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Acknowledgment For almost two weeks of timeless search in every section of the library and the overtime surf

in every corner of the internet in this project; sweat that flows in our faces just to finding the right idea and words that will fit to my description, eye bags bulging below my eyes of those nights that I had been encountered. I think its worth it for this Thesis that gives you knowledge and vision in the future. To those people who help, guide, and accompanying me all this way especially to: To our God, who give me the strength and clear mind, to accomplished all the task that had been given to us. To my Parents who unwearied support me in my expenses and for providing me the things that I needed in this project (computer, internet and their love) and also their trust that never fade after all those years. Your presence becomes a great help in accomplishing my project. From the bottom of my heart I want to express my heartfelt gratitude Once again thank you!

I. INTRODUCTION

Most people try out smoking when they are young ; many youths think smoking is a good grown-up habit. Furthermore many young people begin smoking as an act of rebellion and independence. Young smokers start smoking at their age of 12 or 13 just to get a taste of, what it is like. Some of them find it disgusting and unhealthy and some of them find it cool.

Smoking is a habit but curable. Considered as curable but few people try to control themselves from doing it. People, students and even professionals are often tempted to smoke. For some, smoking relieves tension; superiority among others, curiosity, satisfaction, and a form of self deceptions but the adverse consequences of smoking is ones own health. Smoking exist everywhere even in school campuses that conclude to be huge problem.

Many people tried self discipline to control the temptation of smoking. Others would try re- lifestyle and refocus their attention just to stop themselves from doing it. But worse, others doesnt know what to do and they simply give in. Others on the other hand, would smoke not because they doesnt know what to do but simply because they wont get belong to the in group. Because of smoking, few qualified people get to be successful. It's because of smoking is one of the reason that word's mortality rate. Smoking could never be eradicated unless we try to start the battle against it and heart attack in those with heart disease. Studies have indicated that some student does smoking during their vacant time than studying their lessons. Smoking in college especially in nursing students is becoming popular substitute for learning. There are some factors of smoking which has the social approval from parents, faculty and friends. Some studies shows that student with low self esteem is actually more likely to smoke than student with high self esteem because of the negative evaluation that they might receive from the people around them. The period of adolescence is most closely associated with the teenage years, although its physical, psychological and cultural expressions can begin earlier and end later. Adolescence is a stage of significant growth and potential but it is also considered to be a time of great risk. A lot of adolescents are facing pressures to use alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs and to start sexual relationships, thereby putting themselves at high risk for intentional injuries and infection from sexual transmitted diseases. (Kipke 1999, 2.) According to the World Health Report 1999 a considerable number of deaths would be prevented and tobacco related deaths would be halved if most of the adult smokers quit smoking over the next 20 years. People who begin smoking early have a greater risk of lung cancer compared to those who begin smoking at a later age as a result of the cumulative exposure. (Colditz & Hunter 2000, 7.) Tobacco is known to be the only legal consumer product that can cause harm to everyone exposed to it and kills most of those who use it as intended. Tobacco is also considered as the single most preventable cause of death in the world. The use of tobacco is widespread due to low prices, strong marketing, lack of education about its negative effects, and poor public policies against its use. (WHO 2008, 8.) Tobacco contains many chemicals which are known to cause cancers. (Report on Carcinogens 2005, 408). Tobacco kills more than the combination of AIDS, legal drugs, illegal drugs, road accidents, murder and suicide. (Mackay & Eriksen 2002, 36). The easiest way to stop the effect of tobacco is to prevent its initiation. (Robin & Sugarman 2001, 143).

BACKGROUND

2.1 Adolescence Adolescence is a time when young people undergo physical, psychological, socio-cultural and cognitive development (Di Clemente et al 2009, 4). It is a time when many physical, psychological and behavioral transformations happen and when adolescents develop a lot of the habits, behavioral patterns and relationships they will take into their adulthood (Committee on Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment 2008, 17). Studies on humans and non human primates show that adolescence is a period for undertaking important development tasks like maturing physically and sexually; acquiring skills necessary to perform adult roles; gaining more independence from parents, and establishing social ties with members of the same and opposite gender (Kipke 1999, 2). During this period, the adolescent establish their emotional and psychological independence, learn to understand and takes charge of their sexuality and think about their future in society. This process is gradual, emotional and at times unsettling. The adolescent may feel sad, disillusioned and hurt one moment; happy, optimistic and in love the next moment. (UNICEF 2002, 4.) Adolescence is a period the young person is trying to achieve a personal identity so it is a time he or she may experiment with different behaviors (Haven 1996, 14). The adolescent period is a stage when the adolescent takes on new roles and experiment with independence. They seek for identity, learn to apply values gained in early childhood and build skills that will help them in adulthood. (UNICEF 2002, 1.)

