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TerraModeler User's Guide

Terrasolid Ltd

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Trademarks
MicroStation, MDL and MicroStation stylized "M" are registered trademarks, and MicroStation PowerDraft is a trademark of Bentley Systems, Incorporated. TerraBore, TerraLink, TerraMatch, TerraModeler, TerraPark, TerraPhoto, TerraPipe, TerraScan, TerraStreet and TerraSurvey are trademarks of Terrasolid Limited. Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Acrobat Reader is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Intergraph Raster File Formats - Copyright - 1994 Intergraph Corporation. Used with permission.

Copyright
1995-2003 Arttu Soininen, Terrasolid Limited. All rights reserved.

Acknowledgements
The picture on the cover was created from a design file provided as a courtesy of Soil and Water Ltd, Itlahdenkatu 2, 00210 Helsinki, Finland. The design file was created from an aerial photograph using TerraSurvey and TerraModeler.

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Table of Contents Part I: Getting Started


1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 9 Terra application family................................................................................ 10 2 Installation .................................................................................................... 11 Hardware and software requirements ........................................................... 11 Installation media.......................................................................................... 11 Installation from floppy ................................................................................ 12 Installation from CD ..................................................................................... 13 3 Starting TerraModeler ................................................................................ 14 Unloading TerraModeler .............................................................................. 15

Part II: Tutorial


4 Tutorial.......................................................................................................... 17 TerraModeler interface ....................................................................... 17 Opening an example design file ......................................................... 18 Starting TerraModeler ........................................................................ 18 Creating a surface model .................................................................... 19 Viewing surface statistics ................................................................... 20 Viewing triangulation ......................................................................... 21 Placing elements on surface elevation................................................ 21 Calculating slopes............................................................................... 22 Creating a design surface.................................................................... 24 Computing excavation quantities ....................................................... 25 Displaying a colored grid ................................................................... 27 Drawing a profile................................................................................ 29

Part III: Reference Guide


5 General Tools................................................................................................ 31 General tool box............................................................................................ 31 Settings ............................................................................................... 32 Define Coordinate Setup .................................................................... 38 Set Scale ............................................................................................. 39 Surfaces .............................................................................................. 39 Save Surfaces...................................................................................... 40 About TerraModeler ........................................................................... 40 Help On TerraModeler ....................................................................... 40 6 Creating Surface Models ............................................................................. 41 Create Surfaces tool box ............................................................................... 41 Triangulate Survey ............................................................................. 42 Triangulate View ................................................................................ 43 Triangulate Elements .......................................................................... 44

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Insert Random Elements..................................................................... 46 Insert Breakline Elements................................................................... 47 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model................................................... 48 Draw tool box ............................................................................................... 48 View Elevation ................................................................................... 49 Compare Elevations............................................................................ 50 View Slope ......................................................................................... 50 Measure Slope .................................................................................... 51 Place Sloped Line ............................................................................... 51 Set Linear Elevation ........................................................................... 52 Copy Linear Element.......................................................................... 52 Alignment Offset ................................................................................ 54 Drop Element On Surface................................................................... 55 Calculate Slope ................................................................................... 56 Fill Area With Cells............................................................................ 57 8 Editing Surface Models................................................................................ 59 Edit Point tool box ........................................................................................ 59 Construct Breakline ............................................................................ 60 Insert Point Along Breakline .............................................................. 61 Insert Point.......................................................................................... 62 Move Point ......................................................................................... 63 Remove Point ..................................................................................... 64 Exclude Triangle................................................................................. 64 Edit Area tool box ......................................................................................... 65 Flatten Area ........................................................................................ 66 Move Area .......................................................................................... 67 Drop Area ........................................................................................... 68 Exclude Area ...................................................................................... 69 Insert Hole Element ............................................................................ 70 Remove Area ...................................................................................... 71 9 Drawing Profiles........................................................................................... 72 Profiles tool box ............................................................................................ 72 Draw Section View............................................................................. 73 Draw Profile ....................................................................................... 74 Draw Alignment Sections................................................................... 76 Update Profile..................................................................................... 78 Project Into Profile.............................................................................. 79 Project From Profile ........................................................................... 80 Label Profile Elevations ..................................................................... 81 Output Profile Elevations ................................................................... 82 Output Section Elevations .................................................................. 84 10 Generating Displays ................................................................................... 86 Display Surface tool box............................................................................... 86 Display Contours ................................................................................ 88 Display Triangles................................................................................ 92 Display Grid ....................................................................................... 94 Display Elevation Texts...................................................................... 95 Display Slopes .................................................................................... 96 Update Displays.................................................................................. 99 Erase Display ...................................................................................... 99

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Display Boundary ............................................................................. 100 Display Regions tool box............................................................................ 101 Display Themes ................................................................................ 102 Display Drainage .............................................................................. 103 Display Region Triangles ................................................................. 105 Display Raster Triangles .................................................................. 106 11 Computing Quantities.............................................................................. 108 Quantity tool box ........................................................................................ 108 Compute Quantity............................................................................. 109 Compute Prismoidal Quantity .......................................................... 110 Compute Alignment Quantity .......................................................... 111 Define Section Templates................................................................. 112 Compute Section Quantity................................................................ 113 Compute Tunnel Volume ................................................................. 114 Draw Surface Intersection ................................................................ 115 Compute Area................................................................................... 116 12 Using Domains.......................................................................................... 117 Domains tool box ........................................................................................ 117 Define Domains ................................................................................ 118 Domain View.................................................................................... 119 Set Area Domain .............................................................................. 120 Set Domain Between Lines .............................................................. 121 Set Triangle Domain......................................................................... 122 Display Domain Triangles................................................................ 123 13 Placing Single Display Elements ............................................................. 124 Display Single tool box............................................................................... 124 Place Contour ................................................................................... 125 Place Elevation Text ......................................................................... 126 Place Slope Arrow ............................................................................ 127 14 Managing Surfaces................................................................................... 128 Opening a surface file....................................................................... 128 Saving surfaces ................................................................................. 128 Opening a reference surface ............................................................. 129 Modifying surface settings ............................................................... 129 Modifying profile settings ................................................................ 129 Excluding outer boundaries .............................................................. 130 Modifying surface elevations ........................................................... 130 Thinning a surface ............................................................................ 131 Compressing a surface...................................................................... 131 Deleting a surface ............................................................................. 132 Viewing surface statistics ................................................................. 132 Copying surfaces .............................................................................. 132 Merging surfaces .............................................................................. 133 Subtracting surfaces.......................................................................... 133 Creating a statistical grid model ....................................................... 134 15 Importing and Exporting Data ............................................................... 135 Importing triangles ........................................................................... 135 Importing XYZ text file points ......................................................... 135 Exporting text files ........................................................................... 136

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Exporting graphical elements ........................................................... 136 Importing lattice files........................................................................ 137 Exporting raster images .................................................................... 137 16 Lattice Database ....................................................................................... 138 Drawing lattice database boundaries ................................................ 138 Viewing lattice database elevation ................................................... 138 Triangulating lattice database points ................................................ 139 17 Flood Mapping ......................................................................................... 140 Flood Mapping tool box.............................................................................. 140 Import River Sections ....................................................................... 141 Edit River Sections ........................................................................... 143 Export River Sections ....................................................................... 143 Input Water Elevations ..................................................................... 144 Draw River Section Boundaries ....................................................... 144 Display Flood ................................................................................... 145 18 Lifting 2D Contours ................................................................................. 146 2D Contours tool box.................................................................................. 146 Lift 2D Contours............................................................................... 147 Set Contour Elevation....................................................................... 148 Check Linear Elevations................................................................... 149 19 Public Functions ....................................................................................... 150 20 Installation Directories ............................................................................ 163 21 Configuration Variables .......................................................................... 164

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About the documentation


This document serves as a user's guide for two versions of TerraModeler. The entry-level version, TerraModeler Field, is functionally a subset of the full version which is called TerraModeler for MicroStation. All of the tools in TerraModeler Field are available in the full version as well and work identically in the two versions. The full MicroStation version provides some additional tools which are not available in the entry-level version. In this documentation, those features are marked as 'MicroStation only'. This User's Guide is divided into three parts: Getting Started - contains general information about TerraModeler and instructions on how to install and run the application. Tutorial - contains lessons introducing the basic concepts and the most common tools in the application. Reference Guide - contains detailed descriptions of all the tools in TerraModeler.

Accessing documentation on-line


The documentation is accessible as an Acrobat Reader document which serves the role of on-line help. Accessing the electronic format of the documentation has the following unique advantages: You can conduct automated searches for keywords in topic names or body text. You can click hypertext to "jump" to related topics.

Document conventions
The following conventions and symbols appear in this guide: Keyboard keys angle brackets - for example, <Return>. Alternate procedures are separated by "OR". Alternate steps in a procedure are separated by "or". "Key in" means to type a character string and then press <Return> (or <Tab> in dialog boxes). The following icons are used to specify special information: Icon: Appears next to: Notes Hints and shortcuts Procedures When no distinction between MicroStation 95, MicroStation SE, MicroStation J, MicroStation GeoOutlook and MicroStation PowerDraft is necessary, this document refers to the CAD environment simply as "MicroStation". Features which are available only in TerraModeler for MicroStation and can not be used with TerraModeler Field are labeled as Not Field. When no distinction between TerraModeler for MicroStation and TerraModeler Field is necessary, this document refers to the application as "TerraModeler" or as "the application".

MicroStation documentation
This document has been written assuming that the reader knows how to use basic MicroStation features. You should refer to MicroStation printed documentation or on-line help whenever you need information on using the CAD environment.

Part I: Getting Started

Page 9 1 Introduction

Introduction
TerraModeler is a terrain modeling application built on top of MicroStation. You can create triangulated models of ground, soil layers or design surfaces. Models can be created based on survey data, graphical elements or XYZ text files. TerraModeler can handle an unlimited number of different surfaces in the same design file. You can edit any of these surface models interactively. You can add, move or delete individual points. You can move, drop or flatten all the points inside a fence. You can construct breaklines and add new elements to the models. You can use a surface model as a design aid. You can place elements on the elevation of the surface model or you can drop existing elements to follow the surface. Profile generation includes separate tools for drawing 3D section views, profiles and alignment cross sections. You can project 3D elements into a profile or project elements drawn in a profile back to their true 3D positions. Surface model visualization can be done by generating contour, colored triangle and colored grid displays. All of these visualisation displays can be updated after you have made modifications to a surface model. Compute Quantity tool calculates the volume between two surfaces. You can limit this computation to take place only inside a fence.

Page 10 1 Introduction

Terra application family


TerraModeler is just one in a full family of civil engineering applications. All of Terra applications are tightly integrated with MicroStation presenting an easy-to-use graphical interface to the user. TerraBore is a solution for reading in, editing, storing and displaying bore hole data. You can triangulate soil layers with the help of TerraModeler. TerraPark is an easy-to-use package for park design and landscaping. It has all the necessary tools for designing roads, regions, plants and utilities inside the park. TerraPhoto rectifies digital photographs taken during laser scanning survey flights and produces orthorectified images. TerraPipe is used for designing underground pipes. It gives you powerful tools for designing networks of drainage, sewer, potable water or irrigation pipes. TerraScan processes laser scanning data. It reads in laser points from text files and lets you view the points three dimensionally, classify the points and create vectores based on the points. TerraStreet is an application for street design. It includes all the terrain modeling capabilities of TerraModeler. Street design process starts with the creation of horizontal and vertical geometries for street alignments. TerraSurvey reads in survey data and creates a three dimensional survey drawing. The application recognizes a number of survey data formats automatically. All of these applications are available for MicroStation SE, J or V8 under Windows NT4.0, Windows 2000 or Windows XP for Intel. Some of the applications are available for MicroStation PowerDraft.

