund. Wselsing, 877, son of Waels, i.e. Sigemund. Wealli|)eow, 612 (Wealhbeo, 664, 1162, 1215; dat. Wealh^eon 629), of the family of the Helmings (620), Hrothgar's queeu, and the mother of his children. Mention is made of her queenly hospitality to Beowulf
a
foil to

Heremod unwomanly

queen.

(612, 1188, 1215).

Wederas
gen.

Wedera 225 etc. but the second scribe uses the contracted Wedra everywhere but in 1. 2336; see 11. 2120, 2462 etc.), = Weder-Geatas, a name of the Geats. See Geatas.
{gen.
;

Weder-Geatas, 1492, 1612, 2379, 2551 see Wederas. Weder-mearc, 298, Wedermark, apparently a name for the land of the Weders or Weder-Geats, i.e. the Geats.
;

Weland, 455 (the " Volund


legend, the
in

" of the Edda), the famous smith of Germanic maker of Beowulf's coat of mail. (See the Franks' casket the British Museum, and cf. Wayland Smith's forge in Berkshire.)

PERSONS AND PLACES.

153

Wendlas, 348, possibly the Vandals; Wulfgar (q. v.) is a "chief of the Wendlas." Weohstan, 2613 {fieri. Weohstanes 2862, Weoxstanes 2602, Wihstanes
2752
Wiglaf,
etc.),

father of Wiglaf,

and slayer
;

of

Eanmuud

(q. v.).

West-Dene, 383, 1578, West-Danes


son of Weohstan.
(2814),

see Dene.

He is a kinsman of Beowulf (2813), a and a "chief of the Scylfings" (2603). He was chosen with ten others (2401, 2847) to accompany Beowulf on his expedition against the dragon (2638 ff.), and he alone justified the choice. Taking shelter under Beowulf's shidld (2675), he showed
Wiegmunding
the utmost valour, and was the
able part (2694
ff.).

first to wound the dragon in a vulnerTo him alone Beowulf made his dying speech,

and gave his dying bequests (2809 ff.). He upbraids the coward thanes and deprives them of their land-right (2886), and gives fitting orders for the burial of the hero, as he himself had directed (2802,
3094 ad
fin.
).

Wi^ergyld, 2051, the


Wonreding-, 2965,

Wonred, 2971, father


Wulf, 2965, 2993,

name of a Heathobard warrior. of Wulf and Eofor (q. v.). son of Wonred, i.e. Wulf (q. v.). son of Wonred and brother of Eofor
is

(q. v.).

In the

battle between the forces of

the latter and


his aid

Hygelac and Ongentheow, Wulf attacks disabled by him, but his brother Eofor comes to
official
ff.),

and slays Ongentheow single-handed (2964 ff.). Wulfgar, 348, 360, 390, a chief of the Wendlas (348); an
Hrothgar's court,

of

who

is

the

first to

greet the Geats (331

and

introduces them to Hrothgar.

Wyinngas

{dat.

Wilfingum

461,

Wylfingum

471),

the

Wylfings.

Heatholaf,

who was

slain by

Ecgtheow, father of Beowulf, was a

warrior of this tribe.

Yrmenlaf, 1324, younger brother of iEschere,


carried
off.

whom

Grendel's mother

PLAN OF GLOSSARY.
The order of words compound verbs, which
is strictly alphabetical, except in the will be found under their simple verbs.

case of

Past participles compounded with ge- are usually glossed under the simple verb (Sievers 366), but there are some marked exceptions; e.g. gegongen is the pp. of gongan in 822, 3036, hut of gegongan in 893, 3085.
38

comes between ad and


J>

af.

R and

are treated as identical,

and come

after

t.

Numierous cross references are given, especially for unusual forms, but not as a rule for mere fiexional forms which a knowledge of grammar should suffice to trace, such as parts of verbs.
All words are glossed under forms which actually occur in the poem, not under normalised forms. When divergent forms of the same word occur and cross references are not given,
io (both initial

and

final)

should be sought under eo,

i,.

y a

(before nasals)

,,

o.

Dative and Instrumental are not distinguished, except when they have different forms, as in the singular of adjectives and of some pronouns.

Small capitals are used for modern renderings which are directly or almost directly descended from the Old English words.

The

following abbreviations alone require explanation


St.

GLOSSARY.
N.B.
All

compound verbs must be sought under


of)

their simple verbs.

a, adv., aye, ever, always, 455, etc. ac, conj., but, 740, 773, etc.

ac, adv. interr., ^Jjat. iionne, used to mark a question, 1990.

ad,

St.

m., funeral pile, pyre, 1110,

etc.

ad-faru, st. /., [pyre-FARing] to the funeral pile, 3010.


adl,
St. /.,

way

illness, sickness, disease,

the hero, warrior," 2260-1; ma^iSum-welan, "after obtaining wealth of treasure," 2750; aefter faroSe, "with the tide," 580. sefter, adv., after, afterwards, 12, 1389, 315 (back), etc. w. m., mortification, ief-tunca, vexation, annoyance, 502. gig-hwa, seg-hwset, pron., each, every one, every man, etc., 1384,
asfter

_ 1736,

etc.

sedre, st. /., stream, canal, vein; swat adrum sprong, dat. pi.

2624; qen. kiiid,"3135.


verbialli/, in

ffighwffis,

"of each

seg-liwses, gen. neut. used ad-

"blood sprang in streams," 2966


blod edrum dranc, "drank blood __in streams," 742.
sedre,

_ gether,

adv., quickly, 354.


in.,

sefen, st.
fierce

sefen-grom,

even, evening, 1235. adj. [EVEN-angry] in the evening, night,

every respect, alto1865, 1886. seg-hwser, adv. everywHERE, 1059. sig-liwse'Ser, pron., either, each [nsu. of two), 2564, 2844. Special passages: ^ghwas'Sres sceal scearp scyldwiga gescad witan, worda

enemy, 2074.
sefen-leoht,
st.

ond
neut.,

even- light,

_413.
even-rest, 1252. fen-spr9BC, si. /., even-speech, speech in the evening, 759. sefnan, see efnan. fre, adv., ever, always, 70, etc. aefter, prejj., after, 85, 119, 931, 1320, 2816, etc.; after, for, concerning, 332, 1342, 1879, 2461; along, among, 140, 944, 995, 2832 (through), etc.; in accordance with, according to, 1049, 1720, 2179, 2753, etc.; on account of, in consequence of, Special passages : 1606, 1943. aefter beorne, "after (the death
sefen-rsest, st.f.,

worca, "a sharp shieldwarrior must know the difference between words and works," 287; ear fo Slice heora ffighw^eSrum,

"with

difficulty for

each one of

_them,"

1636. SBg-hwylc, (1) pron., each, everyone, 1165, with gen. 1050, etc. etc. (2) adj., each, every, 621.
;

seglieca, see

aglca. seg-weard. st. f., sea-WARD, watch by the sea-coast, 241. aht, St. /., owning, possession, power, 42, 516. ht, St./., pursuit, chase, 2957. -sehted, see eahtian. giled, st. m., fire, 3015.

156
seled-leoma, torch, 3125.
sel-fylce,
tc.

BEOWULF.
in.,

fire-gleam,

sern,
serra,

st.

neut.,
ser),

cornpar.
ffirran

st. neut., alien folk, foreign nation, 2371. sel-mihtig, adj. ( = eal-mihtig), al-

adv.
pi.

house, 2225. adj. (formed from earlier, fovmev: dat. mffilum, "in former

_ times,"
ser-wela,

mighty; weak

se ^Elmihtiga, 92.

sel-wiht, St./., [alien-wiGHT] strange

_ monster,

1500. sene, adv., oxee, once only, 3019. senig, adj.-pron., any, anyone, 474, 503, etc.; nom. nges se folc-cyning ymbe-sittendra anig 'Sara >e, "among neighbouring folk-kings there was not one that," 2734. For genige >inga see >ing. sen-lie, adj.^ [one-like] unique, _ peerless, 251, 1941. senne, see an. seppel-fealu, adj., apple-fallow, apple or reddish yellow, 2165. ar, adv., EKE, erst, before, formerly, 15, 642, 718, 2595, etc.; earlier, 2500; first, 3038. Special passages : no >>y sei', "none the sooner," 754, etc.; ser he feorh

907, 2237, 3035. m., [ere-weal] ancient wealth, 2747. St. SBS, neut., carrion, carcase, corpse: dat. atol aese wlanc, " the dire carrion -jDroud creature
st.

(Grendel's mother exulting over

^schere's corpse)," 1332.


[ash] spear, 1772. St. neut., [ash- wood] spear, 330. sesc-wiga, iv. m., [ash- warrior] spear-warrior, 2042.
sesc-liolt,
set,
jj?-<3jj.

sesc, St. m.,

with

dat., at, in, of time

and place,

32, 45, 81, 1089, 1110,

1337, 2270, 3013, 3026, etc.; from, 629, 2860, etc. Special passage : nu is se rd gelaug eft ffit >e anum, "now is the rede _ again along of thee alone," 1377. set, St. m., EATing, meal, 3026.
set-gsedere, adv., together, etc.; after samod, 387,

sele^...ffir

he,

"he

will

sooner
former6,

321,
etc.;

give

up

life

than he," 1370.

seror, compar., before,


ly,_first,

809, 2654.

garas stodon samod setgaedexe, "the spears stood all together,"

aerest, superl., [erst] first,

329^
set-grsepe,
adj.,

_ 2157,
ser,

etc.

GROPing

after,

prep., xoith dat., ere, before, 1388, etc. ser, conj., ere, before: wsw. ivith suhj. 252, etc.; ivith indie. 2019. Correl. icith ser adv. (q. v.), 1371. ser J>on, conj., ere, 732. ser-dseg, st. m., [ere-day] morning twilight, day-break, 126, etc. serende, st. neut. errand, 270, etc. serest, see sir. r-fS6der, st. m., [ere-father] father, 2622. ser-g^estreon, st. nexit., [ERE-treasure] ancient treasure, former gain, 1757, 2232.

grasping at, at grips with, 1269. set-rihte, adv., almost, 1657.


set-somne, adv., together, 2847, 3122, etc. settren, adj., poisonous, 1617. se^ele, adj., noble, 198, 263, etc. sej>eling, st. m., .atheling, noble, prince, 3, 33, 118, 888, 1225, 1294, 1804, 2888, etc. sej>elu, st. neut. (always pi. in "Beowulf"), noble descent, lineage, 332, etc.; dat.pl. fasder fe>elum, "his father's preeminence," 911; BBbelum god, diore, "good, dear, by virtue of lineage," 1870, 1949. _ setSm, St. m., breath, 2593. agan, st.-w. v., pres. ah, pret. ahte own, possess, have, 1088, 1727, etc.; absolutely 31. Neg. form nah = ne-f jlh, 2252.
:

aer-geweorc, st. neut., [ere-work] ancient work, 1679. r-god, adj., [ere-good] good before others, very good, 130, 989,
etc.

GLOSSARY.
agen,
adj.
st.

157

{pp.

of

agan),

own,

2676.
m.
,

Agend,

agend-frea, owner,

w.

OwNer, God, 3075. vi., owNing lord,

J.883. aglgica, sglseca,

w. m., monster, monster-fighter, warrior, chamace. sg. pion, 159, 739, etc. aglffican, 556; gen. dat. aglaacan,
;

ONly, aloNE {more usual with weak form ana, q. v.), 46, gen. anes 1377, 2964 (sole); hwa3t, "a part only," 3010. ana, w. adj., ONly, aloNE, 145, 1081, 2361, 2657. ancor, st. m., anchob, 303, 1883.
(2)

the

anda,
(1)

iv.

m.

1512

(or

nom.

pi.?),

425;

aglie-

cean, 2557, 2520, etc.; ahlsecan, 989, 646; nom. pi. aglgecean, Used of Grendel, 433, 2592. 1269, etc. ; of the dragon, 2535, etc.; of a sea-monster, 556; of Sigemund, 893; of Beoioulf, 1512 (or sea-monsters?); of Beowulf and the dragon, 2592.
aglsBC-wIf,
St.

defiance; dat. indignation against the wroth foe," 708. (2) mischief, horror, 2314. and-git, st. neut., understanding, intelligence, 1059.

indignation,

wra>um on andan, "in

and-long, see ond-long. and-rysno, st.f. etiquette, courtesy


,

attention due, 1796.

and-weard,
swate

neut.,

of a G-rendles modor, ides, agl^c-wlf, 1259. ah, ahte, see agan. ahsian, w. v., endure, suffer, 423, 1206. ge-ahsian, w. v., learn by asking, learn, hear pp. geahsod, 433. aht ( = a-wiht, q. v.), st. neut., aught; with gen. aht cwices, "aught living," 2314. aldor, see ealdor.
; ;

monster

monster-wiFE, woman nom.

ace. neut. sweord swin ofer helme... andweard scire/S, "the blood-stained sword cuts the boar standing on the opposed (foe's) helmet," 1287. and-wlita, iv. ?., face, countenance,
adj.
:

fall

689. an-feald, adj., onefold, plain, 256. anga, iv. adj., ONly, sole, 375, 1262, 1547, 2997. an-geng(e)a, iv. m., [oNE-goer] one who goes alone (of Grendel), 165, 449. an-haga, iv. ni., a solitary, 2368.

Al-walda, Al-wealda, ALL-wiELcer, God,


1314. al-walda,
iv.

iv.

m.,

928,

the 955,

an-hydig,
an-pae'S,

adj.,

ONE-minded,

re-

solute, 2667.

adj.,

ALL-wiELcing,

all-ruling, 316. an, 1225, pres. sg. 1st of unnan, q.v. an, prep., see on. an, num. {adj. and pron.), ace. sg.

m. anne and mine:


(1) ONE, AN, A, 100, 135, 428, 699, 2280, 3077, etc.; with the def. emphatic, someart. 1053, 2237 times perhaps demonstrative, 1458, Special pass1885, 2410, 2774. ages : on eenne SI'S, "once," 1579 gen. pi. anra gehwylces, gehwylcum, " of, to, each one," 732, 784 (= Lat. alter) an agfter anum, "the one for the other," 2461.
;

m., [one-path] loneor single track, 1410. an-rsed, adj., [one-rede] resolute, 1529, 1575. an-sund, adj., sound, 1000. an-syn, see on-syn. an-tid, st. f., 219 (see note). anunga, adv., ONce for all, 634. An-walda, iv. m., [on-wielder]
st.

some path,

God, 1272.
ar,

ar,

m., messenger, 336, 2783. honour, kindness, benefit, favour, grace, 2378, 2606, 1272 gen. pi. arna, 1187 ; dat. pi. arum healdan, "hold in (with)
St. St. f.,

honour," 296, 1099, 1182.


ar-fsest,

[honour-FAsi] adj., right, dutiful, 1168.

up-

158
arian, w.
i\, icith clat.,

BEOWULF.
spare, 598,

bsetan,
St.

lo.

v.,

bridle,

bit;

pp.

-am, see -iernan.


ar-stsef, st. m., favour,

gebffited, 1399.

mercy, kind
horrible,

help, 317, 382, 458. dreadful, adj., atelic,


dire, 784. ater-tan, st.
?.,

poison-twig, 1459.

terrible, adj., dire, atol, eatol, fearful, horrible, 159, etc.; dat.
pi. atolan, 1502.

bseB, neut., bath, 1861. balder, see bealdor. balu, adj., BALEful; dat. pi., balwon, 977. ban, St. neut., bone, 2692 (of the dragon's teeth).

bana, see bona.


ban-cofa, w. m., [bone-cove] body, 1445. ban-faet, st. neut., [bone-vat] body; ace. pi. ban-fatu, 1116. ban-fag, adj., BONE-dight, adorned with bones or antlers, 780. ban-hring, st. m., bone-bing, vertebra, 1567.
ban-htls, st. neut., bone-house, body, 2508, 3147. w. ban-loca, m., BONE-LocKer, flesh, 818.

poison, venom, 2523. [poisontv. m., attor-sceatJa, scATHer] poisonous foe, 2839. OATH, 472, etc. a'S, St. ?. a'8-sweord, st. n., oATH-swEARing, oath, 2064. a^Jum-swerian, iv. m. pi., fatherson-in-law; dat. in-law and
attor,
St.

neut.,

2715; geu.

sg. attres,

aSum-swerian, 84. awa, adv., aye, ever


aldre, "for ever

and

in awa to ever," 955.

bannan, st. v. ge-bannan,


'5a ic

st.

v.,

order; inf.

wide gefrsegn weorc geban-

B.

nan manigre msgjje, "then I learnt that orders for the work
were given widely to tribe, "74.
bat,
St.

badan,

press, press 10. v., beset, hard, oppress, urge, incite, encourage, 2018 pp. gebeeded, 2580, 2826; strengum geb^eded, "sent by the strings," 3117. t)l, St. neut., fire, burning, 2308, 2322; the fire of the funeral pile, funeral pile, pyre, 1019,
;

many

m., BOAT, 211, etc.


st.

bat-weard,

m., [boat-ward] caploitli

tain, 1900.

be, bi, prep.,

dat.,

by

in its

etc.

neut., fire of the st. funeral pile, 3143. biel-stede, st. m., pyre- stead, place _of the funeral pile, 3097. bsel-wudu, st. m., pyre-wooD, wood _for the funeral pile, 3112. bser, st.f., bier, 3105.
biel-fyr,

-bsran,

?.

v.
iv.

ge-bseran,

v.,

bear oneself,

behave,
mleg}>e
bffiran,

2824; zvith two comparatives, ne gefrsegen ic ba


fare,

maran

weorode...sel ge-

"I heard not that that people in greater numbers ever


bore themselves better," 1012. bsernan, w. v., trans., burn, 2313.

various meanings, originally and usu. local, more rarely instrumental (nearer in meaning to Ger. bei than Eng. by) BEside, near, by, 36, 814, 1191, 1537, 1722, 1872, 1905, 1950, 2219, 2243, 2538, 2717,2756; by, along 566 (rest), 1188 (motion) ,1573 by (in "I'll do my duty by you"), in connexion with, 1723. Following its case, him big, 3047. Specialpassages : wapen hafenade heard be hiltum, "raised the sharp weapon by the hilt," 1574; be '6e lifigendum, "during thy life,'' 2665; waes se grj^re ISssa efne swa micle, swa bi'S mBg>a
:

craeft...be

terror

was

less

wepned-men, "the even by so much,

GLOSSARY.
as
is women's power beside (in comparison with) a man, or, as women's power is [accounted less] by a man," 1284. be (bl) siem tweonum^be-

159
st.

beah-J>egu,

/.,

ring-receiving,

2176 (referring to Hygd's receiving from Beowulf the wonderful necklace which Wealhtheow gave him).
beah-wri'Sa, w. m., ring- wreath, circlet, 2018. bealdian, w.v., bear oneself BOLcly, 2177. bealdor, balder, st. m., prince, lord, 2428, 2567. bealo, bealu, st. neut., bale, evil, ruin, 2826 gen. pi. bealwa, 909, bealuwa, 281, bealewa, 2082. bealo-cwealm, st. m., BALEful or violent death, 2265.
;

tweonum sam,

"between the

seas," 858, 1297, 1685, 1956. beacen, st. neut., beacon, sign, monument, 570; 7iom. been, 3160. beacnian, 2v. v., [beckon] indicate; 2)2). gebeacnod, 140.

beado, beadu, st. /., battle, war, 709; gen. beadwe, 1539. beado-grlma, lo. m., battle-mask, helmet, 2257.

beado -hrsegl,

st.

neut., [battle-RAiL]

war-dress, coat of mail, 552. beado-leoma, iv. m., [battle-ray] sword, 1523. beado-mece, st. m., battle-sword, 1454. beado-rinc, st. m., [battle-]warrior, 1109. beadu-folm, st. f., battle-hand, 990. beadu-lac, st. neut., battle-play, battle, war, 1561. adj., beadu-rof, battle-strong, mighty in war, 3160. beadu-rlln, [battle-RUNE] quarrel, 501. beadu-scearp, adj., battle-sHARp, 2704. beadu-scrCld, st. neut., [battleshroud] coat of mail, 453. beadu-serce, ic. f., battle-SARK, coat of mail; ace. s^. beadu-sercean, 2755. [Sievers 159. 1.]

bealo-hycgende, adj. [yres. 2}art.), [BALE-thinking] intending evil,


2565. bealo-hydig, adj., [BALE-minded] intending evil, 723. bealo-nl?, st. m., [BALE-envy, -hate, -mischief] baleful envy, malicious hatred, 1758, 2404; poison, venom, 2714. bearhtm, st. m.
(1)
(2)

brightness, 1766.

sound, 1431. bearm, st. m., [barm] lap, bosom, 35, 1137, 2404 (possession).
neut., bairn, child, son, 469, 3170, etc.; pi. ylda beam, 605, gumena beam, 878, ni-SSa bearn(a), 1005, "the children of men." bearn-gebyrdo, st. /., BAiRN-BiRth, child-bearing; gen. 946. bearu, st. m., grove, wood, 1363. beatan, st. v., beat, smite, paw, 2265; pp. gebeaten, 2359-. been, see beacen. bed(d), St. neut., bed, 140, 1240,
st.

beam,
150,

beadu-weorc,

st. neut.,

battle- work,

battle, 2299.
circlet, (armlet, necklace, etc.); often = VL\oney, treasure; 1211, 80, 523, etc.; ace. 2)1. beg, 3163. beag-gyfa, iv. m., ring-oiver, 1102. beag-hroden, adj. (pi^.), ring-adorned, adorned with diadem, bracelets, 07' rings, 623.

beag, beah, ring,

etc.

beah-hord,

st.

neut.,

ring-HOARD,

894, etc. beah-sele, st. m., ring-hall, hall in which rings were given, 1177.

be-foran, adv., before; of place, 1412, of time, 2497. be-foran, prep., loith ace, before, 1024. beg, see beag. begen, ni., ba, /. and neut., num. and adj.-pron., both, 536, 1305, 2196, etc.; gen. bega folces, "of

160

BEOWULF.
beod-geneat, st. m., board-comrade, table-companion, 343,
1713.

the folk of both [peoples]," 1124; bega wen, " expectation of both things" (I3eowulf's return home and revisiting the Danes; see 11.

beon, irreg.
etc.
;

v., be, usu. tcith


;

afut.

18G8 9),

1873.

sense, 183, etc.


2'es. sg.

be,

happen, 1762,

be-gong, be-gang, st. m., extent, expanse, compass, circuit, 362, 860, etc. ace. bigong, 2367. belgan, st. v., swell with anger, oneself; gebolgen anger pj). "swollen," 2401, "swollen with anger, enraged," 723, 1539, 2220; 2^1- gebolgne, 1481. a-belgan, st. v., anger; j^ret.
;

186, etc., by, 1002, 2277; pi. beo, 1888, bio's, 2063 imperat. sg. beo, 886, etc., bio, 2747. beor, St. neut., beer, beer-drinking, 480, 2041, etc. beorgan, st. v., loith dat., defend, protect, save, 1445, etc. ; pret.
Bi-d bi'S,
;

pi. burgan, 2599.

abealh, 2280. ge-belgan,

be-beorgan,
st.

st.

v.,

with

refl.

v.,

with

dat.,

dat.
(see

and

anger; pret. subj. gebulge, 2331. ben, St. /., [bene] boon, request, 428, 2284. bena, tv. m., suppliant, 852, 864; nom. swa he bena waes, "as he had begged," 3140. bene, st. /., bench, 327, etc. benc-sweg, st. m., BENcn-sound, noise from the benches, 1161.

protect

ace. or dat. rei, defend, (oneself) against, 1746


dat.,

note on 1747), 1758. ge-beorgan, st. v., with


;

protect,

save pret. 2570, gebearh, 1548.

gebearg,

ymb-beorgan,

st.

v.,

[aboutprotect,

protect] surround 1503. beorh, biorb, beorg,

and
st.

m.,

hill,

[bench-thill] bench-board, bench, 486, 1239. bend, st.m.f., band, bond, 977, 1609. ben-geat, st. neut., wound-OATE, opening of a wound, 1121. benn, st.f., wound, 2724. beodan, blodan, st. v. (1) announce, 2892.
benc-J>el,
st.

neut.,

mountain, mount, barrow, grave-

mound,
2807.

211,

2241, 2524,

2529,

beorlit, adj., bright, light, shining,

(2) offer, give,

385, 1085, 2957.


st.

a-beodan,
390;
sages
:

v.,

announce,
hsel

offer,

668.

Sjjecial

pret.

him
hail,

pasahead,

"bade him

wished

him
com-

health," 653; hwlo abead, "bade farewell," 2418.

be-beodan,

st.

v.,

bid,

mand,
(1)

order, 401, 1975.


st. v.

ge-beodan,
bid,

command;

inf.

het

J>a

gebeodan byre Wihstanes...hfeleSa monegum, "then the son of Weohstan ordered that com-

mand

should be given to
offer,

many
603,

heroes," 3110. (2) proclaim, 2369.

give,

splendid, 158, 231, etc.; weak byrhtan, forms, beorhte, 997, 1199, etc. beorbtost, superl., brightest, 2777. beorhte, adv., BRiGHTly, 1517. beorbtian, w. v., /??tm?is., brighten, sound clearly, 1161. beorn, biorn, st. in., hero, warrior, 1024, 2404, 2559, etc. beornan, st. v.,intrans., burn, 2280 (see note) pres. part, byruende, 2272. for-beornan, st. v., intrans., p>ret. for barn, forborn burn up, 1616, 2672, etc. ge-beornan, st. v., intrans., BURN, be burnt, 2697. beom-cyning, st. m., hero-KiNG, warrior-king, 2148. beor-scealc, st.m., BEER-senescHAL, steward, 1240.
;
:

GLOSSARY.
beor-sele, blor-sele, st. m., beerhall, 482, 2635, etc. [BEER-taking] beor-J>egu, st. /., beer- drinking, 117, 617. beot, St. neiit., boast, promise, 80, 523.

161
a-bldan,
sf. v.,

ivithgen.,\hi-D'E,

await, 977.

ge-bldan,
(1)
iisH.

st. v.

ivith

ace.

or

governed

clause, BIDE, abide, endure, ex-

beotian, 2v. v. ge-beotian, tv. v., boast, make a boastful promise, 480, 536. beot-word, st. neitt., [boast-woRD] boastful word, 2510. beran, st. v. (1) BEAR, carry, wear, 48, 437, 2055, 2281, etc.; pres. sg.Jdrd, byre's, 296, etc. pret. pi. b^ron, 213, etc., bffiran, 2850. (2) BEAR, give birth to; pp. geboren, born, 1703. set-beran, st. v., bear to, carry to, bear, 28, 519, etc. for-beran, st. v., forbear, restrain, 1877. on-beran, st. v., bear off, carry away, 2284 take off, 990.
; ;

perience, 264, 929, 1618, 1720, 2445, etc. pp. gebiden, 1928 ; iinperat. absolutely, gebide ge, 2529.
;

(2) toith gen.,

wait for; dat.


.

inf.

gebldanne yrfeweardas, "to wait for another heir,"


o'Sres ... to
. .

2452. on-bldan, st. v., ivith gen., aBiDE, await; inf. lasta^ hilde-

bord her onbidan...worda geHnyour battle-boards here abide the issue of words," 397.
ges, "let

or-bldan,
tarry, 2302.

st.

v.,

aBiDE, wait,

biddan,

bear to, bear, 579. berian, to. v., bare, clear, 1239. berstan, st. v., intrans., burst, 760 (crack), 818, 1121. for-berstan, st. v., intrans., burst, break in pieces, snap, 2680.
ojj-beran,
st. v.,

[bid] ask, beg, pray, pret. sg. baed ; hine bliSne, "begged him to be blithe," 617; loith ace. pers. and gen. rei, ic >e... biddan wille... aiire bene, "I will ask of thee
st.

v.,

29, 176, 1994, etc.

one boon," 427.


big, see bl.
St. neut., bill, sword, 40, 1567, 2777, etc. bindan, st. v., bind: pj). bunden, 216, 1285 (see 11. 1531, 1900), 1900; gebunden, 871, 1531, 1743, 2111. ge-bindan, st. v., bind, 420.

bil(l),

betan, iv. v. ge-betan, lo. v., amend, make good, requite, 1991, 2465; pp.
pi. gebette, 830.

on-bindan,
sg.

st. v.,

unbind

pret.

betera, adj. compar. (o/god), better, 469, 1703. betost, betst, superl., best, loeak forms 453, 3007, etc. betsta, 947, betstan, 1871. excellent, splendid, betllc, arfj., 780, 1925.
;

beadu-riine, "opened a quarrel," 501. bisgu, bisigu, see bysigu. bitan, St. v., bite, cut, 742, 1454,
etc.

onband

bite,

St.

m., bite, 2060, 2259.

biter, adj., bitter, cutting, sharp, furious, 1431, 1746, 2704; dat.
pi. biteran, 2692. bitre, adv., BiTTERly, 2331. blac, adj., bleak, bright, brilliant,

bi, see be.


bi-, see be-,

bicgan, see bycgan.


bid,
St.

neut., Bioing, tarrying, dest.

1517.
blsec, adj.,

lay, 2962.

bidan,

or absolutely, BIDE, abide, remain, await, wait for, 87, 400, 709, etc.
v.,
loitli

gen.

blied, St. perity,

black, 1801. breath, life, prosrenown, 1124, 18, 1703,


m.,

1761.

W.

B.

11

162
blsed-agende,
2_013. blaed-faest,

BEOWULF.
adj.
{pres.

part.),

bord-wudu,

st.

m.,

[board-wood]

abuudance-owNing,
adj.,

prosperous,
re-

prosperous,

nowned, 1299.
blanca, tv. m. a white horse, 856. bleate, adv., miserably, pitifully, 2824. bllcan, St. v., shine, gleam, 222. blltJe, adj., blithe, joyous, 617; gracious, ivith gen., 436.
,

shield ; ace. pi. 1243. bot, St. /., boot, remedy, help, compensation, 158, 909, etc. botm, St. m., bottom, 1506. brad, adj., broad, wide, ample, 2207, 2978, 3105, etc.

blltJ-heort, adj.,
joyful, 1802.

blithe of heart,

St. neut., blood, 742, etc. blodegian, iv. v., make bloody pp. geblodegod, 2692. blod-fag, adj. BLooD-stained, 2060. blodig, adj., bloody, 2440, etc.

blod,

blodig-to'S,

adj.,

BLooDY-TooTHed,
blood-

2081.

blod-reow,

adj., BLOOD-fierce,

thirsty, 17i9.

blonden-feax,a(:ZJ.,[BLENDed-haired] gray-haired, 1594, 1791, 1873; loeak nom. sg. blondeu-fexa, 2962. bodian, w. v., [bode] announce, 1802. bolca, w. m., gangway, 231. bold, St. neut. building, 997, 1925,
,

braedan, w. u.^broaden. geond-braBdan, w. v., overspread, 1239. breatan, st. v. a-breatan, st. v., break up, kill, 2930. brecan, st. v. (1) trans., break, 1100, 1511 (injure), 2980; pp. pi. 2063. Special passages : hine fyrwyt braec, "curiosity tormented him (as to)," 232, 1985, 2784. (2) intraus., break, 2546. ge-brecan, st. v., break, crush, shatter, 2508. to-brecan, st. v., break to pieces, knock about, 780, 997.
|>urli-brecan,
st.

v.,

break

THROUGH, 2792.
brec)>, St. /.,

BREAKing, grief, 171. -bredwian, iv. v. a-bredwian, w. v., overthrow,


slay, 2619.
st. i\,

etc.

bold-agend, st. m. {pres. part.), house-owNer, 3112. bolgen-mod, adj., [bulged-Moon] angry in mind, enraged, 709, etc. bolster, st. m., bolster, 1240. bona, bana, lo. m., bane, banes-

bregdan,
(1)

loith ace. or dat.

man,
etc.

slayer,
st.

158,

1968,

2506,

bon-gar,
bord,
etc.
St.

m., BANE-spear, deadly

spear, 2031.
neut., [board] shield, 2524,

bord-hsebbende, adj. {pres. part.), [BOARD-HAving] shield- bearing,


2895. bord-breo^Ja, lo. m., [BOARD-cover] shield, 2203. bord-rand, st. m., [BOARD-]shield, 2559.

brandish, cast, whirl, drag, draw, 707, 794, 1540 (throw); i)r(?i. pi. mundum brugdon, "brandished your hands," 514 pp. broden, brogden nisei, "drawn {or decorated?) sword," 1616, 1667. (2) braid, weave; inf. bregdon, 2167; pp. broden, 552, 1548; ace. sg. f. brogdne, 2755. a-bregdan, st. v., draw, lift; pret. sg. abrted, 2575. ge-bregdan, st. v., ivith ace. or
;

dat.
(1) draw; pret. gebraggd, gebrsd, 1564, 1664, 2562, 2703. (2) braid, weave; pp. gebroden, 1443. on-bregdan^ st. v., burst open pret. sg. onbrSd, 723. brego, St. m., prince, lord, king,

bord-weal, st. m., [board-wall] wall of shields, 2980.

GLOSSARY.
427, etc.; nom. brego rof cyning, "the prince [was] a brave king," 1925. "brego-stol, st. m., [prince-STOOL] throne, dominion, 2196, 2370, 2389. breme, adj., [brim] renowned, 18. brenting', st. m., high ship, 2807. st. toreost, neut., breast, 552,
etc.

163

sword, 1454, 2126, 2322, 3014, 3160. bront, adj., high, 238, deep, 568. brosniau, w. v., crumble, perish, 2260.
st. m., brother, 1324, etc.; gen. br5or, 2619. brtlcan, st. v., with gen., brook, use, enjoy, 1062, 1178, 1953; loithout expressed object, 1045, 1487, etc.

brojjor,

"breost-gehyg-d,

st. neut., breastthought, thought of the heart, 2818. _ breost-gewsedu, st. neut. 2)1., [breastweeds] coat of mail, 1211, etc. breost-hord, st. neut., [breast-

bran,

adj.,

brown, 2578.

brtln-ecg, adj., BROWN-EDoed, 1546. brtln-fag, adj., BRowN-coloured, of

brown hue, 2615.


bryd,
st.
/'.,

bride, wife, 2031; ace.


neut.,

hoard] breast's treasure, mind,


thought, 1719, 2792. breost-net, st. neut., breast-net, coat of chain-mail, 1548. breost-weorSung, st. /., breast-

sg. bryd, 2930, bryde, 2956.

bryd-btir,

st.

bride-bower,

921. bryne-leoma, lo. m., BURNing-ray (the dragon's vomit of fire), 2313.

woman's room,

adornment, 2504
"breost-wylm,
1877.
st.

(see

11.

1202

If.).

bryne-wylm,

st. ni.,

[BURNing-WELL;

m., [breast- welling] heaving of the breast, grief,

breotan, st. v., break, kill, 1713. a-breotan, st. v., break up, destroy, kill, 1298, 1599, 2707. brim, st. neut., [brim] surge, billow, sea, mere, ocean, 28, 570, 847,
1594, 2803. brim-clif, st. neut., sea-cliff, 222.
brim-litJend, st. sea-farer, 568.
ni.

2326. brytnian, ic. v., distribute pret. sg. brytnade, 2383. brs^tta, w. m., distributer, giver,
fire,

ing] surge of

35, 607, etc. bryttian, ic. v., distribute, bestow, 1726.

bHan,
(1)

St. v.

intrans.,
trans.,

dwell;

inf.

biion,

[brim-cliff]

2842.

brim-lad, st.f., ocean-way, 1051.


{pres. part.),

brim-stream,
1910.

st.

m.,

sea-STREABi,

brim-wisa, w. m., [sea-wisE] sealeader, sea-king, 2930.

brim-wylf,

st.

f.,

she mere-woLF,

1506, 1599.

brim-wylm,

st.

m., mere-WELLing,

dwell in, inhabit, (2) occupy, 3065 2^P- gebun, 117. btlgan, St. v., bow, bend, stoop, 327, (lie at rest) 2598, 2918, 2031, etc.; p7'et. sg. beah, 2956; pp. gebogen, 2569. a-btlgan, st. v., [bow away] give way, start, 775. be-btlgan, st. v., [bow about] encompass, 93, 1223. ge-btlgan, st. v., pret. gebeag,
;

surge, 1494.

gebeah
(1) intrans.,

bringan, st. v., bring, 1829, etc. ge-bringan, St. r., bring; suhj. pres. pi. gebringan, 3009. broden, see bregdan. broga, 10. m., terror, 1291, etc.;
gen. sg. 583. l)rond, St. m., brand, burning,
fire.

bow, bend,

fall,

1540,

2567, 2980.
(2) trans., bow to; pret. sg. selereste gebeah, "lay down on his bed in the hall," 690; so 1241.

bunden-beorde,

adj.,

with

hair

112

164
BOUND up, 3151
3155).
(see

BEOWULF.
note

on

affliction
2)1.

bunden-stefna, w. m., bound stem, bound prow, ship, 1910. bUne, 10. f., cup, drinking-vessel,
2775, 3047.
bilr,
St.

bylJ,

; nom. besigu, 281 dat, bisgum, 1743, bysigum, 2580. see beon.
;

bywan,

u\ v., prepare, adorn, 2257.

neut.,

bower, room, 140,

etc.

burg, burh,
place,

st. /.,

burgh,

fortified

castle, palace, city, 53, 523, 1968, 2433; dat. byrig, 1199 (see note on 1200).

burb-loca,
1928.

?n.

burgh-lock, castle-

lock, barrier of a castle or city,

burb-stede, st. m., burgh-stead, courtyard, 2265. burh-wela, w. m., [BURGH-^YEAL] wealth of a castle or city, 3100. burne, w. /., burn, stream, 2546. ToViton, prej)., ivithdat., but, except,
73, 657, 705. bflton, biitan, conj. (1) icith subj., unless, 966. (2) ivith indie, withouT, but that,

except, 1560 ; iii elliptical sentences, 879, 1614. bycgan, bicgan, w. v., buy, 1305. be-bycgan, w. v., sell, 2799. ge-byegan, to. v., buy, obtain, 973; jjrei. his ealdre gebohte, "paid for [it] with his life," 2481; 2}p-pl- 3014.

byldan,
1094.

iv. v.,

emBOLDEN, encourage,

byme,

^v.f.,

trumpet; gen. 2943.


st.

byrdu-scrtid,

neut., shield-cover-

ing, shield, 2660.

byre, st. m., son, boy, youth, 1188, 2018, 2053, etc. bjrrele, st. vi., cup-BEARer, 1161. byre^, see beran. byrgean, iv. v., taste, 448. byrbt, see beorht. byrig, see burg. bjnrnan, see beornan. byrne, w. /., byrny, coat of mail, 405, etc. bjnrn-wiga, tc. m., BYRNY-warrior, mailed warrior, 2918. bysigu, St. /., [Busmess] trouble.

camp, St. m., battle, 2505. can, see cunnan. candel, st. /., candle, 1572 (of the sun). ceald, adj., cold, 1261, etc. cealdost, superl., coldest, 546. ceap, St. m., [chap] bargain, purchase, 2415, 2482. ceapian, w". i\, [cheapen, chop] purchase; pj). geceapod, 3012. cearian, iv. v., care, take care, 1536. vi., [care- journey] cear-sl^, st. journey fraught with care, expedition that brings sorrow, 2396 (see Eadgils in "Persons and Places"). cearu, st. /., care, sorrow, 1303, 3171. cear-wylm, -wselm, st. m., [careWELLing] surge of care, wave of sorrow, extreme grief, 2821, 2066. [Sievers 159, 2.] ceaster-biiend, st.m., castle-dweller, denizen of a city, 768. cempa, w. m., champion, fighter, 1312, etc.; dat. 2044. cene, adj., keen, bold, brave, 768. cenost, superl., keenest, boldest, 206. cennan, w. v. (1) beget, bear, bring forth, 12, 943. imperat. sg. reft, cen (2) declare ]>ec, 1219.
;

m\

a-cennan,
1356.
cen'Su,
St.
/'.,

?r.

v.,

beget, bear,

keenucss, boldness,

2696.
ceol,
St.

m., KEEL, ship, 38, etc.

ceorfan, st. v., carve. be-ceorfan, st. v., ivitli ace. pers. and dat. rei, cut off, 1590, 2138.

GLOSSARY.
churl, man, 202, 2444, 2972, etc. ceosan, ciosan, st. v., choose, accept, 2376, 2818; 2^P- pl- gecorone, 206. ge-ceosan, st. i\, choose, 1201 (see note on 1200), 1758, 2469, etc.; dat. inf. geceosenne, 1851. cigan, w. v. a-clgan, w. v., call, summon, 3121. cirran, iv. v. on-cirran, iv. v. (1) trans., turn, change, 2857. (2) intrans., turn, return, 2951, 2970. clif, St. neut., cliff, 1911.
-ceorl, St. m.,

165

cuma, w. m., coMer, 1806. cuman, st. i\, pret. c(w)5m: come,
23, 376, 430, 569, 731, 1382, 2058, etc. subj. pres. pi. cymen, 3106; pret.pl. cwomon, 239, etc., cwoman, 650; pp. pi. cumene, 361. Often 7oith foil inf. (which is sometimes best translated by a pres. part.), 268, 710, etc.
;

(1)

be-cuman, si. 1'. |;rei. bec(w)om COME, 115, 192, 2992, etc.
,

(2)

with. ace. pers., befall, 2883.

ofer-cuman, overcome; ^:)ret. sg. ofercwom, 1273; pret. pi. ofercomon, 699 pp. 845. cumbol, St. m., standard, banner,
;

2505.

clomm, clamm,
cnawan, st. i\ ge-cnawan,
nise, 2047.

st.

