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The Manhattan Project Alexandra Wagner & Ellen Kester DeLaSalle High School Senior Division

We got this idea from our former history teacher. We had never known about the Manhattan Project before, but the secrecy that revolved around it intrigued us. We started our research at the Wilson Library, and eventually moved on to books, websites, and documentaries. We even got an interview with a professor from the University of Minnesota. In the beginning of this project, we didnt fully understand the Manhattan Projects significance or purpose. We never realized how secretive the project was or just how many people it impacted. Throughout this project, we have discovered its importance in the closing of WWII. We decided on a website after learning how to build one earlier this year. We both had basic website building knowledge. We experimented with different settings and formats for each page. In the end, we chose formats that fit the character of each pages topic. We put in our information and found pictures that were appropriate to create each section. Our topic started an atomic age that affects our world today. The Manhattan Project brought about the threat of nuclear warfare by dropping the first and only bombs ever used in combat on Japan. General Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer revolutionized warfare and gave the world a reason to fear America. This topic is crucial to history. Hundreds of thousands of people were killed and entire citied had to be completely rebuilt. After the bombs were dropped, the Japanese surrendered, ending WWII. This topic is important because it marks the beginning of nuclear warfare. This remains a threat in our world today.

Primary Sources:
Attack on Pearl Harbor. 2013. The History Channel website. Feb 12 2013, 9:17 http://www.history.comhttp://www.history.com/shows/wwii-in-hd/videos/attackpearl-harbor. -Video of footage from Pearl Harbor, and the speech that Franklin Delano Roosevelt gave asking Congress to declare war on Japan the day after Pearl Harbor. Secondary Sources "Franklin D. Roosevelt's letter to J. Robert Oppenheimer." Image. Library of Congress. Issues: Understanding Controversy and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. - Letter from Roosevelt to Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer, J. Robert. Physics in the Contemporary World. Portland, Me.: Anthoensen, 1947. Print. -A book written by Oppenheimer. We found a great quote from this book on how him, and all of the scientists felt about their work on the Manhattan project. Rotblat, Joseph. "The 50-Year Shadow." New York Times 17 May 2005: A21(L). Global Issues In Context. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. -A scientists story and perspective having resigned from the initial project.

Secondary Sources:
Astore, William J. "Manhattan Project: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. - Overview of the Manhattan Project; information on events and discoveries that led to information needed for the Manhattan Project to be a success. Arsenault, Mark. "The Big One: The Manhattan Project Was The Biggest Covert Operation Imaginable, And It Changed The Outcome Of The World's Biggest War. Now The Park Service Is Hoping To Tell The Story." National Parks 84.2 (2010): 1. Science Reference Center. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. - Used for quotes and other people's perspective on the topic. "The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. - Great information on specific events and numbers.

Butow, Robert J. C. Japan's Decision to Surrender. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1954. 150-151. Print. -Information on the aftermath of the bombings/Japan's response. Quote from Harry Truman after the bombs were dropped. Crane, Conrad C. "Decision to Employ the Atomic Bomb: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. - The Decision on whether or not this project would continue and if the bomb(s) would truly be used. Dash, Sean, and Bruce Nash. "Manhattan Project." Modern Marvels. History Channel. 4 June 2002. Television. -This episode had great footage on the Trinity Test that we used on our website. It also had interviews and a lot of information on the Manhattan Project. It gave details on the various locations where the project took place, and information on the people who were involved. "Dropping the Bomb: Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Need To Know." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. -Information on the death toll in Nagasaki. "Enrico Fermi." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. -This source gave us valuable information on Enrico Fermi. Feis, Herbert. The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1966. Print. -This book gave us great information on how the bombings ended WWII. Gonzalez, Hector. "WONDERS ARE MANY: The Making Of Doctor Atomic." Arizona Public Media. N.p., 15 Dec. 2008. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. - This website had good pictures of the trinity bomb. Hewlett, Richard G.; Anderson, Oscar E. (1962). The New World, 19391946. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBNOCLC -This book helped us understand the effects of the Manhattan Project,

"Hiroshima bombing." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. - Death toll from the explosion. Both directly from the explosion, and from the effects of it. Larsen, Jeffrey, James J. Wirtz, Eric A. Croddy. "MANHATTAN PROJECT." Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2004. ABC-CLIO eBook Collection. Web. 7 Dec 2012. -This Encyclopedia gave us a good, solid, summarized definition of the Manhattan Project. Lawren, William. The General and the Bomb: A Biography of General Leslie R. Groves, Director of the Manhattan Project. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1988. Print. -A biography on one of the key people in this project, General Leslie R. Groves. This book gave us a better understanding of how General Groves felt about the project, and his background. "Leslie Groves." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. -Information on General Groves and his involvement in the Manhattan Project. "Manhattan Project." Issues: Understanding Controversy and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. - More information on people and discoveries before the actual project, and during the project itself. "The Manhattan Project (and Before)." The Manhattan Project. N.p., 30 Mar. 1999. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. - Summary of the project and what was going on before it started. "Manhattan Project." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 5. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 950-952. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. -This Encyclopedia gave us a great definition of what the Manhattan Project did.