Page 11 2 Installation

Installation

Hardware and software requirements


TerraModeler is built on top of MicroStation. You must have a computer system capable of running this CAD environment. To run TerraModeler, you should at least the following: Pentium or higher processor Windows NT 4.0, 2000 or XP mouse 1024*768 resolution display or better 128 MB RAM MicroStation SE, MicroStation J, MicroStation V8, MicroStation GeoOutlook or MicroStation PowerDraft installed

Installation of TerraModeler requires about 5 MB of free hard disk space.

Installation media
TerraModeler may be delivered on a single floppy or on a CD. The floppy is big enough only to contain the actual software and the example data sets it does not include the on-line Acrobat manual. Terra Installation CD includes the software, example data and the on-line documentation. When you install from the CD, the software and the documentation will be copied to you hard disk. Installation CD includes versions for multiple environments. You should locate the directory which corresponds to your operating system:

Installation directories on CD
Directory on CD \alphant\eng\ \windows\eng\ For operating system Windows NT for Alpha Windows 95, 98 or NT for Intel For MicroStation SE or J 95, SE, J, GeoOutlook or PowerDraft

Page 12 2 Installation

Installation from floppy


To install TerraModeler from floppy: 1. 2. 3. 4. Insert TerraModeler floppy in your local drive (usually drive A:). Select Run command Start menu. Type a:\setup Click OK. The installation program will need to know where MicroStation has been installed. It will automatically search all local hard disks to find the MicroStation directory. The installation dialog box opens: (if floppy is in A: drive)

5.

6. 7.

The installation program prompts you to enter the directory where to install TerraSurvey. The default path is C:\TERRA. You can set this to another location if you prefer. The specified directory will be automatically created, if it does not exist. At this stage you should check the directory where MicroStation was found. Replace the path if the correct location was not found. Press <Return> to continue. When the installation is finished, a message is displayed and you are prompted to press any key to continue. See chapters Installation Directories on page 163 and Configuration Variables on page 164 for more information.

Page 13 2 Installation

Installation from CD
To install TerraModeler from CD: 1. 2. 3. Insert TerraModeler CD into your CD-ROM drive. Locate the correct directory which corresponds to your computer configuration. Start SETUP.EXE from that directory. The installation program will try to determine where MicroStation has been installed and will then open the Terra Setup dialog box:

4.

5.

The installation program prompts you to enter the directory where to install the applications. The default path is C:\TERRA. You can set this to another location if you prefer. The specified directory will be automatically created, if it does not exist. Check the directory where MicroStation was found. Replace the path if the correct location was not found. Alternatively, you can use the Scan button to automatically search the hard disk for MicroStation installation or you can use the Browse button to locate the MicroStation executable yourself.

6.

Check the MicroStation version information in the Version field. Select the correct version if it was not detected correctly. The installation program will want to know what application to install. The Terra Setup dialog opens:

7. 8.

Check TerraModeler for MicroStation item in the dialog. You may select other applications as well for which you have a valid license. Click OK. A message is displayed when the installation is finished. See chapters Installation Directories on page 163 and Configuration Variables on page 164 for more information.

Page 14 3 Starting TerraModeler

Starting TerraModeler
TerraModeler is an MDL application that runs within MicroStation. To start TerraModeler: 1. From the Utilities menu, choose MDL Applications. The MDL window opens:

2. 3. 1.

In the Available Applications list box, select TMODEL. Click the Load button. OR Key in MDL LOAD TMODEL.

User settings determine what menus and tool boxes the application will open during startup. In addition to its Main tool box, TerraModeler may create an Applications menu in the command window.

Available Applications list box shows all MDL applications that MicroStation is able to locate. MicroStation searches for MDL applications in the directories listed in MS_MDLAPPS configuration variable. If MicroStation can not find TMODEL.MA, you should check the value assigned to this configuration variable. Make sure the directory path of TMODEL.MA file is included in this variable. To view configuration variables, choose Configuration command from the Workspace menu. See chapters Installation Directories on page 163 and Configuration Variables on page 164 for more information.

Page 15 3 Starting TerraModeler

Unloading TerraModeler
TerraModeler will unload automatically when you exit MicroStation. Sometimes you may want to unload TerraModeler while continuing to work with MicroStation. This will free up memory reserved by TerraModeler. To unload TerraModeler: 1. From the Utilities menu, choose MDL Applications. The MDL window opens:

2. 3. 1. 1.

In the Loaded Applications list box, select TMODEL. Click the Unload button. OR Key in MDL UNLOAD TMODEL. OR Close TerraModeler's Main tool box. This will unload the application, if the corresponding user setting is on. See Operation category on page 36 for more information.

Part II: Tutorial

Page 17 4 Tutorial

Tutorial
This tutorial will help you learn the basic tools in TerraModeler. It will introduce some concepts and terminology used by the application. With the help of an example design file, you will be guided through a number of exercises using some of the features in TerraModeler. This tutorial assumes that you are already familiar with MicroStation and know how to manipulate view windows, how to use drawing tools and how to open design files.

TerraModeler interface
The user interface of TerraModeler is very similar to that of MicroStation. When you load TerraModeler, it will open its Main tool box. All of TerraModeler's tools are located in this tool box, which is actually a parent of ten children tool boxes. These child tool boxes contain icons representing individual tools. To activate a tool, click the tool icon.

You can control the operation of a tool with tool settings. These are control fields affecting the operation of that specific tool. Most of the tools will display their settings in a Tool settings window which is shared by MicroStation and MDL applications. The Tool settings window will display the controls for the active tool. Some of the tools will open a separate window or a dialog box where you can enter the appropriate settings.

Page 18 4 Tutorial

Opening an example design file


This tutorial will use an example design file that was installed with TerraModeler. This example file has been supplied as a courtesy of Soil and Water Ltd, a company with expertise in many fields of civil engineering. The design file was created from an aerial photograph using TerraSurvey. To open the example design file: 1. 2. From MicroStation's File menu, choose Open. The Open Design File dialog box opens. Locate MODEL.DGN design file by browsing your computer's directory structure. If you installed TerraModeler in the default directory C:\TERRA, you can find this design in path C:\TERRA\EXAMPLE\MODEL.DGN. When you have located this file, select it in the Files list box. Alternatively, you can type in the full path of the example file in the Files text control. 3. Click OK. After opening the design file, you can take a closer look at it. View 1 has been fitted to show all the elements in the design. You can rotate this view or zoom in to see smaller details.

Starting TerraModeler
To start TerraModeler, go through the steps described in chapter Starting TerraModeler on page 14.

Page 19 4 Tutorial

Creating a surface model


TerraModeler can create a surface model from a number of data sources. The best tool to use depends on the source and format of data. Normally, you will be using one of these tools: Data source: Survey data Design file elements XYZ text file Use tool: Triangulate Survey after reading in the survey data with TerraSurvey. Triangulate View or Triangulate Elements. Surfaces tool opens a window for managing surfaces. The File pulldown menu in this window has a command for importing xyz text files.

To create a surface model in the example design file: 1. Bring window 2 to the top by choosing Window 2-Top from MicroStation's Window menu. This window displays only selected levels in the design file. Elements that do not reside on the ground elevation have been hidden by switching of their levels. 2. 3. Select Triangulate View tool from Create Surfaces tool box. Identify view 2. The Triangulate surface dialog box opens:

4.

Click OK. The Surface settings dialog box opens:

5. 6.

Type Ground as the surface name. Click OK. TerraModeler processes the information for a while. You will see an indicator bar displaying the progress of this operation.

Page 20 4 Tutorial

Viewing surface statistics


You have now created your first terrain model with TerraModeler. This model exists now in two types of memory. It has been saved to a binary file for permanent storage. When you work with TerraModeler, the terrain model is also loaded in your computer's RAM memory. TerraModeler is able to handle an unlimited number of surface models in the same design file session. You can use the Surfaces tool to view information about the available surfaces. To view surface statistics: 1. Select Surfaces tool from General tool box. The Surfaces window opens showing a list of available surfaces. Select Ground, if it is not selected already. 2. Choose View statistics from Utility menu. The Surface statistics dialog box opens:

3.

Click OK after reviewing the statistics.

Page 21 4 Tutorial

Viewing triangulation
TerraModeler creates surface models by triangulation. This means that the application will create a network of triangles connecting the points in the model. The network is constructed in such a manner that there is one triangle under every XY location inside the surface area. In a terrain model every XY location has one and only one elevation value. To view triangulation: 1. 2. Zoom in on a position in view 2 inside the surveyed area. Select Exclude Triangle tool from Edit Point tool box. This tool can be used to excluding or including triangles. In TerraModeler's terminology, to exclude a triangle means to mark it as invalid or unknown. This tool can also be used just to view triangulation. 3. Move the mouse inside view 2. As you move the mouse, TerraModeler will display the triangle under the mouse position.

Placing elements on surface elevation


A surface model can be used as a design aid. TerraModeler makes it easy to place elements on the elevation of a surface. You might use this feature to place items such as manholes, trees or shrubs on the ground elevation. To place elements on surface elevation: 1. Select the View Elevation tool from Draw tool box. The View elevation window opens. As you move the mouse, this window will display the surface elevation under your mouse position.

2. 3.

Set Points on surface lock on. Start the drawing primitive you want to use. Feel free to experiment with this tool. Use it while drawing some lines or placing a few cells.

When Points on surface lock is on, TerraModeler will calculate the elevation for all data points entered in a top view window inside the surface area. Be sure to turn this lock off after using it.

Page 22 4 Tutorial

Calculating slopes
When designing construction surfaces, you will often need to create a slope onto an existing surface. Calculate Slope tool will help you accomplish this. As a first step, you have to create a graphical element representing the upper or lower edge of a slope. The example design file has a suitable element for this purpose. It is a green shape element that represents the bottom of a flat rectangular excavation at elevation +29.50. To locate the shape element: 1. Bring window 4 to the top by choosing Window 4-Top from MicroStation's Window menu. This window displays only the green shape element on level 56. To calculate a slope upwards to the ground surface: 1. 2. Select yellow as the active color. Select the Calculate Slope tool. This opens Slope settings window:

3. 4. 5. 6.

Enter 20 as the slope Angle. Select Ground as the Onto surface. Identify the green shape element as the element to start from. Enter slope direction with a data click outside the shape element. This means that the slope will be calculated outwards from the element.

Page 23 4 Tutorial

The application calculates a slope upwards from the element at an angle of 20 degrees. It draws the upper edge of the slope as a yellow line string.