)>i.,

clasp, grip,

cunnan,

st.-w. v., pres. sg, 1st, Srd,

963, 1335, 1502.


si, ?;.,

know, recog-

on-cnawan,
nise, 2554.

st. v.,

know, recog-

cnilit, St. VI., [knight] boy, 1219. cniht-wesende, adj. {pres. part.), being a boy or youth, 372, 535. cnyssan, lo. v., crash, clash; pret. pi. cnysedan, 1328.

con, can, 2nd, const: (1) ivith ace. or clause, know, be acquainted with, 359, 372, 392, 418, 1180, 1377, 1739, etc.; with ace. and clause, 1355. (2) ivith inf., know how to, be able to, 50, 90, 182, 1746, etc. cunnian, w. v., icith ace. or gen., try, make trial of, explore, 508, 1426, 1444, 1500, 2045.
adj. {pp. of cunnan), known, well known, famous, 150, 867, 1912, etc. ctl'8-lice, adv., openly. ctt'S-lIcor, compar., more openly, 244.
ell's,

col, adj., COOL.

colra, compar., cooler, 282, 2066. coUen-ferli^, -fer^S, adj., [swollenminded] of proud spirit, highminded, bold-minded, 1806, 2785. on, const, see cunnan. corner, st. neut., troop, guard, crowd, 1153, 3121. costian, w. v., loith gen., try, prove, 2084. st. m., might, strength; craeft, skill, CRAFT 699, 982, 2168, 2221 (mass), etc. dat. pi. deofles crtef;
;

cwealm,

st.

m.,

[QUELLing] murder,

death, 107, 3149.

cwealm-bealu, st. neut., death-BALE, deadly evil, 1940.

cwealm-cuma,
coMer, 792.

iv.

m.,

murderous

cweccan,
235.

iv.

v.,

[quake] brandish,

tum, "with
crseftig,

devil's devices, ''2088.

quell, kill, 1334. c-wellan, a-cwellan, w. v., quell, kill,


lo. v.,

[crafty] strong, powerful, 1466, 1962. cringan, st. v., cringe, fall, 635, 1113. ge-cringan, st. v., cringe, fall pret. sg. gecrong, 1568, 2505, gecrang, 1337, gecranc, 1209.
adj.,

886, etc.
st.f., queen, wife, 62, etc. cwen-llc, adj., queenly, womanly. 1940. cwe'Ban, st. v., say, speak, 2041; pret. cwae'S, "quoth," 315, etc. a-cwetJan, st. v., sa^', speak;

ewen,

166

BEOWULF
dsed-fruma,
ic. m., [DEED-chief] doer _of deeds, 2090. dsed-hata, ic. m., [DEED-HATer] one who shows his hatred in deeds, 275. dseg, St. m., DAY, 197, 485, 3159,

pres. sg. acwyS, 2046; pret. sg. acwae'S, "quoth," 654. ge-cwe?Jan, st. v., say, speak, 535, 2664; pret. sg. gecwae'S,

"QUOTH," 857,
cwic,

etc.

cwico, adj., quick, living, alive, 98, 2314, 3093, etc. cwi'San, st. v., with ace, lament, mourn, 2112, 3171.

etc.

daeges, gen. of dseg used adverbially, by day, 1935, 2269.

-cwj^, see -cwe^an. cyme, st. vt., coMing; pL 257. cymen, see cuman.
cym-lice, adv. cym-llcor, compar., in more COMELY fashion, more fitly, 38. cyii(n), St. iieiit., kin, race, 98, 107, 421, etc. cyne-dom, st. vi., KiNgcoM, 2376. cyning, kyning, st. m., king, 11, 619, 3171, etc. cyning-bald, adj., [king-bold] royally bold, 1634. cynn, st. neut., only in pi. {of adj. cyn(n), "aKiN, suitable"), customs, courtesies, etiquette, 613.

dseg-hwil,
ace.
pi.

st. /., day-while, day; he daeg-hwila gedrogen hsefde eor'San wynne, "he had spent his days of earth's joy,"

2726.
dseg- rim, st. neut., [day-bime] number of days ; nom. dogera daegrim, "the number of his days,"

_823.
St. m., deal, part, portion, _share, 621, 1740, 2843, etc. dselan, tv. v., deal, divide, distribute, share, 80, 2534, etc. be-d^lan, w. v., u-ith dat. rei, deprive, bereave, 721, 1275. ge-dselan, iv. v., deal out, 71; divide, part, 731, 2422. darotJ, St. m., dart, javelin, 2848. dead, adj., dead, 467, etc.

dsel,

cypan, u\ v., sell. ge-cypan, w. v., buy, purchase,


hire, 2496. cyssan, ic. v. ge-cyssan, w. v., kiss, 1870. [choosing] choice, St. cyst, /., choiceness, choice quality, excellence, pick, 673, 802, 867, 923,
etc.

deagan,

st. v.,

dye

pret. deatS-fffige

cyKan,
659,
*etc.

ic.

v.,

etc.; 2^P-

make known, show, gecylSed, "made


make known,

known, famed," 262, 700, 1971,


ge-cyUan, w.
257, 354.
v.,

D.

deog, "the doomed one dyed [the mere]," 850. deah, see dugan. deall, adj., proud, 494. dear, dearst, see durran. dea, St. m., death, 441, 2269, 2843, etc. deatJ-bedd, st. neut., death-bed, 2901. deatS-cwalu, st. /., [DEATH-quelling] violent death, murder, 1712. deatS-cwealm, st. m., [DEATH-quelling] violent death, slaughter, 1670. dea'8-dseg, st. m., death-day, 187,

dad, s^

/.,

DEED,

act,

181,

etc.;

885._
deatJ-fsege,a4/., [death-fey] doomed

ace. deed, 585, etc., dssde, 889; gen. pi. hafa'5...dffida gefondad,

to death, 850.
dea'S-sctla,
tv.

"has experienced deeds

(of viol-

m.,

DEATH-shadow,

ence?)," 2454. dsed-cene, adj., [deed-keen] bold in act, 1645.

deadly sprite, 160.


adj., dea'S-werig, dead, 2125.

death-weary,

GLOSSARY.
dealS-wIc,
st.

167

neut.,

[death-wick]

dwelling of death, 1275. deman, w. v., deem; adjudge, 687; appraise, 3174. demend, st. m., judge, 181. denn, st. neut., den, 2759, 3045. deofol, St. m., devil, 756, etc. deogol, see dygel. deop, St. neut., deep, 2549. deop, adj., deep, 509, 1904.
dcor, dior, adj., bold, brave, dire, 1933, 2090. deorc, adj., dark, 160, 275, etc. deore, see dyre. deor-llc, adj., bold, 585. delJ, see don. -digan, see -dygan. diope, adv., deepIj, 3069. diore, see dyre. disc, St. m., DISH, 2775, 3048. dogor, St. neut., day, 219, 2200, 2573, etc.; dat. sg. dogore, 1797, dogor, 1395 (see note) gen. pi. dogora, 88, dogera, 823, ddgra, 1090. dogor-gerim, st. neut., number of days, 2728. doMor, St. /., DAUGHTER, 375, etc. m., [DOLtish yelp] dol-gilp, St. foolish boast, 509. dol-llc, adj., rash, desperate, audacious, 2646. dol-scea^5a, w. m., DOLtish scATHer, foolish or rash foe, 479. dom, St. m., doom, judgment, 441, 1098, etc. free-will, choice, 895, 2147, etc. ; glory, 885, 2666, etc. Special passages: aefter dome, "according to custom, or merit," 1720; dreah aefter dome, "lived, employed himself, according to right, or honour," 2179. dom-leas, adj., [glory-LESs] inglorious, 2890. don, irreg. v., do, make, take, esteem, put, lay, 444, 1116, 1828, etc.; pres. sg. de'5, 1058 pret. sq. dyde, etc., 44, 1676, 2809, etc. Special passages: him Hunlafing hildeleoman ... on bearm dyde, the son of Hunlaf thrust the sword into his [Hengest's] breast," 1144 (see
;
;

note); ne him baes wyrmes wig for wiht dyde, eafo^ ond ellen,

"he esteemed the worm's warfare as naught, its strength

and

courage," 2348. ge-don, St. v., do, make, put, esteem, 2090, 2186; pres. sg.
gede-5, 1732. dorste, pret. of durran. draca, iv. m. (1) DRAKE, dragon, 892, 2088; (2) the drake or dragon, the slaying of which forms Beowulf's third great exploit, 2211, etc.

-drdan, sL

v.

on-drsedan, st. v., dread, 1674, 2275; pret. ondred, 2347. dreah, see dreogan. dream, st. m., [dream] joy, mirth,
88, 99, etc.

dream-leas, adj., joyLESS, 1720. drefan, z(7. v., trouble, stir, 1904; pp. gedrefed, 1417. dreogan, st. v., [dree] do, go through, experience, endure, suffer, enjoy, 589, 1470, 2179 etc. imperat. sg. {see dom), dreoh, 1782 pret. sg. dreah, 13i; pret. pi. drugon, 798, 1966; pp. gedrogen, "spent," 2726. Special passage: sund-nytte dreah, "(did swimming-office, i.e.) swam," 2360. a-dreogan, st. v., endure, 3078.
;
;

dreor, st. m., blood, 447. dreor-fah, adj., blood-stained, 485. driorig, adj., [dreary] dreorig, bloody, 1417, 2789.

dreosan, st. v. ge-dreosan,


fail,

sink, st. v., fall, decline, 1754, 2666. drepan, st. v., strike, hit; pret. sg.

2880; pp. drepen, 1745, dropen, 2981. drepe, st. v., stroke, blow, 1589. drifan, st. v., drive, 1130, 2808. to-drlfan, st.v., drive asunder,
drep,
545. driht-, see dryht-. drihten, see dryhten.

'

'

drlncan,

st.

v.

drink, 742,

1233,

168
1945, etc.
;

BEOWULF.
2>P-

druncen, "drunk,
{iiot

dugulJ,

having

drunk

necessarily
;

DOUGHtiness, the St. /., DOUGHtY, doughty warriors, noble


warriors, 498, 2020, etc.; often coupled ivith geogo^, "the youthful", 160, etc. nom. pi. dugu'Sa,
;

intoxicated)," etc. pi. 531, druncne, 480, etc. drinc-fset, see drync-fset. drohtotJ, St. m., way of life, calling, 756.

dropen, see drepan. drtlsian, u\ v., become turbid?, subside?, 1630.

2035; dat. pi. for dugeSum, "in virtue of doughtiness, by dint of doughty deeds," 2501; dugu"Sum, "doughtily, or to the doughty,"
3174. *durraii, st.-io. v., dare; pres. sg. dear, dearst, 684, 621; pres. subj. dyrre, 1379; ^jrei. s(j. dorste, 1462, 2848, etc. duru, st.f., DOOR, 388, 721. dwellan, lo. v., mislead, deceive, hinder pres. sg. dweleS, 1735. dyde, dydon, see don.
;

dryht-bearn, st. neiit., [noble bairn] noble youth, noble scion; ace. 2035. dryhten, drihten, st. m.
(1)

lord,

chieftain,

etc.;

dat.

dryhtne,
1831.

1484, 1050, 2482, etc.,

dryhten
(2)

(?),

Lord

(of

the Deity), 108, etc.

dryht-gmna, driht-guma, lo. m., [clansman] warrior, noble warrior,

dygan, w\ v. ge-dygan,
survive,

noble man, 99, 1790,

etc.

escape,

ge-digan, iv. v., endure, 300,

dryht-llc, driht-llc, adj., lordly, courtly, royal, noble, excellent, 892; tceak neut. drihtlice wif, 1158. drylit-ma'Sum, st. m., lordly treasure, splendid treasure, 2843. [dryht-,] driht-scype, st. vi., [warrior-SHip] heroic deed, 1470. dryht-sele, driht-sele, st.m., lordly hall, warrior-hall, 485, etc.

578, 661, etc. dygel, deogol, adj., secret, hidden, 275, 1357. dyhtig, adj., doughty, 1287.
iv. v., din, resound; dynede, 767, etc. dyre, deore, adj., dear in

dynnan,
sg.

piret,

both
560,
diore,

senses, costly

and beloved,
etc.;

1528,

1879,
sg.

mm.

dryht-sibb,

st.

/.,

troop-peace,

peace between bands of warriors,


2068.
drync-fset, drinc-fset, st. n., [drinkvat] drinking-vessel, 2254, 2306.

drysmian,
dtlfan,

ic.

v.,

darken,

grow

f. deorre, 488. deorest, superl, dearest, 1309. dyrne, adj., secret, hidden, 271, 1879, etc. dyrre, see durran. dyrstig, adj., daring, bold; ivith gen. 2838'.

1949; gen.

dark, 1375.
St. v., dive. ge-dtlfan, st. v., dive into, sink into j^ret. sg. gedeaf, 2700.
;

E.
eac, adv., eke, also, 97, etc.; once
ec, 3131. eacen, adj. {pp. of *eacan), [EKEd]

J>urli-dtlfan,
sg. Jjurhdeaf,

st.

v.,

dive
pret.

THROUGH, swim through;


1619.
v.,

great, extensive, mighty,


ful, 198,

power-

dugan,

pres. sg. indie. deah, 369, etc.; pres. sg. subj. duge, 589, etc. ; pret. sg. dohte,
st.-w.

1621, 1663, 2140.


adj.,

eacen- or seftig,

enormously

1344,

1821,

etc.

be Douonty,
tcith gen.

avail, 369, 573, etc., 526; treat (with dat.),

1821

rely,

1839.

strong, immense, 2280, 3051. eadig, adj., rich, prosperous, 1225, 2470. eadig-llee, adi\, happily, 100. eafor, see eofor.

GLOSSARY.
eafora, eafera, ic m., child, sou, 12, 375, etc.; pi. descendants, successors, 1710: dat. pi. eal'eran, 1185. eafolJ, St. neut., strength, might, 902, etc.; ace. pi. eofo'So, 2534; dat. pi. eafe'Sum, 1717. Special passage: ic him Geata sceal
ealder-, see

169
under ealdor-. st. f., old saga, old
'

eald-gesegen,
eald-gesItJ,

tradition, 869.
st.

m.,

old comrade,

eafoS ond ellen...gu}>e gebeodan, "I shall proclaim to him in war the strength and courage of the Geats," 602 (see note). eage, w. neut., eye, 726, etc. eagor-stream, st. m., water-STREAM,
513.

853. eald-gestreon, st. neut., old treasure, 1381, etc. eald-hlaford, st. m., old lord (Beowulf), 2778. ealdor, aldor, st. m., [alder- in alderman] chief, lord, prince, sovereign, 56, 346, 369, 1644, 1848, 2920, etc. aldor-leas, adj., princeLESs,

without a chief, iS.


aldor-Jiegii,
st.

eahta,

num., eight, 1035; gen. eahta sum, "one of eight, with seven others," 3123.

m.,

[prince-

thane] chief thane, 1308.


ealdor, aldor, st. neut., life, 1371, 1442, etc.; vitals, 1434. Special phrases: to aldre, "for life, for ever, always," 2005, 2498; awa to aldre, " for ever and ever," 955. aldor-bealu, st. neut., life-BALE, death, 1676.

eahtian, iv. 'v., consider, deliberate about, esteem, watch over, rule:
jxres. pi.

ehtiga'5,
;

1222

pret. sg.

eahtode, 1407 pret. pi. eahtedon, 172, eahtodan, 3173; pp. geaehted, 1885.
eal(l), adj., all. 111, 523, 652, 705,

914, 2739; nom. sg.


neut.

f. eal,

1738;

pi. eal, 486; uninjiected, In some instances it 2042, 3164. impossihle to say certainly is ivhether the word is an adj. or an adv.'. n, 1230, 1567, 1620, 2241. Substantively, sg. and pi. : 145, 649, 2162, 2794, 1727 (all things), 2461 (everything) ; gen. pi. ealra,

aldor-cearu, st. f., life-CARE, 906. aldor-dseg, ealder-dseg, st. m., life-DAY, day of life, 718, 757. aldor-gedal, st. neut., life-parting, death, 805. ealdor-gewinna, w. m., [life-wiNNer] life-adversary, 2903. ealdor-leas, aldor-ieas, adj., lifeLESs, 1587, 3003.
eal-fela,
o.dj.,

"in all," 3170; toith gen. 744, 835, 1057, 1122, 2149, 2727. eal, adv., all, 1708, 680 {see
J?eah).

many, with
fela... worn,

gen.,

[ALL-many] very 883; ace. eal-

ealles, adv. {gen. o/"eall), all,

altogether, 1000, 1129. eald, adj., old, 72, 357, 1776, etc.; ace. 2^1- neut. ealde, 2330. Special passages: eald Metod, "our God of old, " 945 gold-maSmas heold eald under eorSan, "the old held gold-treasures [dragon] under the earth," 2415. yldra, compar., elder, older, 468, etc. yldesta, weak superl., eldest, oldest, 258, etc.
;

"a very great number," 869. ealgian, w. v., defend, protect, 796, 1204, etc.
eall, see eal. eal(l)-gylden, (idj., all-golden, 1111, 2767. eall-Irenne, adj., all-iron, 2338. ealo-benc, ealu-benc, st. /., alebench, 1029, 2867. ealo-drincend, st. m. {pres. part.), ALE-DRINKCr, 1945. ea-lond, st. neut., water-LAND; ace.

ea-lond dtan, "the sea-board," 2334.

170

BEOWULF.
ea'Se, yUe, adj., easy, pleasant, 228,

ealo-wsBge, ealu-wsege, st. neut., ALE-stoup, ale-can, tankard of ale, 481, 495, 2021. ealu-scerwen, st. /,, ALE-dearth, tenor as of a dearth of ale, great terror, 769. earn, st. m., ["ebie" Spenser] uncle, mother's brother, 881. eard, st. m., country, estate, home, abode, dwelling, 56, 104, 1621 (expanses), 1727, 2198, 2493, 2736, etc. eardian, ir. v. (1) intrans., dwell, rest, 3050. (2) trans., inhabit, 166; inf. wic eardian, "take up his abode," 2589. eard-lufu, w. /., home-LovE, dear home?, 692. [Sievers 279, N.
1-]

1002, eic.;' once ee, 2586.


eatSe, adv., easily, 478, etc.

eatJ-fynde, adj., easy to find, 138. eawan, see ywan. eaxl, St. /., [axle] shoulder, 835,
etc.

eaxl-gestealla,

w.

comrade,
1714.
ec, see eac.

bosom

m., shoulderfriend, 1326,

ece, adj., eternal, 108, etc. ecg, St. /., EDGE (of a weaj)on),

sword, 1106, 2506, etc. ecg-bana, ic. m., [edge-bane] slayer with a weapon, sword-slayer, 1262, ecg-hete, st. m., edge-hate, swordhate, hatred leading to war, 84,
1738.
ecg-)>racu, st.f., EDOE-onset, swordonset, armed attack, 596.

eard-weall,
earfotJ,
st.

st.

m., land- wall, 1224.

neut.,

hardship, hard
;

ed-hwyrft,

battling,
earfo^J-lIce,

endurance
adv.,
;

ace.

i^l.

earfet5o, 534.

st. m., return, change, reverse, 1281. edre, see dre, st. f.

hardly,

difficulty, 86, etc.

with with trouble,

ed-wenden,
edwit-llf,
life
St.

st. /.,

return, change,

1774, 2188.
neut., life of reproach,

sorrowfully, 2822. earfotJ-^rag, st. /., time of stress, time of tribulation, 283. earg, adj., cowardly; gen. absoearges SI'S, "coward's lutely,

of infamy, 2891.

efn, adj., even. on efn, with dat., beside, 2903.


v.,

even with,

way," 2541. earm, st. m., akm, 513, etc. earm, adj., wretched, 2368, 2938; iveakfem. earme, 1117. earmra, compar. more wi-etched, 577. earm-beag", st. m., ABM-ring, armlet, 2763.
,

earm-hread,

st. /.,

ARM-ornament,

1194. earm-llc, adj., wretched, miserable, 807.

earm-sceapen, adj. {jU^-), wretchedSHAPEN, miscreated, miserable,


1351, 2228. earn, st. m., eagle, 3026. eart, abt, 352, 506^ 2nd sg. pres. indie, o/ wesan (q. v.). eastan, adv., from the east, 569.
eatol, see atol.

achieve, perefnan, sefnan, w. form, accomplish, do, make, 1041, 1254, etc.; j^P- geasfned, 3106; a"5 waes geaefned, "the oath was sworn," 1107. ge-sefnan, ic. v., perform, etc., 538. efne, adv., even, 943, etc. efstan, w. v., hasten, 1493, etc. ["Beitrage," x. 506.] eft, adv., AFTer, afterwards, again, back, 56, 135, 123, 296, etc. eft-cyme, st. m., back-coMing, return, 2896. eft-sItJ, St. m., back-journey, return, 1332, etc. eg-clif, St. neut., sea-CLiFF, 2893. egesa, st. m., fear, terror, 784, etc.; ace. egsan, 276. eges-fuU, adj., terrible, 2929.

GLOSSARY.
eges-llc, adj., terrible, 1649, etc. egl, adj., [AiL=:a spike or awn of

171

elne, see ellen. elra, adj. {compar. o/*ele), another,

barley] claw, 987. egsa, see egesa. egsian, ic. v., cause terror, affright; })ret. egsode eorl, " the earl caused terror," 6. eg-stream, st. m., water-stream, ocean current, 577.

ehtan,

tv.

v.,

with gen., pursue,

159, 1512. ehtigat$, see eahtian. elde, see ylde. eldo, see yldo. el-land, st. neut., alien land, strange land, 3019. ellen, st. m. neut., strength, courage,

bravery, 573, 893, 2706, etc.; elne, sometimes best dot. sg. rendered by an adv., "courage; sometimes ivith ously," 2676 strictly adverbial force, "quickly," 1967, "absolutely," 1097, "altogether," 1129. ellen-dsed, st. /., [strength-DEED] deed of strength or courage, 876, 900. _ ellen-ggest, st. m., [strength- ghost]

752. el-^eodig, adj., of alien nation, foreign, 336. ende, st. m., end, 822, 1734, etc. ace. hsefde eor'S-scrafa ende genyttod, "had had the last of his earth-caves," 3046; dat. eorluni on ende, "to the earls at the end (of the high table?, i.e. the noblest)," 2021. ende-dseg, st. m., end-day, day of death, 637, etc. ende-dogor, st. m., END-day, day of death, 2896. ende-laf, st. /., [END-LEAving] last remnant, 2813.

ende-lean, st. neut., END-reward, final reward, 1692.


ende-sieta, iv.m., [END-sitter] coastguard, 241. ende-stsef, st. m., [end-staff] end

powerful sprite, 86. adv., mightily, courageously^2122. ellen-maerUu, st. /., [might-greatness] fame for strength or courellen-llce,

on ende-stffif, "towards, in, the end," 1753. endian, lo. v. ge-endian, w. v., end; pp. geendod, 2311. enge, adj. narrow, 1410.
ace.
,

ent, St. m., giant, 1679, etc. entisc, adj., gigantic, 2979. eode, eodon, see gan.

eodor,

st.

m.
;

age, feat of strength, 824, 1471.

ellen-rof,

courage - strong, famed for strength or courage,


adj.,

340, 1787, etc.

[strength -sick] adj., ellen-sloc, strengthless, 2787. neut., strengthellen-weorc, st.

woKK, deed of might or courage,


661, etc.
elles,
etc.

adv.,

else,

otherwise,

138,

ellor, adv., ELsewhithEK, 55, etc. ellor-gast, ellor-giest, st. m., [elsewliither-GHOST] sprite living else-

where, alien sprite, 807, 1349, 1617, 1621. ellor-sflJ, St. m., journey elsewhither, death, 2451.

barrier ace. pi. under eoderas, "under the barriers, into the house," 1037, (2) protector, lord, prince, 428, etc. ; nom. eodur, 663. eofer, eofor, st. m., boar, figure of a boar upon a helmet, 1112, 1328 ace. eafor, 2152. eofer-spreot, st. m., boar-spear, 1437. eofor-llc, St. neut., boar-LiKEness, figure of a boar upon a helmet pi. 303. eofo'S, see eafotJ. eolet, St. m. or neut., sea (?) gen. >awes sund liden eoletes set ende, "then was the sound traversed at the far side of the sea," 224.
(1) fence,
;

172
eom, AM, see wesan.
eorclan-stan, 1208.
st.

BEOWULF.
a giant, 1558, 2979
2616.
;

ace. etonisc,

m., precious stone,


st.

eoten-weard,
f.

eored-geatwe,

pi.,

troop-

st. /., [eoten- ward] ward or watch against a monster;

trappings, military equipments, 2866. eorl, St. m., earl, noble, warrior, 6, 248, etc. eorl-gestreon, st. neut., earls' treasure, 2244. eorl-gewsede, st. ?iei/i., [earl- weeds] armour, 1442. eorllc ( = eorl-lic), adj., earl-like, noble, 637. eorl-scipe, st. m., earlship, courage, heroic deeds, 1727, 2133,
etc.

ace. eoten-weard ahead, "offered watch against Grendel," 668 (see note).

eow, pers. pron., ace. anddat.pl.


(o/Ki), YOU, 391, 2865, etc.

eowan,

see

ywan.

eower, pers. pron., gen. pi. {of]>\\), of YOU, 248, etc. eovrev,poss. adj., your, 257, etc.
eowic, pers. pron., ace. pi. (o/]>u), YOU, 317, 3095.
est, st.f., favour, grace, 958, 2165,

eorl-weorod, st. neut., [EARL-host] warrior-band, 2893. eormen-cynn, st. neut., [extended, enormous kin] mankind,
1957.

ace. Jjaet ic his arest 'Se est ; gesasgde, " that I should first give thee his kindly greeting," 2157; dat. pi. estum, loith adverbial
etc.

eormen-gTund, st. neut., [enormous ground] the whole broad earth,


859.

eormen-laf, st. neut., [enormous LEAving] immense legacy, 2234.


eorre, see yrre. eortJ-cyning, st. m., earth-king, earthly king, 1155. eortS-draca, w. m., earth-drake,

"graciously, force, gladly, 'kindly," 1194, 2149," 2378. este, adj., gracious; with, gen. hyre este wiere bearn-gebyrdo, was gracious to her in her childbearing," 945. etan, st. v., eat, 444, 449.
'
. . .

'

Jjurli-etaii,
p>p. pi.

.si. ik, eat through; >urhetone, 3049.

etonisc, see eotenisc.


e'8-beg'ete,
e15e,

adj.,

[easy-BEooiten]

earth-dragon, 2712, etc. eor^e, ic. /., earth, world, 92, 2834,
etc.

easily got, 2861. see eatJe.

e^Jel, St.
st.

eor'S-htls,

neut.,

earth-house,

m., native land, fatherland. land, estate, 520, 1730, etc.


st.

2232. eor^-reced, st. neut., EARTH-house, earth-hall, 2719.


eorfl-scrsef,
(fen. pi.
st.

eiJel-riht,

neut.,

land-RiGHT,

2198.
elJel-stol, St. m., [fatheiiand-sTOOL]

neut.,

EARTH-cave;

native seat;

jyl.

country, 2371.

eor'S-scrafa, 3046.
st.

eorU-sele,
etc.

m., EARTH-hall, 2410,

elSel-turf, st.f., native turf, native soil; dat. eSel-tyrf, 410.

etJel-weard,

st.

m.,

fatherland-

earth-wall, m., eorC-weall, st. 2957, etc. eoriJ-weard, st. m., EARTH-posseslocality, land-property, sion, 2334. eoten, eoton, st. m., eoten, giant, monster, enemy, 112, 421, 668,
761, 902, etc. eotenisc, eotonisc, adj., gigantic, of

WARDen, guardian of his country,


616, 1702, 2210. etJel-wyn, st. /., land- joy, home joy, 2885; ace. e'5el-wyn, 2493. e^-gesyne, y15-gesene, adj., [easy-] manifest, easilv visible {not seen, 2}p.), 1110, 1244.

GLOSSARY.
fiet-gold,
St.

178
neut., plated gold, 1921.

facen-stsef, st. m., treachery, 1018. fsec, St. neut., period of time, 2240,
fseder,
st.

fsitt, see

fated.
m.,

fse'Sm,

St.

[fathom] embrace,
1393, etc.

m.,

fathek, 55, 316 (of

bosom,

lap, 185, 188,

God),

etc.; ge)i. fseder, 911.

power, 1210.
fsetJmian, w. v., embrace, 2652, etc. fag, fah, adj., stained, coloured, variegated, bright, shining, 305,

fsederen-mseg-,

father's st. m., kinsman, kinsman on the father's

_side, 1263.
faege, adj. fey,

doomed, 846,

etc.

fsegen, adj., fain, glad, 1633. fseger, adj., fair, beautiful, 522, etc. fsegere, fsegre, adv., fairIj, be-

420 1615, 1631, 2217, 2701, (blood-stained), 1038 (bedecked),


2671
(flashing),
etc.
;

ace. sg.

m.

comingly,
etc.

courteously,

1014,

J.788, -f8egon,_see -feon.


fseli'S, fpehlSo, st. f.
,

feud, hostility,

2403, 2999; ace. fsehSe, 153, etc., _fffiglr5e, 2465, fseh'So, 2489. fsBlsian, lo. v., cleanse, 432, etc.; pp. gefffilsod, 825, etc. fmne, 2v. /., bride, lady, 2034, 2059.
fser, St. neut., craft, vessel,

fagne, fahne, 725, 446, etc. mh, fag, adj. (1) hostile, 554; nom. he fag wi'S God, "he a foe to God," 811. Substantively, foe ; ace. sg. m. fane, 2655; gen. pi. fara, 578,

1463.
(2)

guilty,

outlawed, 978, 1001,

1263. fahne, see fag, fah.

fami(g) -heals, adj., FOAMY-necked,


218, 1909. fandian, see fondian.

33.

m., FEAR, sudden danger, _1068, 2230. fjer-gripe, st. m., fear-grip, sudden _grip, 738, etc. st. fser-gryre, m., [FEAR-terror] sudden terror, terror of sudden danger, 174. fseringa, adv., suddenly, 1414, etc. fser-nl'S, st. m., [FEAR-malice] sudden mischief, sudden horror, 476. fsest, adj., fast, 303, 1742, etc.; often with dat. 1290, 1878, etc.

fEr,

St.

fane, see fah, filg. -fangen, see -fon. fara, see fah, fag. faran, st. v., fare, go, 124, 1404, 1895, etc.; dat. inf. farenne,1805. ge-faran, st. v., fare, 738. faro^J, St. )u., tide, stream, flood,
28, etc. fea, pi. adj.,

fsestan,

iv. v.,

fasten.
iv.

be-fsestan,

v.,

commit

to,

1115.
fseste, adv., fast, 554, etc.

fsestor, compar.,

faster, 143.

fsesten,

st.

neut., fastucss, strongetc.

hold^ 104,
fsest-raed,

adj., [fast-rede] purposed, steadfast, 610.

firm-

few; ace. [ivith gen.) tea worda, 2246, 2662; gen. feara, 1412,3001 ; dat. feaum, 1081. -feah, see -feon. fealh, see feolan. feallan, st. v., fall, 1070, etc. pret. sg. feol(l), 772, 2919, etc. be-feallan; j)P' befeallen, "deprived, bereft," 1126, 2256. ge- feallan, st. v. (1) intrans., fall, 1755.
(2)

trans.,

fall

to,

fall

on

to,

faet, St. m.,

fait,

St.

vat, vessel, flagon, 2761. neut., plating, gold-plate,

2100, 2834.
fealo, see fela.

_716, 2256.
fseted, fsBtt, adj. {pp.), plated, gold-

plated, 333, etc.


adj., with bridle fated-hleor, covered with plates of gold, 1036.

fealu, adj., fallow, yellow, dun; m. fealone, 1950; /. ace. sg. fealwe, 916 ; ace. pi. fealwe, 865. fea-sceaft, adj., wretched, destitute, 7, etc.

174
feax,

BEOWULF.
-feon,
St. V.

St. neut., hair, hair of the head, 1647; dat. fexe, 2967. fedan, 2v. v., feed. a-fedan, iv. v., bring up, 693.

-fegon, see -feon. -feh, see -feon. feh, see fon.

ge-feon, st. v., rejoice; pret. sg. gefeah, 109, etc.^ gefeh, 827, etc. pret. pi. gefaegon, 1014, gefegon, 1627. feond, St. m., fiexd, foe, 101, 164,
;

etc.

FILE gen. pi. fela lafe, "leavings of files, i.e. swords," 1032. fela, St. neut., indecL, much, many,
fel, St. f.
,

feond-grap,
feond-scaUa,

st. /.,

FiEND-grip, foe's

grasp, 636.
lo. m., [FiEND-scATHer] dire foe, 554. feond-scipe, st. m., fiendship, en-

586, 2106. Usu. loitli gen. sg. or pi. 16-4, 809, 876, 929, 992, 1060, 1888 fealo,
;

mity, 2999.
feor, adj., fak, 1361, 1921. feor, adv., fak, afar, 42, 542, 808, 1221, etc.; once feorr, 1988; of

2757 ; see also worn. Used as an adj. qualifying worn


(q. v.),

fela,

530, etc. adv., much,

greatly,

1385,

time, "far back," 1701. fyr, feor, compar., farther, 143,

2102, 3025, 3029, 694 {see micel). fela-geomor, adj., very sad, 2950. fela-hror, adj., very vigorous, 27. fela-modig, adj., [very moody] very
brave, 1637. fela-synnig, adj., very sixful, 1379. fell, St. neut., fell, skin, 2088.
fen(n),
st.

252, 1340. feor-btlend, st. m. (pres. part.), far dweller, dweller afar; pi. 254.
feor-cy'8'8,
st.
f.,

far country;

j;/.

feor-cy-5-5e, 1838.

feorh,

St. m. neut., life, 73, 439, 1152 (bodies), 1210, 2040, etc.;
;

neut.,

fen, moor, 104,

2009, etc.
fen-freo^5o, st.f., FEN-refuge, 851. feng, St. m., clutch, grasp, 578, 1764. feng, see fon. fengel, st. m., prince, 1400, etc. fen-gelad, st. neut., FEN-path, 1359. fen-lili1$, St. neut., FEN-slope; ^yl. fen-hleotiu, 820. fen-hop, St. neut., FEN-retreat, "sloping hollow with a fenny

gen. feores, 1433, etc. dat. feore, 1843, etc. dat. pi. feorum, 73, etc. Special passages: ace. ferh {see wrecan), 2706; was in feorh
;

dropen, "was mortally wounded," 2981; widan feorh, "ever," 2014; dat. to widan feore, "ever," 933. feorh-bealu, -bealo, st. neut., life-BALE, deadly evil, 156, 2077,
etc.

bottom"
feoh,
St.

(Skeat), 764.
neut.,

fee,

property,

money;
feoh-gift, gift of

dat. sg., feo, 156, etc. -gyft, st. /., fee-gift,

money, valuable

gift, 21,

1025, etc.
feoh-leas, adj., fee-less, not to be atoned for with money, 2441.

feohtan, st. v. ge-feohtan, st. v., fight, 1083. feohte, 10. f., fight, 576, 959. feolan, st. v., penetrate; pret. sg. fealh, 1281, 2225.
aet-feolan,
st. v.,

feorh-benn,sf. f., life-wound, deadly wound, 2740. feorh-bona, iv. m., [life-BANE] murderer, 2465. feorh-cynn, st. neut., life-KiN, generation or race of men, 2266. feorli-genI"Sla, w. m., life-foe, deadly foe, 969, etc. feorh-last, st. in., life-step, 846. feorh-legu, st. /., LAving down of
life;

ace. nu ic on ma'Sma hord mine bebohte frode feorh-lege,

cleave, stick;

pret. ffitfealh, 968.

that in exchange for the of treasures I have sold the laying down of my old life," 2800.

"now

hoard

GLOSSARY.
feorh-seoc, adj., wounded, 820.
life- sick,

17,
of- ferian,

mortally

iv. v., to.

oiJ-ferian,

v.,

bear off, 1583. bear away,


belted

feorh-sweng, st. m., [life-blow] deadly blow, 24S9. feorh-wund, st. /., life-wouND, deadly wound, 2385. feorm, st. /., food, sustenance, 451. feormend, st. m. {pres. part.),
polisher; pi. 2256.

save, 2141.

fetel-Mlt,

St.

neut.,

hilt,

1563.
fetian, iv. v., f-etcs; pp. fetod, 1310. ge-fetian, u\ v., fetch, bring,

2190.
fetJa, IV. m., trooj)

feormend-leas, adj., polisher-LESS, wanting the furbisher, 2761. feormian, ic. v. (1) polish; subj. pres. 2253. (2) eat, devour; pp. gefeormod,
744.
feorr, see feor.

on foot, troop of warriors, troop, 1327, 1424, 2544,


etc.

feorran, adv., from aFAK, (1) of space, 361, etc. 91, 2106 (2) of time,

(of old times). feorran-cund,rfj.> come from aFAR, 1795. feor-weg, st. m., far way, distant land, 37. feower, num., four, 59, 1637, etc. feower-tyne, num., fourteen, 1641. feran, 2v. v., fare, go, 27, 839, etc.; subj. jjres. pL, feran, 254.

movement, pace, St. neut., 970. fetJe-cempa, iv. m., foot-champion, foot-warrior, 1544, etc. fe^Se-gest, st. m., foot-GUEST, 1976. fetJe-last, st. m., [movement-track] foot-track, 1632. fe'Ser-gearwa, st. f. ^j/., feathergear, 3119. fe'Se-wig, St. m. foot-war, battle on foot, 2364. fex, see feax. fif, mwi., FIVE, 545; injiected, fife, 420. flfel-cynn, st. neut., monster-KiN, race of monsters, 104,
feUe,
,

fif-tene,

ge-feran,

lo.

v.

reach, (1) trans., go to, bring about, 1221, 1855,

gain, 2844,

num., fifteen; ace. fyf1582; injiected gen., flftena sum," with fourteen others,"
tyne,

207.
fiftig,

3063.
(2) intrans., fare, behave; pret. pi., frecne geferdon, "they be-

num., fifty; as adj. 2209; with gen. 2733; injiected gen. sg.

haved daringly," 1691.


ferh, 2706, see feorh. ferh, St. m., [farrow] boar, figure of a boar on a helmet, 305. ferhtJ, St. m., heart, mind, etc., 754,

1166, 3176, etc.


ferh'S-frec, adj.,

ferh'B-genl'Sla,

?r.

bold-minded, 1146. m., life-foe, deadly

foe, 2881. ferian, w. v., [ferry] bear, carry, bring; pres. pi. ferigea^, 333; pret. pi. feredon, 1154, etc., fyredon, 378 pp. pi. geferede, 361. aet-ferlan, w. v., bear off, 1669. ge-ferian, lo. v., bear, bring, 1638, etc.; imperat. pi. 1st, geferian, "let us bear," 3107.
;

fiftiges, 3042, fiudan, St. -v., find, 7, 207, etc. obtain, prevail, 2373 inf. swa hyt weortJlicost fore-snotre men findan mihton, "as very wise men could most worthily devise it," 3162. on- findan, st. v., find out, perceive, observe, discover, 750, 1293, 1890, etc. finger, st. m., finger, 760, etc. firas, St. )n. pi., men, 91, etc.; gen. pi. fyra, 2250. ["Beitrage" x. 487.] firen, fyren, st. /., crime, violence, 137, 915, etc.; ace. fyreue, 153, 2480, etc., firen, 1932. dat. pi. fyrenum, "by crimes,
:

176

BEOWULF.
flyman, ic. v., put to flight geflymed, 846, etc.
-foh, see -fon.
folc, St. neut.,
;

criminally, maliciously," 1744, 2441. _ fyren-dsBd, st. /., crime-DEED, deed of violence, 1001, 1669. fyren-^earf, st. /., [crime-need]
dire distress, 14.
firgen-, see fjrrgen-.
flsesc, St. neut.,

pp.

flsisc-lioma,
flan,
St.

to.

flesh, 2424. w., FLESH-covering,


arrow,
barb,

folk, nation, people, 14, 55, 262, The plural is sometimes used loith the same meaning as the singular, 1422,
warriors, army, 1855, 2393, etc.
etc.; of. leod, leode. st. m. {pres.

body, 1568.
m.,
u-.

folc-agend,

part.),

2438,

3119.
flan-tooga,
etc.
fleali,

m., arrow-Bow, 1433,

[roLK-owNer] folk-leader, 3113. folc-cwen, st.f., folk-queen, 614. folc-cyning, st. m., folk-king, 2733,
etc.

see fleon. fleam, st. m., flight, 1001, etc.

folc-red,

fleogan,

st. v.,

fly, 2273.

st. m., folk-rede ; ace. folc-red fremede, "did what was for the public good," 3006.

fleon, St. v., flee, 755, etc.; pret. sg., xoith ace, fleah, 1200 (see

folc-rilit,

St.

neut.,

folk-right,

public right, 2608.


folc-scaru, st.f., folk-share, public

note), 2225. be-fleon, st. v., ivith ace, flee, dat. inf. no )piet escape from
;

property?, 73.
folc-stede,
st.
;

m., folk-stead, 76
fara,

y'Se

by^ to befleonne, "that

(fate

(Heorot)

or death) will not be easy to escape from," 1003. ofer- fleon, st.v., flee from inf. nelle ic beorges weard oferfleon fotes trem, "I will not flee from the barrow's warden a foot's space," 2525. fleotan, st. v., float, swim, 542, etc. flat, St. neut., floor, floor of a hall, hall, 1025, 1086, 1540, etc. flet-rsest, st. /., floor-REST, bed in a hall, 1241.
;

"the

ace. folc-stede field of battle," 1463.

folc-toga, ic. m., FOLK-leader, 839. fold-bold, St. neut., earth-building, hall on the earth, 773. fold-btlend, st. m. {pres. part.), earth-dweller, pi. fold309; buend, 2274, fold-biieude, 1355. /'., earth, ground, world, folde, 10.
96, 1196, 2975. fold-weg, St. m.,
etc.

earth-wAY,

866,

flet-sittend,

st.

m.