2.2 Physical Development Adolescence is a stage when young people undergo significant changes of the body, mind and personal responsibilities. Teenagers undergo significant psychological and emotional changes in addition to physical changes. Puberty is one of the main changes that occur during adolescence. (Wolfe & Crooks 2006,75.) Puberty may be defined as the period of transition from a state of reproductive immaturity to a state of full reproductive competence (Bancrof&Reinisch 1990, 9). Adolescence is considered as a transitional period because during this stage a child is becoming, but not yet an adult (American Bar Association 2004, 1). 2.3 Cognitive Development A lot of advanced thinking capabilities develop during the adolescent period. During adolescents young people gain the ability to plan ahead, anticipate the response of others, and become better debaters and arguers. The increased cognitive ability to think about possibilities may also lead to becoming lost in thoughts and worries. (Wolfe & Crooks 2006, 76.) Although there are individual differences in cognitive development among adolescents, these new capabilities enable them to make mature decisions that was previously beyond their cognitive capacity. Cognitive competence includes the ability to think or argue in a logical manner, think abstractly, problem solve, reflect, and plan for the future. (American Psychological Association 2002, 11.)

A growing capacity for logical and scientific reasoning will affect the young persons skills in communication, decision making and negotiation ( Aldgateet. Al 2004, 214). During adolescents, young people are able to think about what is possible, instead of limiting thought to what is real. They are able to think about abstract concepts. Adolescence is marked by increased introspection, self-consciousness, and intellectualization. They develop the ability to think about things in multiple ways at the same time. Teenagers develop the ability to view things in relative terms, as opposed to absolute, black-or-white terms. They are more likely to question others opinions and less likely to accept facts as absolute truths. Their belief that everything is relative can become so overwhelming that they may become extremely sceptical at times. ( Rosado 2000, 7.) 2.4 Self Image and Self Esteem The physical changes that occur during adolescence can significantly affect the self image of the adolescent. Some adolescents may feel attractive, grown-up, and confident, while others feel self-conscious, ugly and afraid. These physical changes are mixed with psychological and emotional changes. Physical changes affect self-image and behavior while also prompting changes and reactions in others. Changes in a childs physical appearance may for example, evoke different types of behavior from parents, peers and others. (Wolfe & Crooks 2006, 76.) Adolescents with low self-esteem are considered to be less equipped to refuse invitations to use substances or drugs (Price 2009, 38). Self-concept develops during the adolescent stage and is associated with physical, cognitive and emotional growth. Self-esteem has a strong influence on adjustments across a many aspects of the adolescents life. Self esteem is known to affect educational achievements, social relationships, mental health and ability to deal with stress. (Aldgate et al. 2004, 214-215.). 2.5 Factors Influencing People to Smoke

Emotions: feeling stressed, bored, lonely, upset, angry, frustrated or unhappy Pleasure: to add to the enjoyment of something, to take time out or as a reward Social Pressure: to feel part of the crowd if youre not part of the smoking group you are missing out on the best information, non-participation may lead to feelings of alienation; Habit: linking smoking with other activities eg having a cup of coffee, talking on the phone, drinking alcohol. Addiction: to satisfy the craving for nicotine.

'Smoking Is Everywhere': because nearly half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders over the age of 15 smoke cigarettes daily, smoking is seen as an everyday, acceptable or 'normalized' behavior within communities. Children raised in this environment will often see smoking as just another part of becoming an adult and so the cycle continues. Smoking Is A Lesser Evil: smoking is viewed by many as an acceptable alternative to other drugs such as alcohol, cannabis and intravenous drugs To Alleviate Stress And Negative Feelings: Smoking is perceived by many to have a calming effect and may also be seen as an enjoyable activity over which people can retain control no matter how difficult other parts of their lives may be. This is particularly relevant within Indigenous communities where control over many aspects of their life may be difficult.

2.6 Addiction To Tobacco o Addiction may be described as continued uncontrollable use of a substance regardless of harmful consequences. Many smokers do not acknowledge that they are addicted to tobacco. Most people think they can quit whenever they want to. Many youth are of the opinion that they have a lot of time to work on quitting. The first step in recovery is acknowledging that there is a problem. (MacDonald 2004, 26-27.)