Page 24 4 Tutorial

Creating a design surface


TerraModeler makes it possible to create design surfaces for earthworks projects. The best approach is to first create graphical elements representing the shape of the surface. This is exactly what you did earlier with the Calculate Slope tool. You now have graphical elements from which to create the design surface. You will create a new surface model using the green shape element and the yellow slope element. To create a design surface: 1. Select all elements in view 4. The easiest way to do this is to select the Element Selection tool and drag around a rectangular area containing all of the elements. Your selection set should now include the green shape element and the yellow line string of the slope. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the Insert Breakline Elements tool from the Create Surfaces tool box. Select New surface as the Surface to insert points into. Set Generate points along breakline toggle on. Enter 10.0 into the Every field. This setting will generate new points along a long breakline, if the distance between two breakline points is greater than 10 meters. Accept the element(s). This opens the Triangulate surface dialog box. Accept default settings by choosing OK which in turn opens the Surface settings dialog. 7. 8. 9. Select Plan in the Type field. Enter Plan as the surface Name. Click OK. TerraModeler creates a new surface using the vertices of the selected elements.

Page 25 4 Tutorial

Computing excavation quantities


You now have two surface models. The first one, Ground, is based on survey information. The second one, Plan, is a design model of an excavation with slopes onto the ground surface. You are now ready to compute excavation quantities using the Compute Quantity tool. It computes the volume between two surfaces and produces results summing up both cut and fill volumes. The calculation is based on a grid method. To compute excavation quantities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the Compute Quantity tool from Quantity tool box.. The Compute Quantity window opens. Select Ground as the Upper surface. Select Plan as the Lower surface. Enter 1.0 as the Step value. Make sure Draw temporarily is selected as the Display option. Click on Calculate push button to start computation. The application starts calculating the volume between the two surfaces. It displays the progress of the calculation as temporary line elements. The color of each line indicates if that grid position resulted in cut or fill volume.

When the calculation is finished, take a moment to check the results. TerraModeler reports 7951 cubic meters of cut volume and 1.8 cubic meters of fill volume. The cut volume is a true, correct value. The fill volume, however, is something you may want to take a closer look at. When TerraModeler creates a surface model, the triangulated area will be a concave polygon which encloses all the points in the model. To control the actual area that should be covered by the model, you can exclude some of unnecessary triangles on the outer boundaries.

Page 26 4 Tutorial

When you create a surface with Triangulate Survey, Triangulate View or Triangulate Elements tool, the application will automatically exclude narrow, long triangles from the outer boundaries. When using the Insert Random Elements or Insert Breakline Elements tools, the application will not do automatic exclusion of triangles. In our excavation example, you may decide simply to ignore the fill volume reported by the Compute Quantity tool as you know for sure that the fill volume should be zero. Alternatively, you may decide to go in and exclude the extra triangles in the Plan surface model. To exclude triangles from the excavation automatically: 1. Select Surfaces tool from General tool box. The Surfaces window opens showing a list of available surfaces. Select Plan, if it is not selected already. 2. 3. 4. Choose Exclude boundaries from Edit menu. The Exclude Boundaries dialog box opens. Enter 12.0 as the Maximum length for outer boundary triangles. Click OK.

To exclude triangles manually: 1. 2. 3. Select Exclude Triangle tool from Edit Point tool box. Select Plan as the active surface in the Tool Settings window. Enter a data click inside each of the triangles to exclude.

After excluding the extra triangles, you may recalculate the excavation quantities as described above.

Page 27 4 Tutorial

Displaying a colored grid


A surface model is often used for visualization purposes. TerraModeler is able to display two presentations for this purpose: colored triangles or a colored grid. To display a colored grid: 1. Select the Display Grid tool. The Display grid dialog box opens:

2. 3. 4. 5.

Select Ground in the Surface field. Select Display only in the Mode field. Enter 10.0 in the Grid size field. Click Colors push button to define a coloring scheme. The Coloring scheme dialog box opens:

6.

7. 8.

Choose Open from the File menu to load a coloring scheme from a file. Locate and open MODEL.CLR file. If you installed TerraModeler in the default directory C:\TERRA, you can find this file in path C:\TERRA\EXAMPLE\MODEL.CLR. Click OK to close the Coloring scheme dialog. Click OK to close the Display grid dialog. TerraModeler draws a colored grid. To view the grid, use view controls to change the rotation angle and to zoom in or out on the grid.

Page 28 4 Tutorial

Make sure the level used in displaying the grid is switched on in your view. The default level is 51. The grid was drawn in Display only mode. This means that TerraModeler did not write the grid to the design file. The grid will be erased when you unload TerraModeler or exit MicroStation. Alternatively, you can erase the grid with the Erase Display tool.

Page 29 4 Tutorial

Drawing a profile
You can create a profile along any linear element. The profile will show the shape of surface models along the alignment element. A profile is drawn as a cell element that can be freely positioned anywhere in the design file. To create an alignment element: 1. 2. 3. Select the Place Line String tool from MicroStation's Lines tool box. Place a line string element that runs across or inside the ground surface model. To do this, enter two or more data points to define the vertices of the linear element. Reset to complete the placement operation.

To draw a profile: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the Draw Profile tool. Identify the alignment element you just created. Accept the highlighted element. The Draw profile dialog box opens. Fill in settings values in the dialog. Enter a data point to position the profile cell. It is a good idea to position the profile outside the surveyed site so it will not overlap any existing elements.

Part III: Reference Guide

General Tools

General tool box


The tools in the General tool box are used to define user settings, to set intended plotting scale, to manage surfaces, to save surface models and to access on-line help.

To: Change user settings Define coordinate range and resolution Set intended plotting scale / rescale elements Control, rename, import or export surfaces Save all modified surface models View information about TerraModeler View on-line help

Use: Settings Define Coordinate Setup Set Scale Surfaces Save Surfaces About TerraModeler Help On TerraModeler

Page 32 5 General Tools

Settings
Settings tool lets you change a number of settings controling the way TerraModeler works. Selecting this tool opens TerraModeler settings window. Settings are grouped into logical categories. Selecting a category in the list causes the appropriate controls to be displayed to the right of the category list.

Cross sections / Elevation grid category


Elevation grid category in Cross sections folder defines the symbology of elevation grid labels in cross sections. Setting: Font Size On side Effect: Font for elevation grid labels. Text size. Given in millimeters on paper. Defines labeling of range elevations - on the left, on the right or on both sides of the range.

Cross sections / Elevation labels category


Elevation labels category in Cross sections folder defines the symbology of elevation labels in cross sections. Setting: Direction Digits Decimals Color Effect: Text rotation: horizontal or vertical. Number of whole number digits in elevation labels. Number of decimals in elevation labels. Text and note line color for binding elevation.

Page 33 5 General Tools

Cross sections / Placement category


Placement category in Cross sections folder define how Draw Alignment Sections tool will group cross sections. Setting: Rows Order Effect: How many cross sections to draw on top of each other. Order of cross sections in a group: First one at the bottom - station values increase upwards First one at the top - station values increase downwards

Place Slope Arrow / Arrows category


Arrows category in Place Slope Arrow folder defines the length and the outlook of arrows drawn by Place Slope Arrow tool. Setting: Place by Arrowheads Effect: Placement point for a slope arrow. Can be set to arrow start or arrow center. Number of arrowheads in a slope arrow: One - arrows always have one arrowhead. One to three - number of arrowheads depends on the slope. Two fields specifying the maximum and the minimum length of a slope arrow. Slope values at which the arrow length is equal to: - maximum length - two thirds of maximum length - one third of maximum length - minimum length

Length Slope

Place Slope Arrow / Labels category


Labels category in Place Slope Arrow folder defines the format and the symbology of labels drawn by Place Slope Arrow tool. Setting: Write slope label Accuracy Effect: If on, a text label will be placed along a slope arrow. Number of decimals in the slope label.

Profiles / Elevation grid category


Elevation grid category in Profiles folder defines the symbology of elevation grid labels in profiles Setting: Font Size On side Effect: Font for profile elevation grid labels. Text size. Given in millimeters on paper. Defines label position of grid elevation values - on the left, on the right or on both sides of the range.

Page 34 5 General Tools

Profiles / Labels category


Labels category in Profiles folder defines the format of station and elevation labels in profiles. Setting: Font Size Station labels - Direction Label station of each location Draw vertical line Effect: Font for bottom row labels. Text size for bottom row labels. These include labeling for stations and for surface elevations. Direction of station labels. Can be set to vertical or horizontal. If on, elevation labels for specific locations will include a station value. If on, elevation labels for specific locations will include a vertical line.

Profiles / Layouts category


Layouts category in Profiles folder displays a list of user defined profile layouts. Each layout definition contains a list of data rows that will appear below the profile.

Profiles / Levels category


Levels category in Profiles folder defines the levels on which various parts of a profile cell will be drawn. Setting: Use Effect: Defines how to assign levels for profile cell components: Active level - use active level for all components. Level settings - you can assign levels for different components.

Profiles / Titles category


Titles category in Profile folder defines the symbology of profile name label and bottom row titles. Setting: Font Size Width Effect: Font for profile name and scale labels. Text size for profile name and scale labels. Space reserved for bottom row titles on the left side of the profile.

River sections / Coefficients category


Coefficients category in River sections folder defines default friction coefficients for river sections. Setting: Left bank Channel Right bank Effect: Default friction coefficient for left bank. Default friction coefficient for channel. Default friction coefficient for right bank.

Page 35 5 General Tools

River sections / Symbology category


Symbology category in River sections folder defines the levels and the symbology of river cross section cells. Setting: Surveyed section group Extended section group Labels group Effect: Level and symbology for the surveyed part of the river section. Level and symbology for the part of the river section which has been derived by extending the section based on ground surface. Level and symbology settings for river section labels.

Color scheme legends


Color scheme legends category defines the size and the symbology of color scheme legend bars. Setting: Scale Effect: Method for scaling bar height: Fixed every color occupies the same height in the bar. You can
define the height of one color as millimeters on paper. Relative height of a color is relative to its elevation or slope interval. You can define the height of the whole bar.

Width

Bar width in millimeters on paper.

Contours category
Contours category defines the font and size of contour labels. Setting: Font Size Effect: Font for contour labels. Text size for contour labels. Given in millimeters on paper.

Element usage category


Element usage category defines how graphical elements will be interpreted as points. Setting: Radius Effect: Circles smaller than Radius are interpreted as a single points (circle center). Larger circles are stroked into several points along the circumference. If on, accept single character text elements as elevation points.

Accept single character symbols Require +- sign in numbers If on, numerical text elements must have a sign character in order to be used as elevation labels. Require decimal point in If on, numerical text elements must have a decimal point in order numbers to be used as elevation labels.

Page 36 5 General Tools

Insert Point category


Insert Point category defines whether Insert Point tool will add elevation labels permanently to the design file. Setting: Draw permanently Effect: If on, the text element is written to the design file. If off, the text element is drawn temporarily.

Lattice database category


Lattice database category defines the location of lattice database files. Setting: Directory Effect: Defines the directory where lattice database files are located. This directory may contain Intergraph GRD, Disimp or Ordnance Survey NTF files.

Leveling points category


Leveling points category defines the format and the symbology of elevation labels which Insert Point tool will create. Setting: Font Size Accuracy Display plus Display minus Effect: Font for leveling point text elements. Text size. Given in millimeters on paper. Number of decimals in elevation labels. If on, sign will be displayed for positive elevations. If on, sign will be displayed for negative elevations.