(pres.

part.),

folgian, ID. v., 1102, 2933.

follow,

pursue,

floor-sitter, hall-sitter, 1788, 2022. flet-werod, s^ neut., [floor-host] hall-troop, 476. fliht, St. VI., FLIGHT, 1765. flitan, St. v., [sc. elite] contend, strive, 916; pret. sg. 2nd, 507.

folm, st.f., hand, 158, etc.


fon, St. v., seize, take, receive, grapple, clutch, 438; pres. 3rd, fehS oSer tu, " another suc-

ofer-flltan,

st.

v.,

ovERcome,

517.
flod, St. m.,

flod-ytJ, St. /.,

FLOOD, 545, etc. FLOoD-wave, 542. flor, St. m., FLOOR, 725, etc. flota, w. m., [FLOATer] bark, ship,
210, etc.
flot-here,
st.

m., [FLOAT-army] fleet,

2915.

ceeds," 1755 ; 2>"'^- feng, 1542, dat. 2989. be-fon, bi-fon, st. v., seize, seize on, embrace, encircle, enbefongen, 977, compass 2^P1451, 2274, etc., bifongen, 2009, befangen, 1295, etc. ge-fon, St. v., with ace, seize ; piret. gefeng, 740, 1563, 2215, 2G09, 3090, etc. on-fon, St. v., usu. ivith dat.,
tcitli
;

GLOSSARY.
receive, take, seize, 911; imperat. sg. onfoh, 1169; pret. onfeng, 52, 1214, etc.; he onfeng

177

hraSe

inwit-)>ancum ond wi^ "he (Grendel) quickly seized [Beowulf] with hostile

st. fore-^anc, m., FOREthought, 1060. forht, adj., fearful, afraid, 754, 2967.

earm

gesEet,

forma, adj. superl. {of

fore), first,

intent and sat on, fixed, came down on, his arm" {or, as Grein, "Beowulf quickly received the malignant monster, and supported himself on his arm"), 748.
J>urli-f6n,
St.

716, etc. forst, St. m., frost, 1609. fori$, adv., forth, forward(s), awaj', on, 45, 210, 745, 1718, 1795, 2289 {see to, adv.), 3176, etc.;

ik,

with
icith

ace,
dat.,

of time, henceforth, from now, 948, 2069.


for-'Sam,
for-tJan,

[seize

through] penetrate, 1504.


St.
;

for-Uon,

adv.,

witJ-fon,

v.,

FOR THAT, therefore, 418, 1957,


2645, 2741, 3021, etc. for-|>on t>e, co7ij., because, 503. for'S-gesceaft, st. /., [FORTH-creation] future world or destiny, 1750.
for-J)on, see for-?Jam.

grapple with pret. wi-S-feng, 760. jrmbe-fon, st. v., with ace, [seize about] encircle, enclose; pret. ymbefeng, 2691. fondian, fandian, w. v., ivith gen., search out, prove, experience pp. gefandod, 2301, gefondad, 2454. for, prep. (1) loith dat., before, 358, 1026, 1120, 2020, 1649, 2990; before foe, or because of, 169, 2781 out of, from, through, because of, on account of, about, 110, 338-9, 385, 508, 832, 951, 965, 1442, 1515, 2501 (in virtue of), 2549, 2926, 2966, etc. ; for (pur;

for'S-weg, St. m., forth-way, way forth, 2625. fot, St. m., FOOT, 500, 7405, etc.

fot-gemearc,

st.

neut.,

foot-mark,

foot-length, foot; gen. sg. fiftiges fot-gemearces lang, "fiftv feet long," 3042.
f5t-last, St. m., FooT-track, 2289.

pose), 382, 458.


(2) with ace, for, instead of, as, 947, 1175, 2348. foran, adv., beroRE, to the fore, Special forwards, 984, 1458.

passage:

\>e

him foran ongean

linde bseron, "who bare their linden-shields forwards against him," 2364. ford, St. m., ford, 568. fore, prep., with dat., bcFORE, 1215; for, through, because of, 136, 2059j_ of, about, 1064. fore-maere, adj., [FORE-great].

fore-marost,

superl.

most

famous of

all,

309.

fore-mihtig, adj., [fore-mighty] over-powerful, 969. adj. [fore -prudent] fore-snotor, very wise, 3162.

fracod, adj., worthless, 1575. -frsegen, see -frignan. frsegn, see frignan. frsetwa, fraetwe, st. f. pi., [fret-] adornments, jewels, fretted ar mour, 3, 37, 896, 1208, 2163 etc.; dat. fraetwum, 2054, etc. frffitewum, 962. frsetw(i)an, lo. v., [fret] adorn, 76 pp. gefraetwod, 992. ge-fr8etw(i)aii, w. v., adorn pret. sg. gefraetwade, 96. fram, see from, frea, w. m., lord, 271, etc.; of the Deity, the Lord, 27, 2794. frea-drihten, st. m., lord and master, 796. ftea-wine, st.m., lord-friend, friendly ruler, 2357, etc. ace. 2438. frea-wrasn, st. /., lordly chain, noble chain, 1451. freca, w. m., wolf, bold man, warrior, 1563.
;

W.

B.

12

178
frecne,

BEOWULF.
frio1$o-W8Br, friotJu-waBr,
st. /.,

adj., [Sc. frack] daring, audacious, 889, 1104, 2689; dangerous, dread, fearful, 1359, 1378, 2250, 2537. frecne, adv., daringly, fiercely, 959, 1032, 1691. fremde, adj., foreign, 1691. freme, adj., forward, strenuous, 1932. fremman, w. v., frame, do, perform, accomplish, bring about, try, 3, 101, 1003, 2514 (see note), further, support, 1832 etc. ; pret. fremede, 3006, etc. ; pp. gefremed, 954, etc., ace. f. gefre-

peace-compact, treaty of peace,


1096, 2282.
fritJu-sibb, st. /., peace-kin, peace-bringer, 2017. fretan, st. v., [fuet] devour, consume, 1581, etc. fricgean, iv. v., ask; inf. fricgcean, 1985 ; pres. part, fricgende, 2106. ge-fricgean, ic. v., learn, 2889, etc.; pres. subj. gefricge, 1826. friclan, u\ v. seek for, 2556. frignan, frinan, st. v., ask, inquire, 351 imperat. sg. frin, 1322 ; pret. sg. fraegn, 236, etc. ge-frignan, st. v., learn, hear of; 2>>'ef' sg., gefrasgn, 194, etc., gefraegen, 1011; pret. pi. gefrii,

mede, 640. ge-fremman, w. v., frame, do, work, etc., 174, 636, 1315, 2449, etc.; pret. hine mihtig God...for^ gefremede, "him mighty God advanced," 1718. freo-burh, st. /., free burgh, free
city, noble city, 693. freod, St./., friendship, 2476, 2556. freo-dryhten, st. m., noble lord, 1169, 2627. freogan, ic. v., love, 948, 3176. freo-lic, adj., [free-like] noble, 615; fern, freolicu, 641. freond, st. m., friend, 915, etc. friend-lore, freond-lar, st. /., friendly counsel, 2377.

non, 2, etc., gefrungon, 666; pp. gefrunen, 694, etc., gefrasgen, 1196. Ofteji followed by ace. and inf. 74, 1969, etc. frinan, see frignan.
frioUo-, frio^Su-, fritJu-, see freotJo-. frod, adj., old, wise, 1306, 279, etc.
frofor,
etc.;
St. /.,

solace, comfort,

ace. frofre, 7, etc.,

14, frofor,

698.

from,

adj., forward, keen, 1641, etc.; rich, 21.

bold,

freond-la|>u, st. vitation, 1192.

f.,

FRiENDly in-

freond-llce, adv. freondllcor, compar., in a more friendly way, in friendlier wise,

1027. freond-scipe, st. m. friendship, 2069. freo-wine, st. m., noble friend, 430. freo'Bo, st. /"., protection, peace; ace. freo^o, 188, 1174; freoe, "compact," 1707. freotJo-burh, st. protecting /., BURGH, peaceful city, city of refuge, 522. freotlo-wong, st. m., peace-plain, field of peace, 2959. freo'Su-webbe, lo.f., peace-WEAver, 1942.
,

from, fram, prep., tcith dat., from, away from, 420, 541, 1635, 2565, etc.; of, concerning, 532, 581, etc. Following its case, 110, etc. from, fram, arfr.,away, forth, 754, 2556. fruma, iv. m., beginning, 2309. frum-cyn, st. neut., [first kin] lineage, origin, 252. frum-gar, st. m., [first-spear, cf. Lat. primipilus] chieftain, 2856. frum-sceaft, st. /., first creation,

M I

beginning, 45, etc. -frungon, -frtlnon, see -frignan. fugol, St. m. FOWL, bird, 218, etc. ful, adv., FULL, very, 480, etc. ful(l), St. neut., cup, beaker, 615, etc.; ace. y'Sa ful, "the waves' cup, i.e. the sea," 1208. full, adj., FULL, 2412.
-frtlnen,
,

GLOSSARY.
fultum,
etc.
St.

179

m., help, aid, 698, 2662,


iv.

fundian,

v.,

hasten,

intend,

strive to go, 1137, 1819. furtJum, adv., first, 323, etc.;


first,

at formerly, 1707. furtJur, adv., further, 254, etc, ftls, adj., ready, eager, longing, 1241, 1475, etc.; hastening, inclined,
fiis,

1966 nom. leofra manna "longing for the dear men,"


;

f3n:gen-stream, firgen- stream, st. m., mountain - stream, 1359, 2128. fyr-heard, adj., fire-hard, firehardened, 305. fyrian, see ferian. fyr-leoht, St. neut., firelight, 1516. fyxmest, adv. superl. (o/fore), foremost, first, 2077. fyrn-dagas, st. m. pi., former days, days of old, 1451.

1916.
ready, prepared, 1424, etc. neut. i^l. fuslicu, 232. fyf-tyne, see fif-tene. fyll, St. m., FALL, 1544, 2912. fyUan, ic v. a-fyllan, w.r., fill up, fill, 1018. fyllan, w. v. ge-fyllan, iv. v., fell, 2655; jyret. pi. gefyldan, 2706. fyllo, St. /., FILL, 562, 1333, etc. fyl-werig, ad,j., fall-weary, weary to the point of falling, 962. fyr, see feor, adv. fyr, St. neut., fire, 185, etc. f^ras, see firas. fyr -bend, st. m.f., fire-band, 722. fyrd-gestealla, iv. m., army-comrade, 2873. fyrd-hom, st. m., army-coat, coat of mail, 1504.
ffls-llc, adj.,
;

fyrn-geweorc, st. neut., former WORK, ancient work, 2286. fym-gewinn, st. neut., former strife, ancient strife, 1689. fyrn-mann, st. m., former man, man
of old, 2761. fyrn-wita, w. m., former counsellor, old counsellor, 2123. iyrst, St. m., time, space of time,

76, 545, etc. fyrtJran, lo. v.,

wum

further; pp.

fraet-

gefyr'Sred,

"furthered by,

fraught with, jewels," 2784. fyr-wet, -wyt, st. neut., curiosity, 232, etc. fyr--wylm, st. m., FiRE-WELLing, surge of fire, 2671. fysan, tv. v., make ready, prepare gefysed, 630, etc. ; winde jyp. gefysed, "impelled by the wind," 217. From fus.

fyr6.-hT3Sgl,

st.

neut., [army-RAiL]

armour, 1527.
fyrd-hwset, adj., [army-active] warlike, brave; pi. fyrd-hwate, 1641, 2476. fyrd-leotJ, st. neut., army-lay, warsong, 1424. lyr-draca, ic. m., fire-drake, firedragon, 2689. fsrrd-searu, st. neut., [army-] armour, 2618; pi. 232. f3rrd-wyiUe, adj., [army-woRTHy] war- worthy, distinguished in war, 1316. fyren, see firen. fyrg-en-beam, st. m., [mountainbeam] mountain-tree, 1414. fyrgen-holt, st. m., mountain-HOLT, mountain-wood, 1393.

gad, St. neut., lack, 660, etc. gsedeling, st. m., relative, comrade, 2617, 2949. gsest, see gist. gSBSt, see gast. gas's, see gan. galan, st. v., sing, sound, 786, 1432; p7'es. sg., gsele'S, 2460. a-galan, st. v., sing, ring; pret. agol, 1521. galdor, see gealdor. galga, 10. m., gallows, 2446. galg-mod, adj., [sad-MooD] sad in mind, gloomy, 1277.
galg-treow,
2940.
st.

neut.,

gallows-tree,

122

180
gamen,
see

BEOWULF.
gomen.
geador, adv., toGETHER, 835; icith astsomne, 491. on geador, tooETHER, 1595. ge-sehtla, iv. m., or ge-aehtle, w. /., high esteem, 369. geald, see gyldan. gealdor, st. neut. (1) sound, blast, 2943. (2) incantation; dat. galdre, 3052. gealp, see gilpan. geap, adj., spacious, extensive,

gamol, see gomol.


gan, irreg. v., go, 395, etc. ; pres. indie. '6rd, gas's, 455; pres. subj. ga, 1394; pret. eode, 358, 493, etc. ; imperat. ga, 1782 ; pp.
sy'S'San hie togffidre gegan hsefdon, "after they had closed in strife," 2630. (See also gongan.) fuU-gan, St. v., loith dat., follow

and aid;
eode,

pret. sceft...flane full-

" the shaft followed and aided the barb," 3119. ge-gan, st. v., pret. geeode, geiode (2200): (1) GO {intrans.), 1967, 2676. (2) GO {trans.), make, venture, 1277, 1462. (3) gain (by going), obtain, 1535 with dependent clause, 2917. (4) happen, 2200. ofer-gan, st. v., icith ace, go OVER, 1408, 2959. o^J-gan, St. v., GO (to), 2934. ymb-gan, st. v., icith ace, go about, go around, 620.

roomy, 836, 1800. gear, st. neut., tear, 1134. geara, gen. pi. (in adverbial sense), of yore, formerly, 2664. geard, st. m., yard always pi. in "Beowulf," courts, dwellingplace, 13, 265, 1134, etc.
;

gear-dagas, st. m. pi., yore-days, days of yore, 1, 1354. geare, see gearwe. gearo, gearu, adj., yare, ready,
prepared, 77, 1109, 1914, etc.; with gen. 1825; ace. sg. f. gearwe, 1006 ; pi. gearwe, 210, etc. gearo, adv., well, 2748. gearo-folm, adj., ready-handed, 2085. gearwe, geare, well, 265, 2656, etc.; icith ne, "not at all," 246. gearwor, compar.,-moxe readily, 3074,

gangan, see gongan,


St. 111., GANNET, diver, 1861. gar, St. m., spear, javelin, 328, etc. gar-cene, adj., spear-KEEN, spearbold, 1958. gar-cwealm, st. m., [spear-quelling] death by the spear, 2043. gar-holt, st.neut., spear-HOLT, spearshaft, spear, 1834. gar-secg, st. ?., [spear-man, cf. Neptune] ocean, 49, etc. gar-wiga, tv. m., spear-warrior, 2674, etc. gar-wlgend, st. m. {pres. part.), spear- warrior, 2641, gast, St. VI., GHOST, sprite, devil, gen. pi. gasta, 133, 1747, etc. 1357, gsesta, 1123. gast-bona, w. m., [ghost-bane] soul-slayer, the devil, 177, ge, conj., and, 1248, 1340; with swylce, 2258; correl. ge...ge, "both... and," 1248, 1864. ge, pers. pron. {pi. of )>u), ye, you, 237, etc.

ganot,

A V

gearwost, siiperl., best, 715, -geat, see -gitan. geato-lle, adj., stately, splendid,
215, 1401, etc,
st. f. pi., garniture, 3088, ge-bedde, w.f., BED-fellow, 665. ge-brsec, st. neut., [break] crash, 2259. ge-brotJor, ge-brotSru, st. m. pi., BROTHERS, 1191. ge-byrd, st. neut., fate, 1074, ge-cynde, adj., [kind] natural, hereditary, 2197, 2696, ge-dal, St. neut., severance, parting, 3068. ge-defe, adj., meet, fitting, 561, etc;

geatwa,

friendly, 1227, ge-draeg, st. neut., [dray = squirrel's nest ?] band, tumult, 756.

GLOSSARY.
ge-dryht, ge-driht,
st.

181

neut.,

band,
fair?,

troop, 118, 431, etc. ge-fsegra, compar. adj.,

more

ge-16me, adv., frequently, 559. ge-long, ge-lang, adj. gelong (gelang) set >e, " aLONG of, dependent
;

more dear; nom. freondum gefaegra

he... wear's...
;

on,_thee," 1376, 2150.

hine fyren onwod, " he (Beowulf) became more dear to his friends him (Heremod) crime assailed," 915.
;

ge-maene, adj.,

common,

in

com-

mon, 1784,

etc.

ge-mede, st. neut., consent, 247. ge-met, st. neut., measure, power,
ability, 779, etc.

-gefan, see -gifan. ge-fea, w. m., joy, 562, etc. ge-feoht, St. neut., fight, 2048, etc. ge-flit, St. neut., "FLixing," contest, ma_tch, 865. ge-frsBge, adj., renowned, notorious, 5o,_2481. ge-frsege, st. neut., hearsay; dat.
{instr.) sg.

ge-met, adj., meet, 687, etc. ge-meting, st.f., meeting, 2001.

ge-mong, ge-mynd,
rial,

st. st.

m., troop, 1643.


/.,

reMiNner,

memo-

2804, etc.

mine
oi'

gefrffige,

"as

have heard
[Cf.

learned," 776, etc.

"mien

escientre,"

Chanson

de Roland.]
st. m., reply, 367. adv., forwards, straight, direct, 314, 1404. gehtUo, see giohtJo. ge-liwa, pron., with gen., each, each one ; ace. gehwone, gehwane, 294, 2397, etc. ; dat. m. gehwam, gehwEem, 88, 1420, etc.; dat. f. gehwiere, 25. Masc. form with dependent gen. of fern, or neut.

gegn-cwlde,

gegnum,

n. 800, 1365, 2838, 2765. ge-hwaer, adv., everywHERE, 526. ge-hwse'Ser, pron., eiiHER, 584, etc.; nom. neut. an wig gearwe ge est ham ge on herge, ge gehwae^er Jsara efne swylce msela, "ready for war both at home and in the field, and either (i.e. both) of them even at such times," 1248. ge-hwylc, ge - hwelc, adj. -pron.

xoith gen. pi., each, 98, 148, 732, 805, 1090, 1705, etc. ge-hygd, st. neut., thought, 2045. ge-hyld, st. neut., protection, 3056. ge-lac, St. neut., play, 1040, etc. ge-lad, St. neut., [lode] path, 1410. ge-lang, see ge-long. ge-lenge, adj., belonging to, 2732. ge-llc, adj., LIKE, 2164. ge-llcost, superl., likest, most like, 218, 1608, etc.

adj., MiNnful, 613, etc. gen, adv., aoAiN, yet, still, 734, 2070, 3006, etc.; often with >a, mi, 83, 2859, etc. gena, adv., still, 2800, etc. ge-neahlie, adv., enough, 783; frequently, 3152. genehost, superl., very often. Special passage : genehost braegd eorl Beowulfes ealde lafe, "many an earl of Beowulf's drew his old sword," 794. ge-nip, St. neut., mist, 1360, etc. ge-nog, adj., enough, 2489, etc. genunga, adv., wholly, utterly, 2871. geo, glo, lu, adv., formerly, 1476, 2459, 2521. geoc, St. /., help, 177, etc. geocor, adj., dire, sad, 765. geofon, gifen, gyfen, st. neut., ocean, 362, 1394, 1690, etc. geofu, see gifu. geogo'S, giogoS, St. /., youth, time of youth, 160, 2426, etc.; gen. iogoe, 1674. geogcS-feorh, st. neut., YOUTH-life, days of youth, 537, etc. geolo, adj., YELLOW, 2610. geolo-rand, st. m., yellow buckler, yellow shield, 438. geo-meowle, w. /., former virgin, bride, spouse, 3150; ace. io-meowlan, 2931. geomor, glomor, adj., sad, 49, 3150, etc. /. geomuru, 1075.
;

ge-myndig,

geomore, adv., sadly, 151.

182
geomor-llc, 2444.
adj.,

BEOWULF.
[srcI-like]

sad,
adj.,

geomor-mod,

glomor-mod,

[sad-MOOD] sad-minded, sorrowful, 2044, 2267, etc. geomrian, tc. v., lament, 1118.

sound, 1628, etc. ; with gen. si^a gesunde, " safe and sound on your journeys," 318. ge-swlng, St. neut., swing, eddy,
848.

ge-syne, adj., evident, visible, 1255,


etc.

geomuru,

see

geomor.

geond, pre}}., icith ace, [yond] throughout, 75, etc. geong, giong, arfy., young, 13, 2446, etc.; dat. sg., geongum, 2044, etc., geongan, 2626. superl., youngest, gingsest, last iceak, 2817. geong, 2743, see gongan. geong, see gongan. georn, adj., YEAENing, eager, 2783. georne, adv., eagerly, gladly, 66,
;

ge-s3mto, st. /., souNcness, health, 1869. -get^see -gitan. ge-taese, adj., quiet, pleasant, 1320. getan, iv. v., slay, destroy; inf. cwae^, he on mergenne meces ecgum getan wolde, sume on galg-

treowum
*
'

fuglum

to

gamene,

etc.

well, 968.

geornor, compar., more surely,


821. geo-sceaft, st. f., [former shaping] fate, 1234. geosceaft-gast, st. m., [formershaping-GHOST] demon sent by fate, 1266. geotan, st. v., pour, rush, 1690. ge-rad, adj., skilful, 873. ge-rllm-llce, adv., eoomIly. ge-rttmllcor, compar., more roomily, more at large, 139.

quoth, he would destroy [them] in the morn with the edges of the sword, [hang] some on gallows-trees for a sport for birds," 2940. ["Beitrage" X. 313.] ge-tenge, adj., touching, lying on,
2758.

ge-trum,

ge-rysne, adj., befitting, 2653. ge-saca, w. m., adversary, 1773. ge-sacu, St. /., strife, 1737. ge-scad, st. neiit., difference, 288. gescaep-hwll, st. /., [sHAped while] fated hour, 26. ge-sceaft, st.f., [shaping] existence, 1622. ge-sceap, st. neiit., shape, 650; destiny, 3084 ge-scipe, st. neiit., fate, 2570. ge-selda, ic. m., hall-fellow, comrade, 1984.
m., comrade, 29, etc. ge-slyht, St. neut., slaying, encounge-slU,
St.

st. neut., troop, 922. ge-try-we, adj., tkue, faithful, 1228. ge-^ing, St. neut. (1) terms, pi. 1085. gen. pi. ge(2) issue, 398, 709 J>ingea, "fates," 525. ge-J>61it, St. in., THOUGHT, resolution, 256, 610. ge-J>onc, St. m., thought, 2332. ge-)>ring, st. neut., eddy, whirlpool, 2132. ge-)>wsere, adj. gentle, 1230. ge-J>yld, st.f., patience, 1395, etc. [iHEwy] wonted, ge-))ywe, adj., customary, 2332.
;

ge-wade,
292.

st.

neut.,

[weeds] armour,

ge-wealc,
464.

st.

neut., [walk] rolling,


neut., wiELning, power,

ge-weald,
etc.

st.

control, 79, 808, 2221 {see mid),

ge-wealden,

adj.

{pp.),

subject,
2)1.

ter, 2398. ge-streon, st. neut., possession, treasure, 1920, 3166, etc. gest-sele, st. m., GUEST-hall, 994.

1732. ge-wef, St. neut., gewiofu, 697.

web, woof;

ge-sund,

adj.,

sound,

safe

and

ge-weorc, st. neut., work, 455, etc. ge-wider, st. neut., weather, storm, tempest; pi. 1375.

GLOSSARY.
ge-win(n),
133, etc.
St.

183

neut., strife, struggle,

ge-winna,

iv. m., striver, foe, 1776. ge-wiofu, see ge-wef. gewis-ilce, adv. gewis-llcost, superL, most certainly, 1350. ge-witt, St. neut., wit(s), senses, 2703^ head, 2882. ge-wittig, adj., [witty] conscious, 3094. ge-wrixle, st. neut., exchange, 1304. ge-wjrrht, st. neut., desert, merit; pi. 2657. gid(d), gyd(d), st. neut., glee, lay, dirge, 151, 868, 1065, 3150,

gilp-cwide, st. m., [vELP-speech] boasting speech, 640. gilp-hlseden, adj. (pp.), [yelp-laden] vaunt-laden, 868. [yelpst. gylp-spraec, /., speech] boasting speech, 981. gylp word, st. neut., [yelpword] boastful word, 675. gim, St. VI., gem, 2072.
gim-faest, see gin-fsest.

gimme-rlce,

adj.,

gem-RiCH, rich in
adj.,

jewels, 466. gin-fsest, gim-fsest,

[wide-

fast]

ample and

lasting,

1271

(see note), 2182.

gingsest, see geong.

etc.

gif, gyf, conj., if, 442, 944, etc.; if

272, etc. giofan, st. v., pret. geaf, geafon, pp. gyfen give, 49, 64, 1719, etc. a-gifan, st. v., give back, 355, 2929. set-gifan, st. v., give (to), render, 2878. for-gifan, st. v., give, 17, etc. of-gifan, of-gyfan, st. v., give up, leave, 1600, 2251, 2588, etc.; pret. pi. ofgefan, 2846. gifen, see geofon. gife'Se, gyfe'Se, adj., given, granted, 2U9, 555, etc. gifetJe, 7ieut. used as a noun, thing granted, fate, 3085. gif-heall, st. f. GiFt-HALL, 838. gifre, adj., greedy, 1277. gifrost, superl., greediest, 1123. gif-sceatt, st. m., GiFt-tribute, treasure, valuable gift, 378. gif-stol, St. m., GiFt-STooL, throne,
gifan,
:
,

= whether,

-ginnan, st. v. on-ginnan, st. v., beoiN, undertake, attempt, 244, 409, 2878,
etc.; pret. sg.

ongan, 100,

etc.;

ongon, 2790.
glo, see geo. giofan, see gifan. giogo^J, see geogo'8. giohtJo, St. f., sorrow, care;

dat.

giohSo,

2267, geht^o, 3095.

gioh^e,

2793,

glomor, see geomor. giong, see geong. -giredan, see -gyrwan.


gist,

168, etc.
St. /., GiFt, 1173, 1271, etc.; gen. pi. gifa, 1930, geofena, 1173 dat. pi. geofum, 1958. gigant, St. in., giant, 113, etc. ["Beitrage" x. 501.] gilp, gylp, St. m., [yelp] boast,

glfu,

gyst, gsest, st. m., guest, stranger, 102, 1138, 2228, etc. git, pers.pron. {dual of]>n), ye two, 508, etc. git, gyt, adv., yet, still, hitherto, 536, 944, 956, etc. -gitan, St. v., pret. -geat, -geaton, an-gitan, see on-gitan. be-gitan, st. v., get, get at, seize, befall, 1068, 2249, etc.; pret. sg. beget, 2872; pret. subj. Spe(sg. for pi.) begeate, 2130. cial passage: ferh'S-frecan Fin

829, 1749, etc. gilpan, gylpan, st. v., [yelp] boast, 586, 2006, 2583, etc.

begeat sweord-bealo sli'Sen, "dire sword-bale afterwards befell the bold-minded Finn," 1146. for-gytan, st. v., fobget, 1751. on-gitan, on-gytan, st. v. (1) get hold of, seize; pret. sg. angeat, 1291. (2) get hold of with the mind.
eft

184
perceive, 14,
etc.; inf.

BEOWULF.
1431, 1723, 2748,

ongyton, 308.

gladian, w. v., glisten, 2036. glsed, adj., [glad] gracious, 58,2025,


etc.

gold-gyfa, w. m., GOLD-Giver, 2652. goldgold-hroden, adj. (pp.), adorned, 614, etc. adj., [ooLD-active] gold-hwset, greedy for gold, 3074 (see note).

glsed-man, adj., benignant, courteous, 367 (see note). glsed-mod, adj., glad of mood, 1785.
gled, St. /., GLEDE, ember, fire, 2312, etc. gled-egesa, w. m., GLEDE-terror, terror of fire, 2650. gleo, St. neut., glee, 2105. gleo-beam, st. m., [glee-beam] harp, 2263. gleo-dream, st. m., [glee-dream = joy] mirth, 3021. gleo-mann, st. m., gleeman, minstrel, 1160. glldan, St. v., glide, 515, etc. to-glldan, St. v., [glide asunder] fall to pieces, 2487. glitinian, w. v., GLiiter, glisten, gleam, 2758. glof, St.f., GLOVE, 2085. gnea^J, adj., niggardly, 1930. gnorn, st. m., sorrow, 2658. gnornian, w. v., mourn, 1117.

gold-ma'Sum,
2414.
gold-sele,
etc.
st.

st.

m.,

gold -treasure,
715,

m.,

GOLD-hall,

gold-weard, st. m., [gold-ward] guardian of gold, 3081. gold -wine, st. m., gold -friend,
prince, 1171, etc.

gold-wlanc, adj., ooLD-proud, 1881.

gombe, IV. f., tribute, gomen, gamen, st.

11.
neut.,

game,

mirth, joy, 1160, 2459, etc. gomen-wa15, st. /., [oAME-path] joyous journey, 854.

gomen-wudu,

st.

m.,

[game-wood]
adj.,

harp, 1065, etc.

gomol, gomel, gamol,

old,

be-gnornian,

iv.

v.,

with ace,

gray, aged, ancient, 58, 2112, 3095, etc.; iveak gomela, gamela, 1792, 2105, etc.; gen.pl. gomelra lafe, "the heirlooms of their late [fathers]," 2036. gamol-feax, adj., gray-haired, 608.

bemoan, 3178. God, St. m., God,

gongan, gangan,
13, etc.

st.

v.,

[gang] go,

god, adj., GOOD, 11, etc.; pi. gode, "good men," 2249. With gen., wes bu lis larena god, "be thou good to us in guidance," 269. god, St. neut., good, goodness, good thing, good gift, 20, 1952, etc.;
dat. pi. manig o^erne godum gegrettan, "many a one [shall]

greet another with good things," 1861.

314, 1974, etc.; imperat. geong, 2743; pret. geong, 925, etc., glong, 2214, etc.; gang, 1009, etc. gengde, 1401, 1412 pp. gegongen, 822, 3036; inf. gangan cwomon, "came going, marching," 324; so 711, 1642, (See also gan.)1974. a-gangan, st. v., go forth, befall, 1236.
;

ge-gangan, ge-gongan,
(1)

st. v.

god-fremmend,

st. m. (pres. part.), [GOOD-FRAMing] framcr of good,

one who acts well or bravely, 299. gold, St. neut., gold, 304, etc. gold-siht, St. /., treasure in gold, 2748. gold-fag, -fah, adj., GOLDen-hued, adorned with gold, gold-brocaded, 994, 1800, 2811.

gain (by going), obtain, 2536; pp. gegongen, 3085, with dependent clause, 893 dat. inf. gegaunenne, 2416. (2) come to pass, happen, 1846; pp. gegongen, 2821. grdig, adj., gbeedy, 121, etc. grg, adj., GRAY, 330, etc. grg-nil, adj., marked, etched, or coloured with gray, 2682.
;

. ;

GLOSSARY.
grses-molde,

185
inhabitant
of

w.

/.,

GEAss-eaith,
424, 765,

[GROUND-dweller]
earth, 1006.

grass-plain, 1881.

gram,
etc.

adj.,

angry,

fierce,

grund-hyrde, st. m., [ground-herd] guardian of the bottom (of the


mere), 2136. grund-sele, st. m., GROUND-hall, hall or cave at the bottom (of the mere), 2139. grund-wong, st. m., GRouND-plain, plain, floor (of a cave), bottom (of a mere), 1496, 2588, 2771.

grap,
etc.

St. /.,

grasp, claw, 438, 836,

grapian, w.

v., gbope, gripe, grasp, 1566, 2085. greot, St. m., grit, earth, 3167.

greotan,

st.

v.,

{Sc.

greet] weep,

pret. grette: greet: 347, etc. (2) approach, seek out. attack, touch, 168, 803, 1995, 2736, 3081, etc. ge-gretan, w. v., greet, 1980, etc.; inf. gegrettan, 1861. grim(ni), adj., grim, 121, etc.; dat. X>1. grimman, 1542. grim-helm, st. m., visored HELMet, 334. grira-lle, adj., grim[-like], 3041. grimman, st. v., snort, rage, hurry; pret. pi. grummon, 306. grimme, adv., GRiMly, terribly, 3012, etc.
v.,

1342. gretan, w.

grund-wyrgen,

st.f.,

[GRouND-she-

(1) salute,

wolf] she-wolf at the bottom (of a mere), 1518.

gryn, st. neut., snare ( = 0.E. grin), 0?- sorrow ( = 0.E. gyrn,q.v.), 930. grjrre, st. m. terror, terrible deed,
,

384, 591, 3041, etc.


vi., GRisly terror, horror, 2227. adj., gryre-fah, [oRisly-stained] horribly bright, 2576. gryre-geatwa, st. f. pi., GRisly trappings, warlike trappings, 324. gryre-giest, st. m., GRisly guest, terrible stranger, 2560. gryre-leoU, st. neut., GRisly lay, terrible song, 786. gryre-llc, adj., grisly, terrible, 1441, etc. gryre-slU, st. m., GRisly journey, terrible expedition, 1462. guma, w. m., man, 73, 652, 2821,

gryre-broga, w.

grindan,

st. v.

for-grlndan, st. v., grind down, grind to pieces, ruin, destroy with dat., 424; loith ace. 2335,
2677. gripan,
st. v., gripe, grasp, seize, 1501. for-grlpan, st. v., with dat., grip[eJ to death, 2353. witJ-grlpan, st. v., gripe at,
;
.

etc.

gum-cynn,
944.

st.

neut.,

[man-KiN]

race, tribe, or nation of

men, 260,

inf. wi'S '5am aglfficean gylpe wi'Sgrlpan, "maintain my boast against the monster {lit. with boast oppose)," 2521. gripe, St. m., grip, 1148, etc. grom-heort, adj., fierce-HEARTed, hostile-hearted, 1682.

oppose

gum-cyst,
etc.
;

st.f.,

dat. pi.

manly virtue, 1723, gum-cystum godnc,

"munificent," 1486.

gum-dream, st. m., joy of men, 2469. gum-dryhten, st. m., lord of men,
1642. gum-fe'Sa, w. m., troop of warriors on foot, 1401.

grom-hydig,

adj.,

angry-minded,
pret.
sg.

hostile-minded, 1749.

gum-mann,
1028.

st.

m.,

[man-]MAN,
[groom-stool]

growan,

st.

v.,

grow;

greow, 1718.

grund, St. m., ground, earth, bottom, 1367, 1404, etc. grund-btlend, st. m. {pres. part.),

gel's,

gum-stol, St. m., throne, 1952. St. /., war, battle, 483, etc.;
dat., 603, etc.

"

186
gtl'S-beom,
gtl'K-'bill,
st.

BEOWULF.
m., war-hero, 314.

St.

neut.,

war-BiLL,

803,

etc.

glltJ-byrne, u-. of mail, 321.

f.,

war-BYENY, coat

gUtJ-cearu, st. /., war-CARE, warsorrow, 1258. g-fltJ-craeft, st. m., war-CRAFT, warmight, 127. gUtJ-cynlng, -kyning, st. m., warKiNG, 199, 1969, etc. gtWS-dea'S, st. m., war-DEATH, death in battle, 2249. gH'S-floga, IV. m., war-FLier, 2528. gUtJ-freca, w. m., war-wolf, 2414.

gH^J-sweord, st. neut., war-swoRD, 2154. gUfJ-wgrig, adj., war-WEARY, dead, 1586. gtl'8-wiga, IV. m., warrior, 2111. St. [war-friend] m., glUJ-wine, sword, 1810, 2735. gyd(d), see gid(d). gyddian, w. v., recite, chant, 630.
gyf, see gif.

gyfan, see gifan. gyfen, n., see geofon.


gjfeji,pp., see gifan. gyfeVe, see gife'Be.

gyldan,

gtHJ-fremmend, st. m. {pres. part.), war-FRAMer, warrior, 246. gtitJ-geatwa, -getawa, st.f. pi., warraiment, war-gear, war-equipments ace. gii'S-getawa, 2636
;

yield, st. v., pret. geald pay, repay, 11, 1184, 2636, etc.
:

a-gyldan,
itself); pret.

st. v.,

offer (oneself,

seel ageald, the opportunity offered itself to me," 1665 ; so 2690.


j'a

me

"when
1251.

dat. gii^'-geatawum, 395. [Sievers


43,

an-gyldan,
for-gyldan,

st.

v.,

pay

for,

N^

4.]

giUJ-gewsBde, st. neut., war-WEEDS, armour, 2623, etc. ; nom. pi. giiS-gewffidu, -gewsedo, 227, 2730,
etc.

st.

v.,

repay, re-

quite, atone for, 114, 956, 1054. gylden, adj., golden, 47, etc.

gH'S-geweorc, st. neut., war-woRK, battle-work, warlike deed, 678,


etc.

gylp, see gUp. gylpan, see gilpan. gyman, w. v., xoith


care,

gen.,

incline

to,

1757,

heed, 1760,

gH'S-helm,
gtl'8-horn,

St.

st.

m., war-HELMet, 2487. war-HORN, neut.,

2451.

1432.

for-gyman, w. v., with neglect, despise, 1751.

ace,

war-fame, 819. gtltS-kyning, see gll'8-cyning. giltJ-lSotJ, St. neut., war-lay, battlesong, 1522. gil'8-m6d, adj., [war-Mooc] of warlike mind; pi. gii^-mod, 306.
gti'8-liretS, st.f.,

gtH$-rfflS,

St.

VI.,

in war,
etc.

storm of

[war-RACE] attack battle, 1577,

gtlt5-rgo(u)w, adj., war-fierce, 58. gClt$-rinc, st. m., warrior, 838, etc. gftU-rSf, adj., war- famed, 608. [war-sHABE] glll'8-scear, st. m., slaughter in battle, 1213. glUJ-scea'Sa, w. m., war-scAiner, battle-foe, 2318.

gtHJ-searo, 215, 328.

st.

neut.,

war-armour,

gdU-sele,

St.

m., war-hall, 443.

gyn(n), adj., wide, spacious; ace. m. sg. gynne, 1551. gyrdan, lo. v., gird, 2078. gyrede, etc., see gyrwan. gyrn, st. neut., sorrow, 1775. g3nrn-wracu, st. /., revenge for harm, 1138, 2118. gyrwan, w. v., pret. gyrede, pp. gegyr(w)ed: gear, prepare, equip, adorn, 994, 1472, 2087, etc.; pp. pi. gegyrede, 1028, etc. ge-gyrwan, w. v., gear, prepare, 38, 199 pret. pi. gegiredan, 3137. gyst, see gist. gystra, adj., yester, 1334. gyt, see git. gytsian, w. v., be greedy, covet, 1749.
;

GLOSSARY.
H.
habban,
iv. v., pret. haefde: have, 383, 658, etc. ; often as auxiliarij, 106, etc. Pres. 1st, hafu, 2523, hafo, 2150, 3000; 2nd, hafast, 953, etc. ; drd, hafa'S, 474, etc. Negative form of sul^. pres. pi. naBbben, 1850. for-habban, w. v., keep back, retain, refrain, 2609; i?t/. ne meahte WEefre mod forhabban in hre^re, i.e. he loas dying, 1151.

187

bafala, beafola, iv. m., head, 446, 672, 2679, etc. bafen, see bebban. bafenian, w. v., heave, uplift; pret. hafenade, 1574. bafo, hafu, see habban. hafoc, St. m., hawk, 2263. haga, tc. m., [haw] hedge, enclosure, entrenchment, 2892, 2960. bal, adj., whole, hale, safe and sound, 300, etc. Specialpassages
bafela,
wes...hal, "hail,"407; loith gen. hea^o-laces hal, " safe and sound from the strife," 1974. halig, adj. holy, 381, etc. hals, see heals, ham, St. m., home, 717, 2325, etc.; locative, to ham, "at home," 374. bamer, see homer.

wilJ-babban, w.
resist, 772.

v.,

wiTHstand,
condition, 1297,

had,

St,

m.,

[-hood]

quality,

manner,
m.,
,

wise,

1335, etc.

bador,
note).

st.

retreat?,

414

(see

bador,
497.

atZj.

clear-voiced, sonorous,

bam-weor?5ung, st. /., HOME-adorniug, that which graces a home,


2998.

badre, adv., clearly, brightly, 1571. bsef, St. neut., sea, mere; pi. heafo, 2477.
bsefen, see bebban. bseft, St. m., captive, 2408. bsefta, 10. m., captive ; ace. haefton, 788. bseft-mece, st. m., [HAFT-sword] hilted sword, 1457. bseg-steald, st. m., bachelor, liege-

hand, see bond, hangian, see bongian.


bar, adj., hoar, hoary, gray, 887, etc.; gen. hares hyrste, "the old

man's (Ongentheow's) harness,"


2988. bard-, see beard-, hat, adj., hot, 2781, etc.; dat. sg. haton, 849; nom. wyrm hat gemealt, "the dragon melted in its heat," 897. hatost, superl., hottest, 1668. hat, St. neut., heat, 2605.

man, young warrior, 1889.


bl,
(1) (2)
St. f.

