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Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

INTRODUCTION
Now a days, India is the country which having worlds largest railway network. Over hundreds of railways running on track every day. As railway has straightway running as well as it has somewhat r i s k y a n d dangerous as per as general public and traffic concern. As we know that it is surely impossible to stop the running train at instant is some critical situation or emergency arises. Therefore at the places of traffic density, suburban areas a n d c r o s s i n g s t h e r e i s s e v e r e n e e d t o i n s t a l l a r a i l w a y g a t e i n v i e w o f p r o t e c t i o n p u r p o s e . Ob v i o u s l y a t e a c h a n d e v e r y g a t e t h e r e mu s t b e a n attendant to operate and maintain it. In view of that, if we calculate the places of railway crossings and such places where it would to be install and overall expenditure, the graph arises and arises at the extent. But, India, our country is a progressive country. It has already enough economical problems which are ever been unsolved. So, to avoid all these things some sort of automatic and independent system comes in picture. Now a days automatic system occupies each and every sector of applications as it is reliable, accurate and no need to pay high attention. So, keeping all these things and aspects and need of such system our project batch tries to make such type of system with the help of various electrical, electronic and mechanical

components. The thorough and detail information as per as construction and working is concerned, it is discussed fatherly.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

HOW IT WORKS
GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the trains exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the train. Now, with distance measurements from a few more GPS, the receiver can determine the trains position and display it on the gates. GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the trains 3D position (latitude, longitude and altitude). Once the trains position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, time and more.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM


We strongly believe that the correct combination of latest information and communication technologies can provide an effective and feasible solution for the requirement of a reliable and accurate train tracking system to improve the efficiency and productivity of Railways. The solution we propose encompasses a powerful combination of mobile computing, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), Global Positioning System (GPS), Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies and software to provide an intelligent train tracking and management system to improve the existing railway transport service. All these technologies are seamlessly integrated to build a robust, scalable architecture as illustrated in Fig.

The fundamental process in our system is obtaining train location using GPS
Dept. Of Electronics 3 CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

technology and transmitting the data via GSM network to the central control unit for data processing and to the gate information analysis and then to control the gate. Real- time positioning information received by the server is made meaningful and extremely useful for the end user through integration of GIS technology where the end user can better organize and Utilize information from a graphical view point. Our system consists of 3 main modules. The portable hardware unit (GPS/GSM train locator unit) Central server which handles receiving information from train locators and concurrent user requests Graphical User Interface (GUI) to provide services to our stakeholders

GPS(Global Positioning System)


The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite

navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

The GPS project was developed in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems,[1] integrating ideas from several predecessors, including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s. GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. It became fully operational in 1994. Roger L. Easton is generally credited as its inventor. Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS system and implement the next generation of GPS III satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System

(OCX). Announcements from the Vice President and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. In 2000, U.S. Congress authorized the modernization effort, referred to as GPS. In addition to GPS, other systems are in use or under development. The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s. There are also the planned European Union Galileo positioning system, Chinese Compass navigation system, and Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)


GSM is a cellular network, which means that cell phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. There are five different cell sizes in a GSM networkmacro, micro, Pico, femto and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas. Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Femto cells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service providers network via a broadband internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells. Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometers (22 mi). There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell, where the cell radius could be double or even more, depending on the antenna system, the type of terrain and the timing advance.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor Pico cell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors; for example, in shopping centers or airports. However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from any nearby cell.

(GIS)Geographic information system


Geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographical information

science or geospatial information studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems.[1] In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. A GIS can be thought of as a systemit digitally creates and "manipulates" spatial areas that may be jurisdictional, purpose, or application-oriented. Generally, a GIS is custom-designed for an organization. Hence, a GIS developed for an application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIS that has been developed for some other application,

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries. In a general sense, the term describes any information system that integrates stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information for informing decision making. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. Geographic information science is the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems. The train locator unit planted in the train is designed and implemented, considering the cost factor, size of the module, durability and low power consumption. The power supply unit of the module is a main factor which decides the feasibility of the unit, as it should sustain a seamless supply of electricity at a low voltage for the locator module to function properly. The GPS receiver of the unit is capable of identifying the latitudinal and longitudinal position and ground speed of the specific train by receiving information from the GPS satellites. The position data is periodically sent to the central server through the GSM transmitter of the module. The device is capable of storing data in a buffer at a time of GSM connectivity failure, and can synchronize with the remote server when GSM is back online. The device can also respond to commands and data calls from the remote server as per administrative requirements of the train controllers. We have chosen GSM as the
Dept. Of Electronics 3 CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