Addicted smokers experience a strong irresistible or uncontrolled desire to smoke. These irresistible desires to smoke can be aroused by smoking cues, abstinence and stressful situations in the environment. (Di Franza 2010, 381.) Nicotine is like heroine and cocaine addiction in some ways because it is a psychoactive drug. It is also considered as a reinforcing drug, which is the reason why the smoker finds it hard to quit. Due to the reinforcing effect, most smokers may find it difficult to stop smoking. Cigarette smoking can be described as a physical and psychological addiction. ( Becket 2004, 12.) o Withdrawal symptoms of nicotine include anxiety, sleep disturbances, depression, increased appetite, irritability, cognitive and attention deficits Although withdrawal is associated with the pharmacological effects of nicotine, many behavioural factors can also contribute to the intensity of withdrawal symptoms. Some smokers claim that the smell, and the meer sight of a cigarette and the ritual of obtaining, lighting, handling and smoking the cigarette are all linked to the pleasurable effects of smoking and may worsen withdrawal or cravings. (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2009, 3.) Nicotine causes reliance by providing centrally mediated reinforcing effects, by controlling elements such as body weight and mood in a manner that is

considered useful or pleasing by the tobacco user and by causing a physical reliance such that abstinence may result in unpleasant symptoms ( Jiloha 2008, 129). 2.7 Effects of smoking to the body Immediate and Rapid Effects on the Respiratory System The respiratory system includes the passages from the nose and sinuses down into the smallest airways of the lungs. Because all of these spaces are in direct communication with one another, they can all be affected by tobacco smoke simultaneously. Bronchospasm- This term refers to airway irritability or the abnormal tightening of the airways of the lungs. Bronchospasm makes airways smaller and leads to wheezing similar to that experienced by someone with asthma during an asthma attack. Increases phlegm production- The lungs produce mucus to trap chemical and toxic substances. Small finger like hairs, called cilia, coat the lung's airways and move rhythmically to clear this mucus from the lungs. Combined with coughing, this is usually an effective method of clearing the lungs of harmful substances. Tobacco smoke paralyzes these hairs, allowing mucus to collect in the lungs of the smoker. Cigarette smoke also promotes goblet cell growth resulting in an increase in mucus. Persistent cough- Coughing is the bodys natural response to clear irritants from the lungs. Without the help of cilia (above), a smoker is faced with the difficult task of clearing increased amounts of phlegm with cough alone. A persistent cough, while irritating, is the smokers only defense against the harmful products of tobacco smoke. A smoker will likely have a persistent, annoying cough from the time they start smoking. A smoker who is not coughing is probably not doing an effective job of clearing his/her lungs of the harmful irritants found in tobacco smoke.22

Decreases physical performance- When the body is stressed or very active (for example, running, swimming, playing competitive sports), it requires that more oxygen be delivered to active muscles. The combination of bronchospasm and increased phlegm production result in airway obstruction and decreased lung function, leading to poor physical performance. In addition, smoking has been shown to stunt lung development in adolescent girls, limiting adult breathing capacity. 23,24 Smoking not only limits ones current state of fitness, but can also restricts future physical potential. Immediate and Rapid Effects on the Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system includes the heart and all of the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the organs. Blood vessels include arteries, veins, and capillaries, which are

all connected and work in unison with the lungs to deliver oxygen to the brain, heart, and other vital organs. Adverse lipid profile.Lipids, a form of fat, are a source of energy for the body. Most people use this fat in its good form, called high-density lipoproteins, or HDLs. Some forms of fat, such as low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, triglycerides and cholesterol) can be harmful to the body. These harmful forms have their greatest effects on blood vessels. If produced in excess or accumulated over time, they can stick to blood vessel walls and cause narrowing. Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fat and cholesterol form "plaques" and stick to the walls of an artery. Tobaccos Immediate Effects on the Body Thrombosis- Thrombosis is a process that results in the formation of a clot inside a blood vessel. Normally, clots form inside blood vessels to stop bleeding, when vessels have been injured. However, components of tobacco smoke result in dangerously increased rates of clot formation. Smokers have elevated levels of thrombin, an enzyme that causes the blood to clot, after fasting, as well as a spike immediately after smoking. Constricts blood vessels - It has been shown that smoking, even light smoking, causes the bodys blood vessels to constrict (vasoconstriction). Smoking does this by decreasing the nitric oxide (NO2), which dilates blood vessels, and increasing the endothelin-1 (ET1), which causes constriction of blood vessels. The net effect is constriction of blood vessels right after smoking and transient reduction in blood supply. Vasoconstriction may have immediate complications for certain persons, particularly individuals whose blood vessels are already narrowed by plaques (atherosclerosis), or partial blood clots, or individuals who are in a hyper-coagulable state (i.e. have sickle cell disease). These individuals will be at increased risk of stroke or heart attack. Increases heart rate- Heart rate is a measure of how fast your heart is pumping blood around your body. Young adult smokers have a resting heart rate of two to three beats per minute faster than the resting heart rate of young adult nonsmokers. Increases blood pressure - Blood pressure is a measure of tension upon the walls of arteries by blood. It is reported as a fraction, systolic over diastolic pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the highest arterial pressure reached during contraction of the heart. Diastolic blood pressure is the lowest pressure, found during the hearts relaxation phase. Nicotine consumption increases blood pressure. Peptic Ulcer Disease - Peptic ulcers are self-digested holes extending into the muscular layers of the esophagus, stomach, and a portion of the small intestine.These ulcers form when excess acid is produced or when the protective inner layer of these structures is