HEALth, good luck, 653, 1217.

omen, 204.
;

bsele,

St. m., man, hero, warrior, 1646, etc. ace. pi. 719. bseletJ, St. m., man, hero, warrior,

hatan,
(1)

52, etc.
biilo, st.f.,

command, bid, 293, 386, etc.; pret. sg. heht, 1035, etc., het, 198, etc.; pp. "Sa wses
haten
hrej^e

st. v.: order,

HEALth, HAIL, farewell,


st.

Heort innan-weard

2418.
bserg-trsef,

neut.,

idol-tent,

folmum gefraetwod, "then it was commanded that the inside of


Heorot should quickly be adorned by hands," 991. (2) name, call, 102, etc.; suhj.
pres. pi. hatan, 2807. ge-batan, st. v.,usu. loith ace,

heathen fane, 175.


bsest, adj., violent, 1335. bii'Sen,
etc.

adj.,

heathen, 179, 852,

m., heathen, 986. btS-stapa, lo. m., HEATH-sTEpper, stag, 1368.


bsi'Ben,
st.

bafa, imperat. sg. of babban.

promise, vow, 1392, 2024, etc.; ivith gen. 2989; pret. gehet, 175, 2937, etc.

; ;

188
hatian,

BEOWULF.
heal-sem,
78.
st.

with ace, hate, lo. v., pursue with hatred, 2319, 2466; hetende pres. part, swa J?ec hwilum dydon, "as they, hating

neut.,
v.,

HALL-house,
pret.

healdan,
heold,

st.

with ace,

thee, whilom did," 1828. he, heo, hit, pers. pron., he, she, IT, 7, 1215, 3167, 2377, 1875, etc. Less usnal forms are : f. hio, 2019, etc. neut. hyt, 2248, etc. ace. m. hyne, 28, etc. ; dat. f. hyre, 2175, etc. ; pi. hi, 28, 3163, etc., hig, 1085, etc., hy, 307, etc.; fjen. pi. hiora, 2599, etc., hyra, 2040 dat. pi. hym, 1918. Used
; ;

26, 301, 2948, 2949, Alliterating, he, 505. Possessive dat. 40, etc. hea, see heah.
reflexivehj,
etc.

2976,

2183, etc., hiold, 1954: HOLD, keep, guard, protect, have, possess, inhabit, 103, 230, 296, 788, 948, 1079, 1227, 1705, 2377 (support), 2389, 2430, 2909, 3043, 3166, etc.; rule, 57, 1852; subj. sg. for pi. 2719 {hold xiip). Special passages : 1031 {see wala) Geata leode hrea-wic heoldon, "the corpses of the Geats covered the field," 1214; 3084 (see note); sceft nytte heold, "the shaft did its duty," 3118.
;

be-healdan, st. v., with ace, HOLD, guard, 1498. Special passages:

'

hea-burh,

st.

/.,

high bukgh,

city,

(sundor-)nytte
;

beheold,

1127. heafo, see hsef.

heafod,

st.

neut.,
st.

head, 48,

etc.

minded, attended to, the (special) service," 494, 667 hry'S-swy^ beheold mseg Higelaces, "Hygelac's

dat. pi. heafdon, 1242.


/., HEAD-protec1030 {see wala). heafod-mSg, st. m., HEAD-kinsman, near relative, 588 gen.pl. heafod-

kinsman

beheld great

heafod-beorg,
tion
;

ace. sg.

distress," or "great distress possessed Hygelac's kinsman (as to)," 736.

maga, 2151,
heafod-segn,
st.

for-healdan, st. v., icith ace, rebel against, 2381.

neut.,

HEAD-sign,

2152 (see note). heafod weard, st. /., head-ward, guard over the head, 2909.
heafola, see hafela. heah, adj., high, 57, etc.
in.
;
;

ge-healdan, st. v., loith ace, HOLD, have, keep, guard, rule,
317, 658, 911, 2293, 2856, 3003, etc.; pret. he geheold tela, "he ruled [it] well," 2208. healf, St. /., HALF, side, 800, etc.

ace. sg.

heanne, 983 gen. dat. hean, dat. sg. m. heaum, 116, 713 2212; pi. hea, 1926. Denoting
position, heah ofer horde, "high above the hoard," 2768. heah-cyning-, st. m., high king, 1039.

heal-gamen,

st.

neut.,

hall-game,

heah-gestreon, st. neut., high treasure, splendid treasure, 2302. heah-lufu, w. /., high love, 1954.
heah-sele, heah-setl,
st.
st.

hall-mirth, 1066. heall, see heal. heal-reced, st. neut., HAi,L-house, palace, 68, 1981. heals, St. m., neck, 1872, etc. ; dat. sg. halse, 1566. heals-beag, -heah, st. ?n., neck-ring, carcanet, 1195, 2172.

heals-gebedda,

ic.

m.

/.,

beloved

m., high hall, 647. neut., high settle, m.,

high

seat, throne, 1087.


st.

heah-stede,
heal(l),
St.

high

stead,

high place, 285.


f.,

BED-fellow, wife, 63. healsian, w. v., entreat, 2132. heal-sittend, st. m. {pres. part.), HALL-siTTer, 2015, etc. heal-J>egn, st. in., hall-thane, 142,
etc.

HALL, 89, etc.; pi.

healle, 1926.

heal-wudu,

st.

m., hall-wood, 1317.

GLOSSARY.
adj., abject, ignominious, despised, 1274, 2183, etc. hean, heanne, see heah. heap, St. m., heap, band, company, 335, 400, etc. heard, adj., hard, hardy, strong, brave, cruel, severe, 166, 322, 842, 432, 540, 1574, 1807, etc.; dat. pi. heardan, 963 gen. pi. "of the brave," 988. With gen. " brave in," 886, 1539, etc. Special passage : haet hire wi'5 halse heard grapode, " so that the hard [sword] griped at her neck," 1566. heardra, compar., harder, 576,

189

hean,

heaBo-sceard, adj., battle-notched,


battle-gashed, 2829. hea^So-seoc, adj., battle-sicK, wounded in battle, 2754. hea'So-steap, adj., [battle -steep] towering or bright in battle, 1245,

2153. hea'So-swat,

st. m., battle-swEAT, blood shed in battle, 1460, etc.

etc.

hard-fyrde, adj., hard to carry, heavy, 2245. hearde, adv., hard, 1438. heard-ecg, adj., HARD-EooEd, 1288. heard-hicgende, adj. {pres. part.), [hard - thinking] brave-minded, bold of purpose, 394, etc.
hearra, st. m., harm, insult, 1892. hearm-sca^Ja, w. m., [HARM-scATHer] harmful foe, 766. hearpe, iv.f., harp, 89, etc. heatJerian, w. v., restrain, confine; pp. hergum gehea^erod, "confined in idol-fanes (-groves), i.e. accursed," 3072.
heatJo-, see heatJu-.

hea'Ko-torht, adj., battle -bright, clear in battle, 2553. heatJo-wied, st. /., [battle- weeds] battle-dress, armour, 39. heatJo-weorc, st. neut., battle- work, 2892. hea^o-wylm, st. m., [battle- wELLing] flame-surge, surging of fire, 82,

2819.
lieatJu, St. /., sea, ocean, 1862.

hea'Bo-llSeiid, st. m. {pres. part.), ocean-farer, sea-farer, 1798,

2955.

hea'Bu-sweng,

st. m., [battle-swing] battle-stroke, 2581.

heawan, st. v., hew, 800. ge-heawan, st. v., hew,


682.

cleave,

hebban, st. v., pp. hafen, hsefen HEAVE, raise, lift, 656, 1290, 3023. a-hebban, st. v., upheave, uplift,

128, etc.

heaBo-byrne,

iv.

f.,

battle-BTRNY,

coat of mail, 1552.


liea'Ko-deor, adj., battle-brave, bold

hedan, w. v., with gen., heed; pret. ne hedde he l^aes heafolan, "he heeded not the head (of the
dragon)," 2697. ge-hedan, lo.
tain, 505.
v., ivith

in fight, 688, etc. healSo-fyr, heaUu-fyr, st. neiit., battle-FiRE, 2522, 2547. hea'So-grim, adj., battle-OEiM, 548, heatJo-lac, st. neut., battle-play, 584,
etc.

gen., ob-

hefen, see heofon.

heaUo-maBre, arfy., battle-great, famous in war, 2802. liea'Ko-rses, st. m., [battle-RACE] rush
heaUo-reaf,
of battle, 526, etc. st. neut.,

battle-dress,

armour, 401.
heaUo-rinc, st. m., warrior, 370, 2466. heaWo-rof, adj., battle-strong, warrenowned, 381, 864.

-began, ic. v. ge-hegan, iv. v., decide, 425. heht, see hatan. liel(l), St. /., HELL, 101, 852, etc. helan, st. v. be-helan, st. v., hide ; pp. beholen, 414. hell-bend, st. m.f., hell-bond, 3072. helm, St. m., [helm]: (1) helmet, 672, etc.
protection, 1392. protector, king, 371, etc.; God, 182.
(3)
(2) covert,

190

BEOWULF.
beoru, see heoro. beortJ-geneat, st. m., HEARXH-comrade, 261, etc. becS, St. /., dais, 404. ber,ady., HERE, hither, 244, 397, etc. here, St. m., army; dat. sg. herge, 2347, 2638; on herge, "in the field," 1248. bere-broga, iv. m., army-terror, fear of war, 462. to. here-bjo-ne, army-BYRNY, /,, coat of mail, 1443. bere-grlma, iv. m., army-mask, visored helmet, 396, etc. bere-net, st. neut., army-NET, coat of ring-mail, 1553. bere-niS, st. m., army-hate, hostility, 2474. bere-pad, st. /., army-coat, coat of mail, 2258. bere-rinc, st. m., army-man, warrior, 1176. bere-sceaft, st. m., [army-sHAFT] spear, 335. bere-sped, st.f., [army-sPEED] success in war, 64. bere-stral, st. m., army-arrow, war-arrow, 1435.
bere-S3a-ce, to. f. of mail, 1511.
,

helm-berend, st. m. {pres. part.), [HELM-BEARiug] lielmet-wearer,


2517, etc.

helmian,

lo.

v.

ic. v., with ace, ovERhang, overshadow, 1364. help, st.f., HELP, 551, etc. helpan, st. v., help, 2340, etc. helpe, 10. f., HELP, 2448 (see note).

ofer-helmian,

hel-iUna, lo. m., sorcerer, 163. heofon, st. m., heaven, 52, etc.; dat. hefene, 1571.
heolfor,
st.

neut., gore, 849, etc.

lieolster, st. neut., darkness, 755.

heonan, heonon, adv., HENce, 252,


1361.
lieora, gen. pi. of -heoran, lo. v.

he

(q. v.).

a-heoran?, 2v. v., rescue?, 2930. heorde, see bunden-heorde. heore, adj., canny, pleasant, 1372. lieoro, beoru, st. m., sword, 1285. heoro-blac, adj., [sword-BLEAK] sword-pale, 2488. lieoro- dreor, heoru-dreor, st. m., sword-blood, 487, 849. heoro-dreorig, adj., [sword-DREARY] sword-gory, 935, etc. heoro-glfre, adj. [sword-greedy] fiercely greedy, 1498. heoro-grim, heoru-grim, adj., [sword-GRiM] fiercely grim, 1564, 1847. heoro-liocylit, adj., [sword-HOOKed] savagely barbed, 1438. beoro-sweng, st. m., [sword-swing] sword-stroke, 1590. heorot, st. m., hart, 1369. heoro-wearli, st. vi., [sword-wolf]
,

army-sARK, shirt

bere-wad, st. /., [army-wEEDs] armour, 1897. bere-wsma, w. m., army-might, prowess in war; dat. pi. herewffismun, 677. to. m., bere-wlsa, [army-wisE] army-leader, 3020. berg, St. m., idol-grove, idol- fane,

3072

{see hea'Serian).

fierce wolf, 1267.

Moro-dr3nic, st. m., swordDRINK, 2358. Moro-serce, w. /., [sword-sABK] shirt of mail; ace. hioro-sercean, [Sievers 159. 1.] 2539. hioro-weallende, adj. {pres. part.), [sword-] fiercely WELLing; ace. sg. m. -weallende, 2781. heorr, st. m., hinge, 999. heorte, w. /., heart, 2270, etc.

berge, n., see bere. berge, v., see berian. berian, to. v., icith. ace,

honour, 182,

etc.;

pres.

praise, subj.

herige, herge, 1833, 3175. bete, St. m., hate, 142, etc. bete-llc, adj., full of hatred, hateful, 1267.
st. tn., HATE-enmity, bitter enmity, 152. bete-sweng, st. m., hate-Wow; ^jZ. hete-swengeas, 2224.

bete-nltJ,

GLOSSARY.
hete-Hnc,
st.

191
st.

m.,

HATE-thought,
of

malice, 475. hettend, st. m. {pres. part, hatian), HATer, foe, 3004.

hilde-rand, 1242.

m.,

battle-shield,

M,

pi.

o/he

(q. v.).

-hicgan, see -hycgan. hider, adv., hithek, 240, etc. hig, 2?Z. o/he (q. v.).
liige, see

hilde-rinc, st. m., battle-man, warrior, 986, etc. Mlde-ssed, adj., battle-sated, 2723. Mlde-sceorp, st. neut., battle-dress,

armour, 2155.
hilde-setl, [battle-sETTLE] seat, saddle, 1039.
battle-

hyge.

w. v., befool?, make over-arrogant?; inf. sine ea'Se maeg. .gum-cynnes gehwone oferbigian, 2766. hild, St. /., battle, war, 452, etc.; prowess in battle, 2952.
.

-Mgian, to. v. ofer-Mgian,

battlest. hilde-strengo, /., STRENGth, 2113. hilde-swat, st. m., [battle-swEAT] war-breath (of the dragon), 2558. hilde-tux, st. m., battle-TUSK, 1511. hilde-wsepen, st. m., battle-WEAPON,
39.

liilde-bil(l),

st.

neut.,

battle-BiLL,

hilde-wlsa,

sword, 557,

etc.

Mlde-bord,
hilde-cyst,

st.

neut., [battle-BOARD]

shield, 397, etc.


st.

[battle-wiss] to. m., battle-leader (Hnaef), 1064. hild-freca, see hilde-freca. Mld-fruma, st. m., battle-chief,

/.,

[battle-virtue]

bravery in battle, 2598.


hilde-deor, -dior, adj. battle-brave, bold in battle, 312, 834, 3111, etc. hilde-freca, hild-freca, iv. m. battlewolf, 2205, 2366.
, ,

1678, etc. hild-lata, lo. vi., [battle-LATE] laggard in battle, 2846. hilt, St. m. neut., hilt, sword-hilt, (of pi. a single etc. 1574,
;

weapon;
V. 3.

cf.

"Julius

Caesar"

hilde-geatwe, st. f. pi., battletrappings, equipments for war, armour, 674, 2362.
hilde-gicel, st. dat. pi. 'Sa
m.,
)>ast

43) 1574, 1614.


st.

hilte-cumbor,

neut., [niLT-ban-

ner] staff-banner, 1022.

battle-icicLE

Mlted,

adj.,

sweord ongan

hindema,

superl.

hilted, 2987. adj., HiNDMOst,

aefterhea^o-swatehilde-gicelum... wanian, "then the sword began to dwindle in icicles of steel in consequence of the blood (of Grendel)," 1606. hilde-grap, st. /., battle-grasp, warclutch, 1446, etc.

last, 2049, etc. Wn-ffls, adj., [hence-ready] eager to be gone, 755. = heo, /ei. o/he (q. v.). Mofan, w. v., lament; pres. part.

Mo

3142.

hilde-hlemm,

m., -hlsemm, st. battle-crash, crash of battle, 2201,

Mold, see healdan. Mora, gen. pi. of he More-, see heoro-.

(q. v.).

2351, 2544. hilde-leoma, w. m., battle-ray: (1) battle-flame (of the dragon), 2583. (2) flashing sword, 1143. hilde-mece, st. m., battle-sword; pi. hilde-meceas, 2202. Mlde-mecg, st. m., battle-man,
warrior, 799. hilde-riis, st. m., [battle-BACE] of battle, 300.

Madan,

st. v., lade, load, lay, 1897, 2126, etc.; inf. hladon, 2775. ge-Madan, st. v., lade, load; pret. gehleod, 895. Msest, St. neut., [last] load, freight,

52.

MsBW, Maw, St. m., [low, in placenames] mound, burial-mound,


Maford,
cavern, 1120, 2411, 3157, etc. st. m., lord, 267, etc, Maford-leas, adj., lobd-less, 2935.

rush

192
Maw,
etc.

BEOWULF.
see hlaew. st. m.,

hlealitor,

laughter,

611,

hof, St. neut., court, dwelling, lodge, residence, manor, mansion, 312,

hleapan, i>t. v., leap, gallop, 864. a-hleapan, st. v., leap up,
1397.
[lee] refuge, protection, protector (used of a chieftain or king), 429, 791, etc. Meo-burli, st. /., protecting burgh or city, 912, etc.
hleo,
St.
in.,

1236, 2313, etc. hofian, w. v. be-hofian, lo.

v.,

loith

gen.y

[behove] need, 2647. hogode, see hycgan.


-hohsnian, w. v. on-hohsnian, w. v., check, 1944. hold, adj., friendly, gracious, 290,
376, etc.; faithful, loyal, 290, 1229, etc. holinga, adv., without reason, 1076. holm, St. m., ocean, sea, mere, 48,
etc.

-hleod, see

-Madan.

hleonian, tv. v., lean, slope, 1415. hleor-berge, lo.f., cheek-guard, 304. Meor-bolster, st. m., [cheek-] BOLSTER, 688. hleotan, st. v., loith ace, get by LOT, 2385. hleotJor-cwyde, st. m., [soundspeech] courtly speech, ceremonious speech, 1979. hlldan, st. v. to-hlldan, st. v., spring apart;
jjp. pi.

holm-clif,
etc.

St.

neut., sea-CLiFF, 230,

holm-wylm,

st. m., [sea-wELLing] sea-surge, 2411. holt, St. neut., holt, wood, 2598,

etc.

holt-wood; holt-wudu, St. m., wood, forest, 1369; wood (material),

tohlidene, 999.

2340.

hliehhan, st. v. st. v., laugh a-hliehhan, aloud pret. sg. ahl5g, 730. Mlfian, 10. v., tower, 2805; pret. hlifade, 81, etc., hhuade, 1799. ["Beitrage" x. 502.] hlim-bed, st. neut., leaning bed,
;

homer,

hamer,

st.

m.,

hammer,

(last)

resting-place,
neut.,
cliff,

3034
slope,

(see

gen. homera lafe, pi. 1285; "leavings of hammers, i.e. swords," 2829. hon, St. V. be-hon, st. v., trans., hang with ; pp. behongen, 3139. bond, hand, st. /., hand, 558, 656,
etc.

note).
lilit$,

St.

1892,

3157.

Wild, adj., loud, 89. hlyn, St. m., din, noise, 611. hlynnan, hlynian, iv. v., resound, roar, crackle, 2553 pret. hlynode, 1120. hlynsian, w. v., resound, 770. liljrtm, St. VI., lot, 3126. hnaegan, iv^ v. ge-hnfflgan, lo. v., xcith ace, fell, vanquish, 1274, 2916.
;

hand-bona, -bana, ic. m. [handbane] hand-slayer, 460, 1330. [handhand-gemsene, adj., common] hand to hand; nom. hwile wffis handneut. >ffir unc gemsene, "there we two engaged a while hand to hand," 2137. [Ger. hand-gemein.] adj. hand-gewriUen, {pp.), HAND-wREATHed, haud-twisted
,

pi. 1937.

hand-sporu,
claw, 986.

st. /.,

hand-spur,

hnah,

adj.,

mean, base,

illiberal,

1929. linagra, linahra, co nt/^a?-., lower, inferior, 677, 952.

hond-gemot,
ing,

st.

neut.,

hand-meetfight,

hnitan, st. v., encounter, clash, 1327 ; pret. pi. hnitan, 2544.

1526, 2355. hond-gesella, iv.m., HAND-comrade, 1481.


to

hand

hand

GLOSSARY.
hond-gestealla, hand-g-estealla, w. m., HAND-comrade, 2169, 2596.

193

hond-geweorc, st. neut., handwork, 2835. hond-lean, hand-lean, st. in., handrequital, hand-reward, 1541,2094. hond-locen, adj. (i^p.), HAND-LocKed, 322,^51. hond-raes, st. m., [hand-race] hand
to

gables, or a house with gables, 704. hors, St. neut., horse, 1399. hos, st.f., bevy, 924. hotJma, 10. m., grave, 2458. hra, St. neut., corpse, 1588. hrsedllce, adv., hastily, quickly,

356, etc.
St. neut., [rail] dress, armour, 1195, etc. hra-fyl, st. m., fall of corpses, slaughter, havoc, 277. ["rathe"] adv., hra^Je, hraetJe, quickly, hastily, 224, 740, 1437, ra^e, 724. etc. ; hre'Se, 991 hratJor, compar., [rather] more quickly, 543. hream, st. m., noise, clamour, 1302.

hrsegl,

hand

fight, 3072.

hond-scolu, hand-scolu, st.f., [handshoal] hand-troop, followers, 1317 (see note), 1963.

hond-wundor, st. neut., [hand-wonder] wonderful handiwork, 2768.


-hongen, see -hon. hongian, hangian,
iv.

v.,

hang,

1363, 1662, etc. hord, St. 111. neut., hoard, treasure, 887, 912, etc. st. neut., HOARD-hall, liord-sern, treasure-cave, 2279, etc. hord-burli, st. /., hoard-burgh, wealthy city, 467. liord-gestreon, st. neut., hoardtreasure, 1899, etc.

hrea-wlc,

st.

neut.,

[corpse-wiCK]

(see healdan). hrefn, st. m., raven, 1801, etc. hremig, adj., exultant, 124, etc.; pi. hremge, 2363.

abode of corpses, 1214

hreoh,

adj.,

rough,
;

fierce,

cruel,

hord-raadm

= -ma'5uin),

st.
;

m.,

sad, 1564, 2180 1307, hreoum,

dat. sg. m. lueon,

2581; pi.

hreo,

HOARD-treasure, hoard-jewel dat. under swegle nffinigne ic 2)1. selran hyrde hord-madmum hsele>a,

543.

hreoh-mod, adj., of fierce mood, of sad mood, 2132, 2296.


hreosan, st. v., fall, 1074, 1430, etc. he-hreosan, st. v., deprive; pp. pi. behrorene, 2762. hreotJan, st. v., cover, clothe, adorn; pp. hroden, gehroden, 304, 495,
etc.

"I heard of none better

under the sky among the hoardjewels of heroes," 1198.

hord-weard, st. m., [hoard-ward] guardian of a hoard or treasure, 1047 (of the king), 2293 (of the
dragon), etc.

hreow,

hord-wela, to. m., hoard-weal, wealth of treasure, 2344, hord-weorKung, st. /., [hoardhonouring] honouring by gifts, valuable reward, 952. hord-wynn, st. /., HOARD-joy, joygiving hoard, 2270. horn, St. m., horn, 1369, etc. hom-boga, lo. vi., horn-bow, 2437. horn-geap, adj., with wide intervals between (the horns on) the gables, 82. hom-reced, st. neut., [noRN-house,
i.e.]

st. /., distress, grief, 2129, 2328. hreran, to. v. on-hreran, w. v., rouse, arouse, stir up, 549, 2554. See hror. St.

hretJ,

m. neut., glory, renown;

ace. 2575. hre'Se, see hra'Be. hreiJer, st. m., breast, heart, 1446,

1745, 2113, 2442, etc.


hrefler-healo,
st. neut., heart-BALE; >e )?incean maeg Jjegne monegum...hre)?er-bealo hearde, "as it may seem heavy heart woe to many a thane," 1343.

nom.

J'ffis

a house with horns on the

W.

B.

13

194
lireiJ-sigor, st. m.,

BEOWULF.
triumphant
vic-

tory, 2583. hrlmig, adj.,

rimy, covered with

hryre, st. m., fall, destruction, 1680, etc. hrysian, ic. v., rattle, 226.
adv., HOW, 3, etc. hund, St. m., hound, 1368. bund, num., with gen., HUNored,
lift,

hoar-frost; pi. hrimge, 1363 (see note).

hrlnan, st. lay hold

v., iisu.

w. dat., touch,
;

of,

988, 2270, etc.

subj.

2278, etc.
htlru,
etc.;

X>ret. sg. )?eah

"though the

wund hrine, wound touched him


^e him

least,

adv., indeed, especially, at 182, 369, 862 (however),

close," 2976. bring, St. m., king, ring-mail, 1202, 1503, etc.; nom. byrnan hring, "ring-mail of the byrny, ringed byrny," 2260. hringan, iv. v., ring, rattle, 327. hring-boga, iv. m., [ring-bow] one that bends himself in the shape of a ring (the dragon), 2561. hringed, adj. {pp.), ringed, 1245; inflected 2615. hringed- stefna, lo. m., ring-stemmed ship (with rings on its prow), 32, 240, etc. hring-iren, st. neut., ring-iron; nam. hring-iren scir song in searwum, "the bright iron rings raug in the armour," 322. hring-mal, st. neut., RiNG-sword, 1521, 1_564. RiNG-adorned, adj., tiring-msel, 2037. hring-naca, w. m., [RiNG-bark] ship with a ringed prow, 1862. hring-net, st. neut., [ring-net] shirt

hlls, St. neut.,


htltJ, st.f.,

now, 3120. house, 116,

etc.

booty, plunder, 124. hwa, m. andf., hwset, neut., interr. and indef. pron., who, what, any (one), somewhat, 52, 3126, etc.

With gen. hwaet...hyn^o, "what humiliation," 474; swulceshwffit, "somewhat of such (matter)," 880; fines hweet, "somewhat only, a part only," 3010. Special pa>isages : nah hwa sweord wege,

"I have no one who may wear sword," 2252; dat. hwam, "for whom," 1696; instr. to hwan
wear^ hond-ras hseleSa, "to what issue the hand-fight of heroes afterwards came," 2071. hwader, see hwyder. where, anywhere, adv., liwar,
sy'S'San

Special passages: wundur "it is a wonder (mystery) anywhere when," 3062 with swa following, "wheresoever, " 762 (see note, and cf. 797)
2029.

hwar

i^onne,

of mail made of rings, 1889, etc. hring-sele, st. m., RiNG-hall, 2010, 3053, etc.

elles hwffir,

"elsewhere,"
active,
;

138.

hwset,

adj.,

keen,
dat.

bold;

weak hwata, 3028

hwatum,

hring-weortJung,

st.f.,

RiNG-adorn-

ment, 3017. hroden, see lireotJan.


hrof, St. m., roof, 926, 983, etc. hrof-sele, st. m., Roored hall, 1515. liron-fix, St. m., whale-FisH, whale, 540.

2161; pi. hwate, 1601, etc. hwset, pron., see hwa. hwset, interj., what!, lo!, 1, 530,
etc.

hwsetSer,

arfj.-^jro??.,

whether, which

hron-rad,

St./.,

whale-ROAD, sea, 10.

of two; nom. gebide ge...hw8e5er sel m8Bge...uncer twega, "await ye whether of us twain may the
better," 2530; ace. f. on swa hwse'Sere hond...swa him gemet

hror, adj., stirring, valorous, strong, 1629.


liro'Bor,
st. m., benefit, kindness, comfort, joy, 2171, 2448. hrtlse, tc.f., earth, 2247, etc. hrycg, St. m., ridge, back, 471.

Hnce," "on whichsoever hand may seem to him meet," 686.


1314, 1356, etc.

it

hwseBer, hwse^Jre, conj., whether,

GLOSSARY.
liW8e?J(e)re, adv.,

195

however, yet, 555,

578, etc.; anyway,

may
2442.

be,

574

however that loith swa >eah,

hycgan, iv.v., think, resolve (upon); p7'et. hogode, 632. for-Mcgan, w. v., roRgo, reject,
despise, 435.
v., think, 1988. ofer-hyegan, lo. v., scorn, 2345. hydan, to. v., hide, 1372, 2766; bury, 446. ge-hydan, lo. v., hide, 2235,

hwan, see hwa. hwanan, hwanon,


257, 333,
et_c.

ge-hycgan, w.

adv.,

whencc,

hwar, see hwaer. hwata, hwate, hwatmn, see hwset,


adj.

hwealf,

St. /.,

vault, 576, etc.

3059.

hwene, adv., a Httle, a trifle, 2699. hweorfan, st. v., turn, wander, die, 264, 1980, 2832 (whirl), 2888 (roam), etc.; inf. hworfan, 1728.
set-hweorfan, 2299.
st.

hyge, Mge,

st. m., mind, soul, 267,_755, 3148, etc.

heart,

v.,

return,

ge-hweorfan,

st.

v.,

turn, go,
v.,

hige-maetJ, st. /., mind-honour, heart-reverence, 2909. hige-metJe, adj., wearying the soul or mind, 2442. liige->ilitig, adj., great-hearted,
746.

1210, 1679, 1684, 2208.

geond-hweorfan,
verse, 2017.

st.

tra-

hige-Jjrymm,

st.

m.,

[mind-

strength] magnanimity, 339.


st.

ond-hweorfan,
;

v.,

turn

against pret. nor San wind...ondhwearf, "a wind from the north turned against [us]," 548.

hyge-bend, st. m.f., mind-BOND; dat. pi., hj'ge-bendum faest dyrne langa'S, "a secret longing fast
.

. .

ymbe-hweorfan, st. v., with ace, turn about, go round, 2296. liwergen, adv., in elles hwergen, "ELSEwhere," 2590. liwettan, w. v., whet, urge, encourage, 204, 490. From hwaet. liwll, St. /., WHILE, space of time, 146, 1495, etc. ; dat. pi. used adhwilum, "at whiles, sometimes, whilom," 175, 864, 867, etc.; "at one time... at another," 2107-8-9-11. liwit, adj., WHITE, flashing, 1448. hwopan, st. v., cry out, mourn;
verbially,
pret. hweop, 2268. hworfan, see hweorfan. hwyder, hwseder, adv., whither,

in the bonds of his mind," 1878. hyge-glomor, adj., sad at heart,

2408. hyge-rof, hige-rof, adj., strong of mind or heart, valiant, 204, 403. hyge-sorg, st. f., sorrow of mind or heart, 2328. hyht, St. m., hope, 179. hyldan, lo. v., heel over, incline (oneself), lie down; pret. 688. hyldo, St. /., favour, friendliness. 670, 2293, etc.; a_c. hyldo ne telge...Denum unfaecne, "I reckon not their faithfulness for the Danes sincere," 2067. Cf. hold. hym, dat. pi. of he (q. v.). hynan, iv. v., humiliate, harm, 2319. From hean.

163, 1331. liwylc, adj.-pron., which, what, any, 274 {see witan), 1986, 2002; with gen. 1104, 2433. swa hwylc swa, see swa. hwyrfan, lo. v., move, 98. hwyrft, St. m., going, turn; dat. pi. "in their goings, or to and fro," 163.

hyne, ace. sg. m. of he (q. v.). hynSo, hynUu, st. /., humiliation,
166, 277, 475, 593.

hyra, gen. pi. o/he (q. v.). hyran, w. v., hear, learn, 38, 62, 273, 1197, etc.; with dat. pers.,
obey, 10, etc.

ge-hyran,

iv.

v.,

hear, learn,

255, 290, 785, etc.

132

;-

196
hyrdan, w.
v.

BEOWULF.
(2) with ace, into, 60, 185, 1210, 2935. in innan, see innan. in, adv., in, 386, 1037, 1644, etc. once inn, 3090. in, St. neut., inn, dwelling, 1300. inc, pers. pron. [dat. dual of\>\\), to you two, 510. incer, pers. pron. [gen. dual of \>vi), of you two, 584. incge, adj., weighty?, 2577 (see

a-hyrdaii, w. v., harden, 1460. Ii3n:de, st. m., [herd] keeper, guaxdian, etc., 610, 2505, etc.; nom. wuldres Hyrde, "the King of

glory," 931. byre, geii. and dat. sg.


(q. v.).

f.

of he

h3rrst, St. /., harness, accoutrement, adornment, 2988, 3164. hyrstan, lo. v., adorn; pp. "dight, jewelled," 672, 2255. hyxtan, re. v., hearten, embolden; tvith refl. pron., 2593. hyse, St. m., youth, 1217. hyt, St. f. ?, heat, 2649. hyt, neut. of he (q. v.). hytJ, st.f., HYTHE, haven, 32. 113^*0, see note on 1. 3155. hylJ-weard, st. m., [hythe-ward] guard of the haven, 1915.

note). in-frod, adj., very old, 1874, 2449. in-gang, st. m., entrance, 1549. in-genga, lo. m., iN-goer, invader.

I.

ace. ic, pers. pron., I, 247, etc.; mec, me; gen. min; dat. me; dual nam. wit ace. uncit, unc dat. unc ; pi. nom. gen. uncer we; ace. usic; gen. lire, iiser; dat. us, ilrum. lege, adj., golden?, costly?, massive?, 1107. Idel, adj., [idle] deprived; nom. lond-rihtes...idel, "deprived of
; ;

1776. in-gesteald, st. m., house-property, 1155. inn, see in, adv. innan, adv., withiN, inside, 774, etc. in innan, within ; with preceding dat. 1968, 2452. on innan, within, 2715; xcith preceding dat. 1740. )>fflr on innan, therein, there within, in there, 71, 2089, etc. innan-weard, adj., inward, inside, interior, 991, 1976. inne, adv., iNside, within, 390, 642, 1866, etc. ; therein, 1141. Jser inne, therein, 118, etc.

inne-weard,
998.

adj.,

inward, interior,

land-right," 2888. iDLE-HANDed, adj., Idel-hende, empty-handed, 2081. ides, st.f., woman, lady, 620, 1259,
etc.

iernan, st. v. be-iernan,


2}ret.

st.

v.,

run, occur;
"it oc-

him on mod beam,


st. v.,

inwid-sorg, see inwit-sorh. inwit-feng, st. m., hostile grasp, 1447. inwit-gsest, st. m., hostile guest, foe, 2670. inwit-hrof, st. m., hostile roof, 3123. inwit-net, st. neut., hostile net, cunning snare, 2167.
inwit-nltJ,
st.

curred to him," 67.

neut.,

hostile

hate,

on-ieman,
in, prep., in,

spring open;

malicious enmity, 1858, 1947.


inwit-scear, st. m., hostile attack, inroad, 2478. inwit-searo, st. neut., hostile cunning, 1101. inwit-sorh, inwid-sorg, si./, [hostile sorrow] sorrow caused by a foe, 831, 1736.

pret. onarn, 721. with dat. (of rest)

and

aec. (of motion) (1) ivith dat., in, on, 13, 25, 87,

89, 324, 443, 1029, 1952, 2505, 2599, 2635, 2786, 3097, etc.; after its case, 19 ; of time, 1.

GLOSSARY.
inwit-'Kanc, st. m., hostile or malicious thought, 749 {see onfon). -lode, see -gan. iogotJ, see geogo'8. lo-meowle, see geo-meowle. Iren, st. neut., ikon, sword, 892, etc.; f/ew. jjZ., irena, irenna, 673, 802, etc. Iren, adj., of iron, 1459, 2778. Iren-bend, st. m. /., iron-band, 774, 998. Iren-byrne, 2v. /., iron-byrny, coat of iron mail, 2986. Iren-heard, adj., iron-hard, 1112.
Iren-)>reat,
st.

197

laeran,

to. v., teach, 1722. ge-lSBran,^.^., teach, persuade, give (advice), 278, 415, etc. lass, compar. adv., less, 1946, 487

{see se).
)>y ls, couj., lest, 1918. lassa, compar. adj., less, lesser, fewer, 1282, 2571; dat.pl. Isessan, 43. Absolutely, for Isessan, "for less," 951. least, superl. adj., laesest,

__2354. IsBStan, w. V.
(1)

of

armed men,

m., iRON-band, troop 330.

Is, St. neut., ICE,

1608.

isern-'byrne, w. /., byrny of iron, coat of iron mail, 671. iron-snowER, st. Isern-scflr, /.,

withdat., LAST, hold out, 812. (2) with ace, do, perform, 2663. ful-lSstan, 10. v., loith dat., help ; xyres. sg. 1st ful-leestu, 2668.
ge-l8Bstan,

lo. v.

(1) loith ace. or dat., serve, 24,

3116. is-gebind,
lu, see

2500.
st.

neut., icE-bond, 1133.

Isig, adj., ICY, 33.

geo.

lu-monn,

st. m., former man, olden times, 3052.

man of

usu. with ace, do, perform, 1706, 2990, etc. ge-lsested, pp. of laestan or geleestan, "performed," 829. Iset, adj., [late] slow; loith gen.
(2)
fulfil, etc.,

_1529.
K.
laetan,
st. v., let, allow, 48, etc. a-latan, st. v., let, 2665; let go, leave, 2591, etc. for-lStan, st. v., let, 970, etc.; let go^792; leave (behind), 2787. of-lsetan, st. v., leave, 1183,

kyning, 620, 3171, 665, see cyning.

la, interj., lo, 1700, etc.

etc.

lac,

St.

neut., gift, offering,

booty

prey, 43, 1584, etc. lacan, st. v., play, fight, 2848.
lad,

laf,
fly,

2832

on-lstan, st. v., loosen, 1609. St. /., LEAving, heirloom, bequest (often a sword), 454, 795, 1032, 2036, 2829, 2936, 3160,
etc.

St. f., [lode] way, faring, jour _ney, 569, 1987. Igedan, w. v., lead, 239, etc.; pp

lafian, w. v.

gelffided, 37.

lagu,

ge-lafian, lo. v., refresh, 2722. St. m., lake, 1630.

for-lsBdan, lo. v., lo. ace, mis lead; pret. pi., forlseddan, 2039. lfan, w. v., leave, 1178, 2315

lagu-crseftig, adj., [sea-CRATY] skilful as a sailor, 209.

_etc.
ISBn, St. neut.,

loan, 1810.
fleet

ln-dagas, st. m., loan-days, ing days, 2341, etc.


Isene,
adj.,

lagu-strt, st.f., [sea-sTREET] way over the sea, 239. lagu-stream, st. m., sea-STREAM, current, tide, 297.
lah, see leon. land, see lond. lang, see long.

fleeting,

transitory

3177, etc.

198

BEOWULF.
-leh, see leogan. lemian, iv. v., lame, trouble pret, sg. with pi. nom., lemede, 905.
;

langa*, st.f., LONGing, 1879. lange, see longe. lar, St. /., LOKE, instruction, guidance, 1950; gen. pi. lara, 1220, larena, 269.
last, St. m., track, trace, 132, etc.

on
latJ,

last,

icitli

preceding dat.,

in the tracks of, behind, 2945.


adj., [loth] loathIj, loathsome, LOATHed, hateful, hated,

hostile,

134,
2)1'

511,

2315,

2467,

etc.; dat.
foe,

la'Sau, 1505.

Often used absolutely, foe, loathed 550, 841, 1061; gen. pi. 242; loeak, se laa, 2305; la-g wits la>um, "foe with foe," 440; SBfter la'Sum, "after the loathed foe," 1257; neut. fela ic la^es gebad, "much hostility o?" evil I

leng, see longe. lenge, adj., long, 83. lengest, see longe. lengra, see long. leod, St. m., prince, chief, 341, etc. leod, St. f., people, nation, 596, See 599, etc.; pi. leoda, 3001. leode. leod-bealo, st. neut., [nation-BALE] national evil, 1722 ; gen. pi. -bealewa, 1946. leod-burg, st. /., [nation-BURGH] chief city; acc.pl. -byrig, 2471. leod-cyning, st. m., nation-KiNG, king of a people, 54. leode, St. m. pi., people, 24, 362,
etc. See leod, st. f. leod-fruma, 2c. m., nation-chief, prince of a people, 2130.

endured," 929.

laSra, compar., more LOAinly, more hateful, 2432. latJ-bite, st. m., foe-BiTE, wound, 1122. latS-geteona, w. m., evil-doer, monster, 559, 974. laU-lIc, adj., LOATHLY, 1584. leaf, St. nent., leaf, 97.

leafnes-word, st. neut., leave-word, permission, pass-word?, 245. -leah, see -leogan. lean, st. neut., reward, 114, 951, 1021, 2145, etc. lean, st. v., w. ace, blame; pres. sg. 3rd lyhf), 1048 ; pret. log, 203,
etc.

be-lean,

st.

v.,

with ace. ret

and

dat.
ic.