"The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb." Los Alamos. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. - Picture at Los Alamos, nuclear timeline page. "The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History." Internet Archive: Wayback Machine. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. -This source gave us information on the Manhattan Project, and the people involved. Mason, Katrina R. Children of Los Alamos: An Oral History of the Town Where the Atomic Age Began. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1995. 3-7. Print. -Documentation on the beginning of the project and the area that it was located in. "The Nuclear Testing Tally." Arms Control Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. -This site is where we got our information for our prezi. "Primary Sources." Primary Sources. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. -Good for information on the aftermath of the bombings. Rhodes, Richard. "Atomic Spies, or Atomic Lies?(Editorial Desk)." New York Times 3 May 1994. Global Issues In Context. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. -This source gave us more knowledge and background on a number of the scientists involved. Rhodes, Richard. "Why We Should Preserve the Manhattan Project." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists May 2007: 34. Science Reference Center. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. -Information on why the project is important in history. Roberts, Priscilla. "Rape of Nanjing: Chinese Civil War and Communist Revolution." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. -This source gave us valuable information on the Japanese involvement in World War II. It highlighted specifically, the massacre at Nanjing. Searle, Kellie. "Los Alamos National Laboratory." Issues: Understanding Controversy and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. - Information of the original site of the creation and testing of the Atomic Bomb.

"Trinity Detonation - Mushroom Cloud." - Awesome Stories. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. - Trinity cloud on nuclear warfare page. Walker, Gregory. "Trinity Atomic Web Site." Trinity Atomic Web Site. Gregory Walker, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. - Quotes and information on the trinity test. Watanabe, Yoichi (January 20, 2013) Personal Interview -He gave us a better understanding of the state that nuclear science was in during this time period. Qualifications: 1982: MS. in Nuclear Engineering, University of WisconsinMadison, WI. 1984: Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI. "World War II: Aerial Innovation: Dilemma: Closing." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. - Background on technological developments during WWII. "World War II: Aerial Innovation: Dilemma: Opening." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. - Background on technological developments during WWII.

http://atomicbombmuseum.org/4_ruins.shtml http://docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/tmirhdee.html http://www.wired.com/thisdayintech/2011/12/1207japan-bombs-pearl-harbor/ http://luxehdwallpaper.com/world-war-ii-pearl-harbor-world-war-hd-wallpaper6865.html http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/309734? terms=Bombing+of+Hiroshima+and+Nagasaki http://hereandnow.wbur.org/2012/12/07/remembering-pearl-harbor http://www.navyformoms.com/profiles/blogs/pearl-harbor-day-uss-arizona-ibet-you-dont-know-this-trivia https://tv.azpm.org/p/whatson-featured/2008/12/15/kuat-wonders-are-many-the-makingof-doctor-atomic/ http://www.awesomestories.com/assets/trinity-detonation-mushroom-cloud http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/mp/p4s25.shtml

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/120332/Brig http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Trinity_Test_Fireball_25ms.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan_Project http://www.etsy.com/listing/94164410/bright-world-map-large http://pictureorphoto.blogspot.com/2011/01/james-chadwick-pictures_8429.html http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-inhistory/themes/atomic-and-nuclear-structure/hahn-meitner-strassman.aspx http://imglib.lbl.gov/cgi-bin/ImgLib/displaytag/BERKELEY-LAB/SEABORGARCHIVE/tags/96B05691?both=small http://www.fnal.gov/pub/about/whatis/enricofermi.html http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Med/Med.html http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/science/30manh.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 http://www.abqjournal.com/main/2012/12/01/news/manhattan-project-voices-retellingstory-of-bomb.html http://lasvegas.cbslocal.com/2012/12/01/manhattan-project-voices-retelling-story-ofbomb/ http://library.thinkquest.org/17940/texts/timeline/manhattan.html http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/pre-coldwar/manhattan-project/ http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/mp/p5s11.shtml http://cyberschoolbus.un.org/dnp/sub2.asp?ipage=hiroshimanagasaki http://english.sxu.edu/sites/kirstein/archives/3416 http://e-----p---i-c.blogspot.com/2010_04_01_archive.html http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2012/04/22/morton-camac-physicist-workedmanhattan-project/rGoOrP7mlcA811fAN2TPQL/story.html http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/the-atomic-bombings-of-hiroshima-and-nagasakimanhattan-project-engineers/1105584284 http://blogs.cdc.gov/yourhealthyourenvironment/2012/05/ http://stories.mnhs.org/stories/mgg/intro.do?id=25 http://grubin.com/filmography/biography/oppenheimer/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leslie_Groves http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt http://nuclearsecrecy.com/blog/tag/manhattan-project/page/3/ http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/science/psychology/article3636664.ece http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/science-obituaries/8877375/NormanRamsey.html -These websites had great pictures. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru2PWmGIoB8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8H7Jibx-c0 -These two links were helpful videos.