injured. Cigarette smoking increases acid exposure of the esophagus and stomach, while limiting neutralizing base production. Periodontal Diseases - These occur when groups of bacteria are able to form colonies that cause infections and diseases of the mouth. Smoking quickly changes the blood supply, immune response, and healing mechanisms of the mouth, resulting in the rapid initiation and progression of infections. In this way, smoking makes the mouth more vulnerable to infections and allows the infections to become more severe. The bacterial plaques of smoking also cause gum inflammation and tooth decay. In addition, smoking increases tooth and bone loss and hastens deep gum pocket formation.

Halitosis - This is a fancy word for bad breath. Everybody knows that smoking makes individuals and everything around them smell bad. Bad breath, smelly hair and clothes, and yellow teeth are among the most immediate and unattractive effects of smoking. Immediate and Rapid Effects on the Gastrointestinal System

The gastrointestinal system is responsible for digesting food, absorbing nutrients, and dispensing of waste products. It includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and the anus. These continuous parts are all easily affected by tobacco smoke. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - This disease includes symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation from the stomach. Normally the body prevents these occurrences by secreting a base to counteract digestive acids and by keeping the pathway between the esophagus (the tube between the mouth and stomach) and stomach tightly closed; except when the stomach is accepting food from above. The base smokers' bodies secrete is less neutralizing than nonsmokers and thus allows digestive acids a longer period of time to irritate the esophagus. Immediate and Rapid Effects on the Immune System

The immune system is the bodys major defense against the outside world. It is a complicated system that involves several different types of cells that attack and destroy foreign substances. It begins in the parts of the body, which are in direct contact with the environment, such as the skin, ears, nose, mouth, stomach, and lungs. When these barriers become compromised, there are serious health consequences. Tobacco smoke weakens the immune system in a number of ways.64 Otitis Media - This is inflammation of the middle ear. The middle ear is the space immediately behind the eardrum. It turns received vibrations into sound. The middle ear is very vulnerable to infection. Children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) have more ear infections than those not exposed.65 Tobacco smoke disrupts the normal clearing mechanism of the ear canal, facilitating infectious organism entry into the body.

The resulting middle ear infection can be very painful, as pressure and fluid build up in the ear. Continued exposure to tobacco smoke may result in persistent middle ear infections and eventually, hearing loss.66

Sinusitis - Sinusitis is sinus inflammation. Sinuses are spaces in the skull that are in direct communication with the nose and mouth. They are important for warming and moisturizing inhaled air. The lining of the sinuses consists of the same finger-like hairs found in the lungs. These hairs clear mucus and foreign substances and are therefore critical in preventing mucus buildup and subsequent infection. Cigarette smoke slows or stops the movement of these hairs, resulting in inflammation and infection. Sinusitis can cause headaches, facial pain, tenderness, and swelling. It can also cause fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, bad breath, and a decreased sense of smell. Sinusitis is more serious and requires a longer course of medical treatment than the common cold. Longterm smoke exposure can result in more frequent episodes and chronic cases ofsinusitis; and the rate of sinusitis among smoke. Rhinitis - This is an inflammation of the inner lining of the nasal passages and results in symptoms of sneezing, congestion, runny nose, and itchy eyes, ears, and nose. common cold, rhinitis may begin immediately in the regular smoker. Smoking causes rhinitis by damaging the same clearing mechanism involved in sinusitis (above).72 Rhinitis can cause sleep disturbances, activity limitations, irritability, moodiness, and decreased school performance.73 Smoking causes immediate and long-lasting rhinitis. Pneumonia - Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lining of the lungs. This inflammation causes fluid to accumulate deep in the lung, making it an ideal region for bacterial growth. Pneumonia results in a persistent cough and difficulty breathing. A serious case of pneumonia often requires hospitalization. Smoking increases the bodys susceptibility to the most common bacterial causes of pneumonia and is therefore a risk factor for pneumonia, regardless of age.74 Pneumonia, if left untreated, can lead to pus pocket formation, lung collapse, blood infection, and severe chest pain.75 Immediate and Rapid Effects on the Metabolic System Your metabolic system includes a complicated group of processes that break down foods and medicines into their components. Proteins, called enzymes, are responsible for this breakdown. The metabolic system involves many organs, especially those of the gastrointestinal tract. Oxidative Damage - Oxidants are active particles that are byproducts of normal chemical processes that are constantly underway inside the body. Their formation is called oxidation. These particles are usually found and destroyed by antioxidants, including vitamins A, C, and E. The balance of oxidation and anti-oxidation is critical to health. When oxidation overwhelms anti-oxidation, harmful consequences occur. In addition, a