2>6rs.,

dissuade from,

prohibit, 511.

leanian,
for,

with ace. rei and dat. pers., pay for, repay, reward
v.,

1380, 2102.

leas, adj., [-less]:

gen., lacking, deprived 850, 1664. false, 253. (2) leogan, w. v. a-lecgan, ic.v., lay, lay down, lay aside, 34, 3020, etc. leg, see llg. leger, st. neut., [lair] lying, 3043.
(1) tcith of,

leod-gebjrrgea, lo. m., protector of a people, 269. leod-hryre, st. m., fall of a prince or people, 2030, 2391. leod-sceaVa, w. m., scATHer of a people, national foe,, 2093. in., [people-sHip] leod-scipe, st. nation, 2197, 2751. leof, adj., LIEF, dear, 31, etc. leofa'S, see libban. leof-llc, adj., dear, beloved, precious, 2603, 1809. leogan, st. v., lie, belie, 250, 3029. a-leogan, st. v., icith ace. rei, bcLiE, falsify; pret. aleh, 80. ge-leogan, st. v., ivith dat, pers., deceive ^?-ef. geleah, 2323. leoht, St. neut., light, brilliance, 569, 727, etc. leoht, adj., light, bright, flashing, 2492. leoma, iv. in., gleam, ray, 311, 1570,
;
'

etc.

leomum,

see 11m. leon, St. v., lend; ^^ret. lah, 1456. on-leon, st. v., ivith gen. rei and dat. piers., lend; pret. onlah,

1467. leornian, w.

v.,

learn, devise, 2336.

GLOSSARY.
laosan, st. v., lose. be-leosan, st. v., deprive; p}}. beloren, 1073. for-leosan, st. v., ivith dat., LOSE, 1470, etc. leolS, St. neut., lay, 1159. leo^Jo-crseft, st. m., [limb-CRAFT] hand-craft; dat. pi. segn...gelollg,

199
leg,
;

St.

m., flame, 83, 2549,


iv.

etc.

dat. ligge, 727.

llg-draca, leg-draca,

m., flame-

DRAKE,
3040.
llg-egesa,

flaming
lo. St.

dragon,

2333,

Uge-tom,

m., flame-terror, 2780. m. [LYing-anger] pre,

tended insult, 1943.


ligge, see llg. llg-y, st.f., flame-wave, 2672. lim, s^ 7ieut., limb, branch; dat. pi. leomum, 97. limpan, st. v., happen, befall ; pret. lomp, 1987.

cen

leo'So-crffiftum,
skill of

"a banner
shirt

woven by

hand," 2769.
of

leoUo-syrce, limb-SARK, mail, 1505, etc.

lettan, lo. v., tcith ace. pers. and gen. rei, let, hinder, 569. libban, w. v., pres. sg. lifatS, lyfa'S, leofa'5; subj. lifige; pret. lifde, \j{de; pres. part, lifigende: live,
57, etc.

a-limpan,
622, 733.

st.

v., befall,

occur,

[lych] body, corpse, 967. licg(e)an, st. v., lie, lie down, lie low, lie dead, 40, 1343, 2051,
lie, St. n.,

be-limpan, st. v., befall, 2468. ge-limpan, st. v., befall, happen, 76, 626 (be fulfilled), 929
(be given), etc.

2388, etc.; fail, 1041. a-licg(e)an, st. v., fail, cease, 1528, 2886. ge-licg(e)an, st. v., be still, be lulled, 3146. llc-homa, llc-liama, iv. m., [lychcovering] body, 812, 1007, etc. lician, ic. v.,ivith dat., [like] please, 639, etc.
lic-sar, St. neut.,

ge-lumpen, pp. of limpan or gelimpan, "fulfilled," 824.


f., LiNDen, shield (made of linden), 2341, etc. lind-gestealla, w. m., shield-comrade, comrade in arms, 1973.

lind, St.

lind-habbend, st. m. {pres. part.), [LiNDen-HAving] shield-warrior,


245, etc. lind-plega, lo. m., LiNoen-PLAY, battle, 1073, etc. lind-wiga, lo. m., LiNoen-warrior, shield-warrior, 2605. linnan, st. v., tcith gen. or dat., cease, depart, be deprived, 1478, 2443. liss, st.f., favour, 2150. list, st.f, cunning; dat. pi. adverbially, 781. llSan, St. v., go; pp. liden, "traversed," 233 {see eolet). lle, adj., gentle, mild, 1220. llVost, superl., gentlest, mildest, 3182. Il9eud, St. m. {pres. part.), [going] sailor, 221. ll^J-wage, St. neut. stoup of drink (ale or cider?), 1982. loceu, see Itlcan. locian, lo. v., look, 1654. lof, St. m., praise, 1536.
,

body-soRE,

wound

in the body, 815.


lic-syrce, w. /., body-SARK, shirt of

mail, 550.

lid-mann,
1623.
lif, St.

st.

m., sea-MAN, seafarer,

lifatJ, etc.,

neut., life, 97, etc. see libban.

lif-bysig,

adj., [life-busy] in the throes of death, 966. lif-dagas, st. m. pi., life-days, 793,
etc.
iv.

Lif-frea,

m., LiFE-lord,
neut.,
st.

Lord

of

life, 16.

lif-gedal,

st.

LiFE-parting,
[life -shaping]

death, 811.
lif-gesceaft,
Iif-wra15u,
/.,

destiny, 1953, etc.


st.

/.,

life -protection,

971, 2877.

lif-wynn,

st. /.,

LiFE-joy, 2097.

200
lof-diid,
St.

BEOWULF.
/.,

praise-DEED, deed

worthy

of praise, 24.

on-ltican, onleac, 259.

st. v.,

unlock; pret.

lof-georn, adj., YEARNing for praise,

lof-geomost, superl. most eager for praise, 3182.


,

log, see lean, lomp, see limpan. lond, land, st. neut.,

to-lflcan, St. v., destroy, 781. lufen, St. f. hope, 2886, lufian, 10. v., LOVE, 1982. luf-tacen, st. neut., love-token,
,

1863.

land,

221,

2197, etc.

10. f., love, 1728. lungre, adv.

lufu,

land-fruma, w. m., LAND-chief, ruler of a land, 31. land-gemyrcu, st. neut. ^jZ., LAND-MARKS, boundaries, 209. land-geweorc, st. neut., landwork, stronghold, 938.

(1)

(2) quite,

lust,

St.

quickly, hastily, 929, 1630, etc. 2164. m. [lust] pleasure, joy; ace.
,

on
joy,

lust,

dat. pi. lustum, "with with pleasure," 618, 1653.

land-waru,
pi.

st. f.

land-wara, land," 2321. land-"weard,

LAND-people "people of the


,

st.

ward]
1890.

guardian

[landm., of a country,

lond-buend,
(pres.

land-btlend, st. part.), LAND-dweller,

m.
95,

1345. lond-riht, st. neut., land-right, right of a citizen or freeholder, 2886. long, lang, adj., long, 16, 2093, 3043, etc, longer, compar., lengra, 134. longe, lange, adv., long, 31, 1061,
etc.

lyfan, IV. V. a-iyfan, lo. v., entrust, permit, 655, 3089. ge-iyfan, xo. v., bcLiEVE in, trust for, rely on; loith dat. piers. 909; loith dat. rei, 440; loith ace. rei, >aet heo on nigne eorl 608 gelyfde fyrena frofre (ace), "that she believed in any earl for comfort from crime," 627; him to Anwaldan are (ace.) gelyfde, "believed in favour from the Almighty for himself," 1272. lyfatJ, lyfde, see libban. Ijrft, St. 711. f. neut., [lift] air, 1375,
;

etc.

l3^t-floga,

10. m., [LiFT-FLier] in the air, 2315.

flier

leng, compar., LONoer, 451, 974, etc. lengest, sujperZ., longest, 2008, 2238. long-gestreon, st. neut., [LONG-possession] treasure of long ago, 2240. long-sum, adj., [long-some] lasting long, 134, etc. losian, lo. v., escape, 1392, etc. mean, st. v., lock, interlock, weave; pp. locen, gelocen, "LocKed, of interlocked rings," 1505, 1890, 2769, 2995. be-ltlcan, st. v., lock, secure; pret. beleac, 1132, 1770.

lyft-geswenced, adj. {pp.), windurged, driven by the wind, 1913. lyft-wynn, st. /., [LiFT-joyJ joy in the air, 3043. lysan, w. v. a-iysan, w. v., loose, loosen,
1630. lystan, w. v., impers., loith ace. pers., list; pret. 1793. lyt, neut. adj. or n., indecl., few, 2365; with qen. 1927, 2150, 2882, 2832 {dat.). lyt, adv., LiTTle, 2897, 3129. lytel, adj., LITTLE, 1748, 2097, etc.; ace. f. lytle hwile, "but a little while," 2030. lyt-hwon, adv., LiTTle, 204.

: ;

GLOSSARY.
M. ma, compar. adv., with gen., 504, etc. madmas, etc., see niatJ(S)um. mseg, see magan.
mffig,
tive,
St.

201

m.,

408, etc.

kinsman, blood-relaetc., _/;/. magas,


;

mgerost, superl., greatest, 898. msBrtSo, mgerlJu, st. f., greatness, glory, fame, 504, 659, 678, etc. greatness, great deed, deed of glory, exploit, 408, 2134, 2645; dat. pi. adverbially, gloriously,
2514. msest, St. m., mast, 36, etc. mst, see mara. mate, adj., small. mtost, superl., smallest, 1455. maga, w. m., son, man, 943, 978, 1474, etc. *magan, st.-ic. v., may, can, be able; pres. sg. 1st and 3?-d! maeg, 277, etc., In'd meaht, 2047; pres. subj. sg. maege, 2530, etc., ^jZ. maegen, 2654 j^r^t- meahte, 542, 648, etc., mihte, 190, 308, etc., mehte, 1082, etc. With gan omitted, 754. Special passage ne meahte, "it was not possible, no one could," 2547. mage, w.f, kinswoman, 1391. mago,si. m., kinsman, son, 1465, etc. mago-driht, st. /., kindred-troop, band of warriors, 67. mago-rinc, st. m., kinsman-warrior, warrior, 730. mago-J>egn, magu-J>egn, st. m., kinsman-THANE, 293, 408, 1405, 1480,
;

1015, etc.; dat. pLmRgum, 1178, etc., niffigum, 2353.

maeg-burg,

[kin-BUBGH] st. /., family; gen. mseg-burge, 2887. msege, see magan. msegen, 2654, see magan. msegen, st. neut., main, strength, 445, etc.

msegen-agende, adj. {pres. part.), [MAiN-owning] mighty, 2837. maegen-byr^Jen, st.f., main-burden,
great burden, 1625, etc. msegen-crseft, st. m., main-craft, mighty strength, 380.

mainmsegen-ellen, st. neut., strength, great courage, 659. maegen-fultum, st. m., MAiN-aid, strong help, 1455. [main-race] msegen-rffis, st. m., mighty onslaught, 1519. st. msegen-strengo, main/., STBENGth; dat. 2678. [mainmsegen- wudu, st. m.,

wood] spear, 236.


msegU, st.f., MAID, woman, 943, etc. mgeg-wine, st. m., kinsman-friend
pi. 2479.
;

etc.

man(n), see mon(n).

man,

mael,
(1)

st.

neut., [meal]:

time, occasion, 316, etc. sword, 1616, 1667. msel-cearu, st.f., time-cARE, 189. mal-gesceaft, st.f., [time-shaping] appointed time, 2737. mnan, vk v., [mean]: (1) icith ace, declare, proclaim, 857, 1067.
(2)

st. neut., [moan] wickedness, crime, 110, 1055, etc. man-fordffldla, iv. m., wicked destroyer, 563. manian, lo. v., exhort, 2057.

manig, see monig.


man-lice, rfy., in a MANLY way, 1046. man-sc(e)a'8a, w. in., wicked scaTHer, deadly foe, 712, 2514, etc. mara, compar. adj. {of micel), greater, mightier, 247, 518, 753,
etc.;

(2) trans, and intrans., moan, bemoan, mourn, lament, 1149,

neut.,

ivith

gen.,

mare,

2267, 3149, 3171. -msenan, tv. v. ge-mnan, w.v., violate, 1101.

MORE, 136.

msenigo, see menigeo. mre, adj., great, famous, notorious, 103, 762, 1301, 1474, 1598, etc.

mast, superl., [most] greatest, neut., icith gen., 78, 2181, etc. 2645, etc. matSelian, lo. v., harangue, discourse, speak, 286, 2425, etc.
;

202

BEOWULF.
medo-heal, meodu-heall, st. f., MEAD-HALL, 484, 638. medo-stig, st. /., MEAD-path, path to the mead-hall, 924. medu-dream, st. m., MEAD-joy, 2016. medu-seld, st. neut., MEAD-hall,
3065. meodo-setl, settle, 5.
st.

ma^Jm-SBht, st. /., owning of treasure, valuable possession, 1613, 2833.

maSm-gestreon,

st. neut., jeweltreasure, 1931. maiJ(t$)um, st. m., thing of value, treasure, jewel, 169, 1528, etc.; pi. mat5mas, madmas, etc., 36,

neut.,

mead-

385, 1048, 1784, 1867, 2788, etc. matJiJum-fset, st. netit., treasureVAT, costly vessel, 2405. maOTum-gifu, st. /., treasure-oiFt,

1301. matJtJum-sigle, jewel, costly ment, 2757.

meodo-'wong, st. m., meadpiain, plain or field where the mead-hall stood, 1643. meodu-scenc, st. m., meaddraught, 1980.

st.

neut.,

treasure-

sun-shaped
st.

orna-

mehte, see magan. melda, iv. m., informer,


2405.

finder,

maWJum-sweord,
1023.

neut., treasure-

swoRD, sword inlaid with jewels,


ma^JtJum-wela, w. m., [treasureWE.Ui] wealth of treasure, 2750. me, pers. pron. {ace. and dat. o/ic), ME, to me, 446, 472, 541, etc.; dat. for myself, 2738.

meltan,
etc.

st. v.,

intrans., melt, 1120,


st.

ge-meltan,
2628, etc.

v.,

melt, 897,

mene,

st.

mengan, w.

m., collar, necklace, 1199. v.:

meagol, adj., forceful, earnest, solemn, 1980. meahte, meahton, see magan. mearas, etc., see mearh. mearc, st. /., march, limit ; dat. him \>set to mearce wearS, "that was his [life's] hmit," 2384. mearcian, to. v., mark, stain, engrave, 450; pp. gemearcod, 1264,
1695.

(1) MiNole; pp. gemenged, 848, 1593. (2) mingle with, visit, 1449.

menigeo,

msenigo, st. multitude, 41, 2143.

/.,

many,

meodo-, meodu-, see under medo. meoto, see met. meotod-, see metod-. mereels, st. m., mark, aim, 2439.
[Sievers 159. 1.]

mearc-stapa,

m., MARcn-sTEpper, march-stalker, 103, 1348. mearli, st. m., [mare] horse; pi.
ic.

mere, st. m., mere, sea, 1130, etc. mere-deor, st. neut., mere-deer,
sea-monster, 558. mere-fara, tv. m., MERE-FARer, seafarer, 502. mere-fix, st. fish, 549.

mearas,

etc.,

865, etc.
ic),

mearn, see muman. mec, pei's. pron. {ace. of


mece,
st.

m.,

mere-fish, sea-

me.

m., sword, 1938, etc.

mere-grund, st. m., [mere-ground] bottom of a mere or sea, 1449,


2100. mere-hrsegl, st. neut., [mere-rail] sea-garment, sail, 1905. mere-lHJend, st. m. {pres. part.), [MERE-going] sea-farer, sailor,
255. mere-strsBt,

med, St. /., meed, reward, 1178, etc. medo, medu, st. m., mead, 2633;
dat. 604.

medo-sern,

st.

neut., MEAD-hall, 69.

medo-benc,

benc, St. 1067, 1902, etc.

medu-benc, meodumead-bench, 776, /.,


neut.,

st.

/.,

[mere-street]
/.,

medo-ful,
etc.

st.

mead-cup, 624,

way over

the sea, 514.


st.

mere-strengo,

[mere-

GLOSSARY.
STKENGth] strength in swimming, 533. mere-wlf, st. neut., [meke-wife]
mer{e) -woman, 1519.

203

world, earth, 75, etc.; gen. "in the world," 504, etc. midde, lo. /., middIc, 2705. middel-niht, st.f., mid-night, 2782,
etc.

mergen,

see

morgen.

met, St. neut., thought; jjZ. meoto, 489 (see note). metan, st. v., mete, measure, pass
over, 514, 917, etc.

milit, St. /., might, 700, etc.

ge-metan,
verse, 924,

st.

v.,

mete,

tra-

mihte, see magan. mihtig, adj., mighty, 558, etc. milde, adj., mild, kind, 1172, etc. mildust, superl., mildest, kindest,

3181.
st.

metan, lo. v., meet, find, 751, etc. ge-metan, iv. v., meet, find,
757, etc.; pret. pi.

mll-gemearc,

neut., mile-mark,

hy

(ace.) ge-

metton, "met each other," 2592. Metod, St. m., Creator, God, 110,
etc.

measure by miles; gen. nis \>set feor heonon mil-gemearces, "that is not many miles away," 1362.
milts,
St.

/.,

MiLDness, kindness,

2921.
st. /.,

metod-sceaft, meotod-sceaft,

appointed doom, eternity, 1077, 2815, 1180 (Creator's glory?).


me?5el, st. neut., council, 1876. met$el-stede, st. m., meeting-place,

1082. meiJel-word, st neut. council-woKD, formal word, 236. micel, ad)., mickle, great, 129, etc.; gen. micles wyr'Sne, "worthy of much," 2185. micles, gen. used adverbially; t5 fela micles, "far too much,"
,

pron. {gen. sg. of ic), of me, 2533, etc. mIn, poss. adj. {gen. sg. of ic), MINE, my, 255, etc. missan, w. v., w. gen., miss, 2439. missere, st. neut., half-year, 153. St. neut., MisT-slope, mist-hlitJ, misty hill-side; dat. pi. mistpe7-s.

min,

hleo>um, 710.
mistig, adj., misty, 162.

mod,
(1) (2)

St.

neut.

694. micle, instr. used adverbially, by MUCH, much, 1579, 2651; so swa micle, "by so much," 1283. mid, prep., with dat. and ace. (1) loitli dat., with, aMiD, among, 77, 195, 274, 902, 1217, 1313, 1868, 2308, etc.; folloiving its case, 41, 889, 1625 ; of time, 126; with, by means of, through, 317, 438, 475, 574, 779, 1184, 1892, 2028, 2468, etc. Special passages mid rihte, "by right," 2056; mid gewealdum, "of his own
:

etc., 50, etc. 105, etc.; moody pride, fierceness, 1931.

MOOD, mind,
courage,

mod-cearu,

st. /.,

mood-care, soror
heart,

row
3149.

of

mind

1992,

modega, modgan, mod-gehygd, st.

etc., see

neut.,

modig. mind-

thought, 233. m6d-ge^onc,st7iewt, mind-thought,


1729.

mod-glomor,
modig, dega
adj.,
;

adj.,

sad in

mind

or

heart, 2894.

weak mod(i)ga, mopi. m. mod(i)ges moody, brave, proud,


;

gen.
:

mod(i)ge

accord," 2221 ; mid him, "among themselves," 2948. (2) with ace, with, aMin, among, 357, 879, 1128, 2652, etc. mid, adv., with them, withal, therewith, 1642, 1649. middan-geard, st. m., [middIc-yard]

312, 502, 670, 1508, 1888, etc. m5dig-lic, adj., [moody-like]. modig-llcra, compar., braver, prouder, 337. mod-lufu, IV. /., [mood-love] heart's love, 1823. modor, st. /., mother, 1258, etc.

204
mod-sefa, tv.
1853, etc. mod-))racu, 385.

BEOWULF.
mortJor, st. neut., murder, 892, 1683, etc. mortJor-bealo, st. neut., murderbale, murder, 1079, 2742. mortJor-bed, st. neut., murder-bed, 2436. morlSor-hete, st. m., murderous hate, 1105.

7u., [MooD-mind, -heart] mind, heart, courage, 180, 349,

st.

/".,

[MOOD-]daring,
m., loeak
;

mon(n), man(n),

st.

man-

na

dat. sg.

MAN, 25,

men(n) x>l. men 1943, etc.; weak ace. sg.


577.
indef. pron., one, they,

mannon, mon, man,

m5ste, see motan.

*m6tan,
2574, 2247.

st.-w. v.,
;

may, be

to,

must,

people, 1172, 2355, etc.

186, 2886, etc.


etc.
;

mona, lo. m., moon, 94. mon-cynn, man-cynn, st. MANKiNd, 110, 164, 196,
2181.

pret. moste, 168, pret. pi. mostan,

neut.,

1955,
st.

munan,

st.-io. v.

mon-dream,
1715.

man-dream,

m.,

[man-dream]

human

joy,

1264,

mon-dryhten, -drihten, man-dryhten, -drihten, st. m., [MAN-]lord, etc., 436, 1229, 1978, 2865, etc. monig (moneg-), manig (maneg-),
adj.,

ge-munan, st.-io. v., have in MiNd, remember; pres. gemon, geman, 265, 1185, etc. pret. gemunde, 179, 1141, etc. on-munan, st.-iv. v., reMiNd;
;

pret.

onmunde

usic mserSa, "re-

minded us

of glory, urged us to great deeds," 2640.


St./.,

on

MANY,

5, 75, etc.

nom. mo-

mund,

nig oft gesffit rice t5 rune, "many a mighty one oft sat in council," 171. Often absolutely, 857, etc.; and with dependent gen. pi. 728,
etc.

hand, 236, etc. mund-bora, iv. m., [hand-BEARer]

mund-gripe,
etc.

protector, 1480, etc. st. m., hand-ORip, 380,


st. v.,

muman,
etc.

mourn, be anxious,

mon-^ware, adj., [MAN-]gentle, kind to men, 3181.


mor, St. m., moor, 103, etc. morgen, mergen, st. 7n.,dat.morgne, mergenne morn, morning, mor:

reck, care, 50, 136, 1442, 1537,

be-muman,

st.

v.,

loith ace.,

row, 565, 837, 2484, etc.; gen.pl. morna, 2450. morgen-ceald, adj., MORNing-coLD, 3022. morgen-leoht, st. neut., MORNingLiGHT, 604, etc.

BEMOURN, mourn over, 907, etc. mtlIJa, 10. m., mouth, 724. mtHJ-bona, ^o. m., mouth-bane, one who slays by biting, 2079. myndgian, lo. v., call to mind (1) ivith gen., remember, 1105.
:

(2)

remind, 2057.

morgen-long,
2894.

adj.,

MORNing-LONG,

morgen-sweg, st. m., [MORN-swough] morning-clamour, 129.


morgen-tid,
484, etc.
st.

ge-myndgian, to. v., bring to MIND, remember; pp. gemyndgad, 2450. myne, st. m.: (1) wish, hope, 2572.
(2) love; ace. ne his myne wisse, " nor did he know his love," 169.

/.,

MORNing-TicE,

mor-hop,

neut., st. MooR-haunt, "sloping hollow on a moorside "

(Skeat), 450. morna, see morgen. morB-bealu, st. neut., MURner-BALE, murder, 136.

mynian, lo. v. ge-mynian, w. v., MiNd, be mindful of, 659. myntan, to. v., be MiNded, intend,
712, 731, 762.

GLOSSARY.
myrce,
myrtJ,
adj.,
st.

205
Special passage : 1604 Often found in comtvith naes,

/.,

MURKy, 1405. mirth; dat. modes

1508.
position

(see note).

myr^e, de gaiete de cmir, 810.


N.
na, neg. adv., never, not at all, not, 445, 567, etc. naca, iv. m., bark, craft, 214, 295, 1896 ; dat. 1903.

verbs,

e.g.

nah,
etc.,

nffibben,

nolde,
;

nat,

for lohich see agan, habban, wesan, willan, witan in composition


a, ffinig, etc., it forms the words na, nsenig, etc. (q. v.). Correlated with ne or another

ivith

nacod, adj., naked, 539, etc. nsebben, 1850, = ne hsebben,

see

habban.
nsefne, see nefne. nsBfre, adv., never, 247, etc. nsBgan, iv. v., greet, accost, 1318.

negative, not... nor, neither... nor, etc., 511, 1082-4, etc.; ne...ne ...ne, 1100-1; no...ne, 168-9, 575-7, etc.; no...ne...ne...ne,

1392-4, 1735-7; nEefre...ne, 583


-4, 718; nalles. ..ne, 3015-6.

ge-nagan,
pi. geuffigdan,

?<;.

v.,
;

assail; pret.

Correlated loith a doubled negative: ne ne...nffinig, 154-7;

2206

pp. gengeged,

1439.
St. m., nail, 985. nseglian, iv. v., nail pp. nasgled, nailed, riveted, studded," 2023. J' nnig (=:ne ienig), adj.-pron., not ANY, none, no, 859, etc, loith gen. pi. 157, etc. nfflre, n3eron,=:ne ware, ne weeron, see wesan. nses, = ne waes, see wesan. nses, neg. adv., not, not at all, 562,

nsegl,

858-60. nigh, near, 1743, 2728; ivith dat. neh, 2411. niebst, nf-bst, superl., [next] last, 1203, 2511. neab, adv., nigh, near, 1221, 2870; 2vith dat. 564, 1924, 2242. near, compar., NEARer, 745. nealles, etc. ( = ne ealles), adv., not at ALL, by no means, 2145, etc. nalles, 338, etc.; nallas, 1719, etc.; nales, 1811; nalas, 1493,
n8enig...nffire,
adj.,

ne neab,

etc.

etc.; nalaes, 43.

n8es(s), St. m., ness,


etc.

headland, 1439,
head-

nean, neon, adv., from nigh, from near, near, 528 (at close quarters),
839, 3104, etc.

nses-lilHJ, St. neut., NESs-slope,

land-slope; dai.^Lnees-hleo'Sum, 1427. nab, = ne ah, see agan. nalas, nalses, nales, nallas, nalles,
see neaUes. nam, see niman. nama, lo. m., name, 78, etc. naman, -namon, see niman. nan ( = ne an), adj.-pron., none, no, 989 tvith gen. pi. 803. nat, ne wat, see witan.
;

nearo,

st.

neut.,

[narrows]

straits,

distress, 2350, etc. nearo, adj., narrow, 1409.

nearo-crseft, st. m., [narrow-craft] inaccessibility, 2243. nearo-fab, st. m., [narrow-foe] foe causing distress; gen. nearofages, 2317.
nearo-J>earf, st. /., [NARROw-need] dire distress, 422. nearwe, adv., NARRowly, 976.

nat-hwylc (=ne wat hwylc; cf. 1. 274), adj.-pron., [wot not which] some, some one, a certain (one), 1513; with gen. pi. 2215, 2053, etc.
ne, neg. particle. Not, 38, 1384, etc. doubled, ne...ne, 182, 245-6, etc.; no^er...ne, 2124; ne...no,

nearwlan, w.
;

v.,

[narrow] straiten,

press pp. genearwod, 1438. nefa, iv. m., nephew, 881, etc.; grandson, 1203, 1962. nefne, nsefne, nemne, conj.: (1) unless, 250, 1056, 1552, etc.; except that, 1353.

;;

206
(2)

BEOWULF.
Li
elliptical sentences,
icith

quasi -prepositional force, unless, save, 1934, 2151, 2533. neh, see neah, adj. nelle, =ne wille, see willan.

niht, St. /., NIGHT, 115, 1334, etc.; gen. {m.) nihtes, 3044. nihtes, gen. {m.) used adverbially, of a NIGHT, by night, 422,

nemnan,
etc.

to.

v.,

name,
v.,

call,

364,

be-nemnan, w.
1097, 3069.

swear, curse,
dat.,

nemne,
1081.

prep.,

with

except,

conj., see nefne. neod-latJu (=med-latSu), st. /., pressing (invitation) summons dat. aefter neod-la'5u, "after the pressing summons (Beowulf had received)," 1320. neon, see nean. neos(i)an, nIos(i)an, to. v., with gen., visit, revisit, attack, 115, 125, 2388, 2671, etc.; pres. ^rd niosa-S, 2486. neotan, st. v., use, enjoy, 1217. be-neotan, bi-neotan, st. v.,

nemne,

2269, etc. niht-bealu, st. neut., night-bale, evil at night, 193. nlht-helm, st. m., night-helm, night, 1789. niht-long, adj., night-long, 528. niht-weorc, st. neut., night-work, 827.

niman,

st.v., take, seize

nime'5,
etc.

nyme'S,

441,

pres. Srd, 598, etc.;

pret. sg.,
;

nam, nom, 746, 1612, pret. pi. naman, 2216 pp.


;

(ge)numen, 1153, 3165. be-niman, st. v., deprive; pret.

benam, 1886.
pret.
etc.

for-niman, st. v., carry off; fornam, -namon, 488, 2828,


st.

ge-niman,

v.,
;

take,

seize,

ivith ace. pers.

and

dat. rei, de-

prive, 680, 2396. neotJor, see nHSer.

take away, clasp pret. genam, genom, 1872, 2776, etc. niod, St. /., pleasure, delight, 2116.
nIos(i)an, see neos(i)an. nioSor, see niUer.

neowol,

adj., steep ; p>^- neowle, 1411. nerian, to. v., save, preserve, 572 2}p. genered, 827. nesan, st. v.

niowe, see nlwe. nipan, st. v., darken, 547, 649. nis,=:ne is, see wesan.
nlU, St. m., envy, spite, malice, hate, violence, war, contest, conflict, struggle, 184, 827,882, 2317,2350,

ge-nesan,
(1) intrans.

st. v.

survive, escape, 999.

(2)

trans, survive, escape (from),


to.

1977, etc.; pp. genesen, 2397.


ne^San,
(1) (2)
v.
:

tvith

ace, dare, encounter,


risk, 510, 538. v.:

2350.

2397, 2680, etc.; affliction, 423. Gen. pi. used instrumentally in fight, in war, by force, 845, 1439, 1962, 2170, 2206. nitJas, see nitJtSas.
,

with dat.,

nItJ-draca,

ge-ne^Jan,

^v.

. [envy-cRAKE] m., malicious dragon, 2273.

(1) with ace. hazard, dare, venture on, brave, 888, 959, 1656, 1933, 2511. (2) ivith dat. risk, 1469. nicer, st. m., nicker (sea-monster), 422, etc.

ni^er, nsrBer, nioBor, adv.,

[nether] down, downwards, 1360, 2699,

nicor-htls,

st. neut., nicker-hodse, cavern of a sea-monster, 1411. nlebst, see neah, adj. nigen, num., nine inflected, 575.
;

3044. [envy-GUEST] malicious guest, 2699. ni'K-geweorc, st. neut., [envy-woRK] work of enmity, deed of violence, 683.
nItJ-gsest, St. m.,

nrS-grim, adj., [envy-GRiM]

maH-

ciously grim or terrible, 193.

GLOSSARY.
nlU-heard, adj., in war, 2417.
iilt$-liedig, adj.,

207

war-HARD, hardy

war-minded, 3165.

nyttian, w. v., ivith gen. ge-nyttian, w. v., loith ace, use, enjoy; pp. genyttod, 3046,
nytSer, see nitJer.

nlB-sele, st. m., hostile hall, 1513. niWJas, niBas, st. m. pi., men, 1005,

2215.
jilV-vnm6.Qr,st.neut., dread

wokder,
of,

0.
prep., with dat., from, 37, 56, 1138, 1571, 229, 1108, 710,
;

1365.

nlwe,

adj.,

949, etc.

wan, nlwian, w. v., reNEw; pp. geniwod, geniwad, 1303, 2287, etc. nIw-tyTwed,af(7. (jpi?. )> new-tarred,

NEW, 783 (startling), dat. weak niwan, niostefne, "anew," 1789, 2594.
;

295. no, adv.. Not at all, not, 136, 168 [see ne), 541, 543, 1508 {see ne),
etc.

1892, 2083, 2743, 2769, etc. ; of out of, 419; {after ut), 663, 2557 OFF, 672. Special passage: 'Sa he him of dyde, "then he doFFed," 671. ofer, prep., over, tcith ace. (of

motion,
(1) ivith

etc.)

and

dat. (of rest)

ace, over, 10, 46, 200,

nolde, =ne wolde, see -willan. nom, see niman. non, St. /., [noon] ninth hour, 3 p.m., 1600. nor?J, adv., north, 858. norBan, adv., from the north, 547. nose, w./., [nose] naze, cape, 1892, 2803. no'Ser ( = ne a hwsB'Ser), adv., nor, 2124. nH, adv., now, 251, etc. nH, conj., now, now that, seeing that, 430, etc.; correlative lolth
nil, adv., 2743-5. nyd, St. /., need, compulsion, 1005, 2454 (pangs). nydan, w. v., force, compel pp. genyded, 2680 inflected, genydde, 1005 {see gesacan). nyd-bad, st.f., [NEED-pledge] forced
;
;

217, 231, 239, 240, 311, 649, 859, 984, 1705, 1717, 2259, 2980, etc.; against, 2330, 2409, 2589; of, 2724 above, beyond, 2879; without, 685; of time, after, 736, 1781. Special " on passages : ofer eor'San,

earth," 248, etc. ; ofer wer-j^eode, " throughout nations of the

men," 899;
all

ofer ealle,

"so that

could hear," 2899. (2) with dat., over, 481, 1244, 1907, 2907, 2908, etc. ofer, St. m., bank, shore, 1371. ofer-hygd, -hfd, st. f. neut., contempt, pride, 1740, 1760. ofer-msegen, st. neut., over-main,
superior force, 2917.

ofer-matSum, st. m., [ovER-treasure] very rich treasure, 2993. ofost, St. /., haste, 256, 3007; dat.
386, 1292, x. 505.] ofost-llce, adv., hastily, 3130. oft, adv., oft, often, 4, 2029, 3019,
ofoste,
ofeste, ofste,

pledge, forced toll, 598. nyd-gestealla, lo.m., NEED-comrade, comrade in or at need, 882. nyd-gripe, st. m., [need-grip] dire grip, 976.

2747, etc.

["Beitrage"

etc.

oftor, compar.,

oftcuer, 1579.

nyd-wracu,

st.

/.,

[need-wrack]

oftost, superl., OFienEST, 1663.

dire ruin, 193.

nyhst, see neah, adj.

o-hwier, o-wer, 1737, 2870.

adv.,
st.

anywHERE,
m.,

nyman,

see

niman.
etc.

ombeht, ombiM,

servant,

nymtJe, conj., unless, 781,


njrt, adj., useful,

nytt, St. f., 494, 3li8.

of use, 794. duty, office, service,

officer, marshal, 287, 336. ombiht-^egn, st. m., attendantthane, 673. omig, adj., rusty, 2763, etc.

208
on,

BEOWULF.
displayed unceasing courage," 2695. on-drysne, adj., terrible, 1932. ond-saca, ic. m., adversary, 786, etc. ond-slyht, st. m., back-stroke, return blow, 2929, 2972. ond-swaru, st. /., answer, 354, 1493, 1840, 2860. onettan, to. v., hasten; pret. pi. 306,1803. [" Beitrage " X. 487.] on-gean, prep., with dat., AGAiNst, towards, at, 1034; aftei' its case, 681, 2364 {see foran) ; without object, 747 (or adi;. = forwards). onllc-nes, st.f., likeness, 1351. on-medla, iv. m., arrogance, 2926.

(677, 1247, 19S5), prep., on; and ace, usu. dat. of rest and ace. of motion, but instances of the ace. are common, as loill he seen, in which there is no suggestion, or the merest suggestion, of motion: (1) icith dat., of place and time, on, in, 40, 53, 76, 409, 607, 609,
2vith dat.

an

677, 702, 782, 847, 891, 926, 1041, 1292, 1352, 1544, 1581, 1618 (aswimming), 1643, 1662, 1830 (with respect to), 1884, 2197, 2248, 2276, 2311 (upon), 2705, 3157, etc.; after its case, 1935, 2357, 2866 ; in, among, 1557; at, 126, 303, 575, 683, 3148; by, 1484. (2) icith ace, onto, into, 35, 67, etc.; on, in, 507, 516, 627, 635, 708, 996, 1095, 1109, 1297, 1456, 1675, 2132, 2193, 2690, 2650 (with regard to; cf. 11. 1830-1), etc.; of time, 484, 837, 1428, etc.; to, 1728, 2662, 1739 (ac-

on-sge, adj., nom. 2483


;

impending,
>>Eer

fatal,

wees Hondscio

cording to); towards, 21. Special passages : 873 (see sped), 1579 {see an), 1753 {see endestaef), 2799 {see feorh-legu), 2903 {see efn), 2962 {see wrecan); on gebyrd, "by fate," 1074; an wig gearwe, "ready for war," 1247; on ryht, "rightly," 1555; on unriht, "falsely," 2739; on gylp, "for a boast, out of bravado," 1749; on minne sylfes dom, "at my own disposal, choice," 2147; he ic her on starie, "on which I am here gazing," 2796. on innan, see innan. on weg-, AWAY, 763, etc. on, adv., on, 3084 (see note). oncer-bend, st. m.f., anchor-band, anchor-chain, 1918.
on-cyt5(B), st.f., distress, suffering,

hild onstege, "there was battle impending over Hondscio," 2076. on-syn, an-s^n, st. /., sight, appearance, form, 251, 928, 2772, 2834. on-weald, st. m., [wiELDing] control, possession, 1043. open, adj., open, 2271. openian, to\ v., open, 3056. or, St. neut., beginning, origin, van, 1041, 1688, 2407. ore, St. m., flagon, 2760, etc. orcne, st. m., sea-monster, 112. ord, St. neut., point, front, van, 556, 2498, 2791.

ord-fruma,
263.

xv.

m.,

chief,

prince,

m., warrior, 332, 481, oret-mecg, [Sievers 43, N. 4.] etc. oretta, iv. m., warrior, 1532, etc. orelS-, see oru^J. or-feornie,a4/.,without food, famishing, destitute, 2385. or-leahtre, adj., blameless, 1886. or-leg, St. neut., battle, war, 1326,
st.

etc.

orleg-hwll,
or-^onc,

st.

/.,

battle-wniLE,
etc.

830, 1420. ond, conj., and, 39, 600, etc. ond-long, and-long, adj., liveLONG, 2115, 2938; ace. vi. -Sa ic.gefr8egn...andlongne eorl ellen cy"San, "then I learnt that the earl

time of battle or war, 2002,


or-^anc,
st.

m., [original thought] skill, 406; dat. pi. adverbially, skilfully, 2087. orutJ, St. neut., breath, 2557; gen. ore'Ses, 2523; dat. oreSe, 2839.

GLOSSARY.
adj., wabdIgss, or-weaxde, unguarded, 3127. or-wena, adj. {loeak form), ivith ^ew., [wEENless] hopeless, despairrsest, St. /.,

209

otS,

ing, 1002, etc. prep., to. ace, until, 2399, etc. otJ Jjset, conj., till, until, 9, etc.;

once,
otJer,

o-S'S \>xt,

66.

num.

ad/j.-pron.,

other, (the)

other, the second, another, 219 (see note), 503, 859, 1133, 1300, 1583 {see swylc),
one,
(the)

1755, 2117, 2451, 2481, 2670, 2985, etc.; correl. o5er...o'Ser, " one. .the other," 1349-51. Neut. pi. o'Ser, 870. Special passage: ealo-drincende o'Ser seedan, "the ale-drinkers told another tale," 1945. oW5, see o'S.
.

rest, resting-place, bed, _139, 1237, etc. rsBSwa, w. m., leader, 60. rand, see rond. rasian, w. v., find, explore; pp. rasod, 2283. raBe, see liratJe. reafian, iv. v., reave, rob, plunder; pret. reafode, reafedon, 1212, 2985, etc. be-reafian, w. v., bereave pp., with dat., bereft, 2746, etc. rec, St. m., reek, smoke, 3155. recan, lo. v., loith gen., reck, care; pres. 3rd, recced, 434. reccan, lo. v., relate, tell, 91 ; dat. inf. reccenne, 2093; pret. rehte, 2106, 2110. reced, st. neut., house, building,
;

hall, 412, etc.

o'StJe,

conj.:
or, 283,

regn-heard,

adj.,

[mighty-HARn]
326.

(1)

649

(see note), etc.

wondrous hard,

(2) and, 247_5. ower, see oh-wser.

6-wiht, pron., aught; dat. a whit, 1822, 2432.

regnian, renian, iv. v., prepare, adorn, 2168; pp. geregnad, 777. ren-weard (=regn-), st. m., mighty WARDen, mighty guard, 770.
reoc, fierce, 122. reofan, st. v. be-reofan, st. v., bereave, deprive; pp., ace. sg. /., berofene, 2457, 2931. reon, see rowan, reord, st.f., speech, 2555. reordlan, iv. v., speak, croak, 3025. ge-reordian, iv. v., prepare a feast ; pp. gereorded, 1788. reot, St. m. ? /. ?, revel, 2457. reotan, st. v., weep, 1376. restan, w. v., rest, cease, 1799, 1857, etc. rej>e, adj. fierce, furious, 122, etc. rice, St. neut., realm, 861, etc. rice, adj., rich, powerful, mighty, 172, 310, 399, etc. ricone, adv., quickly, 2983. ricsian, rlxian, w. v., reign, rule, domineer, raid, 144, 2211. ridan, st. v., ride, 234, 1883, etc.; pret. pi. riodan, 3169. ge-rldan, st. v., ivith ace, ride over, 2898.
,

R.
rsBcan, w. v., intrans., reach; pret. rgehte,_747. ge-rsBcan, lo. v., trans., reach; _pret. gerffihte, 556, 2965. rsed, St. m., [rede] advice, counsel, help, benefit, gain, 172, 1201,

_1376, 2027.
rsedan,
(2)
st.

and w.

v.