communication medium between the train locator and the central server to improve availability of our system by utilizing the existing GSM network which covers the whole country. The use of GSM over GPRS significantly improves the feasibility and availability of our system. Despite the high mobile penetration and number of mobile telecom service providers (GSM) covering the island, GPRS usage and the coverage is poor in many rural parts of Sri Lanka. Thus, selection of GSM over GPRS data communication is feasible and enables island wide service provisioning. The competition between the GSM service providers has also lead to high quality GSM services at fair rates. The central control system includes a server for handling and processing all the position information received from train locators via the GSM network. The server automatically updates the database with latest position, speed and direction information of each train. The server carries out information processing and analyzing in order to cater for different requirements of the users of our system. The main stakeholders of our system are the railway administrators (Railway Department), locomotive drivers and the train commuters. Our main objective is to be instrumental in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of Sri Lanka Railway services by fulfilling the fundamental requirement of reliable and real time information of train positioning for monitoring and administration purposes by the Railway Department.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control


WORKING PROCEDURE

The end user of our system is offered with an easy to use graphical user interface for information analysis and administration tasks. The web based access and extensible mobile access to our software is designed to be intuitive for the end user to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of our system. We have incorporated GIS techniques to provide location specific data organized in layers so the end user can better apprehend the information provided by the system. Satellite images providing visual positioning can serve as a very good background when used in conjunction with map data specifying the location. Our system essentially provides functionality for the railway administrator to monitor the progress of a particular train or a group of trains operating in a geographical area. The user can search and locate trains by the train ID, train name, current location or nearest station etc. Information such as train speed, direction can also be given along with real time train positioning data. The train control and management process includes management of heavy traffic of passenger and freight trains, which operates in complex running patterns on the railway network. The train controller needs to ensure that passenger trains are adhering to the schedules as well to find efficient routes for unscheduled freight trains. Recording the train movements, arrival/departure at railway stations, fuel status, railway track conditions, and passenger information is a tedious task for the train controllers and
Dept. Of Electronics 3 CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

would be time consuming if done manually. The accuracy of this information is very important to ensure smooth functioning of the railway service as well as to optimize resource planning. For example at a point of a railway-track failure or an accident, train controller should be able to decide on how to utilize existing resources and efficient alternative routes to ensure system availability of the railway service in that region. Thus our train tracking system can be enhanced to automate the train control and management process of the Railway Department in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the railway services provided. Following is a list of facilities that can be offered by our system to automate the train control and management process. Automatic record keeping of train operations and events Functionality to generate time-distance graph for trains which can be used to control and plan the train movements Facility to generate user defined reports and graphs on train movements, arrivaldeparture at each station, schedule adherence etc. Facility to playback the progress of each train and events for review purposes Automated schedule regulation Forecasting functionality on train arrival-departure at different stations Automatic detection of over speeding, non-adherence to traffic regulations, railtrack failures, train delays etc.
Dept. Of Electronics 3 CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

Facility to send alerts/warnings to particular train drivers on possible collisions, derailment through the system Automatic rail crossing control

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control


FUNCTIONLFAETURES

By automating the process of record keeping of train traveling, the load of paper work on the train controller is dramatically reduced. This would also ensure accuracy and integrity of the data eliminating human error when documentation is done manually. A single entry point of data ensures theres no ambiguity of the data recorded in the system. The logged data on arrival-departure time at different stations, number of passengers onboard, freight details, signaling and fuel status at different stations, are instrumental for railway administration when evaluating performance of trains and locomotive drivers. Graphical representation of these data with ability to compare with historical data will be instrumental for the administration to take effective decisions. Various user defined reports on train activities, driver performance, and passenger and freight information also support timely and accurate decision making by the administration. Time-distance graph is vital for the train traffic regulation process. The graph gives the user a wholesome view of the train circulation, railway infrastructure state in different regions and enables the user to detect abnormal conditions and conflicts. The graph is useful for the train operator to identify traffic problems in advance and take precautions to resolve the problems. Data mining is a method of extracting patterns from data [3]. The use of advance data mining techniques combined with complex algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and rule induction can be instrumental

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

in identifying hidden patterns from enormous amount of data. Spatial data mining technique combines data mining with GIS to find patterns in spatial data, which could be a powerful tool for applications using geographical information such as our system. With the huge amount of data pertaining to train operations collected daily, process of information analysis using conventional methods would be a difficult task. Hence, the use of spatial data mining techniques would drastically improve the productivity and effectiveness of the train control and management process carried out through our system. Facility to playback past activities on the railway, enables the user to review and analyze operational situations in the past. Data mining operations can be used effectively in combination with the playback function to identify sequential patterns of particular activities and their impact on the railway traffic. For example, at an unfortunate incident of a train collision, train controllers can use the playback feature combined with the data mining techniques to analyze and identify the sequence of activities which resulted in that accident. With that knowledge, railway administrators can take necessary precautions and trigger alerting mechanisms to avoid such unfortunate accidents in future, making the railway transportation much safer. Improving safety and availability of railway transport service requires detection and triggering of alerting mechanisms to avoid possible train collisions and other forms of adverse incidents. Constant monitoring of train location, speed, traffic conditions, rail-track conditions and adherence to