Measure Slope category


Measure Slope category defines the symbology of labels which Measure Slope tool will create. Setting: Font Size Effect: Font for measurement labels. Text size. Given in millimeters on paper.

Operation category
Operation category defines what menus the application will open at startup and how the application can be closed. Setting: Create Applications Menu Effect: If on, TerraModeler will create an Applications menu in MicroStation's command window at startup. This menu will contain items for opening TerraModeler tool boxes. If on, the application will open its Main tool box at startup. If on, the application will open the Surfaces window at startup. If on, the application will be unloaded when Main tool box is closed. If on, the application will open Flood Mapping extension tool box at startup.

Open Main tool box Open Surfaces window Main tool box is closed Open Flood Mapping

Page 37 5 General Tools

Quantity calculation category


Quantity calculation category defines how small elevation differences will be ignored in quantity calculation Setting: Less than Effect: Accuracy limit for quantity calculation tools. If the elevation difference of two surfaces is less than the limit, that column will be ignored.

Saving surfaces category


Saving surfaces category defines when surface models will be saved automatically. Setting: When first created When exiting Effect: Save surface automatically when the surface is first created. Save surface automatically when unloading TerraModeler or closing the design file.

Surface types category


Surface types category displays a list of user defined surface types. Typically these such surface classes as ground, plan, bedrock and various soil layers. Whenever you create a new surface, you have to select a surface type from which the surface gets predefined symbology settings for profiles and colored triangles.

Triangulate Survey category


Triangulate Survey tool creates a surface model from graphical elements created by a survey drawing or a mapping application. The feature coding of that application is used when deciding what elements can be used as valid data for the selected surface. The settings in this category determine what applications should be called to enquire if an element represents valid data for the selected surface. An application can be called only if you have the selected application installed in your computer. Setting: TerraSurvey Accept by Effect: If on, use elements created by TerraSurvey. How to determine suitability of elements: Active feature list - call TerraSurvey to enquire suitability of an element based on the current feature list. Creation time settings - do not call TerraSurvey. Elements created by TerraSurvey may be accepted into the surface model based on information stored into the elements at creation time. If on, call Leica's PRO600. If on, call GeoCad's DigiCad. If on, load DIGICAD.MA if necessary.

PRO600 DigiCad DigiCad - Load if not loaded

You do not have to have TerraSurvey installed to use its feature coding to filter elements for a surface model. When TerraSurvey creates survey drawing elements, it stores the active modeling settings of that feature as attribute data. TerraModeler knows how to interpret that data and select elements based on the creation time modeling settings.

Page 38 5 General Tools

Define Coordinate Setup


Define Coordinate Setup tool sets up the coordinate system that TerraModeler uses for surface model points. This coordinate setup determines the coordinate range inside which all points must be and the resolution to which coordinate values are rounded. This coordinate setup is stored into the active design file and is used by TerraScan, TerraPhoto, TerraModeler and TerraMatch. TerraModeler uses signed 32 bit integer values for storing coordinates of points. This has the advantage of using only 12 bytes of memory for the coordinate information of each point. You can control how accurately coordinate values are stored by defining how big each integer step is. One possible choice is to decide that one integer step is one millimeter. This would result in all coordinate values being rounded to the closest millimeter. At the same time it would impose a limitation on how far apart points can be or how big the coordinate values can be. Millimeter steps would produce a coordinate cube which has size 232 millimeters or 4294967.296 meters. If the origin of the coordinate system is at [0.0, 0.0, 0.0], this would limit coordinate values to be between -2147483 and +2147483. One possibility is to use centimeters for integer steps. This would produce a coordinate range from -21 million to +21 million which is large enough for most coordinate systems. To define a coordinate setup: 1. Select the Define Coordinate Setup tool. This opens the Define Coordinate Setup dialog:

2.

Enter settings values and click OK. This modifies the coordinate system used by TerraScan, TerraPhoto, TerraModeler and TerraMatch in the active design file.

MicroStation SE and MicroStation J


Each design file contains a definition of a 32 bit integer coordinate system which MicroStation uses internally for vector elements. All applications share the same coordinate setup with MicroStation. When you change the coordinate setup with Define Coordinate Setup, it changes the design file coordinate system.

MicroStation V8
MicroStation V8 uses 64 bit values for storing vector elements. TerraModeler uses a coordinate setup which is separate from the design file coordinate system. The application uses a default coordinate setup of 100 integer steps for each master unit. You can use Define Coordinate Setup tool to change the coordinate setup which the application stores in the design file but it does not affect MicroStation itself or the vector elements.

Page 39 5 General Tools

Set Scale
Set Scale tool sets the intended plotting scale of your design and rescales elements. Plotting scale affects the size of text elements that TerraModeler creates. To set the intended plotting scale: 1. 2. Select the Set Scale tool. The Set plotting scale window opens. Enter value for the new scale. Selected element types will be rescaled.

Surfaces
Surfaces tool opens a window for managing surfaces. You can use it to rename surfaces, view surface statistics, import and export data. Surfaces window shows a list of available surfaces. For every existing surface model the list shows the number of points in the model and the elevation range.

See chapter Managing Surfaces on page 128 for more information.

Page 40 5 General Tools

Save Surfaces
Save Surfaces tool saves all modified surfaces to disk. When you work on a surface model, all the surface data is kept in the computer's RAM memory. This tool will make sure that all of the modifications have been saved. You can use Surfaces tool to check what surfaces contain unsaved modifications. The Saved column in the list of surfaces indicates the storage status of each surface. TerraModeler's user settings has a category for controling when surface models should be saved automatically. See Saving surfaces category on page 37 for more information.

About TerraModeler
About TerraModeler tool opens a window which shows information on TerraModeler and on user license.

Help On TerraModeler
Help On TerraModeler tool launches Acrobat Reader for accessing on-line help. The on-line help is identical in structure to the printed documentation. The on-line version has hypertext links built in, so you can jump between topics by clicking on the topic names highlighted in green color. Floppy based installation does not include on-line documentation. You can access on-line help only if you have installed from CD. Accessing on-line help also requires that you have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer.

Page 41 6 Creating Surface Models

Creating Surface Models

Create Surfaces tool box


The tools in the Create Surfaces tool box are used create surface models or to add new points to an existing surface model.

To: Triangulate survey elements Triangulate elements visible in a view Triangulate elements by type and level Insert elements as random points Insert elements as breaklines

Use: Triangulate Survey Triangulate View Triangulate Elements Insert Random Elements Insert Breakline Elements

Page 42 6 Creating Surface Models

Triangulate Survey
Triangulate Survey tool creates a surface model from survey data that has been drawn into the design file with a survey drawing or a mapping application. The feature coding of that other application is used in deciding what elements can be accepted as valid data for the selected surface. The elements may originate from one of three supported applications: TerraSurvey - a survey drawing application by Terrasolid. PRO600 - a mapping application by Leica. DigiCad - a map digitizing application by GeoCad. You can use this tool to create a surface model or to add points to an existing model. To triangulate survey elements: 1. 2. 3. Select the Triangulate Survey tool. The Triangulate surface dialog box opens. Select the surface to be triangulated. You can select a new surface or an existing surface. Click OK. TerraModeler loads TerraSurvey and starts scanning the design file for survey elements. TerraSurvey is needed in deciding what will be used for the model.

Setting: Ignore point too close to another

Generate points along breakline Filter error points

Effect: Thins the model by leaving out unnecessary points. If the distance between two points is less than Minimum point distance, one of the points will be left out. Improves the model by generating new points along a long breakline. Filters probable survey errors from the model and draws a small circle to mark the points that have been left out.

Page 43 6 Creating Surface Models

Triangulate View
Triangulate View tool creates a surface model from graphical elements displayed in a view. This tool will only use elements residing on levels visible in the selected view and located inside the view range. This tool will add linear elements as breakline points and other element types as random points. You can use this tool to create a surface model or to add points to an existing model. To triangulate view elements: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Triangulate View tool. Identify the view to triangulate. The Triangulate surface dialog box opens. Select the surface to be triangulated. Click OK.

Setting: Closed elements Curve elements B-spline elements Other linear elements Single point elements

Effect: How to use closed elements: As breaklines, As 3D holes or As 2D holes. How to use curve elements: As breaklines or As contours. How to use B-splines: As breaklines or As contours. Other linear elements are always used as breaklines. Single point elements are always used as random points.

Page 44 6 Creating Surface Models

Triangulate Elements
Triangulate Elements tool creates a surface model from graphical elements filtered by level, element type and symbology. You can save the filtering rules to a text file for later use. You can use this tool to create a surface model or to add points to an existing model. General procedure for triangulating elements by level and type: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Triangulate Elements tool. The Triangulate elements window opens. Select the surface to be triangulated. Create a rule list for elements to be included in the model. Alternatively, you can load a previously saved set of rules from a disk file. Click Triangulate.

Each filtering rule defines one element type residing on a specific level to be accepted for the model. Points extracted from the element can be used as random, breakline, contour, hole or boundary points.

Page 45 6 Creating Surface Models

Setting: Name Level Type Color Weight Point type

Effect: Description of the feature depicted by the elements. Level for which this rule applies to. Element type this rule applies to. If on, rule applies only to elements with a given color. If on, rule applies only to elements with a given weight. How to use the elements vertices in the surface model. Can be set to random point, breakline, contour, 2D hole, 3D hole, 2D boundary or 3D boundary.

You can use the Selection tool as an aid in creating new rules. Select an example element before choosing Add command from the Rule menu.

Page 46 6 Creating Surface Models

Insert Random Elements


Insert Random Elements tool adds graphical elements to a surface model as random points. You can use this tool to create a surface model or to add points to an existing model. To insert element(s) to a surface as random points: 1. 2. 3. Select the Insert Random Elements tool. Identify the element to insert. Accept the element. TerraModeler inserts the element to the surface. You can continue to step 2. OR 1. 2. 3. Select element(s) to insert. Select the Insert Random Elements tool. Accept the element(s). TerraModeler inserts the element(s) to the surface.

Setting: Minimum distance

Effect: Thins the model by leaving out unnecessary points. If the distance between two points is less than Minimum distance, one of the points will be left out.

Page 47 6 Creating Surface Models

Insert Breakline Elements


Insert Breakline Elements tool adds graphical elements to a surface model as breakline points. You can use this tool to create a surface model or to add points to an existing model. To insert element(s) to a surface as breakline points: 1. 2. 3. Select the Insert Breakline Elements tool. Identify the elements to insert. Accept the element. TerraModeler inserts the element to the surface. You can continue to step 2. OR 1. 2. 3. Select element(s) to insert. Select the Insert Breakline Elements tool. Accept the element(s). TerraModeler inserts the element(s) to the surface.

Setting: Ignore point too close to another Minimum distance Generate points along breakline Every

Effect: If on, filter unnecessary points by Minimum distance. If the distance between two points is less than Minimum distance, one of the points will be left out. If on, generate points along a long breakline. Distance between points to generate.

Page 48 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Draw tool box


The tools in the Draw tool box are used to view the shape of a surface model or to draw elements using a surface model.