(1) intrans., decide,

decree, 2858.

trans., possess, 2056.

rd-bora,
Riidend,

w. m., counsellor, 1325.


st.

[REDE-BEARer]

m. {pres. part.), Euler

JGod), 1555. raeran, w. v. a-rseran, w. v., rear, raise, _exalt, extol, 1703, 2983. rses, St. m., race, rush, storm, onslaught, 2356, 2626. rsesan, iv. i\, race, rush, 2690. ge-rsan, w. v., race, rush, 2839.

W.

B.

14

210

BEOWULF.
for

ridend, st. m. (pres. part.), Kioer; pi. ridend, 2457. riht, St. neut., bight, 144, 1700, "rightly," etc.; ace. on rilit,

them

so

that

masters of the

field,"

they were 2983; so

ge-ryman,

to. v.,

make ROOMy,

1555; dat. sefter rihte, "in accordance with right," 1049, etc. ace. pi. ealde riht, "the old
laws, the ten commandments," 2330. rihte, adv., kightIj, 1695. rlman, w. v., [rime] count, number; pp. gerlmed, 59. rinc, St. m., man, wight, warrior, 399, 720, 741, etc. riodan, see ridan.
risan, st. v. a-rlsan,
etc.
st. v.,

prepare, 1086.

S.

arise, 399, 2403,

sacan, st. v., strive, 439. ge-sacan, st. v., gain by strife; ac gesacan sceal...nyde inf. genydde ni>'Sa bearna...gearwe stowe, "but he shall gain by strife the inevitable prepared place of the children of men," 1004. on-sacan, st. v.
:

(1) icitli ace. pers.

and gen.
life
:

rei,

rlxian, see rlcsian. rodor, st. m., sky, heaven, 310, 1376, 1555, 1572. rof, adj., strong, brave, renowned, 1793, 1925, 2538, 2690; with gen. 682, 2084. rond, rand, st. m., shield, 231, 656,

pres. subj. >ffitte freo'Su-webbe feores ons8ece...leofne mannan, "that a peace-weaver should assail the life of a dear man," 1942. (2) ivith ace. rei and dat. pers., refuse, dispute, 2954.

attempt a person's

2673, etc.

sacu,
iv.

rand-wiga,
rond-hsebbend,

m.,

shield-

St. /., strife, 1857, ssece, 154.

2472; ace.

warrior, 1298, etc.


st.

m. {pres. part.),
shield-warrior,

[shield-HAving] 861.

rowan, st. v., row, swim; pret.pl. reon = reowon, 512, etc. rtlm, St. m., room, space, 2690. rtlm, adj., Roony, spacious, ample,
great, 278, 2461. rflm-lieort, adj., [room-heart] greathearted, bountiful, 1799, 2110. rtln, St. /., rune, council, 172.
rtln-stsef, st. m.,
letter,

sadol, St. m., saddle, 1038. sadol-beorht, adj., saddle-bright, with a bright or splendid saddle (cf. 1. 1038), 2175. S8B, St. m. f. sea, 579, 507, 2394, etc. dat. pi. seem, 858, etc. S39-bat, St. m., sea-boat, 633, 895.
,

ssece,

St.

/.,

strife,

fight,

contest,

rune-stave, runic

1695. rfln-wita, lo. m., [rune-] wise councillor, 1325. ryht, see riht.

man,

ryman,
(1)

%o. v.

-.

make ROOMy, prepare;

pp.

geiymed, 492, 1975. (2) make room, clear a way; pp. ^a him gerymed weartS, J?et hie wael-stowe wealdan moston,

1977, 2029, etc.; gen. sg. secce, 600. Cf. sacu. ssece, see sacu. ssB-cyning, st. m., sea-king, 2382. ssedan, see secgan. ssB-deor, st. neut., sea-deer, seamonster, 1510. s-draca, iv. m., sea-drake, sea_dragon, 1426. ssegan, w. v., cause to sink, lay low; 2}P' gesffiged, 884. sffi-geap, adj., sEA-wide, spacious,
953,
_l>s96.

"when

the

way was made

clear

sse-genga, iv. m., _1882, 1908. saegon, see seon.

SEA-goer,

ship,

GLOSSARY.
sa-grund,
ssel,
St.

211
ssel.

st.

vi.,

sea-ground,

salum, see
sand, sang,
sar,
St. St.

bottom of the
sel,

sea,

samod, see somod.


neut., sand, 213, etc.

neut., hall, 307, etc.; ace.

167.

sal,
(1)

St.

m.

f.

St. f.

m., song, 90, etc. neut., sore, pain,


;

wound,

time, season, occasion, opportmiity, 622, 1008, etc.; ace. sg. sele, 1135. (2) happiness, joyance, bliss, 643, etc. ; dat. pi. salum, 607. sa-lac, St. neut.y sEA-booty, 1624; ace. pi. sffl-lac, " sea-spoils," 1652. sa-lad, st.f.y sEA-path, sea- voyage, _1139, 1157. ssBlan, to. v., bind, tie, secure, 226, "bound, ges^led, 1917; 2^P' twisted, interwoven," 2764. on-ssilan, to. v., unbind; imperat. sg. onsael meoto, "unbind Jhy thoughts," 489.
saslan, w. v.,

787, 975
sare,

noin. sio sar,

2468; ace.

"harm," 2295.

sar, adj., sore, 2058. sare, adv., soREly,

1251, 2222, 2311, 2746. sarig, adj., sorry, sad, 2447. sarig-feriJ, adj., [soRRY-heart] sore at heart, 2863. sarig-mod, adj., [sorry-mood] in mournful mood, 2942. sar-llc, adj., [sore-like] painful, sad, 842, 2109.

happen.

sawl-berend, st. m. {pres. part.), [souL-BEARing] being endowed with a soul, 1004. sawol, St. /., SOUL, 2820, etc. ace.
;

ge-slan, lo. v., often impers., happen, 890, befall, chance, 1250; pret. sg. me gesselde J^ast,
"it

gen. sawle, 184, 2422, etc. sawele, 1742.

gen.

chanced that," or "I suc-

ceeded in," 574.


sseld, St. neut., hall, 1280.

ssB-lItJend, st.

farer;
etc.
;

m. {pres. part.), seanom. pi. sse-ll^end, 411,


377.

sffi-li'Sende,

saltJe (?), 3152, see note on 3155. sffl-mann, st. m., sea-man, 329,

_2954.
ssB-met5e, adj., SEA-weary, 325. samra, compar. adj. {loithout pos.)j

sawol-leas, sawul-leas, soulless, lifeless, 1406, 3033. sawul-drlor, st. neut., [souL-gore] heart's blood, life's blood, 2693. scacan, st. v., pres. sg. sceaceS, 2742, pp. scacen, sceacen, 1124, shake, go, depart, 2306, etc. hasten, 1136, 2254, etc. Special passages: inf. "Sa com beorht scacan sunne ofer grundas, " then
:

jvorse, weaker, 953, 2880. ssB-nsess, st. m., sea-ness, _land, 223, 571.
sne,_ad?.

head-

ssenra, eompar., slower, 1436.


ssB-rinc, st. m., sea- warrior, 690.
Sffl-si^, St.

the bright sun came hastening o'er the plains," 1802 pret. strsela storm strengum gebseded scoc ofer scild-weall, "the storm of arrows, sent by the strings, flew over the shield-wall," 3118. scadan, st. v. ge-scadan, st. v., decide; pret.
;

s-weall,

St.

s-wong,
_1964. sse-wudu, _226. sse-wylm,

m., SEA-journey, 1149. m., sea-wall, 1924. St. 111., SEA-plain, shore,
St.

gesced, 1555.

m., sea-wood, ship,


m., [sEA-wELLing] sea-

scadu-helm, st. m., [shadow-helm] shadow-covering, cover of night; gen. pi. scadu-helma gesceapu, " shapes of the shadows," 650. scami(g)an, xo. v., be asHAMsd,
1026, 2850.
sca)a, see sceaj>a.

st.

surge, 393. -saga, see -secgan. sal, St. m., rope, 302, 1906.

sceacen, sceacelS, see scacan. ace. pi. scead, st. neut., shade
:

142

212

BEOWULF.
SHOOT OFF,
kill; pret. sg. ofscet,

under sceadu bregdan, "cast under the shades, i.e. kill," 707. sceaden-ml, adj., curiously inlaid
(sword); absolutely, 1939.

sceadu-genga, w. m., sHADow-goer, prowler by night, 703.


sceal, etc., see sculan. scealc, St. m., marsHAL, retainer,

918, 939. scearp, adj., sharp, 288. sceat, St. m., [sheet] corner, region, quarter, 96 gen. pi. sceatta, 752. sceatt, st. m., money, 1686. scea|>a, scaja, w. m., scATHer, foe, novi. pi. sca}?an, 1803, warrior 1895; gen. pi. scea>ena, 4, sceaSona, 274. sceatJan, st. v., tvith dat., scathe, injure; ^j?^^. scod, 1887. ge-sceatJan, st. v., with dat., SCATHE, 1502, 1587. Special passages: pret. sg. se '5e him sare gesceod, "who injured himself sorely," 2222; bill ger gescod... eald-hlafordes >am "Sara ma'Sma mund-bora w^es longe hwile, "the old lord's (Beowulf's) sword had erewhile injured him that had been the protector of those treasures a long while," 2777. sceawere, st. m., explorer, spy, 253. sceawi(g)an, w. v., w?Y/i. ace, [shew] espy, see, view, observe, 840, 843, 1391, etc.; pres.pl. siibj. sceawian, 3008; pret. pi. sceawedon, 132, etc. ; pp. gesceawod, 3075, 3084. -seed, see -scadan. SCeft, St. VI., SHAFT, 3118. seel, see sculan. scencan, w. v., skink, pour out; pret. sg. scencte, 496. scenne, w. /., sword-guard, 1694. -sceod, see -sceatJan. sceolde, see sculan. -sceop, see -scyppan. sceotan, st. v., shoot, 1744. ge-sceotan, st. v., icith ace, SHOOT or dart into, hurry to pret. sg. hord eft gesceat, 2319. of-sceotan, st. v., icith ace,
;
:

2439. sceotend, st. m. {pres. part.), SHooTer, warrior; pi. 703, 1154. scepen, see scyppan. sceran, st. v., shear, cut, 1287. ge-sceran, st. v., shear, cut in two, 1526 pret. sg. gescer, 2973. -scet, see -sceotan. scetJtSan, w. v., usu. with dat., scathe, injure, 1514, 1524, etc. ; absolutely, 243. ge-sce'5Can, iv. v., with dat., scathe, injure, 1447.
;

scild-, see scyld-.


scile, see

sclnan,
2)ret.

sculan. v., shine, 1517, etc.; pi. scinon, 994, scionon,


st.

303. scinna, iv. m., devil, 939. scionon, see sclnan. scip, St. neut., ship, 302, etc. ; dat. pi. scypon, 1154. scip-here, st. m., SHiP-army, naval force; dat. scip-herge, 243. sclr, adj., sheer, bright, 322, 496, 979 ; weak gen. 1694. sclr-ham, adj., bright-coated, with shining mail, 1895.
scod, see sceatJan. scolde, etc., see sculan. scop, St. m., [shaper] maker, bard,
etc., 90, etc.

scop, see scyppan. scota, ic. m., sHOOTer, warrior; dat.


pi.

scotenum, 1026 (see note),


st.

scrifan,

v.,

[shrive]
st.

prescribe,

pass sentence, 979.


for-scrifan,
v.,

with

dat.

pers., proscribe, 106.

ge-scrlfan, st. v., prescribe: pret. sg. swa him wyrd ne gescraf lire 5 jet hilde, "as weird did not assign to him triumph in battle,"

2574. scrlSan,

st.

v.,

stride, stalk, glide,

wander, move, go, advance, 163,


650, 703, 2569. scucca, 10. m.,

demon; dat. pi. ond scinnum, "from demons and devils," 939.
scuccum

GLOSSARY.
St. v., icith ace, shove, launch, 215, 918; pret.pl. scufun, 3131. be-scHfan, st. v., loitli ace, shove, cast, 184. "wld-scClfan, st. v., [wide-shove] scatter; wea wid-scofen pp. witena gehwylcne, "woe [had] scattered each councillor," 936. sculan, st.-iv. v., pres. sg. 1st, Srd

213

sctlfan,

scyle, see sculan.

scyndan, w. v., hasten, 2570, 918. adj., sheen, beauteous, scyne, 3017.
scjrp, see scip.

scyppan,

etc., seel, 455, etc., siihj. 2498, etc. i)^'^^scyle, 2657, scile, 3176; pret. scolde, 280, etc., sceolde, 2586,

sceal,

20,

st. v. shape, create, make, 78; pp. sceapen, 2230; w8bs sio wroht scepen heard wi'5 Hugas, "the strife was made hard against the Hugs," 2913. ge-scyppan, st. v., shape,
,

sceall,

create, 97.

etc.;

2nd

sg. sceoldest,

2056;

^^Z.

Scyppend, st. m. {.pres. part.), SHAPEr, Creator, 106. scyran, to. v., [make sheer] bring
to light, 1939.
se, m., seo, sio, /., J>8et, neut., demon, adj., the, that: m. se, 506,

scoldon, 41, etc., sceoldon, 2257: SHALL, he to, must, have to, be obliged, ought, 24, etc., pret. SHOULD, was to, etc., 230, 1067, 1260, etc.; sometimes expressing mere futurity, 384, etc. With foil. inf. omitted : unc sceal worn fela mabma gemsenra [wesan],

1783

iirum sceal sweord oncl

helm... bam gemiene, "to us both


sceal se hearda helm...fetum befeallen, 2255 >onne '5u forS scyle [gongan], 1179; so, 2816. Special passage : he gesecean sceall hord on hrusan, "it is his to seek the hoard in the earth," 2275.
;

shall [be] in

one

sword

and

helmet

common," 2659;

scClr-lieard,

[shower-hard] adj., hardened by being plunged into Cf. "the icecold water, 1033. brook's temper," Othello,y. 2. 253.

scyld, St. m., shield, 325, etc. scild-weall, st. m., shieldwall, wall of shields, 3118.

2237, 2999; f. seo, 1343; sio, 2684, 2999, 3150; neut. >8Bt, 661; 2028; gen. {jara, 681, >ffira, 992. Fol1)1. lowing its noun : ace. m. ]?one, 2007, 2588, 2952, 2969, 3081; gen. pi. "Sara, 2734. Alliterating: dat. m. \>mn, 197, 790, 806 ; ace. f. sg. \>R, 736, 1675; instr. neut. \>y, 1797; gen. pi. >ara, 2033. Correl. ivith se used as a relative pron.: se...se, 2865, 3071-3; seo See also J?e. ...sio, 2258. se, m., seo, sio,/., J>3et, neut., pron. Demon, pron., that, that I. m. se, 469, 2406, one, he, etc. 2804; /. sio, 2024, 2087; neut. J^ffit, 716, 734, 765, 1002 {see beace. in. hone, 3009 ; gen. fleon) m. and neut. j?8es, 1774; ic 'Sges m8eg...gefean habban, "I ealles can have joy of alljhat," 2739;
instr. neut. \>y, 1664,
: ;

scyldan, w.

v.,

shield

mec God

scylde,

piret. nym'Se "unless God


:

had shielded me," 1658. scyld-freca, to. m., sHiELD-warrior, 1033. scyldig, adj., guilty; with dat., synnum scildig, 3071 ; ^vith gen. 1683; ealdres scyldig, "having forfeited his life," 1338, 2061. scyld-wiga, iv. m., SHiBLD-warrior, 288.

dat. m. and neut. )>ffim, 12, >a,m, 137; ace. pi. )>a, 3014; gen. pi. ]5ara, 1015 (see note). Immediately followed by the rel. particle \>e (q. v.): nom. se J^e, 90,

441, 1497, 2222, 2292, 2864; ace. >one \>e, 2295, 3003, 3034, 3116; dat. \>ixm \>e, 2601, 2861, 3055; gen. pi. >ara >e, 98, 878, 1196, 1461, 1578, 1625 ("of those things which"). With \>e omit-

; -

214

BEOWULF.
tistically

ted: J'am = J>am >e, 2199, 2779. Correl. xoith se used as a rel.

coloured,

variegated,

1444.
searo-geJ>raec,
st. neut., heap of treasures of cunning work, 3102. st.

pron.: se...se, 2406-7. Particular usages:


(1)

gen.

neut.

J>3es,

of that, of
for this,

searo-gimm,

m.,

cunning gem,

this, thereof, for that,

114, 350, 588, 1145, 1692, 1778, 2032, 2239, 2335; therefore, 900, 1992. Correl.

therefor, 7, 16,

with )>8et, conj., 2026-8, See also )>8es, adv.


J>e,

etc.

jewel of artistic workmanship, 1157, 2749. searo-gTim, adj., [cunning-ORiM] cunningly fierce, or fierce in battle, 594. searo -hsebbend, st. m. {pres. part.),

(2) instr. neut. J>y,

therefore,

[armour-HAving] armour-bearer,
warrior, 237. searo-net, st. neut., [cunning- or armour-NET] coat of mail, 406. searo-nltJ, st. m., armour-strife, hostility, 582, 3067; cunninghatred, wile, plot, 1200, 2738. searo->onc, st. m., cunning thought, 775.

1273, 2067. Correl. with H, conj. Often (q. v.), 487, 1436, 2638. with comparatives, the 821, 974, 1902, 2277, 2687, 2749, 2880; no \>y aer, "none the sooner," 754,
:

etc.
(3)

instr.

neut.

J>on;

>on ma,

"(the) more," 504; sefter >on, "after that," 724; sev];>on, "ere," 731; be )>on, "by that," 1722; to >on, >8et, "until," 2591, 2845. See also tinder to. II. Rel. pron., that, who, which, what; m. se, 143, 370, 1610, 2407, 2865, etc.; se/or seo,

searo-wundor,

st.

neut.,

[cunning

wonder] rare wonder, 920.


seax, St. neut., hip-sword, dagger, 1545. secan, secean, tv. v., 664, 187; dat. inf. to seceanne, 2562 pi-es. pi.
;

(fut.)

secea'S,

3001;

pret.

pi.

2421 {see also >e); neut. >aet = "what," 15, 1466, 1748; m. ace. ]>one, 1354, 2048, 2751; /. ace. >,, 2022; gen. neut. Gode
)'ancode...)58es

se

man

gespreec,

" thanked God for what the man spake," 1398; bees ic wene, "according to what I expect, as I ween," 272; so, 383; dat. sing. m. andneut. ]>8em, 310, 374, 1363, 1688; )?am, 2612; pi. >a, 704, etc. See also ^ses, adv.
^aes >e, see under ^ses. sealde, etc., see sellan. sealma, w. m., sleeping-place,

couch, chamber, 2460.


sealt, adj., salt, 1989.

sohton, 339, sohtan, 2380: seek in its various meanings; visit, go to, strive after; 756, 1379, 2738, 2380 (of a friendly visit). Intrans. 2293, 3001 (of a hostile attack); I'onne his myne sohte, "than his wish (hope) sought," 2275. Special passages: sawle secan, "kill," 801; so, secean sawle hord, 2422. ge-sec(e)an, tv. v., 684, etc.; dat. inf. to gesecanne, 1922 pret. pi. gesohton, 2926, gesohtan, 2204 seek in its various meanings as above, 692, 1839, etc.; often of hostile attack, 2515,
:

etc.

searo,

st.

neut.,
etc.;

armour, 329, 419


dat.

ofer-sec(e)an,

to.

v.,

ovERtax,

pi. adver" cunningly, curiously," 1038, 2764. searo-bend, st. m.f., cunning band, 2086. searo-fah, adj.^ cunningly or ar(battle),

test too severely; ^;-et. sg. se "Se

bially,

searwum,

mecagehwane...swengeofersohte, "which with its swing overtaxed every sword," 2686.


sece, see ssecc.
t.

m.,

man,

etc.,

208, 213,

GLOSSARY.
249,
secg,

215
,

402,

980,

2863,

etc.;

of

GrendeVs mother, 1379.


St. f.,

sele-rest, st. f. hall, 690.


sele-|>egn,
st.

hall-REST, bed in a

sword, 684.
v.,

selest, etc., see

under

selra.

secgan, w.

273, 590, 532, 1809, etc.; dat. inf. to secganne, 473, 1724; pret.pl. sgegdon, 377, etc., sledan, 1945 ; pp. gessegd, gessed, 141, 1696: SAY, speak. Imperf. with partitive gen. swa se secg hwata secgende wees la^ra spella, 3028. a-secgan, lo. v., say out, declare, 344.

m., hall-THANE, chamberlain, 1794. [hall-WAEo] m., st. sele-weard, guardian of a hall, 667. self, reflex, adj. ; nom. sg. self, 594, 920, etc., sylf, 1964; iveak selfa, 29, 1924, etc., seolfa, 3067, sylfa, 3054, etc.; ace. sg. m. selfne, 2875, etc., sylfne, 1977; gen. sg. m. selfes, 700, etc., sylfes, 2013,
etc.;
selfe,

ge-secgan,

lo.

v.,

say,

2157;

/.

selfre,

1115;

7iom.

pi.

imperat. sg. gesaga, 388. sefa, 10. m., mind, soul, heart, 49, 278, 473, etc. seft, compar. adv. {of softe), soFTer, more easily, 2749. -segan, see -seon. segen, see segn. segl, St. neut., sail, 1906. segl-rad, st. /., sail-road, sea, 1429. segn, St. 111. neut., sign, banner, 1204; ace. segn, 2767, 2776, segen, 47, 1021; nom. sg. J?a wees
ffiht

419, sylfe, 1996; gen. pi. sylfra, 2040: self, etc. Often absolutely 2222, 419, etc.; on minne sylfes dom, 2147. Sometimes agreeing with the nom. instead of with the oblique case next to ivhich it stands: \>vi ]>e
(dat.)
self,

953;

l^sem

>e

him

selfa deah, 1839.


sella, see selra.

seUan, syllan, w.

Higelaces,

boden Sweona leodum, segn "then was pursuit

v., [sell] give, give up, 2160, 1370, 1482, etc. ge-sellan, iv. v., [sell] give, 1029, 1052, etc.

offered to the Swedes' people, Hygelac's standard [raised]," 2958 (see note). From L. signum.

sel-llc,

syl-llc

(=:seld-lic),

adj.,

rare, strange, 2086, 2109, 1426. stranger, syl-licra, compar.,

-segon, see -seen. -sell, see -seon. sel, see ssel. sel, compar. adv. {no positive, selra), better, 1012, 2687, etc. seldan, adv., seldom, 2029.

3038.
selra, compar. adj. (no positive), better, 860, 1384, 1468, etc.;
cf.

nom.
J>8et

sg.

m.

sella,

2890. Absolutely

selre, 1759.

seld-guma, w. m., hall-man; nom. sg. nis Joast seld-guma, "that is


retainer," 249. sele, St. m., hall, 81, 713, etc.; of the drago7i's cave, 3128. sele, see sl. sele-dream, st. m., [hall-DREAM] hall-joy (in heaven?), 2252. sele-ful, St. neut., hall-beaker, hallcup, 619. sele-gyst, st. m., hall-GUEST, 1545.

etc.

selest, superl., best, 146, 256, Weak form reced selesta,

no mere

; and often after the def. art. 1406, etc. semninga, adv., forthwith, straightway, suddenly, 644, 1640, 1767. sendan, lo. v., send, 13, 471, 1842.

412
se,

for- sendan, lo. v.,

send away,

904.

on-sendan, iv. v., send away, send off, 382, 452, 1483; with
for, 45, 2266.

sele-raidend, st. vi. {pres. part.), [hall-counsellor] hall-ruler, 51,

sendan, w.

v., feast,

600.

1346.

seo, see se, se.

216
seoc, adj., sick, "sick

BEOWULF.
dat. sibbe ne wolde wi'S manna hwone, "would not out of compassion to any man," 154.
sib-aetSeling, st. m.,

unto death," 1603, 2740, 2904. ace. seofan, seofon, SEVEN, 517 2195; inflected syfone, 3122. seolfa, see self,
;

kindred-ATHEkindred-

LING, 2708.
sibbe-gedrilit,
st.

seomian, siomian, w.
(1)

v.

neut.,

rest,

ride,

lie,

stand,

302,

2767.
(2) enfetter, fetter; pret. sg. seo-

band, band of kindred- warriors, 387 (see note), 729. sId, adj., wide, broad, large, ample,
great,

made, 161.
seon,
SEE, look, 387, 336, etc.; z'/i/. >erm8eg...seon, "there it is possible to see, there may one see," 1365; pret. pi. seegon,
St.

149,

1291,

1726,

etc.;

v.,

weak forms 1733, 2199, 2347.


side, adv., widely, 1223.

sld-fseVme,

adj., [wide-FATHOMed] broad-bosomed, 1917.

see, 229, 1485, etc.; pres. sy. 3rd gesyh'S, 2455, etc.; pret.pl. gesawon, 221, etc., gesegon, 3128, gesegan, 3038; suhj. pret. pil. gesawon, 1605.
st. v.,

1422. ge-seon,

sId-faeBmed,

adj.

{pp.),

[wide-

fathomed] broad-bosomed, 302. sId-rand, st. m., broad shield, 1289. sle, see wesan. siex-benn, st. /., hipknife- wound,
2904.
sig, see

Froin seax.

see throughout, see over; pret. sg. geondseh, 3087. ofer-seon, st. v., oversee, survey, look on, 419. on-seon, st. v., look on, look

geond-seon,

st. v.,

wesan.
sink,

sigan, St. v., 1251, 307.


ge-i

march down,

at, 1650. seonu, St. f., sinew; nom. pi. seonowe, 817. seo^Jan, st. v., with ace, seethe, brood over; pret. sg. mgel-ceare, mod-ceare... seats, 190, 1993.

seoWan,

see si^J'Kan.

seowian, ic v., sew, Unk; pp. seowed (of a byrny), 406. sess, St. 111., seat, 2717, 2756.
setan, see sittan.
St. neut., settle, seat, 1232, 1289, etc. settan, lo. v., set, set down, 325, 1242 ; pp. geseted, 1696. a-settan, lo. v., set, set up, 47; pp. aseted, 667. be-settan, w. v., beset, set about, 1453. ge-settan, w. v.:

setl,

(2) set

(1) SET, 94. at rest,

2029.

sib(b), St. /., peace, relation, kin-

ship, friendship, 949, 1164, 1857,


etc.; uninflected ace. sibb,

2600;

2659. sige-drihten, st. m., victory-lord, victorious lord, 391. victory-happy, adj., sige-eadig, rich in victories, victorious, 1557. sige-folc, St. neut., victory-FOLK, victorious people, 644. sige-hretJ, st. m. neut., victoryfame, presage of victory, confidence or exultation in victory, 490. sige-brelSig, adj., victory-exultant, exulting in victory, 94, 1597, 2756. sige-hwil, st.f., victory-wniLE gen. sg. I'eet l^am ^eodne wses srSast sige-hwile, "that was for the king the last hour of victory," 2710. sigel, St. m. neut., sun, 1966. sige-leas, adj., victory-LEss, of defeat, 787. sige-rof, adj., victory-famed, victorious, 619. sige->eod, st. /., victory- nation, victorious people, 2204. sige-wpen, st. neut., victoryWEAPON, 804.
;

GLOSSARY.
sigle,
St.

217

neut.,

sun-shaped ornabrilliant, necklace,

ment, jewel,
sigor,

sittan, St. v.; pret.pl. sseton, 1164, setan, 1602; pp. geseten, 2104:
SIT,

1200, 1157; acc.pl. siglu, 3163. St. neut., victor}^ 1021, 2875, 3055. sigor-eadig, adj., victory -blessed, rich in victories, victorious, 1311, 2352. sin, poss. adj., his, 1507, 1960, etc.; her, 1934. sine, St. neut., treasure, jewelry, gold, silver, prize, 81, etc. treasure-VAT, sinc-fset, st. neut., costly vessel, casket, 1200, etc.; ace. pi. sinc-fato, 622. sinc-fag, adj., treasure -variegated, bedecked with treasure weak ace. sg. neut. sinc-fage, 167. sinc-gestreon, st. neut., treasurepossession, costly treasure, 1092, 1226. sinc-gifa, sinc-gyfa, w. m., treasure-Giver, 1012, 1342, 2311. sinc-ma'B'Uuni, st. m., treasure-jewel (sword), 2193. sinc-J>ego, st. /., treasure-taking, receiving of treasure, 2884. sin-gal, adj., continuous, 154, sin-gala, adv., continually, 190. sin-gales, syn-gales, adv continually, always, 1135, 1777. st. v., pret. song, sang: singan, SING, sound, 496, 1423; pret. sg. hring-iren sclr song in searwum, "the bright iron rings jingled in the mail," 323. a-singan, st. v., sing, sing out, 1159. sin-here, st. m., [continuous army] army drawn out, very strong, immense; dat. sin-herge, 2936. sin-niht, st.f.: ace. or dat. sg. sinnihte, "night after night," 161.
;
,
.

489,

641,

2906,

etc.;

inf.

eodon

sittan,

"went and
v.,

sat,"

493. be-sittan, siege, 2936.

st.

[sit

by] be-

for-sittan, st.v., fail; pres. sg. Srd, eagena bearhtm forsite^ ond forsworce'S, "eyes' brightness will

and grow dim," 1767. ge-sittan, st. v. intrans. sit, sit together, 171, (1) 749, 1977, etc. (2) tram, sit down in, 633. ofer-sittan, st. v., ivith ace, abstain from, refrain from, 684,
fail

2528.
of-sittan,
st.

v.,

ivith
v.,

ace, sit
ace,
acc.^

upon, 1545.
on-sittan, dread, 597.
st.

with

ymb-sittan, st. v., ivith SIT about, sit round, 564.


sltJ, St.

journey, expedition, undertaking, adventure, 3058, 765, 532, 2532, 318, 872 (exploit), 908 (way of life), 1971 (return), 2541 (way), 2586
(1)

m.: way,

(course),

3089 (passage),

etc.

sint, see
siolot$,

wesan.
m.7,
still

slo, see se, se.


St.

water?; gen.

pi.

oferswam '5a siole'Sa bigong sunu Ecg'Seowes, "then E.'s son


still

swam over the expanse of waters," 2367. siomian, see seomian.

(2) time, repetition, 716, 1579, 2049, etc. sItJ, compar. adv. [pos. si'5) ; ssr ond slt>, "earlier and later," 2500. sHJest, sI?Jast, superl. adj. (no pos., except the adv.), latest, last; with gen. 2710; absolutely, set si'Sestan, "at latest, at the last," 3013. sH$-f8et, St. m., expedition, 202; dat. si-fate, 2639. sl^-from, adj., [journey-forward] ready for a journey, 1813. sItJian, w. v., journey, 720, 808, 2119. for-si'Kian, w. v., [journey amiss] perish, 1550.

siWan,

sytJtJan,

seotJtJan,

adv.,
after-

[siTHENce]

siNce,

after,

218

BEOWULF.
snotor-llcor, compar., more wisely, more prudently, 1842. sntlde, adv., quickly, 904, etc.

wards, 142, 470, 1875, etc. Special passage : ffir ne si'S'San, "before

nor

since,"

71S.

Correl.

xoith sy^'-San, conj., 2201-7. siWJan, syiJtJan, seoStJan, conj., [siTHENce] siNce, after, when, 106, 115, 413, 850, 1148, 1204, 1689, With pret.=pluperf. 1775, etc. 1978, etc. Withpret. anclpluperf. syS'San mergen com, ond we to symble geseted hasfdon, 2103-4. slp, St. m., SLEEP, 1251, 1742. slsipan, st. v., sleep; pres. part., ace. sg. m. slsependne, 741, uninjiecied, 2218; acc.pl. 1581. sleac, adj., slack, 2187. slean, st. v., pret. sg. sloh, slog. I. intrans. strike, 681, 1565, 2679.
II.

snyrian, w.
snjrttru,

hasten, 402. wisdom, prudence, 1726, 942, 1706. snyttrum, dat. pi. used adverbially, wisely, 872. snytJian, u\ v.
v.,
st. /.,

be-snylJian,

xc.

v.,

deprive,

2924.
socn, St. /., persecution; dat. >8ere socne, "from that persecution," 1777. somod, samod, adi'., together, 1211,

2196, etc.;
etc.

icith aetgsedere,

387,
dat.;

somod, samod, prep., xoith somod (samod) ar-daege,

"at

trans.

dawn," 1311, 2942.


sona, adv., soon, 121, song, see singan.
sorg-, see sorh-.
etc.

(1) strike,
(2) slay,

2699.
st. v., ivith

108, 1152, 2050, etc.

ge-slean,

ace:

459. (2) gain by fighting _2Jret. pi. hie "Sa mer"Sa geslogon, "they gained glory by fighting," 2996. of-slean, st. v., slay, 574, 1665,
(1) tight out,
;

3060.
slltan,
St. v.,

slit, tear to pieces,

741.

savage, hurtful, dangerous, 184, 2398. slltJen, adj., dire, deadly, 1147.
slitJe, adj.,

sorgian, xo. v., sorrow, care, 451, 1384. sorh, st.f., sorrow, 473, 149, etc.; obi. sg. sorge, 119, 2004, etc.; dat. sorhge, 2468. sorh-cearig, sorg-cearig, adj., [sorRow-CAREful] sorrowful, heartbroken, 2455, 3152. sorh-ful(l), adj., sorrowful, 512, 1278, 1429, '2119.
sorh-leas,
adj.,

sorrowless,

free

smiiJ,

St.

m.

smith,

wsepna
1452.

smi'S,

406 ; nom. "weapon-smith,"

from sorrow, 1672.


nexit., st. soRROw-lay, lamentation, 2460. sorh-wylm, si. m., [sorrow- wELLing] surge of sorrow or care, 904,

sorh-leo^,

smi^ian, w. v. be-smUJian, to. v., by smith's work, 775.


snell,
adj.,

make

firm

1993.
s6<5,
St.

prompt, keen, bold; iveak nom. sg. m. snella,


brisk,

etc.;

neut., sooth, truth, 532, dat. to so^e, "for sooth,"

2971.
snel-llc, adj., brisk,

prompt, keen,

bold, 690. snotor, snottor, a^;"., wise, prudent, 190, etc.; pi. snotere, 202, snotxoeak nom. sg. m. snottre, 1591 tra, 1314, etc., snotra, 2156, etc.; absolutely, 1786, etc. snotor-llce, adv.
;

51, etc. s6, adj., [sooth] true, 1611, 2109. SoU-cyning, st. m., [Sooth-king] God, 3055. soSe, adv., [sooTHly] truly, 524.
sotJ-fsest,

adj.,

soothfast,

just,

2820.
soV-lIce, adv.,
etc.

[soothly] truly, 141,

GLOSSARY.
specan, speak, see sprecan. sped, St. /., SPEED, success ace. on
;
;

219

sped, "with good speed, successfully," 873. spel(l), St. neut., spell, story, tale, tidings, 2109, 2898, etc. ; ace.
pi.

stone-arch, arch of rock ace. sg. 2545, nom. pi. 2718. neut., stone-cliff, stan-clif, st. cliff of rock ace. pi. stan-cleofu, 2540.
;

standan, see stondan.


stan-fah,
adj.,

spel gerade,

"skilful tales,"

[sTONE-variegated]

873.

paved or inlaid with stones of


various colours, 320. stan-hli^, st. neut., sTONE-slope, rocky slope ace. pi. stan-hli'So, 1409. stapol, St. m., [staple]
;
:

splwan, St. v., spew; inf. gledum spiwan, "to vomit forth gleeds,"
2312.

sponnan, st. v. on-sponnan,


loosen 2723.
;

st.

v.,

unspan,

pret. his
St.

helm onspeon,

column; dat. bogan stapulum


(1)

pi.

'Sa

stan-

fasste,

"the

spowan,
pers.,

i\,

speed,

impers., with dat. succeed; pret. sg.

him wiht ne speow, "he had no success," 2854; hii him set site speow, "how he sped at the eatin_g,"

stone-arches firm on columns," 2718. (2) threshold?, staple?; dat. sg.


.stod on stapole, geseah steapne hrof golde fahne ond [Heyne Grendles bond, 926. translates: "stand an der holzernen Mittelsaule Heorots." But on stapole will not bear this
.

Hro^ar.

3026.

sprsec, st.f., speech, 1104.

sprecan, specan, st. v., speak, say, 531, 643, 1171, 1476, etc.; ivith
foil,

clause, gomele ymb godne on geador spr^econ, >8et big, "old men spake together about the

hero, [saying] that they," 1595. ge-sprecan, st. v., speak, 675, 1398, etc. springan, st.v.,pret. sprong, sprang: SPRING, 18 (spread), 1588 (gape),

meaning, which further implies that Grendel's hand was up among the rafters, whereas there can be no doubt that it was set up as a trophy outside the hall. See 1. 983 cf. the steep of houses at the Cape; and see Earle's note, "Deeds of Beowulf," p.
;

2582 (shoot), 2966 (spurt).


st. v., spring set-springan, forth; pret. sg. aetspranc, 1121. ge-springan, st. v., pret. gesprong, gesprang spring forth, arise, 884, 1667.
:

139.] starian,
starie,

lo. v.,

pres. sg. 1st starige,

3rd staraS, pret. starede, staredon: stare, gaze, 996, 2796, Special passage : >aet hire etc.

on-springan,
stsel,

st.

v.,

spring

a-

part, 817. St. m.,

an dseges eagum starede, "that he should stare on her by day with his eyes," 1935.
steap, adj., steep, towering, tall, 222, 2566, etc. stearc-heort, adj., [stark-heart] stout-hearted, 2288, 2552. stede, St. m., stead, place gen. pi. wffis steda naegla gehwylc style gelicost, "each of the places of the nails was most like to steel," 985.
;

place,

stead,
2.]

1479.

_[Sievers 202, stlan, w. v.:


(1)

N.

institute,

carry on

pp. ge-

stseled, 1340.
(2)

Stan,
etc.

avenge, 2485. St. m., stone, rock, 887, 2288,

stan-beorh, st. m., stone-barrow, barrow or cave of rock, 2213. [stone -bow] stan-boga, ^c m.,

stefn,

St.

in.,

stem

(of

ship),

212.

; ;

220
stefn,
sg.
St.

3E0WULF.
niwan (niowan)
St. /.,

m., time, repetition; dat. stefne, "avoice, 2552.


v.,

new," 1789, 2594.


stefn, stellan, w. v.

set-stondan, 891. for-stondan,


v.,
;

st. v.,

stand

(in),

for-standan,

st.

on-stellan, w. on foot, 2407.

institute, set

stepan, tc. v., exalt, 1717. ge-stepan, w. v., exalt, support ;_/)r^t, sg. folce gestepte... sunu Ohteres, "lie supported the son of Ohthere with an army," 2393. steppan, st. v., step, march pret. stop, 761, 1401. set-steppan, st. v., step up pret. tor's near aetstop, 745. ge-steppan, st. v., step; pret. =pluperf. gestop, 2289. stig, St. f., path, 320, 2213; ace. pi. stige, 1409. stigan, St. v., [sty] go, ascend, descend, 212, 225, etc. ; pret. >a he to holme stag, " when he went
;

withsTAND, avert, defend, 1549 inf. heaSo-lI"5endum hord forstandan, "defend his hoard against the ocean-farers," 2955 pret. subj. him...wyrd forstode, " averted weird from them,"
1056.

ge-stondan,
2596,
etc.

st. v.,

stand, 358,

stop, see steppan. storm, St. m., storm, 1131, 3117. stow, St. /., place, 1006, 1372, 1378. strsBl, St. m. /., arrow, shaft, 1746,
3J.17. strset, st.f.,

street, road, 320, 916,

1634. Strang, see strong,

stream,
etc.

st. vi.,

stream, flood, 212,


strew
;

down to the sea (to swim)," 2362. a-stlgan, st. v., ascend, arise, 1373; pret. astag, 782, astah, 1160, gu-rinc astah, 3144; 1118. ge stigan, st. v., [sty] go pret. )?a ic on holm gestah, "when I went onto the sea (into the
ship)," 632. stiUe, adj., still, 301, 2830. stincan, st. v., [stink] sniff, snuff; pret. stone, 2288. stl8, adj., stiff, stout, 1533. stltJ-mod, adj., [stiff-MOOD] stout-

stregdan, 2436.

iv.

v.,

pp. stred,

hearted, 2566.

stondan,

standan, st. v., stand, 2760, 411, 726 (come), 783 (arise), 2227, 1037 (lie), etc.; pret. pi. stodon, 328, stOdan, 3047. Special passages : llxte se leoma, leoht inne stod, " the beam shone forth, light filled the place, " 1570 stod eldum on andan, "came forth for a mischief to men," 2313. a-stondan, st. v., stand, stand up, 759, 1556, 2092.
;

streng, st. in., string, 3117. strengel, st. m., strong chief, 3115. strengest, see strong, strengo, st. /., STRENOth ace. dat. streuge, 1270, 1533, dat. strengo, 2540. strong, Strang, adj., strong, 153, 2684; with gen. maegenes Strang, "strong in might," 1844. strengest, superl., strongest, 1543 with gen. or dat. maegenes, mfegene, strengest, 196, 789. strddan, st. v., spoil, plunder; subj. pret. strude, 3073, 3126. strynan, iv. v. ge-strynan, w. v., obtain, acquire, 2798. stund, St. /., time, hour dat. pi. adverbially, stundum, "from time to time," 1423. style, St. neut., steel; dat. 985. styi-ecg, adj., sTEEL-EDGed, 1533.
;
; ;

styman, iv. v. be-styman,


wet, 486.

ic.

v.,

besteam,

GLOSSARY.
st3rrian, w. v., stir, disturb, 1374,

221

2840 handle, treat, 872. styrman, ^o. v., storm, 2552.