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

traffic regulations helps the train controllers to detect potential collisions and derailments. A proper alerting framework is vital in order to avoid such adverse incidents by alerting the locomotive drivers in advance. Our system facilitates a comprehensive alerting mechanism by enabling the train controllers to send alerts/ notifications to locomotive drivers via GSM connection. The hardware unit planted in the train can be enhanced to prompt the alerts to the driver in graphical and audible forms. A LED display unit and an alarm bell to signal adverse conditions can be integrated with the hardware unit to provide a complete alerting framework. The unit can be further enhanced to support voice communication between train controllers and locomotive drivers in order to provide guidance and important messages to the particular driver. This would also enable locomotive drivers to contact the control unit at a state of emergency. Furthermore the system can be incorporated to significantly improve safety at railway and road intersection points. Over the years, many road accidents have occurred at railway crossings imposing a critical safety threat to both train commuters and passengers in vehicles. Such accidents are caused mainly by the unreliability of the safety mechanisms such as blocking arms and signal lights used at the crossing point. Thus our system can be extended to improve the reliability of such safety mechanisms by synchronizing the railway crossing control process with the incoming trains position. We can provide accurate real time information

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

on train position, speed and length of the train to synchronize the functions of rail crossing with the train movements. The productivity of the service can be significantly improved by providing accurate predictions on approaching train at the rail-road crossing and displaying amount of remaining time to clear the crossing from train traffic. Alarm triggers to alert road vehicles approaching too close to the rail-road crossing at a point of train approaching, can also be incorporated to improve the effectiveness of our solution. Thus the system is instrumental in improving safety of both railway passengers and people crossing rail-road cross points. Integrating an intelligent forecasting mechanism on arrival-departure time at different railway stations can further enhance the efficiency and productivity of our system. Train schedule is inevitably subject to train delays which can occur due to various reasons such as excessive train load, rail track failures, train traffic, adverse weather conditions etc. A number of operational parameters such as railway traffic, train priority, efficient routes, and railway infrastructure conditions have to be taken into consideration to accurately forecast train arrival time at various stations. Here also data mining with other complex algorithms can be instrumental to provide accurate forecasting on train arrival-departure at stations. The train schedule regulations are automatically updated and stakeholders can be notified. One of the main purposes of our system is to facilitate accurate public information

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

distribution with regard to railway services and operations. Thus, our system can be incorporated to design and implement innovative Passenger Information Systems (PIS) based on real time information of train positions. LED-Display panels put up at railway stations can display arrival departure time of each train enabling the public user to make informed decisions on their journeys. Route number, destination of the arriving vehicle and waiting time can be displayed with real time information. With accurate forecasting of train arrival-departure at stations, Railway Department can improve the loyal customer base and also attract new passengers to railway transport service by winning their trust and reducing user uncertainty of using public transport facilities. The user experience can be further enhanced by introducing information Kiosks which can provide information to travelers in an intuitive and interactive manner to make informed decisions on selecting train routes and departure time. The interactive kiosk can be used to obtain travel information such as alternate routes to specified destination, route details on the railway map and latest information on train schedules etc. As a marketing strategy, information regarding the particular city, culture and commercial activities can also be provided to the user through the kiosk. Another extension of the PIS system is delivering real time train information to handheld devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. With the increasing interest on mobile applications, access to latest train schedule

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

information via mobile connection can be influential for improving customer base of the railway service. Easy to use mobile applications can be designed and implemented to enable train commuters to easily subscribe to our service and obtain latest train schedule information via mobile devices. Reliability and customer loyalty of the railway services can be significantly improved by taking such action to improve accurate public information distribution of the current status of railway services. The GPS satellite system The 24 satellites that make up the GPS space segment are orbiting the earth about 12,000 miles above us. They are constantly moving, making two complete orbits in less than 24 hours. These satellites are travelling at speeds of roughly 7,000 miles an hour.GPS satellites are powered by solar energy. They have backup batteries onboard to keep them running in the event of a solar eclipse, when theres no solar power. Small rocket boosters on each satellite keep them flying in the correct path. Here are some other interesting facts about the GPS satellites (also called NAVSTAR, the official U.S. Department of Defense name for GPS) The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013


GPS interface (SR-86):

Automatic railway gate control

GPS module used is SR-86 which operate at 4800 baud rate. It continuously Receives the co-ordinates from three orbiting satellite. CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING GPS 1. The first & foremost criterion in choosing a GPS is that it must meet the task at hand efficiently & cost effectively. GPS can best handle the computing needs of the task most effectively. Among other considerations in the category are: Speed: measurement today is to consider a series of trackpoints that record position estimates (latitude and longitude) determined by theGPS at regular time intervals.