To: View surface elevation / place elements on surface Compare elevations of two surfaces View slope of triangles Measure slope of an element Place line at a fixed slope Set linear element to given elevation Create a parameterized copy of a linear element Apply alignment offset and station locks Drop elements to follow surface Calculate and draw slope from an element Fill area with cells

Use: View Elevation Compare Elevations View Slope Measure Slope Place Sloped Line Set Linear Elevation Copy Linear Element Alignment Offset Drop Element On Surface Calculate Slope Fill Area With Cells

Page 49 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

View Elevation
View Elevation tool lets you view the elevation of a surface model or to place elements on surface elevation. This tool opens a window which will show the surface elevation when you move your cursor in a view window. To view surface elevation: 1. Select the View Elevation tool. The View elevation window opens. As you move the mouse, this window will display the surface elevation under your mouse position.

To place elements on surface elevation: 1. 2. Select the View Elevation tool. The View elevation window opens. Set Points on surface lock on. If you want to place elements above or below the surface, you can enter a Dz value. A positive value will place the elements above the surface. A negative value will place the elements below the surface. Start the drawing primitive you want to use.

3.

When Points on surface lock is on, TerraModeler will calculate the elevation for all data points entered in a top view window. The data point will be affected if the XY location falls inside the surface model area. The view used for entering data points can be a top view window which has been rotated around the Z-axis. Be sure to always turn this lock off after using it. As it will alter all data points, it may interfere with your normal work if you forget the lock has been turned on.

Page 50 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Compare Elevations
Compare Elevations tool compares elevations of two surfaces. It opens up a window which will show the surface elevations of two surfaces when you move your cursor in a view window. To compare surface elevations: 1. Select the Compare Elevations tool. The Compare surfaces window opens. As you move your mouse, this window will display the surface elevations under your cursor position. It will also the difference between the two selected surfaces.

View Slope
View Slope tool shows the slope gradients and the slope directions of surface model triangles. As you move the mouse inside a surface model, this tool will display the slope direction as an arrow pointing in the direction where water would run. The slope gradient will be display in the status bar. To view slope directions and gradients: 1. Select the View Slope tool. As you move your inside a surface model, the slope direction will be displayed as an arrow.

Page 51 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Measure Slope
Measure Slope tool measures the average vertical slope of a linear element. The slope will be calculated using formula: Slope = 100 * (End z - Start z) / Horizontal length of element Even if the element is a line string, this tool will not use the individual segments in the element. The slope will always be calculated from the element's start point to its end point. The element to be measured has to be linear. Valid element types include lines, line strings, curves and arcs. To measure the slope of an element: 1. 2. 3. Select the Measure Slope tool. Identify the element. The slope percentage and the slope direction will be displayed. Enter a data click to accept the labeling or a reset to reject the labeling. You can continue to step 2.

Place Sloped Line


Place Sloped Line tool places a line at a fixed vertical slope. You enter the start point of the line as a normal data point. The second data point defines the XY position of the end point. The elevation of the end point will be calculated using the given slope. To place a line at a fixed slope: 1. 2. 3. Select the Place Sloped Line tool. Enter start point of the line. Enter end point of the line. You can continue to step 3.

The slope is expressed as a percentage using formula: Slope = 100 * Vertical distance / Horizontal distance

Page 52 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Set Linear Elevation


Set Linear Elevation tool adjusts a linear element to a given elevation. It sets a constant elevation for each vertex of the element. To set the elevation of linear element(s): 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Set Linear Elevation tool. Key-in Elevation in the Tool settings window. Identify the element to adjust. Accept the element. The element will be adjusted to the given elevation. You can continue to step 2 or 3. OR 1. 2. 3. 4. Select element(s) to adjust. Select the Set Linear Elevation tool. Key-in Elevation in the Tool settings window. Accept element(s). The element(s) will be adjusted to the given elevation.

Copy Linear Element


Copy Linear Element tool creates a parameterized copy of a linear element. The horizontal shape of the new element will be at a given offset from the original element. The vertical shape of the new element can be computed from the original element, from another element or be fixed to a constant elevation. This tool can be used to create a copy of a linear element at a given offset: Without changing elevations. Setting elevation to a fixed value. Using a given elevation difference from the original element. Deriving vertical shape using an elevation difference or a gradient from another linear element.

To create a copy of a linear element using elevation difference: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the Copy Linear Element tool. Choose Dz from original in Elevation by option button. Enter elevation difference in the Dz field. Use 0.0 if you want to keep the original elevations. Identify the original element which determines the horizonal shape. Enter a mouse click to select the offset side (left or right). A linear copy of the original element is created. To create a copy of a linear element using another element for vertical shape: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Copy Linear Element tool. Choose Dz from another element or Gradient from another element option in Elevation by button. Enter elevation difference in the Dz field or gradient percentage in Gradient field. Identify the original element which determines the horizonal shape.

Page 53 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

5. 6.

Identify the other element which determines the vertical shape. Enter a mouse click to select the offset side (left or right). A linear copy of the original element is created.

Setting: Offset Add vertices to long segments

Elevation by

Effect: Horizontal offset of created copy from original element. If on, the application will add intermediate vertices to long line segments. This is useful to ensure that the created copy will follow both the horizontal shape of the original element and the vertical shape of another element. How the elevation is derived: Keyin value constant elevation given as a numerical value. Elevation point constant elevation given with a mouse click. Dz from original elevation difference from the original element. Dz from another element elevation difference from another element.

Gradient from another element gradient percentage from another


element.

Projection

How elevation is derived from another element: Shortest distance each vertex is compared against the closest position on the other element.

Perpendicular each vertex is projected perpendicularly to the other


element and elevation is derived from that location.

Page 54 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Alignment Offset
Alignment Offset tool provides an easy way to place elements at a specific station or at a specific offset from an alignment. This tool can use any linear element as the alignment. Alignment Offset tool opens a window which dynamically displays station and offset values for the mouse location as you move it. You can lock data points by station, offset, elevation difference or gradient from the selected alignment. General procedure for applying alignment locks: 1. 2. 3. Select the Alignment Offset tool. Identify the alignment element. Accept the element. This opens the Alignment Offset window. Continue as in step 3, below. OR 1. 2. Select the alignment element. Select the Alignment Offset tool. This opens the Alignment Offset window:

3. 4.

Set on the locks which you want to apply. Select the element placement tool you want to use. When you enter a data point, its coordinates will be adjusted according to the alignment using the specified locks. Note that TerraModeler will not be able to display the effects of the locks dynamically as you move the mouse. The locks will have an effect only when you enter a data click.

Setting: Start station Station Offset

Dz Gradient

Effect: Station value for start point of the alignment. Default is zero. If on, XY location of a data point will be adjusted to the given station position. If on, XY location of a data point will be adjusted to the given offset from the alignment. The data click will determine if the offset should be computed to the left or to the right from the alignment. If on, Z value of a data point will be calculated by adding this elevation difference to the elevation of the alignment element. If on, Z value of a data point will be calculated by using this gradient percentage from the elevation of the alignment element.

Page 55 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Drop Element On Surface


Drop Element On Surface tool drops elements to follow a surface model. The two dimensional shape of an element will remain unchanged but it's three dimensional shape will be forced to follow the elevation of a surface model. This tool will work on all linear elements and cells. A linear element will be converted into a line string or a complex chain of line strings. The line string vertex elevations will be calculated from the surface model. A cell element will remain as a cell. It will be dropped on the surface by calculating the elevation of it's origin point. To drop element(s) on a surface: 1. 2. 3. Select the Drop Element On Surface tool. Identify the element to drop. Accept the element. The element will be dropped on the surface. You can continue to step 2. OR 1. 2. 3. Select element(s) to drop. Select the Drop Element On Surface tool. Accept element(s). The element(s) will be dropped.

Setting: Dz

Make copy Set level Outside surface

Effect: A positive value will drop the element above the surface model elevation. A negative value will drop the element below the surface. If on, the original element will not be affected. Instead, a copy of the element will be created. If on, the dropped elements will be set to the given level. Defines the way an element will be drawn outside the surface model area. The three methods are: Outside part will remain unchanged. Outside part will be drawn with active color, line style and line weight. Outside part will not be drawn, thus resulting in a gap.

Page 56 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Calculate Slope
Calculate Slope tool calculates a slope from a graphical element onto a surface model. The starting element is either the top or the bottom edge of a slope. This tool will calculate the other edge of a slope and draw it as a line string type element. This new element will follow the elevation of a selected surface model. The starting element has to be linear. Valid element types include lines, line strings, curves, arcs, ellipses, shapes, complex chains and complex shapes. To calculate slope from an element: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Calculate Slope tool. Enter slope angle. Identify the element to start from. Enter slope direction with a data click. The direction is either left or right from the element. If found, the other edge of the slope will be drawn. You can continue to step 3.

Setting: Angle

Min dist

Effect: Slope angle in degrees. A positive value will calculate a slope upwards from the starting element. A negative value will calculate a slope downwards. You can enter the angle as ratio of vertical and horizontal distances. For example, 1:3. Minimum distance for vertices in the new line string. A mathematical slope may have some vertices very close to each other. For practical reasons, it is advisable to ignore some of these vertices.

Page 57 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Fill Area With Cells


Fill Area With Cells tool fills a bounded area with randomly placed cells. This tool could be used to generating a drawing of a naturally grown forest by filling an area with tree cells. The area has to be bounded either by placing a fence or by selecting a closed element. This tool can be used with two or three dimensional cells. You can use surface models to define the bottom elevation or the top elevation of the cells. Typically, a model of the ground might be used for the cell bottom elevation. You can define some random variation to better resemble naturally grown plants. Variation in cell height, width and rotation angle will often result in a more realistic image. To fill an area with cells: 1. 2. 3. Define the area by placing a fence or by selecting a closed element. Select the Fill Area With Cells tool. The Fill area with cells dialog box opens. Fill in settings values in the dialog. The application will start filling the area with cells. This process will stop when the area is filled.

Page 58 7 Placing Elements Using a Surface Model

Setting: Cell name Level Area borders Bottom as Top as Radius as

Minimum distance

Height Width Rotate cells

Effect: Name of a two or three dimensional cell. Level on which cells will be placed. Defines whether cells may partially overlap border of they have to completely within the borders. A surface model for the bottom elevation of cells. If set to Fixed elevation, all cells will be placed at a given elevation. A surface model for the top elevation of cells. If set to Fixed height, all cells will be drawn in given height. Defines the width of cells: Ratio from height - calculates width as a direct ratio from cell height as drawn in cell library. Constant - use the same radius for all cells. Defines how close to each other cells may placed. If less than 100 percent, some cells may partially overlap each other. For forests, this value should be set between 60 and 120 percent. Random variation for cell height. Random variation for cell width. If on, will rotate cells randomly.

Page 59 8 Editing Surface Models

Editing Surface Models

Edit Point tool box


The tools in the Edit Point tool box are used to modify a surface model on point-by-point basis.