;

etc.

3098, 1667 (when), 2184 (since), in elliptical sentences, 2622 ;


;

eft

swa
I.,

ier,

642

correl.

toith
sie...

suliter-gefsederan, w. m. pL, uncle and nephew, 1164. sum, adj., some, one, a certain, 2156, 3124. Although sum alicays has the iujiections of an adj. (see 1. 1432), it is more often used suhstatitively, or as an indef. pron., 1251, 1432, 400, etc.; neut. ne sceal )>er dyrne sum wesan, "there shall be naught secret," 271. Often with partitive gen. 675, 713, 1499, etc.; esp. with gen. of numerals and adjs. of quantity: fiftena sum, "one of tifteen, i.e. with fourteen others," 207; so 3123, 1412, 2091; sumne feara, "one of a few, i.e. some few," 3061. In a feio cases sum appears to have a certain demon. force, 248, 314, 1312, 2279. sund, St. m., swimming, 507, 517, 1436, 1618; SOUND, channel, sea, 213, 1510, etc.

swa

594, 1092-3, etc.

Special

passage: swa

me

Higelac

"as may H. be gracious to me, on condition that H. be gracious to me," 435.

modes

bllSe,

III.

=rel.pron.; wlite-beorhtne

wang, swa waeter bebuge^, "the beauteous - bright plain, which water encompasses," 93.
IV. conj., so that, 1508, 2006. swa |>eali, swa tJeh, however, 972, 2967, etc. ; redundant after hwag'Sre, 2442. swa hwse^ere swa, whichsoever, 686-7. swa hwylc.swa, with gen., wHicHsoever, 943, 3057. swselan, w. v. _be-swsilan, lo. v., scorch, 3041.
swses, adj., dear, own dear, 29, 520, etc. swsesllce, adv., gently, 3089. swancor, adj., [swank] slender.

sund-getoland, st. neut., [soundblend] welter of the sea, tumult of the waves, 1450. sund-nytt, st. /., [swimming-use]; ace. sund-nytte dreah, "swam through the sea," 2360. sundor-nytt, st. /., special service, 667. sundur, adv., asuNDER, 2422, sund-wudu, st. m.., [sound- wood] ship, 208, 1906. sunne, w. /., sun, 94, etc. sunu, St. in., son, 268, etc.; dat. suna, 1226, etc., sunu, 344. stltJ, adv., south, southwards, 858. siWJan, adv., from the south, 606, 1966.

2175.

swan-rad,
200.

st.

f.,

swan-road,

sea,

swapan,

st. v.

for-swapan, st. v., sweep away, sweep off, 477, 2814.


-swarian,
v.,
2v.

v.

ond-swarian, and-swarian, w.

answer, 258, 340.


St.

swat,
etc.

m., [sweat] blood, 1286,


adj.,

swat-fah,

[sweat -stained]

blood-stained, 1111.

swatig, adj., [sweaty] bloody, 1569. swat-swa'Su, st. /., [swEAT-track] blood-track, 2946. swatJrian, w. v., subside; pret. pi.
swa'6'redon, 570. swatJu, [swath] St.
ace.
/.,

swa:
adv. of maimer and degree, so, thus, 347, 1142, 1843, 3069, Special passage : leng swa etc. wel, "the longer the better," 1854. II. conjunctive adv., as in its various meanings, 29, 490, 881,
I.

track, 2098

weardade hand, " his right hand showed where he had been," 2098. swaWul, St. m. neut.7, smoke, 782. sweart, adj., swart, black, dark,
sio swi'Sre swa'Se

him

167, 3145.

222

BEOWULF.
sweord-freca, w. m., sword- wolf, sword-warrior, 1468. swyrd-gifu, st. /., sword-giving, 2884. sweotol, adj., clear, 817, 833; nam. swutol, 90 ; loeak dat. sweotolan,
141.

swebban, lo. v., send to sleep, kill, 679 ; pres. sg. Srd, swefe'S,
600.
a- swebban,
tv. v.,

put to sleep,

appease, kill; pret. part.pl. aswefede, 567. swefan, st. v., sleep, sleep the sleep of death, 119, 1008, etc.; pret. pi. swiefon, 703, swiefun, 1280. -swefede, see -swebban. swefe^, 600, see swebban. sweg, St. m., sound, noise, 89, 644,
etc.

swerian, st. v., swear, 472, 2738. for-swerian, st. v., with dat.,
swe'Srian, 2702.

FORSWEAR, 804. lo. v., wane, lessen, 901,


si. r., fail,

swican,
St.

disappear, escape,

swegel,
etc.

neut.,

sky, 860, 1078,

966, 1460.

ge-swican,
1524, etc. swifan, st. v. on-swifan, raise, 2559.

st. v.,

weaken,

fail,

swegle, adj., bright, clear, 2749. swegl-wered, adj., ether-clad, radiant, 606.

st.

v.,

swing up,

swelan, st. v., [sweal] burn, 2713. swelgan, st. v., swallow ; pret., icith dat., swealh, 743, swealg, subj., absolutely, ^j?-e. 3155 swulge, 782. for-swelgan, st. v., swallow up,
;

swift, adj., SWIFT; weak, 2264.

1122, 2080. swellan, st. v., swell, 2713. sweltan, st. v., die, 1617, etc.; with cognate dat. mor'Sre, -dea^e, 892, 2782, 3037. swencan, tv. v., molest, oppress, 1510. ge-swencan, st. v., strike, bring low, 2438. ge-swenced, pp. {of swencan or geswencan), made to toil, harassed, harried, pressed, 975, 1368. sweng, St. m., swing, stroke, 1520,
etc.

swige, adj., silent. swigra, compar., silenter, 980. swigian, 'w. v., be silent; ^^rei. sg. swigode, 2897, pi. swigedon, 1699. swilce, see swylce. swimman, swymman, st. v., swim,
1624.

sweofot,
sweolotS,

St.

m., sleep, 1581, 2295.

St. 111.,

flame, 1115.

-sweep, see -swapan.

sweorcan,

st. v.,

for-sw(e)orcan, dim, 1767.

grow dark, 1737. st. v., grow

ge-sweorcan, st. v., lour, 1789. sweord, swurd, swyrd, st. neut., swoKD, 487, 539, 2610, etc.; pi. sweord, 2638, swyrd, 3048. sweord-bealo, st. neut., swokd-bale, death by the sword, 1147.

ofer-swimman, st. v., overswim, swim over; pret. oferswam, 2367. swin, swyn, st. neut., swine, image of a boar on a helmet, hence helmet, 1111, 1286. swincan, st. v., swink, toil, 517. swingan, st. v., swing, 2264. swin-llc, St. neut., swine-s image of a boar, 1453. swiotJol, St. m. neut.?, smoky glow, or the clear vapour just above the flame (?), 3145 (see note). swI'S, swy^S, adj., strong, severe; nam. swy^, 191. swItJra, compar., stronger nam. fern, sio swlSre hand, "the right hand, " 2098. swiBan, St. and lo. v. ofer-swytJan, st. and w. z;., overpower, overcome, 279, 1768. swlSe, swftJe, adv., strongly, greatly, very, 597, 1926, 2170, 2187, etc.

"

GLOSSARY.
swUJor, compar.,

223

more

more,

more

especially,

greatly, rather,

syfone, see seofon.


-syhtJ, see -seen.

960, 1139, 1874, 2198.


swIIJ-ferh^S, swytJ-ferhtJ, adj., strong-

sylf(a), see self.


syll, St. f., SILL, base, floor, 775. syllan, see sellan. sylllc, see selllc.

souled, stout-hearted, 173, 493, 826, 908. switS-hicgende, adj. {pres. part.),

symbel,

st.

neut.,

feast,

banquet,

[strong-thinking] bold-minded, stout-hearted, 919, 1016. swiS-mod, adj., [strong-MOon] stouthearted, 1624. swogan, St. v., sound; pres. part. 3145. swor, see swerian. -sworcan, see -sweorcan. Bwulces, see swylc.
sw\ird, see sweord. swutol, see sweotol. swylc, adj.-pron., such, such as, as.
I.
{

564, 2431, etc. ; dat. symble, 119, 2104, symle, 81, etc.

symbel- wynn,

st. /.,

feast- joy, joy

in feasting, 1782. sym(b)le, adv., always, 2450, 2497, 2880. symle, n., see symbel. syn-bysig, adj., [sin -busy] guilt-

haunted, troubled by guilt, 2226. syn-dolh, st. neut., ceaseless wound, incurable wound, 817.

syndon, see wesan.


syngales, see singales. syngian, lo. v., sin pp. gesyngad, 2441. sjmn, St. /., SIN, crime, injury, hatred, struggle, 975, 1255, 2472, 3071. syn-scatJa, iv. m., ceaseless scATHer, perpetual foe, 707, 801. syn-snsed, st. /., [ceaseless bit] huge
;

= !>.

talis)

such

(1)

adj. 582, 1347, etc. (2) pron. 299 (with gen.),

996;

gen. swulces, 880 {see hwa) ; ace. "Ser swylc ut offerede, "carried out and off another such [batch], 1583. II. { = L. qualis) such as, 1156 (with gen.), 1797, 2869; ace. eall ged^lan... swylc him God sealde, "deal out all that God gave him,"
72.
III.
(

= L.

talis... qualis)

...swylc, "such... as,"

swylc 1249 (with

gen.), 1328-9, 3164.

Bwylce
I.

adv., as well as, likewise, 113, 293, 2258, etc.; once swilce, 1152. n. conjunctive adv., as, 757. swylt, St. m., death, 1255, 1436. swylt-dseg, st. m., death-DAY, 2798. swymman, see swimman. swyn, see swin. swynsian, lo. v., resound, 611. swyrd, see sweord. swyS, see swItJ. -swytJan, see -swiKan. swy^Je, see swIiJe. sy, see wesan.

bit, 743. synt, see wesan. syrce, lo. /., sark, shirt of mail, 226, etc. syrwan, lo. v., ensnare, 161. be-syrwan, lo. v., ensnare, 713; contrive, 942. sjrS^an, 10. v., avenge, 1106. sytSiJan, see sitJCan.

T.
tacen, st. neut., token, _tacne, 141, 1654.
;

dat.

tsecan, Wj_v. ge-tsecan, ic. v., teach, indicate, assign, 313, 2013. tallan, lo. v., tell, 532, 594; count, reckon, 677, 2027 ; pres. sg. 1st
ic talige, "I reckon thing to be expected," 1845. tear, st. m., tear, 1872.

wen

it

syfan-wintre, adj., seven winters old, 2428.

;; ;

224
tela, adv., well, 948, etc. telge, see tellan.

BEOWULF.
be-timbran,
build; 3159.
pret.
to. v.,

pi.,

[betimber] betimbredon,

tellan,

iv. v., tell, reckon, deem, 794, 2184; pres. s(j. 1st telge, 2067. Special passage: ac him wael-bende weotode tealde, "but

he did] he might reckon death-bands prepared for him[if

self," 1936. teoh, St. /., band, troop; dat. sg. teohhe, 2938. teohMan, w. v., assign, 951; pp. geteohhod, 1300. teon, St. v., TUG, draw, 1036, 553, 1288 (of a sword), etc. ; travel pret. sg. brim-lade teah, " tra-

1654. [glory-blessed] happy in fame, 2189. tlr-fsest, adj., [glory-FAST] glorious, 922. tir-leas, adj., gloryLEss; gen. sg. absolutely, 843. tiKian, iv. v., impers., with gen., grant; pp. W8es...bene geti'Sad, "(of) the boon (it) was granted," 2284.
tir, St. m., glory,

tir-eadig, glorious,

adj.,

to, prep.,

with

dat., to, at, for, 28,

velled the ocean-way," 1051; so eft-si'Sas teah, 1332. a-teon, st. v., [tug] take; pret. sg. J>et wges geocor si5, >aet {for >e) se hearm-sca]>a to Heorute ateah, 766.

tug, draw, 1545, Special 1044. 2610; passages : imperat. sg. no "Su him wearne geteoh 'Sinra gegn-cwida, " do not thou give them a refusal
ge-teon,
st. v.,

deliver,

of thy replies," 366

pret. sg.

he him est geteah meara ond ma'Sma, "he honoured him with the horses and treasures," 2165. of-teon, St. v., tug off or away, withhold with gen. rei and dat. pers., 5; 2cith dat. rei, 1520;
;

1578, 1983, etc.: for, as, esp. in predicative dats., 14, 51, 95, 460, 910, 2998, etc.: for {with personal object), 525; at, 374, 2892; at {time), 26; in, 188, 647 (at); on, 1138-9; by, 641; from, 1272, 2922 with, 601, 1207 (from). Special usages: (1) for, in adverbial phrases of time: to aldre, 955, 2005, 2498; to life, 2432 to widan feore, 933. (2) to, ivith gerunds, 1008, etc. rarely tvith infs., 316, 2556. (3) Folloioing its case: him to,
; ;

>e

313; 1396 {see wenan) her to locast, "on which thou lookest here," 1654; \>e us

"to

it,"

\>\\

secea'S

to

Sweona

leoda,

" for

ivith ace. rei, 2489.

>urh-teon, st. v., [tug through] bring about, 1140. teon, to. v., icith ace, make, adorn, provide, 1452; pret. pi. teodan,
43. ge-teon, lo. v., do, 2295; appoint,

which the peoples of the Swedes will come against us," 3001. to hwan, see hwa, hwaet.
to J8es, adv., so, 1616. to J>aes J>e, conjunctive phrase, TO (the point) where, thither whence, 714, 2410, 1967 to the point (degree), that, 1585. t5 J>on, adv., to that'degree, so, 1876. to |>oii, Jset, until, 2591, 2845
;

2526.
tid, st.f.,

TIDE

{i.e.

time), time, 147,

1915. tidan, 10. V. ge-tldan,


tU(l),
etc.

adj.,
lo. v.,

lu. v., bcTioE, 2226. good, 61, 1250, 2721,

see se.
to, adv.:
(1)

=preposition without expressed


:

tilian,

with gen., [till] gain,


timber, build, 307.

1823.

object {cf. the particles of separable verbs inGerman) thercTO, to him,

timbran,

iv. v.,

to

it,

1785, 2648, 1755; on, 1422.

GLOSSARY.
TOO, hefore adjs. and advs., Special 137, 191, etc. passages: to fela micles, "far fortS getoo much," 694; he t5 stop, "he had stepped too far forth," 2289. to-gsedre, adv., together, 2630. to-geanes, to-genes, prep., loitli dat., folloioing its case. Towards, aoAiNst, 666, 1542 (at), 1626 (to
(2)

225
2540; loith dat.,

loith gen., 2322,

133,

1533.
(2) with ace, confirm; pret. pi. getruwedon, 1095. tryddian, see treddian. trywe, adj., true, 1165. twa, see twegen. twaefan, iv^v. ge-tW38fan, ^o. v., usu. with

ace. pers. sever,


etc.;

and gen.

meet). Special passage : godivooo. togenes, "to where the good man lay dead," 3114. to-geanes, adv.: grap >a togeanes, "then she clutched at [him]," 1501. to-middes, adv., in the midst, 3141. torht, adj., bright, clear, 313. torn, St. neut., anger, rage, 2401; insult, distress, 147, 833, 2189. torn, adj. superl., bitterest, tornost, 2129.

separate,

rei, divide, restrain, 479,

pp.

getwffifed,

"ended,"

1658.

twseman, le v. ge-twseman, tv. 2)ers. and gen. rei,


968.

v., with ace. sever, cut off,

twegen,

vi., twa, /. and neut., num., TWAIN, TWO, 1163, 1095, etc.; gen. twega, 2532; dat. twaem,

1191. twelf, num.,

twelve;

gen., twelfa,

3170.

tweonum,
meral
:

torn-gemot, st. neut., [wrath-meeting] angry meeting, encounter,


1140.

to-somne, adv., together, 2568. tredan, st. v., icith ace, tread,
1964, 1352, etc. treddian, tryddian, w. v, intrans.j TREAD, go, 725, 922.

dat. pi. of distrib. nube (bi) Sffim tweonum, "by the twin seas, i.e. bcTWEEN the seas," 858, 1297, 1685, 1956. tydre, adj., unwarlike, 2847. tyhtan, iv. v. on-tyhtan, iv. v., entice, 3086. tyn, TEN, 3159; inflected tyne, 2847.

trem,

st. neut. : ace. sg. adverbially, fotes trem, "a foot's breadth or

p, D.
J-a

space," 2525.

treow,

St.

f.,

TRoth, TRuth, good


v.,

faith, 1072, 2922.

treowan,
his

with dat., trow, trust: pret. sg. gehwylc hiora


iv.

ferh>e treowde, "each of trusted Unferth's heart," 1166. treow-loga, w. m., TRoth-Liar, trothbreaker, 2847. trod, st.f., track, 843. trum, ad;)., strong, 1369. trUwian, w. v., with gen. or dat., trow, trust, believe, 669, 1993,

them

adv., then, 3, 331, 461, 465, 536, 657, etc. II. rei. adv. or conj., ivith indie, when, as, since, seeing, 201, 402, 539, 632, 706, 1103, 1291, 1598, 1813, etc. ; correl. toith j^a above,
I.

723, 2756, etc. adj.-pron., see se, se. J>iem, THEM, see se, se.
Ja,

>r
I.

adv.,
;

etc.

THERE, 32, 331, 493, unemphatic {like mod. there

etc.

ivith impers. verbs) 271, 440, etc.

ge-trtlwian, lo. v.-. (1) loith gen. or dat., trow, trust;

For
see

"Ssex

on innan,

71, 2089, etc.,

innan.

W.

B.

15

226
II.

BEOWULF.
355, 2182; dat. sg. 2400, 3001; nom. pi. 45, etc. ; ace. pi. 2490, 21^^;gen.pl.^bO;dat.pl.\>egQ\>d&x on standa'5, "in which ye stand there," 2866; so 1654. Special passages : heo )pa, f^h'^e wrsBC,

adv., where, 286, 420, rel. 1007, 1079, 1394, etc. ; (to) where, 356, 1313, etc.; if, 2730, 1835 (?).

With

svfa folloiving

'S8er...swa,

"wheresoever," 797; _that,^2730.


J>3Bra,
J>ses,

"if so be

sere, see

se, se.

adj.-pron., see se, se.

Jses,

adv,:
therefore, 900, 1992; see se. so, 773, 968, 1367.
conj.
:

(1)
(2)

J8es JjB,

(1)

as, 1341, 1350, 3000.

because, 108, 228, 626, 1628, 1751, 1998, 2797; correl. loith preceding ^ses, 1779. to )ses J>e, see to. set, adj.-2>ron., see se, se. set, conj., THAT, so that, 62, 1367, 1664, etc.; until, 84, 1318 (?), 1911, 1939 (?); in that, 3036; often correl. loith the demon, neut. pron. )>8et or J?aes {see se), 778-9, 1591-3, 1598-9, etc. repeated
(2)
;

\>ix gystran niht Grendel cwealdest, "she avenged the feud, in which thou killedst Grendel yesternight," 1334 mid ^sexe sorhge, ]pe him sio sar belamp, "with the sorrow, wherewith that blow befell (afflicted) him," 2468.
;

(2) Immediately preceded hy redundant se, seo, >get, etc. se ]?e, 103, 1260, 1342, 1449, 1462 (antec. Eengum); se he for see
;

j>e,

1344, 1887, 2685; seo be, 1445; '5oue >e, 1054, 1298, 2056, 2173 ; pi. >a be, 1592. Correlatives: se...se >>e, 506 (followed

by verb in 2nd pers.) seo hand ...se \ye, 1343-4; sio hond...se
;

2864-5-71.

\>e,

2684-5

Jjaet

ys sio fseh^o

set
sette
etc.
(

Jje,

conj.,
\>e),

= >8et
to,

that, 1846. conj., that, 151,

afian, lo. submit

v., loith

ace, consent

to,

2963.

ond se feond-scipe...>e vis secea'S to Sweona leoda, "that is the feud and the enmity for which the peoples of the Swedes will come against us," 2999-3001.
N.B.
After )3ara >>e the verb is often in the sg.: 843, 996, 1051,
1461, 2130, 2251, 2383. (3) Folloived by redundant he ace. sg. m. ]>& hine dea'S nimet?, "whom death will take," 441. ses e, see aes, adv. set e, see set, conj.
:

-ah, see

-Ijicgan.

see se, se. anan, see onan.

am,

anc,
(1)

St.

m.:

ivith gen. ret,

thanks, 928,

'5e

1997, etc. (2) content?, favour?; dat.sg.\>a. gif-sceattas Geata fyredon yder to hance, 379.
adj.

anc-hycgende,

(pres. part.),

[thought-thinking], 2235.

thoughtful,

ancian,

iv. v.,

thank, 625, 1397;


1626,
J?an-

see eah. foriJon ^e, see for^am. to ses ^e, see to. e, pers. pron. {ace. and dat. of )>\\), thee, to thee, etc., 417, 523, 525,
etc.

eah e,

]?ancodon, cedon, 227. anon, see onan.


pret. pi.,

With a comparative, than


pron., see se.

thou, 1850.

ara, see se, se. as, see es. e, rel. particle,


which,
(1)

e, demon, e, C071J.
who, that,

indecl.,

etc.

Alone, 192, 500, etc.; acc.sg.

(1) because, correl. loith a preceding hy, >e {see se), 488, 1436, 2641. (2) that, so that, 242 {? possibly

GLOSSARY.
dat. of the rel. particle >e,

227
;

"because of which," antecedent aBgsee -Megan. usu. with suhj., rarehj

wearde).
-J>eali,

Jeali, conj.,

loith

indie:

though, although,

203, 2855, 2467, etc.; once J^eh, 1613; heah ic eal maege, "although I may," 680. )eah ^e, corij., usu. with suhj., THOUGH, although, 1167, 1716, 2481, 2838, etc.
J>eali,

think, think of, 1474 inf. his ...ende ge>encean, "think of the end thereof," 1734. Jienden, adv., yet a while, 1019. tenden, conj., ^vith indie, or suhj., while, whilst, 30, 1224, 2985, etc. J>engel, st. m., prince, king, 1507. >enian (=:begnian), lo.v., ivith dat.,
serve, 560.
|>eod,
St.
f.,

people,

nation, 643,

1705, etc.

adv.,

though,

yet, however,

1508.

swa
earf,

J>eah, see

swa.

J>eod-cynmg, -kyning, J>Iod-cyning, St. m., nation-KiNG, king of a people, 2, 2144 (Hrothgar), 2579 (Beowulf), 2963 (Ongentheow),
etc.

need, 201, 1477, 1797, etc.; ace. fremma'5 gena leoda >earfe, "fulfil still the people's need," 2801.
st. /.,

Jieoden, |>ioden,

>earf, v., see J>urfan. )>earfa, lo. m., n. or adj.: sernes >earfa, "shelterless," 2225. necessitate, w. v., (^e-))earfian, render necessary; 2^P- ge)?earfod,
_

st. m., prince, king, 797, 2336, 2656, etc.; dat. beodne, 345, etc., >eoden, 2032; pi. >eodnas, 3070. J>eoden-leas, adj., prince-LESS, without one's chief, 1103.

34,

1103.
J>earle, adv., severely,

hard, 560.

^eaw,

m., [thew] custom, 178, etc.; dai. ^Z. " in good customs,"
St.

t)eod-gestreon, st. neut., nationtreasure, national possession, 44, 1218. >eod-kyning, see )>eod-cyning. Jeod-sceatJa, lo. m., nation-scATHer, national foe, 2278, 2688.
))eod-)>rea, st. /.,

2144.
>ec, pe?'s. 2>yon. {archaic ace. of J?u), thee, 947, etc.

national misery,

178.
>eof,

w. v., [thatch] cover, enfold, 3015; pret. pi. i'ehton, 513. Jegn, St. m., thane, 194, 400, 1230, etc.; used of Beowulf, 194, etc., Hengest, 1085, Wiglaf, 2721,
^eccean,
etc.

^eon,

m., THIEF, 2219. thrive, succeed, 8 v., pret. sg. hvlru )58et...lyt manna
St.

St.

J?ah,

"this indeed has prospered with few men," 2836. ge-Hon, St. v., thrive, 25, 910;
thrive;
pi'et.

imperat. sg., 1218. on-^eon, st. v.,


sg.

^egn-sorg,

st.

/.,

thane-soerow

he

>es ier ont>ah,

"he

there-

egon,
Jieh,

sorrow for one's thanes, 131. J>egxin, see Megan.


see
Jeali.

Jieon

fore throve erewhile," 900. (=3>ywan), iv. v., oppress,

2736.
J>eos, see J>es.

Jieliton, see Jieccean.

Jenc(e)an, w. v., think, intend: usu. loith following inf., 355, 448

J>eostre, adj., dark, 2332.

J>eow,
^es,

St.

m., slave, 2223.

739, etc.; with dependent clause, 691 ; absolutely, 289, 2601


(fut.),

J>eos,

Ms, demon, adj., this,


;

411,

484, etc.
ace.

inst. neut.

Jjys,

{see

onwendan).
lo.

1395;
v.,

sg.
;

a-l>enc(e)an,

think out,
loith

J>ysne,

1771

m., >isne, gen. sg. m.

75,

and
790,

intend, 2643. ge-tenc(e)an,

neut. Hsses,
lo. v.,

1216, )>ysses,

ace,

806; dat.

sg. neut.

^issum, 1169,

152

228

BEOWULF.
; sometimes of personal origin, 1960, etc. see se, se. bone, bonne, adv., then, 377, etc.; repeated, 1104-6. See j?onne, co7ij. bonne, conj.: (1) when, while, ivith indie, and subj., 23, 573, etc. ; in elUptieal sentence, breac ]?onne moste, "enjoyed [him or them] while I might," 1487. Correl. icith ]ponne, adv.: 484-5, 2032-4; swa biS

)>yssum, 2639; dat. pi. )>yssum, 1062, 1219.

etc.

icg(e)an, st. v., with ace, seize, take, partake of, eat, 736, 1010; pret. pi. indie. >egun, 2633, subj. K'gon, 563. ge-Hcgan, st. v., with ace, take, receive, 1014; pret. sg. ge>eah, 618, 628 ge)>ah, 1024. >in, p)oss. adj., thine, thy, 267, 2131, etc.
;

])mc(e)an, see J>yncan. J>ing, St. n<?w., THING, matter, affair, 409, 426; gen. pi. anige Kiiga, "by any means, in any way, on any condition, at all," 791, 2374, 2905.
J)ingan, w. v., determine, appoint, 1938; pp. wiste to >em ahlffican
...hilde

geomoiiic...>onne he gyd wrece


...]?onne his

sunu hangati, "so

gej?inged,

"knew
store

battle

was

in

that for the

monster," 647.
ge-bingan, w. v., ivithrefl. dat., take service pres. gif him J^onne
;

Hrej^rlc to hofum Geata ge\>mge'^, "if then Hrethric enters into service at the Geats' court," 1836.

ingian, w.
(1)
(2)

v.:
settle, allay, 156,

be sad, [that] he should then utter a dirge, when his son is hanging," 2446-7. 44, 248, (2) THAN, after compars. etc. With compar. omitted : medoasrn micel... bonne yldo beam gefre gefrunon, " a great meadhall, [greater] than the children of the age ever heard of," 70. bonon, see bonan. borfte, see burfan. brag, St. /., time; ace. sg. of duration of time, 54, 87, 114; nom. sg. >a hyne sio prag becwom, " when the time (of battle) came
will
it
:

address, speak, 1843.

compound,
see Jeod-.

470.
Jilod-,

)>Ioden, see J>eoden. bis, demon, adj., see )>es.


bis,

demon, pron. neut., this, 290.

bolian, 10. v., [thole] endure: (1) trans. 832, 1525, etc. (2) intrans. 2499.

upon him," 2883. brea-nedla, iv. m., [THKOE-compulsion] the compulsion of oppression or misery; dat. sg. for )>reanedlan, "compelled by oppression or misery," 2223. brea-nyd, st. /., [throe-need] dire need, oppression, misery, 284;
dat. pi.
\>e

hie... for

bolian
;

scoldon,

ge-bolian, w. v., [thole] dat. trans., endure, 87, 147 inf. to ge>olianne, 1419. (2) intrans., wait patiently, 3109. bon, pron., see se. to bon, adv., to that degree, so, 1876. to bon, bset, until, 2591, 2845; see se. bon, adv., THEN, 2423. bonan, bonon, banan, banon, adv., THENce, 819, 520, 1265, 1292,
:

through dire

^rea-nydum "which they compulsion had to

(1)

endure," 832. breat, st. m., troop, band, 4, 2406. breatian, xo. v., theeatch, press; pret. pi. mec.breatedon J>earle, "pressed me hard," 560. brec-wudu, st. m., [onset- wood] spear, 1246. breo, brio, num. neut. {of brie),

three, 2278, 2174. breotteoba, ord. num., THiRTEEnth, 2406.

, ;

GLOSSARY.
|>ridda, ord.

229

num., third, 2688.


v.,

J>ringan,

st.

intraiis.,

throng,

2960; pret.

sg.

>rong, 2883.

>(lsend, St. neut., thousand, 3050; pi. >usenda, 1829. Without folloicing noun of measure : gen. pi.

for-J>ring-an, st. v., snatch, protect, 1084.

ge-J>ringan,

st.

v.,

throng,

hund Jjusenda landes ond locenra beaga, 2994. Even loithout a dependent f/en. ace. pi. ond him
:

bound, 1912.
J>rio,

gesealde seofan busendo, 2195.


Jy,

see )>reo.

see se^ se.

nst-hydig, arf;., bold-minded, 2810.


J>rltig, >rittig',
st. neut., with gen., thirty, 123, 2361; gen. sg. 379.

J>rong, see |>ringan.


v., suffer, 2605, etc. i'rowode, 2594, >rowade, 1589, 1721. |>rym(m), st.m., might, force, 1918; glory, 2 dat. pi. adverbially >rymmum, "powerfully," 235. )>rym-llc, adj., mighty, glorious, 1246. |)ry^, St. strength; dat. pi. /., J^rySum dealle, "proud in their strength," 494.
'.

|r6wian,

)>y l88S, COnj., LESt, 1918. >yder, adv., thither, 379, 2970, 3086. hyhtig, adj., doughty, strong, 1558. J>yle, St. m., spokesman, 1165, 1456.

2}ret. sg.

)>yncan,
pers.,

Mncean, lo. v., with dat. seem, 1341,368, 687, etc.; sometimes impers., 2653.
of-)>yncan,

w.

v.,

displease,

2032.
>3rrs, St. m.,
)>fs,

giant, 426.

see

J>es.

J>ys-llc, adj.,

[thuslike] such; nom.

)>r^B-sern, .s^ neut.,

mighty house,
picked,

noble hall, 657.


J>ryi5-llc,

sg.f., byslicu, 2637. )>ysne, iysses, )>yssuni, see )>es. Jj^stru, st.f., darkness, 87. )>ywan, IV. v., oppress; pres. pi.

adj.,

excellent,

egesan bywa'S,
dread," 1827.

"oppress

with

400, 1627.
JjryB-lIcost, superl., most excellent; acc.pl. 2869. St. neut.?, great distress,

From beow.
U.

JrytJ-swy^,

pain, anxiety, 131, 736. choice or ))ry'S-word, st. neut., mighty word, excellent talk, 643. etc.; J>u, pers. pron., thou, 352, ace. sg. \>ec, he (q. v.). ge-\>wigen, adj. Jjungen, {pp.), [thriven] mature, distinguished, excellent, 624, 1927. Cf. beon.

ufan, adv., from above, above, 1500, 330. ufera, compar. adj., later dat. pi. uferan, 2392, ufaran, 2200. ufor, compar. adv., higher, upwards, on to higher ground, 2951.
;

fthte, w.f.,

dawn, twilight, 126.


w.
m.,

flht-floga,

twilight-FLier,

THUNder, rattle, ^unian, lo. v., groan, hum; pret. ]?unede, 1906. ge-^wcen, pp. (isolated; Sievers 385, N. 1), forged, 1285. J)urfan, st.-w. v., need: pires. >earf,
Jiearft,

2760.
llht-hlem, st. m., twilight-uproar, din or crash in the twilight, 2007. tlht-sceatJa, w. m., twilight-scATHer, twilight-foe, 2271.

2495;
pi.

2^1'et.

445, 595, etc. subj. J>urfe, J^orfte, 157, etc.; pret.


;

umbor-wesende,

adj. (pres. part.),

hremge
i^rep.,

jjorfton,

"needed

[to

be] exultant," 2363.


J>urli,

with ace, through,

causal, and instrumental, 2661, 267, 276, 278, 558, etc. Jus, adv., THUS, 238, 337, 430.
local,

being a child, 46, 1187. un-blltJe, adj., unblithe, joyless, 130, 2268, 3031. un-byrnende, adj. [pres. part.), unBURNing, without being burnt;

nom. sg. absolutely 2548. unc, pers. pron. {dat. and ace] dual

230
of

BEOWULF.
gemet, unmeet), immeasurably,
1792. un-gyfetJe, adj., not granted, 2921. un-hselo, st. /., [uNHEALth] destruction; gen. sg. wiht unheelo, "the wight of destruction," 120. un-har, adj., (un- intensive) very HOAR, very gray, 357.

ic), to us two, us two, 540, 545, 2137, etc. uncer, pers. pron. {gen. dual of ic), of us two, 2532 coupled loith the gen. of a proper name, uncer
;

Grendles, "of Grendel and me," 2002. uncer, x^oss. adj. (see above), our {dual); dat.pl. uncran, 1185.
un-eH'S,
evil,

adj.,

uncouth, unknown,

1410, 2214, 276; gen. sg. absolutely, 960 (Grendel), 876

(what is unknown). under, prep., under


:

un-heore, un-More, un-hyre, adj., UNcanny, monstrous, 2120, 2413; nom. sg. f. unheoru, 987. un-leof, adj., [unliefJ not dear, unloved; ace. pi. absolutely
2863. un-lifigende,
{pres.

(1) icith dat. (of rest),

1163, 1204, 1209, etc.; during, with, 738.

(of motion, ex(2) with ace. pressed or impHed), 403, 887, 1551, etc. To denote extent: under swegles begong, "under the sky's expanse," 860, 1773; under heofones hwealf, 2015. under, advj_, under, beneath, 2213. undern-msel, st. neut., [undernmeal] morning-time, 1428.

un-lyfigende, adj. UNLiving, lifeless, dead, 468, 744, 1308; dat. sg. m.
part.),

J>aet bi'5

aefter selest,

driht-guman unlifgendum "that will be best

forthe noble warrior after death," 1389. un-iytel, adj., [unlittle] no little,
498, 833, 885.

un-murnllce, adv., UNMouRNfulLY, with sorrow, 449, 1756.

un-dyme, un-deme,

adj., uNsecret, manifest, 127, 2000, 2911. un-dyme, adv., UNsecretly, openly,

150, 410. un-faecne, adj., UNguileful, sincere, 2068. un-f8Bge, adj., [unfey] undoomed, not fated to die, 573, 2291. un-fseger, adj., unfair, not beautiful, 727. un-flitme, adi^., incontestably, 1097 without strife, 1129. un-forht, adj., [uNafraid] fearless, 287. un-forhte, adv., fearlessly, 444. un-frod, adj., not old, young, 2821. un-from, adj., inert, not bold, unwarlike, 2188. un-geaxa, adv., not of yore: (1) but now, 932. (2) erelong, 602. un-gedefellce, adv., improperly, unnaturally, 2435. un-gemete, adv., [uNMEETly] immeasurably, 2420, 2721, 2728. un-gemetes, adv. {gen, of adj. un-

unnan, st.-iv. v., grant, will, wish, OWN, 503, 2874; pres. sg. 1st, an, 1225; subj. pret. 1st, u\>e ic swi]>or, ]>8et '5u hine selfne geseon moste, "I would rather that thou mightst have seen himself," 960; 3rd, >eah he ii'Se wel, "how much soever he wished," 2855. ge-unnan, st.-tv. v., grant, 346,
1661.

un-nyt, adj., useless, 413, 3168.


un-riht, st. neut., unkight, wrong, 1254, 2739. un-rihte, adv., UNEioHxly, wrongly, 3059.

un-rim,
less

st.

neut.,

[unrime] count-

un-rlme,

number, 1238, 2624, 3135. adj., [uNRiMEd] countless,

3012. un-rot, adj., [uNglad] sad, 3148.

un-slaw, adj., [unslow] not slow; nom. sg. ecgum unslaw, "not slow of edge," 2564 (see note). un-snyttro, st. /., UNwisdom; dat. pi. his unsnyttrum, "in his un-

wisdom," 1734.

GLOSSARY.
un-softe,
adv.,

231

[unsoftIj]

with

difficulty, 1655, 2140.

un-swiWe, adv.
un-swItJor, compar., strongly, 2578, 2881.
less

^Ve, see rninan. tHJ-genge, adj., escaping; nom. sg. waes ^schere...feorh uS-genge, "life was ready to depart from ^schere," 2123.

un-synnig,
less,

adj.,

UNSiNning, guilt-

2089.

W.
wa, adv. (Grein), woe
;

un-synnum, adv.

{dat. pi. of *unsynn), "smlessly," 1072. un-tsile, adj., blameless, 1865. un-tyder, st. m., evil progeny; nom.pl. untydras, 111. un-wacllc, adj. [unweaklike] firm, strong, 3138. un-wearnum, adv., unawares, 741.
,

wa

bi-S \>sem

...welbi)j8em..., 183, 186. "*"wacan, st. v., wake, arise, spring, come, be born, 1265, 1960; pret.
pi.

wocun, 60. *on-wacan, awake, 2287;

be

un-wiecen, adj. {pp.), UNWREAKed, unavenged, 2443. Up, ado. UP, 128, 224, 782. tlp-lang, adj., [uplong] upright,
,

born, arise, spring, 56, 111. wacian, lo. v., watch; imperat. sg.

waca, 660; pres. part., nom. sg. m. waecceude, 708, ace. sg. m. wasccendne, 1268, waeccende,
2841.

759.

uppe, ahu, UP, 566. upp-riht, ad,j. upright, 2092. tire, 2^er,'. pron. (gen. pi. of ic), of
,

wadan,
wod,
220.

st.

v.,

714,

wade, go; pret. sg. 2661; pp. gewaden,


s.

us, 1386.
tire,
J0O68.

on-wadan,
adj.
(see

v.,

assail; pi^et.

above), our,

sg.

hine

fyren

on wod,
st.

"him
wade

2647. tlrum, prs. pron. {anoyn. form of the dot. pi. of ic, used here for unc), 10 us, 2659. tls, pers. pron. {dat. pi. of ic), to us, 345, 382, etc. ; for us, 2642. tlser, peis. pron. ( = ure, gen.pl. of ic); user neosan, "to visit us," 2074. User, p(ss. adj. (see above), our; ace. St. m. userne, 3002 ; gen. sg. neut. usses, 2813; dat. sg. m. ussun, 2634. tlsic, peys. pron. {ace. pi, of ic), us, 458, 2638, etc. usses, TBsmn, see tlser, poss. adj. tit, adv, OUT, 215, etc. titan, aiv., from withouT, without,
774,
3tc.

(Heremod) crime assailed."


Jurh-wadan,
v.,

THROUGH,
1567.

pierce, penetrate, 890,

wado,

etc.,

wsecnan,
waed,
pi.

iv.

see wsed. v., intrans.,

waken,

arise, 85.
St. n., flood, sea, wave; nom. wado, 546; wadu, 581; gen. pi. wada, 508. wsefre, adj., WAVERing, about to die, expiring, 1150, 2420; wan-

dering, 1331. iv. "wsBg-bora,

tltan-'weard, adj.,

outward, the out-

m., wave-BEARer, wave-traverser, wave-tosser (of _a sea-monster), 1440. wage, St. neut., stoup, flagon, _tankard, 2253, 2282. wsBg-holm, St. m., the billowy sea, 217.
W88g-11^5end, st. m. {pres. part.), wave-farer, sea-farer, 3158.

side of, 2297.


tlt-ftls adj.,

ouTward bound, ready

to s;art, 33.

uton, see wutun.


tlt-weird, adj.,

wsegnan, iv. v. be-w3egnan, w.


Wfflg-sweord,
st.

v., offer,

1193.

[outward] outward
761.

neut.,

wave-swoRD,

bomd, moving outwards,

sword with a wavy pattern, 1489.

232

BEOWULF.
wael-reaf, st. neut., slaughter-spoil, battle-booty, plunder, 1205. wsel-rec, st. m., slaughter-REEK,

wael, St. neut., slaughter, the slain, corpse, 448, etc. ; nom. pi. walu,

1042. wsel-bedd, st. neut., slaughterBED. wsel-bend, st. m. /., slaughter-BOND, death-BAND, 1936. wsel-bleat, adj., [slaughter-pitiful];

deadly exhalation, 2661.