Accuracy: The GPS receiver uses a slightly different approach. It measures its distance from the satellites and uses this information to compute a fix. Well it really measures the length of time the signal takes to arrive at your location and then based on knowing that the signal moves at the speed of light it can compute the distance based on the travel time. However, unlike the known sites of the olden days, these sites are moving. The solution to this problem is to have the satellite itself send enough information to calculate its current location relative to your receiver. Now, armed with the

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

satellite location and the distance from the satellite we can expect that we are somewhere on a sphere that is described by the radius (distance) and centered at the satellite location.

Power consumption: It uses solar cell for its working.Most GPS devices come with a rechargeable internal battery that lasts around 8 hours. The GPS will also come with a car adapter for charging or a wall adaptor that you can use to charge the GPS from any standard electrical source. Lots of people leave their GPS plugged into the car adaptor and never really utilize the battery.

Low cost:

The first thing you need to consider is the device portability.

Modern day GPS devices are not only good for driving on the road but also for a lot of other very useful things, depending on the software installed on it. This means that you will be taking the GPS along with you even if you arent driving in your car. Therefore you should consider the size and portability of the GPS if you will ever want to take it with you when you are not driving. The vehicle GPS systems may be cheaper while being portable than GPS systems that are permanently mounted on the car so this is something that you will also want to consider. Another important aspect that you should consider is how far away from home are you going to travel using your GPS. For example if you are going to travel to the farthest

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

corners of the country or even outside of India then you may want to get a device that comes with a better collection of maps and which has a wide array of directional features. This way if you are in a location you are unfamiliar with it will be easier for you if you have a high level of functionality in your GPS device.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013


FEATURES

Automatic railway gate control

Single-chip, high-quality voice recording & play back solution No external IC s required Minimum external components Non-volatile Flash memory technology No battery backup required

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

COMPARISION WITH OTHER METHODES

It is More accurate when compared with other methodes. Because it continuosly monitors the trains changing location. By using the solar cells it can work for long time. And low power is used for its working. With the use of this the Human safety can be made more secure. The cost of gps in India is low so the entirewsystem can be costless.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

ADVANTAGES OF ATOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The need of automation is due to or advantages of automatic control system are: It results in economy of operation. E l i mi n a t i o n o f h u ma n e r r o r . If frees human beings from mental tasks. S a v i n g i n e n e r g y r e q u i r e me n t s . Quick response time Fully Automatic system Robust system, low power requirement Less time delays. DISADVANTAGES If GPS slowdowns the total system slowdowns. If the GSM system is out of coverage area that may result in failure of the system. In heavy traffic this cannot perform properly.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

FUTURE SCOPE Each and every project is never complete as new things are learned further modifications can be done. There always remains an infinite scope of improvement to a system design. Its only the time and financial constraints that impose a limit on the development. Following are the few enhancements that may add further value to the system. o Reduce transportation delay. o If track break is detected then SMS is sent to the base station using GSM module so that immediately taken. o Using RFID automatic opening and closing of the gates can be possible.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013


CONCLUSION

Automatic railway gate control

The idea of automating the process of railway gate operation in level crossings has been undertaken. As the system is completely automated, it avoids manual errors and thus provides ultimate safety to road users. By this mechanism, presence of a gatekeeper is not necessary and automatic operation of the gate through the motor action is achieved. GPS performs the complete operation i.e., sensing, gate closing and opening operation is done by software coding written for the controller. The mechanism works on a simple principle and there is not much of complexity needed in the circuit.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013


REFERENCE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring_of_steel

Automatic railway gate control

http://www.portlandtribune.com/news/story.php?story_id=122350294579016400 http://www.pipstechnology.com/alpr/ http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/feb/15/epublic

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

ABSTRACT
The railroad industrys own desire to maintain their ability to provide safe and secure transport of their customers hazardous materials, has introduced new challenges in rail security. Addressing these challenges is important, as railroads, and the efficient delivery of their cargo, play a vital role in the economy of the country. The present project is designed to satisfy the security needs of the railways. This system provides the security in four ways: automatic gate opening/closing system at track crossing, signaling for the train driver, tracking the signals, and the track protection. The automatic gate opening/closing system is provided with the Reflection sensors placed at a distance of few kilometers on the both sides from the crossing road. These sensors give the train reaching and leaving status to the embedded controller at the gate to which they are connected. The controller operates (open/close) the gate as per the received signal from the Reflection sensors. The train driver always observes the signals placed beside the track. These signals are controlled from the control room. The green light denotes that the track is free and red light denotes the track is busy or damaged. These signals are controlled based on the train position which is sensed by using the GPS system. The position of the train can be estimated by using the GPS system is displayed on the control room to indicate the train position along the track.

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

Dept. Of Electronics

CAS, Thodupuzha

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