To: Construct / remove a breakline between points Insert point along a breakline Insert a point to the model Move a point in the model Remove a point from the model Exclude/include triangles

Use: Construct Breakline Insert Point Along Breakline Insert Point Move Point Remove Point Exclude Triangle

Page 60 8 Editing Surface Models

Construct Breakline
Construct Breakline tool constructs or removes breaklines between existing points in a model. Breaklines affect the way a model is triangulated. A breakline will always appear as a triangle edge running along the breakline and connecting the two breakline points. This tool will prompt you to identify two points in a surface model. A breakline will be constructed, if the two points are not already connected by one. If the two points are connected by a breakline, this tool will remove it. Constructing or removing breaklines does not affect the actual points in a model, but it will change the way those points are connected by the triangle network. To construct or remove breaklines: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Construct Breakline tool. Select a view for breakline display. Breaklines inside the selected view will be displayed as yellow lines. Identify first point in the model. Identify second point in the model. A breakline will be constructed or removed. You can continue to step 3. Attempting to construct a breakline may fail because: The new breakline would intersect an existing breakline. Breaklines can not intersect each other. Try removing the old breakline first. The two points are far apart. Try constructing a shorter breakline first. The breakline would break through a very large number of triangle edges. Try constructing a shorter breakline first.

Page 61 8 Editing Surface Models

Insert Point Along Breakline


Insert Point Along Breakline tool inserts new points along an existing breakline. This is useful if the distance between two breakline points is very long compared to the average distance between surface points. A long breakline produces long narrow triangles in the surface model. Interpolating new points along the breakline will improve the surface model by making the triangles more uniform in size and closer to equilateral. The elevation along the breakline will not change as the elevation of the new point will be interpolated from the two end points of the breakline. To insert a point along a breakline: 1. 2. 3. Select the Insert Point Along Breakline tool. Select a view for breakline display. Breaklines inside the selected view will be displayed as yellow lines. Enter a new point. The data point you enter will be projected to the closest breakline. A new point will be interpolated and inserted to the model. You can continue to step 3.

Page 62 8 Editing Surface Models

Insert Point
Insert Point tool adds a new point to a surface model. You enter the X and Y location as a data point. The elevation can be a key-in value or the elevation of the data point. To insert a point using a key-in elevation: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Insert Point tool. Make sure Z toggle is on. Input the desired elevation in the Tool settings window. Enter a data point for the new point position. The point is added to the model and a leveling text is drawn at the location. You can continue to step 3 or 4. To insert a point using a data point elevation: 1. 2. 3. Select the Insert Point tool. Make sure Z toggle is off. Enter a data point to define the X, Y and Z coordinates of the new point. The point is added to the model and a leveling text is drawn at the location. You can continue to step 3.

Page 63 8 Editing Surface Models

Move Point
Move Point tool moves an existing point in a surface model. This tool supports three modes of operation: In Elevation mode only the elevation of the point changes. The XY location remains the same. You can enter the new elevation as a key-in value or as a data point. In Xy location mode only the XY location changes, the elevation remains the same. In Xyz location mode all of the coordinates will be modified. To move a point to a new key-in elevation: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the Move Point tool. Choose Elevation option in the Change field. Key in the new elevation in the Move Z field. Identify the point to move. Accept the new coordinates with a data point. You can continue to step 3 or 4. To move a point to a new data point elevation: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Move Point tool. Choose Elevation option in the Change field. Identify the point to move. Enter the new elevation with a data point. You can continue to step 3. To move a point to a new XY location: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Move Point tool. Choose Xy location in the Change field. Identify the point to move. Enter the new XY location with a data point. You can continue to step 3. To move a point to a new XYZ location: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Move Point tool. Choose Xyz location in the Change field. Identify the point to move. Enter the new location with a data point. You can continue to step 3.

Page 64 8 Editing Surface Models

Remove Point
Remove Point tool deletes a point from a surface model. It will automatically reorganize the triangulation at the modified location. To remove a point from a model: 1. 2. Select the Remove Point tool. Identify point. The point is removed from the model. You can continue to step 2.

Exclude Triangle
Exclude Triangle tool excludes or includes triangles in a surface model. An included triangle is considered to be valid information about a surface. An excluded triangle is invalid - the surface does not exist at that location or the elevation is unknown. An excluded triangle will not be drawn in profiles, will not be used in volume calculations or will not be used when displaying presentations. To include or exclude triangles one at a time: 1. 2. Select the Exclude Triangle tool. Choose method One at a time in settings window. As you move the mouse, the underlying triangle will be displayed in either Included color or Excluded color. 3. To toggle the status of a triangle, enter a data click.

To include or exclude triangles by painting: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Exclude Triangle tool. Choose method Paint in settings window. Identify view for triangle display. All triangles will be displayed filled with the appropriate color. Enter a data click in the first triangle to exclude. As you move the mouse after the first data click, all triangles the mouse passes over will be excluded. To end excluding triangles, enter a second data click.

You can use a similar procedure to include triangles. The data click in step 4 will determine, if this tool will include or exclude triangles. If you enter a data click in an excluded triangle, this tool will start including triangles the mouse passes through.

Page 65 8 Editing Surface Models

Edit Area tool box


The tools in the Edit Area tool box are used to modify the fence contents of a surface model. These tools will modify surface model points or triangles bounded by a fence.

You can define the area either by placing a fence or by selecting a shape element. The operation will take place either inside or outside the fence depending on the selected fence mode. To: Flatten points to a fixed elevation Raise / lower points by a vertical distance Drop / lift points to follow another surface Exclude triangles Insert elements as internal hole boundaries Remove points from the model Use: Flatten Area Move Area Drop Area Exclude Area Insert Hole Element Remove Area

These tools will treat the fence as a two dimensional boundary. The Z coordinates of both fence vertices and surface model points will be ignored when deciding what points are inside the fence.

Page 66 8 Editing Surface Models

Flatten Area
Flatten Area tool flattens surface model points to a fixed elevation. This tool will set the elevation of all points inside or outside a fence. You can enter the new elevation as a key-in value or as a data point. To flatten area points to a key-in elevation: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place a fence or select a shape element to define the area. Select the Flatten Area tool. Key in the new elevation in the Z field. Accept fence contents. The points are flattened to the given elevation. You can continue to step 1 or 3. To flatten area points to a data point elevation: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place a fence or select a shape element to define the area. Select the Flatten Area tool. Set the Z toggle off. Enter the new elevation as a data point. The points are flattened to the elevation of the data point. You can continue to step 1 or 3.

Flatten Area tool will often be used in creating a flat plane inside a model. Because this tool will not clip the triangles overlapping the fence border, this operation alone will not produce a flat area with an exact boundary. This tool will affect only the points inside the area. After the operation the surface model may start sloping down or up within the used boundary. In order to create an exactly bounded flat area, you have to add the boundary lines to your surface model and make sure that triangles do not overlap the boundary. General procedure for creating a flat plane: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Set the active depth to the desired elevation. Place a shape element at the desired elevation to define the area. Add the bounding element to the surface model as breakline points using Insert Breakline Elements tool. Select the bounding element. Start the Flatten Area tool to fix all the points inside the bounding element to the desired elevation.

Page 67 8 Editing Surface Models

Move Area
Move Area tool moves surface model points up or down for a given distance. This tool will modify the elevation of all points inside or outside a fence. You can enter the distance as a key-in value or with a data point. To move area points by a key-in distance: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place a fence or select a shape element to define the area. Select the Move Area tool. Key in the vertical distance in Dz field. Accept fence contents. The points are moved up or down. You can continue to step 1 or 3. To move area points by a data point elevation: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place a fence or select a shape element to define the area. Select the Move Area tool. Set the Dz toggle off. Enter a data point to define the distance to move. The points are moved up or down. The elevation difference between the data point and the surface elevation is used as the distance. As a result of the process, the surface elevation will be the same as the data point at its location. You can continue to step 1 or 3.

Setting: Dz

Effect: Vertical distance. A positive value will raise points upwards. A negative value will lower points downwards.

Page 68 8 Editing Surface Models

Drop Area
Drop Area tool modifies the elevations of surface model points according to selected surfaces. The direction of movement is either up or down. If the direction is down, a point in the active surface will be modified if it is contained by the fence and if one of the selected surfaces is found below that point's elevation. The elevation will be set to the highest elevation of the surfaces below the point. If the direction is up, a point in the active surface will be modified if it is contained by the fence and if one of the selected surfaces is found above that point's elevation. The elevation will be set to the lowest elevation of the surfaces above the point. To drop area points: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place a fence or select a shape element to define the area. Select the Drop Area tool. Choose the active surface. Accept fence contents. The Drop surface points onto surfaces dialog box opens.

5. 6.

Select surfaces onto which points will be dropped. Click OK.

Page 69 8 Editing Surface Models

Exclude Area
Exclude Area tool excludes or includes surface model triangles. This tool will operate on all the triangles inside or outside a fence. The application will use the center point of a triangle when deciding if the triangle is inside or outside a fence. To exclude area triangles: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place a fence or select a shape element to define the area. Select the Exclude Area tool. Choose operation Exclude in settings window. Accept fence contents. The triangles are excluded. To include area triangles: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place a fence or select a shape element to define the area. Select the Exclude Area tool. Choose operation Include in settings window. Accept fence contents. The triangles are included.

Page 70 8 Editing Surface Models

Insert Hole Element


Insert Hole Element tool creates a void area inside the surface model by excluding all triangles inside a closed element. This bounding element can serve as a 2d boundary or as a 3d boundary. When used as a 2d boundary, the elevation of the element has no effect. The two dimensional shape of the element will be combined with the existing elevation of the surface model to create a boundary. When used with a 3d boundary, this tool will insert the three dimensional vertices of the element into the surface model to build a boundary. The boundary element has to be a closed linear element. Valid element types include shapes, complex shapes and ellipses. To insert element(s) to a surface as hole boundaries: 1. 2. 3. Select the Insert Hole Element tool. Identify the element to insert. Accept the element. TerraModeler inserts the element to the surface and builds a void area inside. You can continue to step 2. OR 1. 2. 3. Select element(s) to insert. Select the Insert Hole Element tool. Accept the element(s). TerraModeler inserts the element(s) to the surface.

Setting: Insert as

Effect: Set the boundary type: 2d boundary - use only the two dimensional shape of the element. 3d boundary - insert vertices using the elevation of the element.

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Remove Area
Remove Area tool deletes points from a surface model. This tool will remove all points inside or outside a fence. To remove area points: 1. 2. 3. Place a fence or select a shape element to define the area. Select the Remove Area tool. Accept fence contents. The points will be removed.

Page 72 9 Drawing Profiles

Drawing Profiles

Profiles tool box


The tools in the Profiles tool box are used to draw profiles and cross-sections.

To: Draw cross section view Draw profile along an alignment Draw cross sections along an alignment Update profile or cross section Project 3d elements into a profile Project elements from a profile to 3d Label profile with an element's elevations Output surface elevations along an alignment Output surface elevations for cross sections

Use: Draw Section View Draw Profile Draw Alignment Sections Update Profile Project Into Profile Project From Profile Label Profile Elevations Output Profile Elevations Output Section Elevations

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Draw Section View


Draw Section View tool creates a 3D section view that can used for design purposes. A section view is a rotated view along a section line. A section view is not meant to be plotted on paper. As its name implies, it is a rotated cross section view drawn at the true 3D position of the section line. This makes it ideal for design purposes. If you use a section view to place elements, they will be drawn to a true 3D position. To draw a section view: 1. 2. Select the section view line element. Select the Draw Section View tool. Continue as in step 4, below. OR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the Draw Section View tool. Enter start point for section line. Enter end point for section line. Define section view depth by entering a data click or by keying in a value in the Depth field. Identify view to be used as the section view. This view will be rotated to show a cross section with the section line start point on the left and the section line end point on the right.