National Cancer Institute study found that beta-carotene supplements, which contain precursors of vitamin A, modestly increase the incidence of lung cancer and overall mortality in cigarette smokers.

Statement of the Problem

Objectives of the Study

Significance of the Study

Scope and Limitations

II. Review of Related Literature and Studies Foreign Can G. (2009), indicated those students whose siblings smoked were 1.35 times more at risk than those whose siblings did not smoke. Those whose friends smoked were are 2.42 times more at risk than those whose friends did not smoke. Those with poor grades 2.62 more at risk than those with good grades. Subjects whose mothers smoked were 1.57 times more at risk than those whose mothers did not smoke.

Kulbok PA. (2008), concerns for health and addiction, a positive self-image, and perceived confidence, emerged as factors affecting participants decisions not to smoke. The approval of parents and friends, and personal beliefs further reinforced adolescents nonsmoking decisions. Hayes ER. et. al (2007), peer pressure was the greatest influencing factor to beginning to smoke, and health was the major reason for not beginning to smoke. Addiction and stress maintained smoking. Weiss JW. et. al (2008), Study showed that anxiety, hostility, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with a higher risk of lifetime smoking for both boys and girls. Damianaki A. et. al (2008), Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed a positive relationship between current smoking and having brother or sister smoking, having more than three friends who were smokers and last school grade. Moeschberger et. al (1997), suggested that smoking behavior was associated with it; older Asian men who were44 years of age were almost 10 times more likely to quit smoking han younger men below 24 years old. Lottecka and Lassleben (1981), about stress, they found out that negative distress was the most common reason of adolescents for restarting smoking after a period of abstinence. Adolescents gained pleasured for action involved in smoking. Handling cigarrete packs, matches and lighters, lighting-up, inhaling and exhaling and blowing the smoke

Local
(GATS, 2009) 17.3 M Average amount of money spent monthly on cigarettes.10.6Average number of cigarettes smoked per day by daily cigarette smokers in the Philippines (GATS, 2009)36.9%Percentage of Filipino adult workers who said they were exposed to tobacco smoke in enclosed areas in their work places0.25Estimated proportion of all types of cancer which can be attributed to smoking, according to the World Health Organization55.3%Percentage of Filipino adult workers who said they were exposed to tobacco smoke in public transportationP177BEstimated annual cost of the four leading smoking-related diseases cancer, heart attack, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.2 of 5Estimated proportion of Filipino students who live in homes where other people smoke71%of lungcancerdeathsin the world that can be attributed to tobacco 2MEstimated reduction in number of smokers in the Philippines by 2016 if tobacco taxes were increased by 10 percent, according to the Department of Health Sources: Isabatas Na! Sin Tax is Anti-Cancer Tax: A Primer for Pro-Health Citizens, Global Adult Tobacco Survey Philippines (2009) http://business.inquirer.net/87196/smoking-fast-facts

III. Methodology

Research design

This study used the descriptive method of research in determining the percentage of smoker on a particular Barangay of San Ildefonso. The descriptive method of research is a fact finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation of findings in which the basic caution is that this method has to be something more and beyond just data gathering. The concept of trait being studied is carefully defined. It describes with emphasis what actually exists such as conditions, practices, situations or any phenomena.
Data Gathering Technique

In order to gather information concerning the percentage of smoker on Barangay Pinaod, San Ildefonso, Bulacan weve went to the place and distribute questionnaires regarding on our topic .
Respondents of the study

Sampling procedure In the place that weve conducted the research , we have chosen specific persons who had engaged on smoking.

IV results and discussion

V. Recommendation and Appendices