"wael-reow, adj., slaughter-fierce, fierce in strife, 629. wsel-rest, st. /., [slaughter-REsr] bed of (violent) death, 2902. wsel-sceaft, st. m., slaughter-sHAFT, deadly spear, 398. wsel-steng, st. m., slaughter-pole, spear, 1638. wsel-stow, St. /., slaughter-place,
_battle-field, 2051, 2984.

wunde wael-bleate, "his deathly pitiful wound," 2725. wsel-dea^, st. m., slaughter-DEATH, death by violence, 695.
ace. f.

wsel-dreor, 1631.
wsel-ffflhtJ,

st.

neut., slaughter-gore,
/.,

slaughter-FEUD, deadly feud, 2028. wsel-fag, adj. slaughter-stained, 1128. wsel-feall, -fyll, st. m., slaughterFALL, violent death, 3154; dat.
St.
,

wsBn,

St.

m., WAIN,
st.

wagon;

ace. sg.

_3134. "wsepen,

neut.,
;

1467, 1664, etc.


,

ace. pi.

weapon, 1660, v^pen,

sg.
,

geweox he... to wsel-fealle... Deniga leodum, "he sent many of the Danes to a violent death,"
1711.

J92. wsBpned-mon(n) st. m., wiaponed MAN, man, 1284. war, St. /., compact, treaty, 1100; keeping, protection, 2^ 3109.
waeran, waestm,
pi.

wael-fQs, adj., ready for, expecting, (a violent) death, 2420. wsBl-fyll, see wsel-feall. wsel-fyllo, slaughter-FiLL, fill of slaughter, 125. wael-fyr, st. neut., slaughter-FiRE,

_[_"Beitrage" x. 511.] etc., see wesan. st. m., growth, fo-m

dat.

on weres wasstmiim, man's form," 1352.


st.

"in

death-bringing fire, 2582 corpsepyre, 1119. wsel-gaest, st. m., slaughter-GUEST, murderous stranger, 1331, 1995. wsel-hlem, st. m., slaughter-crash, terrible blow, 2969. st. waell-seax, neut., slaughterknife, deadly short-sword; dat. sg. (with uninflected adjs.) waellseaxe gebrged biter ond beadu;

fire,

scearp, "drew his keen and _battle-sharp short-sword," 2703. waelm, see wylm.
wsel-nltJ,

neut., water, the sea, "wseter, 93, etc. ; dat. wsetere, 1425, 1656, 2722, waetre, 2854; inst-umental gen. he hine eft ongon wateres weorpan, "he began igain to sprinkle him with water," 2791. "wseter-egesa, lo. m., wATER-terror, the terrible mere, 1620. wseter-ytJ, st. /., wAiER-wa^e, 2242. wag, St. m., wall, 1662, 99i. wala, IV. m., wale, "wreith" (in heraldry), a protecting rim or roll on the outside of th( helmet (Skeat) nom. sg. ymb j^aeshelmes
;

m., slaughter-strife,
St.

slaughter-hate,

deadly enmity,
[slaughter-RACE]

hrof heafod-beorge wirumbewunden wala utan heold, "romd the helmet's crown the 'vreath,'

85, 065, 3000. wsel-rses, st. m.,

wound about with


mortal

wires,

gave

deadly

strife,

combat,

protection for the head frtm the outside," 1031.

_2947, 824, 2531. wael-rap, st. m., [whirlpool-ROPE] icicle, 1610 (see note).

Waldend, see Wealdend.


wald-swse?5,
st.

neut., or
/.,

wald-swatJu,

st.

[wold-svath]

GLOSSARY.
forest-track, forest-path
;

233

dat. pi.

wald-swa'Sum, 1403. walu, see wsel.

wan, i\, see "winnan. wan, adj., see won. wang, see wong. wanian, 2v. v.
(1)

time was to prevail," 2574; waelstowe wealdan, "to be masters of the field," 2984. ge-wealdan, st. v., loith gen., dat., or ace, wield, control, possess, bring about, 1509, 1554,
2703.

intrans.,
trans.,

wane,

diminish,

1607.
(2)

Wealdend, Waldend, st. m. {pres. part.), the WiELDer, God, 1693,


etc.
; often loith dependent gen., gen. Wealdendes, 2857, 17, etc!
;

diminish, cm'tail, deP2}- gewanod, 477. v., bewail, lament;

crease, 1337;

wanigean, lo. inf. gehyrdon gryre-leo'S galan Godes ondsacan, sige-leasne sang, sar wanigean helle haefton, "heard God's adversary singing
his terror-lay, his victory-less song, hell's captive bewailing his sore," 787. warian, 2v. v., guard, inhabit, 1253, 1265, 2277 (guards); pres. pi. warigea'S, 1358. warot$, St. m., [warth] shore, 234, 1965. wat, etc., WOT, see witan.

Waldendes, 2292, Wealdende, 2329.


weall, see weal.

3109;

dat.

weallan, st.v., well, boil, be agitated, literally and figuratively ; pret. weoll, 2138, 2113, etc. ; weol, 518, etc.; pres. part, weallende, 847, weallinde, 2464 ; nom. pi. neut. weallende, 546, weallendu, 581. Special passages: Ingelde wealla'S wael-ni'Sas, "in Ingeld's breast deadly hatred wells up," 2065; hre'Ser ffi'Sme weoll, "his

we, pers. pron.

{pi.

of

ic),

we,

1,

260, etc. 10. m., woe, 936, 191, etc.; gen. pi. weana, 148, etc. weal(l), St. m., gen. wealles, dat. wealle, ace. weal, 326: wall in its various meanings; rampart, burgh-wall, 785, etc. ; wall of a building, 326, 1573 natural wall of rock, sometimes the side of a barrow or den, 2307, 2759, 3060, wall of chff, 229, etc. etc. wea-laf, si./., [woE-LEAving] wretched remnant (of either army after the battle in which Hnaef fell), 1084, 1098. wealdan, st. v., ivith dat., gen., or absolutely, wield, rule, rule over, govern, possess, control; prevail; 442, 1859, 702, 2051, etc. Special passages: henden wordum weold wine Scyldinga, "while the friend of the Scyldings still had power of speech," or "ruled with his

wea,

brea st swelled with breath ," 2593 st. neut., wall-cliff, seacliff, 3132. weard, st. m., [waed] warden, warder, guardian, owner, 229, 1741, 2524, etc. weard, st. /., ward, watch, 305,
weall-clif,

319.

weardian,

iv. v., ward, guard, indwell, 105, 1237, 2075. Especially in the phrase last or swa'Se weardian : inf. he his fohne for-

let...last

weardian, "he

left his

to mark his track," 971; so pret. weardade, 2098; pret. sg. for pi. in subordinate clause, J?8Bt >am fraetwum feower mearas last weardode, " that

hand behind

four horses followed the armour," 2164. wearn, st. f, refusal, 366. wea-spell, st. neut., woe- spell, tidings of woe, 1315. weaxan, st. v., wax, grow, 3115, 1741, 8.

word," 30; ^er he >y fyrste... wealdan moste, "if he at that

ge-weaxan, st. become, 66, 1711.

v.,

wax, grow,

234
web,
1)1.

BEOWULF.
St.

neut.,

web, tapestry

nom.

995.

wecc(e)an, lo. v., wake, rouse, stir up, 2046, 3024; pret. jvvehte, 2854. Special passage: bael-fyra mffist...weccan, "to kindle the greatest of funeral piles," 3144. to-weccan, lo. v., wake up, stir up pret. pi. to-wehton, 2948. wedd, St. neut., pledge, 2998.
;

ween, expect, hope, 157, 1184, etc. pres. Special sg. 1st wen, 338, 442.
clause, or absolutely:
;

weder, st. neut., weatheb, 546; nom. pi. weder, 1136. weg, St. m., way; only in on weg, "away," 264, 1382, etc. weg, St. m., wave, 3132. Cf. wag-.
"wegan, 3015,
st.

passages: ^ses ic wene, "as I hope," 272 swa ic }>e wene to, "as I expect from thee," 1396; icitli inf. ic genigra me weana ne wende .bote gebidan, I expected not to abide the remedy of any of my woes," 933; loith gen. and clause, hig >ass se'Selinges eft ne wendon, j?et he... come, "they expected not the atheling again, that he would come," 1596.
;
'
. . '

wendan,
1739.

iv. v.,

intrans.,
to. v.,

wend, turn,

v.,

bear,

wear,

wage,
Spiecial

2252, 2464, etc.

ed-wendan,

intrans., turn

passage: mod Dry's waeg,... firen ondrysne, " Tbrytho bore moodiness or fierceness, [committed] terrible crime," 1931. set-wegan, st. v., bear away,
carry
ulf,

back, desist, cease, 280.

ge-wendan, iv. v., trans, and intrans., turn, change, 315, 186. on-wendan, w.
aside,
set
v., trans.,

turn
191.

aside,

avert,

1198.
st. v.,

ge-wegan,

engage, fight,

2400. weg-flota, IV. m., ship, 1907. wehte, see weccan.


wel(l), adv.,

ne mseg wiht onwendan, J>am "Se wel bence'5, "naught can ever
Special passage:
sibb
eefre

wave-FLOAier,

set

aside kinship,

to

right-

minded man," 2601.


wenian, w. v., honour, 1091. be-wenian, bi-wenian, iv. v., entertain, attend on pret. subj. sg. for pi., dryht-bearn Dena dugvfSa. biwenede, 2035 (see note); pp. pi. bewenede, 1801. weorc, St. neut. ,'wohk, deed, trouble,
;

well, rightly, much, 186, 289, 1792, 2570, 2Qb6; usual form wel, hut well, 2162, 2812.

wel-hwylc, indef. adj. and pron. I. Fron. (1) ivith gen. wel-hwylc witena, "WELL nigh every councillor,"
266. (2) neut. absolutely, everything, 874. II. Adj. almost every, 1344. welig, adj., wEALthy, rich, 2607.

gen. pi. worda 1656, etc. ond worca, 289 dat. pi. wordum ne worcum, 1100. Special passages : he ]pses gewinnes weorc )>rowade, "he suffered trouble
74,
; ;

wen,

St. /.,

wEENing, expectation,

hope, 734, 383, etc. Special passages: wen ic talige, "I reckon it a thing to be expected," 1845 dat. pi. bega on wenum, ende-dogores ond eft-cymes leofes monnes, "in expectation of both, the day of death and the return of the dear man " {i.e. expecting one or the other), 2895.
;

for that strife," 1721; dat. pi. adverbially, weorcum, "with difficulty," 1638. weorce, adj., grievous, painful, 1418. weorod, see werod.

weorpan,
(1)

st. v.

ivith ace. rei,

[wakp] throw, 1531.


:

(2) tvith ace. pers. sprinkle, 2791.


(3)

and gen.

rei,

with

dat.,

spew, cast forth,

wenan,

to.

v.,

loith

gen.,

infin..

2582.

GLOSSARY.
for-weorpan,
st.

235

v.,

throw-

wurSad, 331, 1038, 1645; weor-Sad,


1783.
weortJ-lIce, adv.

forwurpe, 2872. ofer-weorpan, st. v., stumble, 1543. weor^, St. neut., wokth, price, pay, 2496.
;

away

pi'et. subj.

weor'S-lIcost, w^ORTHily, 3161.

superl.,

most

weortJ-mynd,

st. /.,

woRship, hon-

weortJ,

adj.,

woRTHy,

honoured,

dear ; nom. sg. m. weor'S Denum ae>eHng, "the atheling dear to the Danes," 1814, weor^ra, compar., worthier, 1902.

our, glory, 8, 65, 1559, etc.; dat. pi. to wor^-myndum, "for

honour,
1186.

for

honour's

sake,"

weotena, see wita. weotian, zv. v., prepare,

etc.

pp,

weorBan, st. v., become, be, befall, happen, come, 2526, 414, 2731, etc. inf. wur'San, 807 _2Jres. pi. wur'Sa'5, 282 jjref. sg. he on fylle wear 5, "he fell," 1544; pp. geworden, "happened, arisen,"
;

1304, 3078. Often ivith predicative dat. governed by to, and dat. pers.: 'Sii scealt to frofre weor'San...leodum J^inum, hsele"Sum to helpe, "thou shalt be for a comfort to thy people, a help to the heroes," 1707; so also
460, 587, etc.
(1) intrans.,

acc.jjZ.waslbendeweotode, "deathbands prepared, appointed, destined," 1936. be-weotian, be-witian, iv. v.y observe, etc. pres. pi. )>a, ^e syngales sele bewitia-S, "those [weathers, days] which continually observe the season," 1135; bewitiga^ sorhfulne sitS, "make a journey full of woe," 1428 ; pret.
:

sg. ealle

beweotede >egnes
to
all

)jearfe,

ge-weorBan, st. v. : become, be, happen,

3061.
trans., agree about, settle (2) inf. ]pset Su...lete Sfit'-Dene sylfe

the thane's needs," 1796; hord beweotode, "watched over a hoard," 2212. wer, St. m., man, 105, 1352, 216, 1256, etc.; gen. pi. wera, 120, etc.; weora, 2947.

" attended

geweorSan giltJe wr5 Grendel, "that thou wouldst let the South Danes themselves settle their war
with Grendel," 1996.
(3) impers., ivith gen.,

wered, st. neut., beer, mead, 496, werede, etc., see werod. were-fyhte, iv. /., defensive fight,

werga {weak form

fight in defence, 457. of werig), adj., cursed ; gen. sg. wergan gastes,

andfolloio-

ing clause in apposition, appear,

seem, seem good monige gewear'S,

jjre^ ]?a ^aBS


)>a3t,

133 (Grendel), 1747 (the devil). werge, etc., see werig, wergend, st. m. [pres. part, of
werian), defender, 2882.

"then

it

appeared to
pp.

many

that," 1598;

wergian,
"werli'So,

lo.

v.,

weary
curse,

pp. gewer-

hafa'5 J^aes geworden wine Scyldinga...>8et, "this had seemed good to the friend of the

gad, 2852.
St.

/.,

damnation;

ace. sg. werhtSo, 589.

Scyldings, that," 2026.


weor^J-full, adj.

werian,

weoriJ-fuUost, superl., [worthfullest], woRTHiest, 3099. weortJian, lo.v., worthy ("Lear" ii. 2. 128), honour, adorn, 2096, 1090, etc.; pp. geweor'Sod, 2175; geweorSad, 250, 1450, 1959; ge-

guard, defend, proreflex., 541 j pp. nom. pi. 238, 2529. defend; pret. be-werian, lo. v.,
lo. v.,

tect, 453, 1327, etc.

subj. beweredon, 938. werig, adj., loitli gen. or dat., weary, 579 ; dat. sg. wergum, 1794 ; ace, f. sg. or pi. werge, 2937.

236
werig-mod,
844, 1543.
adj.,

BEOWULF.
weary
of mood,
lutehj, wid-cii'Ses (i.e.

Hrothgar),

1042.

werod, weorod, st. neut., troop, baud, 651, 319, 290, etc.; dat. werede, 1215; weorode, 1011, 2346; gen. pi. wereda, 2186; weoroda, 60.
wer-J>eod,
'

wide, adv., wiDEly, 18, 2135, 2913, 3099, etc. qualifying a superlative, wide mserost, "the greatest
;

far

and wide, greatest of

all,"

898.

st. [man nation] /., people; ace. pi. ofer wer-heode, throughout the nations of men ,"
'

widre, compar.; widre gewindan, "to flee away more widely, escape further," 763.
wIde-ferhtJ,
st.

899.

m., [wiDE-life] ever,

wesan,
sg.

irreg. v., be, 272, etc.; i^res. Srd is, 256, 1761, etc.; ys,
;

2910, 2999, 3084 pres. pi. sint, 388; synt, 260, 342, 364; syndon, 237, 257, etc.; pres. subj. sg. sie, 435, etc.; sy, 1831, etc.; sig, 1778, etc.; pj-et. pi. wsron, 233, etc. waran, 2475 ; imperat. sg. wes, 269, etc., waes, 407.
;

Negative forms
3rd
naes,

pres.

sg.

Srd

nis, 249, etc.; pret. sg. 1st

and

2141, 134, etc.; pret.

pi. neeron,
nffire,

2657

pret. subj. sg.

860, etc. Special passages Omission of injin. 617, 1857, (1) aUo 992, 2363, 2497, 2659; 2256.
(2)

Forming,

loitli
:

a pres. part.,
secgende waes,
;

an imperf.

tense

"was saying," 3028. ace. sg. m. weste, adj., waste westne, 2456. westen, st. neut., waste, 1266; dat. westenne, 2298. WIG, St. neut., [wick] dwelling, 821,
etc.; often in pi., 125, etc.; dat.

only used as ace. of time, 702, 937; ealne wIde-ferh'S, "for all time to come," 1222. wid-floga, w. m., wiDE-FLier (the dragon), 2830, 2346. widre, see wide. wid-scofen, see under scflfan. wid-weg, St. m., wide-way, highway; ace. pi. geond wid-wegas, "along the highways," 840, "far and wide," 1704. wif, St. neut., WIFE, woman, 2120, 1284, 2028, 993, etc. wif-lufu, 10. /., WIFE -LOVE, love for one's wife, 2065. wig, St. m.: (1) war, battle, 23, 65, 1084, etc.; dat. wigge, 1656, 1770, 1783. (2) war-prowess, valour, might, 350, 1042, 2323, etc. wiga, IV. VI., warrior, 629, 1543, 2395. ["Beitrage"x. 511.] wigan, St. v., war, fight, 2509,
599.

wicun, 1304. wlcan, St. V. ge-wlcan, st. v., intrans., weaken, give way, 2577, 2629. wicg, St. neut., horse, steed, 1400,
pi.

wlg-bealu, st. neut., war-BALE, the evils of war, 2046. wig-bil, St. neut., war-BiLL, warsword, 1607. wig-bord, St. ?igzi^, [war-BOARD] warshield, 2339. wlg-crseft, St. m., war-cRAFT, war-

286, etc. pi. wicg, 2174. wic-stede, st. m., [wick-stead] dwelling-place, 2462, 2607. wid, adj., wide, extended, long, of space and time, 935, 877, 1859, 2014, etc.
,

wid-cUB,

adj.,

[wide-couth] widely
etc.;

might, 2953. cidj., war -crafty, wig-crseftig, mighty in battle, 1811. wigend, St. m. {pres. part.), warrior, 3099, 1125, 429, etc. wig-freca, 20. /., war-wolf, warrior, 1212, 2496. wig-fruma, w. m., war-chief, 664,
2261.

known, 1256,

gen.

abso-

GLOSSARY.
wigge, see vrlg. wig-getawa, st. f. pi., war-equipments, 368. See gu'S-geatwa.
"wlg-gryre,
st. m., war-terror, 1284. wig-heafola, iv. m., [war-head] warhelmet, 2661.

237

willan,

irreg. v., will: pres. sg. 1st wille, 318, 344, etc.; wylle, 947, etc.; 2nd wylt, 1852; Srd

wig-heap,

St. m., war-HEAP, of warriors, 477.

band

wig-hete, St. m., war-HATE, 2120. [war-falling] wig-hryre, st. m., slaughter, onset, 1619. "Wig-sigor, ju., war- victory, 1554. wig-sped, St. /., war-sPEED, success in war, 697. wig-weortJung, st.f., idol-woKship, sacrifice, 176. ["Beitrage"x,511.] wlht, n. :
-s-^.

I.

St. /..

WIGHT, being, crea-

ture, 120, 3038. II. St. f. neut.,

346 wyle, 2864 ; wille, 442, 1371, etc.; wylle, 2766; pi. wylNegative forms: nelle la'S, 1818. = ne + wille, 679, 2524; nolde= ne-i-wolde, 706, 791, 2518, etc. With omission of inf. no ic fram him wolde, 543. wilnian, to. v., desire, 188. wil-si^, St. m., [wiLL-journey] willing journey, 216. win, St. neut., wine, 1162, 1233, 1467. win-sern, st. neut., wiNE-hall, 654. wind, St. m., wind, 217, etc. win-dseg, st. m., strife-DAv, day of strife, 1062.
wile,
;

2601
for

{see

WHIT, auGHT, onwendan), 1660; ace.

windan,
WIND,

st. v.,

intrans.

and

trans.,

rise, twist,

1119, 1193, etc.;

wiht,

"for

aught,"
use,

2348;

pret. pi. streamas


wi'S sande,

loith gen., 581.


III.
all
;

wundon sund "the currents rolled

Adverbial

auGHT, at

almost alivays negative {with

ne),
(1)

all, no whit. ne or no: 862, 1083, 2854, 2857, 541; no hine wiht dweleS adl ne yldo, "sick-

naught, noT at

Ace., with

ness or age misleads him not a whit," 1735. ivith ne, 186, 1514, (2) Dat.; etc. ; affirmatively, 1991. wil-cmna, iv. m., [wiLL-coMer] welcome guest, 388, 394, 1894. wil-deor ( = wild deor), st. neut., [wild deer] wild beast, 1430. wile, see willan. wil-geofa, w. m., wiLL-Giver, joygiver, 2900.
wil-gesitJ, St. m.,

the sea against the sand," 212; pp. dat. sg. wundnum golde, "with twisted gold," 1382. set-windan, st. v., with dat. pers., WIND away, escape, 143. t)e-windan, st. v., wind about, brandish, enclose, grasp, mingle, 1461, 1031, etc.; j^P- galdre bewunden, "wound about with incantation, encompassed with a spell," 3052.

ge-windan,

st.

v.,

intrant.,

WIND, turn, flee away, 763, 1001. on-windan, st. v., unwind,
1610.

wind-blond,

st. neut., [wind-blend] tumult of winds, 3146.

[wiLL-companion]

wind-gerest,

st.

/.,

[wind-rest]

willing or loved companion, 23. willa, w. m., will, wish, desire, desirable thing; joy, pleasure; sake: 626, 1711, etc.; dat. sg. to willan, "out of good will," 186; anes willan, "for the sake of one," 3077; gen. pi. wilna, 660, 950, 1344; dat.pl. willum, "according to our wishes," 1821; so sylfes willum, 2222, 2639.

resting-place of winds, 2456.

windig, adj., windy; pi. windige, 572, 1358; windge, 1224. wine, St. m., friend, esp. friend and lord, friendly ruler, 30, 170, 457; ace. pi. wine, 21 ; gen. pi. winigea, 1664 winia, 2567. wine-dryhten, wine-drihten, st. m.,
;

friend and lord,, friend-lord, friendly ruler, 360, 862, 2722.

238
wine-geomor,
adj.,

BEOWULF.
friend-sad,
for the loss of friends,

mourning

2239. wine-leas, adj., friendLESs, 2613.

wlne-nig,
relative
pi.

st.

and

m., friend-kinsman, friend, loyal subject;

wine-magas, 65.

winia, winigea, see wine. winnan, st. v., [win] strive, fight, 113, 506; pret. sg. 3rd wan, 144, 151, won, 1132. win-reced, st. neut., wiNE-bouse, wine-ball, 714, 993. win-sele, st. m., wiNE-ball, 695, 771. winter, st. in., winteb, year, 1128, 1724, 2209, etc.; gen. sg. wintrys,
516. wir, St. m., wiKE, wire-work, filagree, 1031, 2413. wis, adj., WISE, 1845, 3094, 1413, Weak forms : nom. m. wisa, etc.

the witan, 778 ; gen. pi. witena, 157, etc., weotena, 1098. witan, st.-io. v., [wit] know, 1863, 764, 2519, etc.; pres. sg. 1st and Zrd wat, 1331, etc.; negative nat, 681, etc.; 2nd wast, 272; pret. sg. 1st and 3rd wiste, 646, etc.; wisse, 169, etc, pret. pi., wiston, Special 181, etc.; wisson, 246. passages : to ^aes 'Se he eor^-sele
pi.
;

anne wisse, "to where he knew an earth- ball to be, knew of an


earth-hall," 2410; so, 715; pres.
sg. 1st, ic

he,

on Higelace wat...}>8et "I know concerning Hygelac,

that he," 1830; negative scea'Sona ic nat hwilc, "I know not which of scathers, some foe," 274 3rd, God wat on mec (ace), }>8et me is micle leofre, 2650. ge-witan, st.-u-. v., know, 1350.
;

1400, 1698, 2329; ace. sg. wisan, 1318. wIsa, w. m., WISE one, guide, 259. wis-dom, St. m., wisdom, 350, 1959. wise, w. f., T;\asE, fashion; instrumental ace. (Grein), ealde wisan, "in the old fashion," 1865. wis-fsest, adj., [wise-fast] wise, 626.

witan,

St. v.,

ivith ace. rei

and

dat.

pers.,

[wite]

reproach,

blame,

wis-hycgende,

adj.

[pres.

part.),

wiSE-thinking, 2716. wisian, lo. v., with ace.

rei,

dat.

pers., or absolutely, [make wise] point out, show; direct, guide,

lead; 2409, etc.; pres. sg. 1st wisige, 292, etc.; pret.sg. wisode, 402, etc.; wisade, 208, etc. wisse, see witan. wist, st.f. {from wesan): (1) weal, 1735.
(2)

2741. set-witan, st. v., ivith ace. rei, twit, blame, charge; pret. pi. aetwiton weana dl, "charged [him] with his share of their woes," 1150. ge-wltan, st. v., depart, go, 42, 123, 2471, etc.; often ivith reflex, dat. 26, 662, 1125, etc.; often followed by inf. {in many cases best rendered by a pres. part.) 291, 853, 234, 2387, etc. Special passages: fyrst fortS gewat, "time went on," 210; pp., dat. sg. m., J'set 'Su me a wsexe for^ gewite-

num on faeder st^le, "that thou wouldst aye be to me when dead


in a father's place," 1479.
otJ-wItan, St. v., with ace. rei dat. pers., reproach; inf. ne ^orfte him ^a lean oSwitan mon

meal; dat.

sg.

SBfter wiste,

"after Grendel's meal of thirty thanes," 128. wiste, WIST, see witan. wist-fyllo, St. /., food-FiLL, abundant meal; gen. sg. wist-fylle, 734. wit, St. neut., wit, 589. wit, pers. pron. {dual of ic), we two, 535, etc. wita, 10. m., wise man, councillor,

and

on middan-gearde, "no man on earth needed to reproach him


with those rewards," 2995. -witian, see -weotian. Witig, adj., witty, wise (applied to the Deity), 685,etc.; wittig, 1841.

["Beitrage"x. 511.]

GLOSSARY.
witnian, lo. v., punish, torment; pp. wommum gewitnad, "tormented with plagues," 3073. wit5, prep, loith dat. and ace, with {ivith ace. 1088, 3027, ivith dat. 2600), a rare meaning except loitli loords denoting strife, such as winnan, 152; usual meaning against, 144, 326, 1549, 2528, etc. ; sometimes towards {ace.) 155, 1864; by [ace], 2U13, 2566; from {dat.), 827, 2423. With aec.
dat. in the same sentence: "with," 424-6 {see gehegan); geseet ha wi'S sylfne...meg wi'S mffige, "he sat then by [the king] himself, kinsman with kinsman,"

239

woh-bogen,

adj. {pp.), crookedBowed, coiled, 2827. wolcen, St. neut., welkin, cloud;

dat. pi.

wolcnum,

8,

1119, etc.

wolde, pret. of willan. woUen-teare, adj., with WELLing TEARS, 3032. worn, see woh.

womm,

St.

m., spot, plague, 3073.

and

won, v., see winnan. won, wan, adj., wan, dark, 1374, 702; nom. pi. neut., wan, 651; iceak form wonna, 3024, 3115. wong, wang-, st. m. plain, meadow,
,

93, 2242, etc.

wong-stede,

Special passages: wi^ "to the door of the hall," 389; wi^ earm gesast {see gesittan), 749; forborn bord witS rond, "the shield was burnt up to the rim," 2673 ; wiS Hrefnawudu, "by (over against) Ravenswood," 2925. wi'Ser-rsehtes, adv., opposite, 3039. wiBre, St. neut., resistance, 2953. wlanc, see wlonc. wlatian, w. v., look, 1916. wienco, si./., pride, bravado, daring dat. wienco, 338, 1206, wlence,

1977-8.

duru

healle,

m., [plain-sTEAc] champaign spot, 2786. won-hyd, st. /., [wan, i.e. un-, thought] carelessness, rashness, 434. wonn {?), 3154, see note on 1. 3155.
st.

won-sseli(g'), adj.,

won-sceaft, st. misery, 120.

unhappy, 105. f, [wAN-shaping]


128,

wop,

St.

711.,

WEEPing,

785,

3146.

508.

wlltan,
;

St.

v.,

gaze,

look,

1572,

1592 pret. pi. wlitan, 2852. st. look giond-wlltan, v., through, view thoroughly, 2771. wlite, St. m., countenance, 250.
wlite-beorht, adj., of bright aspect, beauteous-bright, 93. wlite-seon, st.f. neut.?, sight, 1650. wlitig-, adj., beauteous, 1662. wlonc, wlanc, adj., proud, 331, 341, 2833, 2953; ivith dat. sese wlanc, "carrion-proud," 1332. woh, adj., crooked, wrong dat. pi.
;

wore, see weorc. word, St. neut., word, 79, etc.; ace. pi. word o^er fand, 870. The dat. pi. is common loith verbs of saying: 176, 388, 1193, 2795, 3175. word-cwide, -cwyde, st. m., wordsaying, speech, 1841, 1845, 2753. word-gyd, st. neut., woRD-lay, dirge,
3172.

word-hord,
259.

st.

neut.,

word-hoard,
[word-right]

word-riht,

st.

neut.,

right or befitting word, 2631. worMe, see wyrcan.

worn,

him bebeorgan ne con wom wundor-bebodum wergan gastes, "he knows not how to protect himself

commands
1747

against the crooked wondrous of the cursed spirit,"


(see note).

St. neut., multitude, number, 264; ace. sg. J>onne he wintrum frod worn gemunde, "when he, old in years, remembered the number [of them]," 2114. Qualified by fela or eall: nom. sg. worn fela, "a great number," 1783; ace. sg. ]pn worn fela... ymb Brecan sprSce, "thou hast said a great deal about Breca,"

240

BEOWULF.
wraet-llc, adj.,

530; eal-fela eald-gesegena worn, "a very great number of old sagas," 870; worn eall gespraec

ornamental, adorn-

ornate, curiously wrought, splendid, wondrous, 891, 1489,


ed,
etc.

gomol,
very

"the

aged

one

spake
Si7ni-

many

things," 3094.

larly in gen. pi. governed by fela icith gen. sg. worna fela...sorge,

"very

much
St. /.,

sorrow," 2003; ivith


fela... gu'Sa,

gen. pi.

worna

"very

wroth, hostile; ahsolutely, foe, 319, 660, etc. wra^$e, adv., amiss, 2872. wra'S-lIce, adv., wrothlt, wrathfully, 3062.
wratJ, adj.,

many
worold,

wars," 2542.

wrecan,

st.

v.,

loith

WORLD, 1183, 1681,

drive, drive
spel,

out,

utter,

ace, wreak, avenge,

1062, etc.; gen. sg. worulde, 2343, worlde, 2711 ; his worulde gedal, "his severance from the world," 3068. worold-ar, st. /., woKXD-honour, 17.

1278, 423, etc.; o/ie;i wrecan gid, etc., "utter, rehearse, a lay, legend, or tale," 873, 1065, etc. Special passages : suhj. pres. }?onne he gyd wrece, " [that] then

worold-cyning, wyruld-cyning, st. m., woELD-KiNG, mighty king,


1684, 3180. worold-rseden,
st. /.,

he should utter a dirge," 2446;


pret.
sg.

ferh

ellen

wraec,

the

way of the

world; ace. sg. swa he ne forwyrnde worold-rsdenne, "so he


escaped not the lot of mortals, i.e. death" (?), 1142 (see note). woi^ig, St. m., street, court, precincts, palace, 1972.

"strength drove out life," 2706; pp. wear's... on bid wrecen, "was driven to bay," 2962. a-wrecan, st. v., tell; loith ace.
gid, 1724, 2108.

for-wrecan,

st.

v.,

loitli

ace,

worS-mynd, see weortJ-mynd. woruld-eandel, st.f., world-candle,


the sun, 1965. woruld-ende, st. m., world-end, the end of the world, 3083. wracu, St. /., revenge; ace. sg. wrsece, 2336. wrsec, st. neut., wrack, misery, exile, 170, 3078. wrsecca, see wrecca.
wraece, see wracu. WTsec-last, st. in., exile-track, path of exiles, 1352. wrsec-maecg, st. m., banished man,
exile,

drive away, banish, 1919, 109. ge -wrecan, st. v., usu. with ace, WREAK, avenge, 107, 3062,

2479; 2875; absolutely, he gewraec sy'S'San, "he took vengeance afterwards," 2395. wrecca, ^v. m., wretch, exile, wanderer, adventurer, 1137, 898;
etc.;

pret. pi. gewrffican,

ivith reflex, ace.

dat. wrsBCcan, 2613. wreoend,si.?/i.(^)'es.pari.),WREAKer, avenger, 1256.

2379.

wrsec-si^,
exile,

st. m., WRACK-journey, 2292; dat. pi. nalles for wresc-srSum ac for hige->rymmum, "by no means because of banishment but out of magnanimity," 338.

wrset, st.f., ornament, jewel; ace. pi. wraste, 2771, 3060; gen. pi. wrsetta, 2413 ; dat. pi. wraettum,

wreoSen-hilt, adj., with WREATHed or twisted hilt, 1698. wridian, iv. v., grow, 1741. ["Beitrage" x. 511.] writan, st. v., write, engrave, 1688. for-wrltan, st. v., cut asunder, 2705. wrl^an, st. v., ivith ace, [writhe] bmd, 964 ; bind up, 2982. wrixl, St. neut., exchange, 2969. wrixlan, iv. v., ivith dat. wordum, "exchange, interchange, words,"
366, 874.

wroht,

St. /.,

strife, contest,

2287,

1531.

2473, 2913.

GLOSSAKY.
wudu,
(1)
St.

241
st. /.,

m.,

WOOD

wundor-sion,

woNDER-sight,

a wood, 1364, 1416. (2) a spear; ace. pi. wudu, 398. (3) a ship, 1919; nom. sg. wudu wunden-hals, "the ship with twisted or curved prow," 298;
ace. sg.

wondrous
1681.

sight, 995.
st,

wundor-smitJ,

m.,

wonder-smith,

wudu bundenne, "the


i.e.

wundur-maBtJum, st. m., wonderjewel, wondrous jewel, 2173. wunian, ic. v., [won]
:

bound wood,
ship," 216.

the

wooden

(1)

intrans. dwell, remain, 284, 1128; loith dat. wicum wunian,


trans, indwell, inhabit, 1260,
lo.

wudu-rec, st. m., wood-keek, smoke,


3144,

3083.
(2)

wuldor,

St.

neut., glory

nom.

sg.

2902.

kyninga wuldor (Hrothgar), 665;


gen. sg. wuldres, 17, etc. wuldor- torht, adj., glory-bright; pi. 1136. Wuldur-cyning', st. m., Glory-KiNG, the King of glory, 2795. wulf, St. m., WOLF, 3027. wulf-hlHJ, St. neut., woLF-slope; ace.
pi. wulf-hleou, 1358.

ge-wunian,

v.,

tvith

ace,

dwell with, remain with; subj.


pres. pi. gewunigen, 22.

-wurtSad, see weortJian. wurtJan, see weortJan. wutun, uton, = let us, with foil. inf., 2648, 1390, 3101. wyle, wyllaB, wylle, wylt, see

willan^

wund,

WOUND, 2711, etc.; ace. sg. wunde, 2725, etc. wund, adj., wouNDed, 565, etc. wunden-feax, adj., with wound,
St.

/.,

wylm, wsilm,
flood,
159, 2.]

st. m., wELLing, surge, 516, 2546, etc. [Sievers,

wyn-leas, adj., joyLESS, 821, 1416.

i.e.

twisted, hair, 1400.

wynn,
sg.

st. /.,

joy, 1080, etc.; gen.

wimden-hals, adj., [wouND-neck] with twisted or curved prow,


298.

Wynne, 2727. wjm-sum, adj., winsome, joyous,


1919 ; neut. pi. wynsume, 612. wyrcan, iv. v., work; pret. worhte,

wunden-msBl, st. neut., [woundsword] sword with winding, curving, ornaments, 1531. wunden-stefna, iv. m., [woundstem] ship with twisted or curved
stem, 220. wunder-fset,
st.

wrought

neut.,
;

wonder-vat,

wondrous vessel dat. pi. IIQ'I. wundor, st. neut., wonder, 771, etc.; monster, 1509 nom. ace. wundur, 3062, 3032, etc.; ace. wunder, 931; rfaf. wundre, 931; gen. pi. wundra, 1607; dat. pi. adverbially, wundrum, "wondrous:

work, make, 930, 92, 1452 ; pret. part. pi. (as adj.) faeste geworhte, "steadfast," 1864. subj. pres. (2) loith gen. achieve wyrce se >e mote domes, "achieve glory he who may," 1387. be-wyrcan, lo. v., surround,
(1) tvith ace.
;

3161. g'e-wyrc(e)an, w. 69, 1660, etc.:


(1) intrans. act, 20.

v.,

work, 20,

(ly)," 1452, 2687.

wundor-bebod, st. neut., wondebcommand, wondrous command,


1747.

wundor-dea^, st. m., wonder-death,

(2) trans, work, make, accompHsh, achieve, 635, 1660, 1491 subj. pret. pi. geworhton, 3096. wyrd, St. /., weird, fate, probably personified in some passages (see note on 1205), 455, 477, 1056,

wondrous death, 3037.


wundor-lic,
adj.,

3030, etc.

[wonderlike]

wyrdan,

ic.

v.,

destroy; pret. sg.

wondrous, 1440.

wyrde, 1337.

W.

B.

16

242
wyrm,

BEOWULF.
a-wyrdan, w.v., destroy, 1113.
st.

ymbe,

m.,

worm, dragon, 886,


neut.,

1430, etc.

wyrm-cynn,

st.

worm-kin,

serpent kind, 1425. worm -adorned, adj., wyrm-fali, snake-adorned, 1698. wyrm-liord, st. neut., worm-hoard, dragon's hoard, 2221. wyman, lo.v. {from wearn). for-wyrnan, tv. v., refuse, escape, 429, 1142. wjrrpan, w. v. {from weorpan). ge-wjrrpan, w. v., recover, raise
(oneself)
;

adv., about, around, 2597. jrmbe-sittend, ymb-sittend, st. m. {pres. part.), [about -siTxing] neighbour; nom. pi. ymbe-sittend, 1827; gen. pi. ymb-sittendra, 9. 3rppe, w. /.-, high seat, throne, dais, 1815. From up. yrfe, st. neut., heritage, 3051. yrfe-laf, st.f, heirloom, 1053, 1903. yrfe-weard, st. m., heir, 2731 gen. sg. yrfe-weardas, 2453 (see note).
;

yrm^o,
yrre,
etc.

misery; ace. yrmSe, 1259, 2005. From earm.


st. /., st.

ivith reji. ace. 2976.

neut., anger, 711, 2092.

wyrpe, st. vi., change, 1315. wyrsa, adj. compar. (o/yfel), worse, 1212, etc. gen. pi. wyrsan, 525
;

jo-re, eorre, adj.,


;

angry, 769, 1532, gen. sg. used substantively, eorres, "of the angry one," 1447.
in

neut. ace. sg. absolutely,

J?aet

wyrse,

jrrre-mod,

1739.

adj., angry angry-minded, 726.

mood,

wyrt, st.f., [wort] root, 1364. wyrUe, adj., woRxny, 368, 2185.
wyr^Jra, cot];ar., worthier, 861. wyruld-, see worold-.

yrringa, adv., angrily, 1565, 2964.


ys, see

wesan.

Y.
yfel, St. neut., evil; gen. pi. yfla,

2094. yldan, w. v., delay, put off, tarry; inf. 739; wende >a9s yldan, >et..., "hoped for this reason to delay (tarry?), that...," 2239. ylde, elde, st. m. pi., men, 77, 150, etc.; dat. eldum, 2214, 2611, 3168.
yldesta, see eald. yldo, St. /., [eld] age, old age, the age, 1736, etc.; gen. yldo beam, "the children of the age," 70; dat. ylde, 22, eldo, 2111. yldra, see eald. ylf, St.f., ELF, 112. ymb, 3anbe, prep., loith ace, about, around, concerning, local, temporal, denoting object, etc., 399, 568, 838, 2883, 219, 353, 507, 2070, etc. ; folloioing its case, 689 ymb ane niht, "after one night," 135.

y, St. /., wave, 548, 848, 1437, 2693, etc.; aec. sg. or pi. y^e, 46, 1132, 1909. fiSan, w. v., destroy, 421. yUe, 1002, 2415, see eat$e. y^e-llce, adv., easily, 1556. y^J-geblond, -gebland, st. neut., BLENDing of waves, surge, 1373, 1593 pi. 1620. yU-gesene, see etJ-gesyne. ytJ-gewlnn, st. neut., wave-strife, 1434, 2412.
;

ytJ-lad,

St.

/.,

[wave-LODE] wavethe sea


;

path,

way over

_pL 228.

ytJ-laf, St. /., [wave-LEAving] left or thrown up by the

what

is

waves,
ship,

y15-lida,

the foreshore, 566. w. m., wave-sailer,


198.
v.

ywan, eawan, eowan, w.


(1)

show; pres. sg. eawe'5, 276; pret. ywde, 2834, intrans. appear pres. sg. (2) eowetS, 1738. Cf. eage.
trans,
;

ge- eawan, w. v., present, profler, 2149 pp. geeawed, 1194.


;

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