Setting: Mode

Z range

Level Text size Depth

Effect: Drawing mode for surfaces and range: Draw temporarily - will be erased when you update the view. Write to file - draw as permanent elements. Defines how elevation range will be set: None - range will not be drawn. Automatic - TerraModeler decides the range for you. Prompt for - TerraModeler prompts you to enter the range with a dialog box. Level for surfaces and range. Text size for elevation grid labels. Display depth on both sides of section line.

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Draw Profile
Draw Profile tool draws a profile along alignment element. The profile will show the shape of surface models along the alignment. A profile is drawn as a cell element that can be freely positioned anywhere in the design file. The horizontal length of the profile cell is equal to the 2D length of the alignment element. The horizontal scale represents the intended plotting scale of the profile. All text items in the profile will be scaled with this plotting scale in mind. The alignment element can be any linear element. Valid element types include lines, line strings, curves, arcs, ellipses, shapes, complex chains and complex shapes. To draw a profile: 1. 2. Select the alignment element. Select the Draw Profile tool. Continue as in step 3, below. OR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the Draw Profile tool. Identify the alignment element. The Draw profile dialog box opens. Fill in settings values in the dialog. Click OK. Enter a data point to position the profile cell.

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Setting: Name Layout Horizontal Vertical Label Start station Label stations Step At fixed intervals

At specific locations

Effect: Name drawn at the top of the profile. Layout scheme which defines the data rows that will appear below the elevation grid of the profile. Horizontal scale defines the intended plotting scale. Vertical scale defines the elevation exaggeration as the ratio of horizontal / vertical scale. Position where scale labels will be drawn. Start station of the alignment element. If on, alignment stations will be written below the profile. Step for alignment stations. If on, label surface elevations below the profile at fixed intervals. Click Surfaces push button to control which surfaces will be written. If on, label surface elevations at locations where there is a change in the surface model: All triangle edges - locations where the alignment intersects a triangle edge. Breakline edges - locations where the alignment intersects a breakline edge. Slope changes - locations where the slope changes more than a given limit. Peaks and pits - local maximum and minimum elevations.

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Draw Alignment Sections


Draw Alignment Sections tool draws cross sections along an alignment. Each cross section will show the shape of surface models at a position along the alignment. You can specify the cross section extents as a left width and a right width perpendicular from the alignment. The cross sections will be drawn as a group of cells that can be freely positioned anywhere in the design file. The alignment element can be any linear element. Valid element types include lines, line strings, curves, arcs, ellipses, shapes, complex chains and complex shapes. To draw alignment sections: 1. 2. Select the alignment element. Select the Draw Alignment Sections tool. Continue as in step 3, below. OR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the Draw Alignment Sections tool. Identify the alignment element. The Draw sections along alignment dialog box opens. Fill in settings values in the dialog. Click OK. Enter a data point to position the group of cross section cells.

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Setting: Start station From station To station Interval Left width Right width Horizontal Vertical Binding

From To Binding elevation

Effect: Start station of the alignment element. Position from where the first section will be drawn. Position from where the last section will be drawn. Station interval between two successive sections. Determines the number of sections drawn. Section width perpendicular from the alignment. Section width perpendicular from the alignment. Horizontal scale defines the intended plotting scale. Vertical scale defines the elevation exaggeration as the ratio of horizontal / vertical scale. Defines how the range will change along the alignment: Stays constant - no change. Follows 3d alignment - changes in the alignment elevation will be reflected in the range. Follows surface - changes in the elevation of a selected surface will be reflected in the range Elevation range for the first section. Elevation range for the first section. If on, the binding elevation will be labeled with a note line in the cross section.

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Update Profile
Update Profile tool updates a profile cell or an alignment section cell after surface models have been modified. This tool will redraw the selected cells. To update a profile: 1. 2. 3. Select the Update Profile tool. Identify a profile cell or an alignment section cell. Accept the element. The profile will be redrawn. You can continue to step 2. OR 1. 2. 3. Select profile cell(s) or alignment section cell(s) to update. Select the Update Profile tool. Accept the element(s). The element(s) will be redrawn.

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Project Into Profile


Project Into Profile tool projects 3D elements into a profile or a cross section. This tool will create a copy of the element with its coordinates translated into the profile's coordinate system. The element to be projected has to be a cell or a linear element. The element should be positioned within the extents of the profile alignment. To project an element into a profile: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Project Into Profile tool. Identify profile the element(s) will be projected into. Identify element to project. Accept element to project. The element will be projected into the profile. You can continue to step 3. OR 1. 2. 3. 4. Select element(s) to project. Select the Project Into Profile tool. Identify profile the element(s) will be projected into. Accept element(s). The element(s) will be projected into the profile. Linear elements will produce a line string or a complex chain of line strings when projected. The application will calculate a line string that approximates an arc, an ellipse or a curve.

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Project From Profile


Project From Profile tool projects elements from a profile into their 3D position. This tool will create a copy of the element transformed to run along the profile's alignment. This tool is often used with an element representing a vertical alignment that has been designed in the profile. The element has to be linear. It should not extend beyond the profile's left or right margin. To project an element from a profile: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Project Into Profile tool. Identify profile the element(s) will be projected from. Identify element to project. Accept element. The element will be projected resulting in a new 3D complex chain running along the profile's alignment. You can continue to step 3. OR 1. 2. 3. 4. Select element(s) to project. Select the Project From Profile tool. Identify profile the element(s) will be projected from. Accept element(s). The element(s) will be projected.

Setting: Horizontal step

Effect: Maximum station interval for vertices in the new 3D complex chain. Each successive vertex will be within the horizontal step from the previous vertex.

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Label Profile Elevations


Label Profile Elevations tool labels a profile with elevation values. The elevations can come from an element drawn in the profile or from points identified in the profile. This tool is often used with an element representing a vertical alignment that has been designed in the profile. The element has to be linear. It should not extend beyond the profile's left or right margin. This tool will translate the y-coordinates of the element into elevation values and write those values below the profile. To label profile with an element's elevations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the Label Profile Elevations tool. Identify profile the element has been drawn in. Choose Linear element option in the Method field. Identify element to label. Accept the element. The element's elevations will be labeled. You can continue to step 4. To label profile with point elevations: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Label Profile Elevations tool. Identify the profile to label. Choose Single location option in the Method field. Enter a point inside the profile range. The point elevation will be labeled. You can continue to step 4.

Setting: Method

Step Label station Draw vertical line Bottom row Font Size

Effect: Labeling method: Linear element - label elevations along a linear element. Single location - label the elevation of a single location. If Method is Linear element, this setting controls the station interval for elevation labels. If on, write the station value for each elevation. If on, draw a vertical line for each elevation position. Bottom row where elevations will be written. Given as millimeters below the range. Text font. Text size. Given in millimeters on paper. Actual size is calculated using the horizontal scale of the profile.

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Output Profile Elevations


Not Field

Output Profile Elevations tool creates a report which contains surface model elevations along an alignment in text format. You can view the report, print it out or save it as a text file. You can select to output elevations at fixed interval or at places where there is a change in shape of the surface model. To output elevations along an alignment: 1. 2. 3. Select the Output Profile Elevations tool. Identify the alignment to output elevations along. Accept the highlighted alignment. This opens the Output profile elevations dialog:

4. 5.

You can click Format to select options controling the output format. Fill in settings values and click OK. This opens a report window which contains the elevations.

Setting: Surface Alignment name Start station Output at fixed intervals Output at surface changes

Effect: Surface to output elevations from. Descriptive name for the alignment. Station value at start of the alignment element. If on, output surface elevations at a fixed interval. Step field determines the size of the interval. If on, output surface elevations at locations where there is a change in the surface model: All triangle edges - alignment intersects a triangle edge. Breakline edges - alignment intersects a breakline edge. Slope changes - slope changes more than a given limit. Peaks and pits - local maximum and minimum elevations.

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Format push button in Output profile elevations dialog opens a window for controling the output format:

The output file may contain some starting rows: Header, Surface name and Alignment name fields will each generate one output row if selected. Each elevation position will be written on one row. You can select what information fields to output: Station, Easting, Northing, Elevation. When using Output at fixed intervals setting, the application will compute elevation positions at fixed intervals along the alignment. Some of those positions may be outside the surface model. Outside field determines if those positions will bewritten and what text is written for the output. When using Output at surface changes setting, the application will generate positions only at specific triangle edges. The alignment may go outside the surface model in between the generated positions. If Write row is on, the application will output a row between the positions to indicate that the alignment went outside the surface model or thru a hole in the model.

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Output Section Elevations


Not Field

Output Section Elevations tool creates a text report which contains surface model elevations from cross sections of an alignment. You can view the report, print it out or save it as a text file. You can select to output elevations at fixed interval or at places where there is a change in shape of the surface model. To output elevations from alignment sections: 1. 2. 3. Select the Output Section Elevations tool. Identify the alignment for the sections. Accept the highlighted alignment. This opens the Output section elevations dialog:

4. 5. 6.

You can click Format to select options controling the output format. Fill in settings values. Check the surface to output in the list box and click OK. This opens a report window which contains the elevations.

Setting: Alignment name Start station From station To station Interval Left width Right width Output at fixed intervals

Effect: Descriptive name for the alignment. Station value at start of the alignment element. Position from where to output the first section. Position from where to output the last section. Station interval between two successive sections. Width of the cross section left from the alignment. Width of the cross section right from the alignment. If on, output surface elevations at a fixed interval. Step field determines the size of the interval.

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Setting: Output at surface changes

Effect: If on, output surface elevations at locations where there is a change in the surface model: All triangle edges - section intersects a triangle edge. Breakline edges - section intersects a breakline edge. Slope changes - slope changes more than a given limit. Peaks and pits - local maximum and minimum elevations.

Format push button in Output section elevations dialog opens a window for controling the output format:

The output file may contain some starting rows: Header, Alignment name and Surface count fields will each generate one output row if selected. If Section start is on, a row will be written to indicate the start of a new cross section. You can specify the prefix text appearing before the station value. if Surface start field is on, a row will be written to indicate the start of a new surface. You can specify the prefix text appearing before the surface name. Each elevation position will be written on one row. You can select what information fields to output: Offset, Easting, Northing, Elevation. When using Output at fixed intervals setting, the application will compute elevation positions at fixed intervals along the alignment. Some of those positions may be outside the surface model. Outside field determines if those positions will bewritten and what text is written for the output. When using Output at surface changes setting, the application will generate positions only at specific triangle edges. The alignment may go outside the surface model in between the generated positions. If Write row is on, the application will output a row between the positions to indicate that the alignment went outside the surface model or thru a hole in the model.

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10

Generating Displays

Display Surface tool box


The tools in the Display Surface tool box are used to generate displays from a surface model.

The first six icons generate different visualizations of a surface model. TerraModeler is capable of generating contours, colored triangles, a colored grid, elevation texts, slope arrows or a shaded surface. The first five display methods can be drawn as permanent elements written to the design file or as temporary elements which are not saved on disk. All of the six display methods are updatable. If you make modifications to a surface model, you can update the display methods with the Update Displays tool. Display Boundary tool creates elements which are not updatable. To: Display contours Display colored triangles Display colored grid Display elevation as grid spaced texts Display grid spaced slope arrows Display coloring by elevation and sun angle Update displays after surface modification Erase contours, triangles or grid Display surface model boundary Use: Display Contours Display Triangles Display Grid Display Elevation Texts Display Slopes Display Shaded Surface Update Displays Erase Display Display Boundary

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Display modes
TerraModeler supports three different modes in which displays may be generated. Write to file mode adds the created elements to the design file. This has the disadvantage of increasing the design file size quite substantially in some display methods. Very large surface models may result in exceeding the 32MB maximum size limit of design files. The obvious advantages include the ability manipulate the elements using MicroStation's builtin tools and the ability to save the display on disk as a part of the design file. Display only mode computes the display elements and stores those in RAM memory. It will draw the elements every a view is updated. This mode is supported only by tools which may require lengthy calculations to create the display. These include Display Contours and Display Grid tools. Preview mode recalculates and draws the display elements each time a view is updated. This display mode will not increase the design file size nor waste any RAM memory. This mode is supported only by tools which can quickly recalculate the whole display.

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Display Contours
Display Contours tool draws contours for a surface model. You can generate very quick contours which are suitable for verifying the surface model or you can generate quality contours to be plotted on paper. Contours can be drawn as: Curves - smooth elements for which MicroStation computes the curvature. Results in fairly compact elements but can cause contours to intersect each other. Line strings - sharp elements suitable for mathematical design surfaces or for surface verification. Smooth line strings - smooth elements for which TerraModeler computes the smoothing by inserting additional vertices. Results in larger elements. To display contours: 1. 2. Select the Display Contours tool. The Display contours dialog box opens. Fill in settings values in the dialog.

TerraModeler supports three different types of contours. Minor contours, basic contours and major contours can be distinguished from each other by line color, weight or style. You can select which of the contour types will be displayed and at what intervals. Options pulldown menu has commands for defining options for contours, labels and ticks.

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Contour options

Contour option: Minor Basic Major Only elevations Minimum area

Build complex chains Smoothing

Thin by removing points if

Distance Deviation

Turn angle

Effect: Level, color, style and weight for minor contours. Level, color, style and weight for basic contours. Level, color, style and weight for major contours. If on, contours will be drawn within the given elevation range. Helps in leaving out unnecessary detail. A closed contour curve will not be drawn, if the enclosed surface area is smaller than minimum area. If on, contours will be drawn as complex chains or as complex shapes. If off, contours will pass through triangle edges at mathematically correct positions which may result in jagged edges. If on, contour vertices will be adjusted slightly to produce more natural looking results. If on, some of the computed contour vertices may be left out. This will help minimize design file size when creating contours for very large surface models. Vertex can be left out only if the distance between the previous and the next remaining vertex is smaller than this. Vertex can be left out only if it is closer than this distance to the line segment connecting the previous and the next remaining point. Vertex can be left out only if the contour direction changes less than this angle at the vertex.

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Contour label options

Contour label option: Label Position

Rotation

Every Cut underlying contour

Use

Prefix Suffix Accuracy Display plus Display minus

Effect: What type of contours should be labeled. Location where labels are placed: Above contour - above contour at specified intervals. On contour - overlapping contour line at specified intervals. Below contour - below contour at specified intervals. At contour start - at the start point of a contour chain. Rotation of label text element: Uphill - label is readable when looking uphill. Downhill - label is readable when looking downhill. Interval of contour labels as meters along the contour. If on, generates a gap in the contour element overlapped by a label. The gap part is drawn as a construction class element. You can use view attributes to control the visibility of the gap parts. How to determine level and color for contour labels: Contour level and color - label is drawn using level and color of its contour line (major, basic or minor). Own settings - all labels are drawn using the same level and color assigned to labels. Prefix added to the beginning of every contour label. Suffix added to the end of every contour label. Number of decimals shown in contour labels. If on, sign will be displayed for positive elevations. If on, sign will be displayed for negative elevations.

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Contour tick options

Contour tick option: Every Only depressions Maximum area Draw as Length

Effect: Interval of contour ticks as meters along the contour. If on, only closed depressions will have ticks. If on, only closed depressions smaller than a given area will have ticks. Shape of contour ticks: line or triangle. Length of the tick line or triangle.

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Display Triangles
Display Triangles tool draws colored triangles for a surface model. You can create a coloring scheme where the color changes according to the surface elevation or according to the slope of the triangles. To display triangles: 1. 2. Select the Display Triangles tool. The Display triangles dialog box opens. Fill in settings values in the dialog.

Creating a coloring scheme


Coloring scheme dialog box allows you to create a coloring scheme for a surface model by assigning colors for different elevations. A vertical bar on the left shows all the colors currently assigned in the scheme. Each color boundary has an elevation label displaying the elevation where that color change will occur. The text label is black, if the elevation boundary is fixed. A white elevation boundary has not been fixed and will be recalculated if you change the number of colors in the scheme.

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To assign a new color: 1. Click on one of the available colors in the color table on the right. This adds the new color to the Colors bar and recalculates all unfixed elevation boundaries. To fix an elevation boundary: 1. Click on the text label of the elevation boundary. This opens a dialog box where you can enter an elevation value.

Use menu item: File - Open File - Save As Color - Add empty Color - Remove last Color - Remove all

To: Open a previously saved coloring scheme from a file. Save coloring scheme to a file. Add an empty color which will not be drawn. Remove last color from coloring scheme. Remove all colors from coloring scheme.

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Display Grid
Display Grid tool generates a grid presentation of a surface model. You can create a coloring scheme where the color changes according to the surface elevation. To display a grid: 1. 2. Select the Display Grid tool. The Display grid dialog box opens. Fill in settings values in the dialog.

Setting: Grid size Enter origin Create flat shapes Create filled shapes

Effect: Size for rectangular squares in the grid. Allows you to enter an origin point. If this point is inside the surface area, it will be a corner point for one the grid squares. If on, each grid square will be drawn flat at the elevation of its center point. If on, the grid squares will be filled with color.

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Display Elevation Texts


Display Elevation Texts tool draws grid spaced labels which display the surface elevation. The decimal point in each text element shows the exact location of the elevation. To display elevation texts: 1. 2. Select the Display Elevation Texts tool. The Display elevation texts dialog box opens. Fill in settings values in the dialog.

Setting: Grid size Enter origin

Effect: Distance between elevation text locations. Allows you to enter an origin point. If this point is inside the surface area, one of the elevation texts will be drawn at that location.

Clicking on Options push button opens a dialog box for setting various elevation text options.

Elevation text option: Font Size Accuracy Display plus Display minus

Effect: Text font. Text size in millimeters on paper. Number of decimals in elevation labels. If on, sign will be displayed for positive elevations. If on, sign will be displayed for negative elevations.

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Display Slopes
Display Slopes tool draws grid spaced slope arrows. Each slope arrow shows the direction in which water would run at that location. The arrow length indicates how steep the surface is at that location. To display slope arrows: 1. 2. Select the Display Slopes tool. The Display slopes dialog box opens. Fill in settings values in the dialog.

Clicking on Options push button opens a dialog box for setting various slope options.

Setting: Grid size Enter origin

Effect: Distance between elevation text locations. Allows you to enter an origin point. If this point is inside the surface area, one of the slope arrows will be drawn at that location.

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Slope option: Place by Arrowheads

Length Slope

Write slope label Accuracy

Effect: Placement point for a slope arrow. Can be set to arrow start or arrow center. Number of arrowheads in a slope arrow: One - arrows always have one arrowhead. One to three - number of arrowheads depends on the slope. Two fields specifying the maximum and the minimum length of a slope arrow. Slope values at which the arrow length is equal to: - maximum length - two thirds of maximum length - one third of maximum length - minimum length If on, a text label will be placed along a slope arrow. Number of decimals in the slope label.

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Display Shaded Surface


Display Shaded Surface tool draws the surface model colored by elevation and by triangle slope at the same time. Elevation determines the pure color used and triangle slope angle with the sun angle determines the brightness or darkness used. This coloring effect is achieved by using the HSV color model. Hue component varies according to elevation smoothly between from magenta, red, yellow, green, cyan and blue. Value component varies according to triangle slope to make the color darker or brighter. The display is drawn as a raster into MicroStation views -- it is not written to the design file. To display a shaded surface: 1. Select the Display Shaded Surface tool. This opens the Display Shaded Surface dialog:

2.

Fill in settings values and click OK. This creates a shaded surface display in the selected views.

Setting: Surface Draw mode

Sun azimuth Sun angle Color scheme

Color cycles Views

Effect: Surface to display. Drawing mode: Opaque - display hides anything in the background. Transparent - keeps background visible outside the surface. Direction from which the sun is shining. Zero is north. Angle indicating how high above the horizon sun is. Color scheme to use: Default - magenta, red, yellow, green, cyan and blue. Selected colors - use Define button to create a color scheme. Number of color cycles. Use zero to create a gray scale display showing triangle slope only. Views in which to display the shaded surface.

Page 99 10 Generating Displays

Update Displays
Update Displays tool updates contours, triangles, grid, elevation texts and slope arrows after surfaces have been modified. This tool will update all display methods for all modified surfaces.

Erase Display
Erase Display tool erases previously displayed contours, triangles, grid, elevation texts or slopes. This tools opens a window which will show the status of the five display methods for the selected surface.

In the above example, contours have been displayed in Write to file mode. Triangles, elevation texts or slopes have not been displayed. A grid has been displayed in Display only mode. To erase one of the display methods: 1. 2. 3. Select the Erase Display tool. Select the surface you want to operate on. Use Erase contours, Erase triangles, Erase grid, Erase texts or Erase slopes push button to erase the display.

Page 100 10 Generating Displays

Display Boundary
Display Boundary tool draws all the edges of a surface model. This will help you see the location covered by the surface model. To display the boundary of a surface model: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Display Boundary tool. Select the surface you want to display. As you move the mouse inside a view, the boundaries of the surface model are highlighted. (Optional) Select a view to draw the boundaries permanently and to fit the view by the surface model.

Setting: Draw permanently Fit view by surface

Effect: If on, draws the boundaries as permanent elements when you enter a data click. If on, fits the view by the surface when you enter a data click.

Page 101 10 Generating Displays

Display Regions tool box


The tools in the Display Regions tool box are used to generate region based displays from a surface model.

These display methods rely on fairly complex computation which is performed when you run the tool. The created display elements will not be updated if you modify the surface and start the tool. To: Display theme polygons Display rain water flow on surface Display triangles colored by region boundaries Display triangles with raster materials Use: Display Themes Display Drainage Display Region Triangles Display Raster Triangles

Page 102 10 Generating Displays

Display Themes
Not Field

Display Themes tool creates colored shape elements to display theme areas in a surface model. Each theme area represent an elevation range, a slope range or a domain which has been assigned a distinctive color. Theme coloring is very similar to the elements created by Display Triangles tool. Both create elevation based coloring which may look exactly the same when viewed in a top view window. Display Themes tool has the advantage of creating only one element for each color region. This results in a much smaller design file size than would be produced if each triangle would be colored separately. Display Themes tool creates normal design file elements which are not linked to a surface model. TerraModeler does not know how to update or erase elements created by this tool. To display theme areas: 1. Select the Display Themes tool. The Display themes dialog box opens:

2. 3.

Fill in settings values in the dialog. Click OK. Selected themes areas are drawn as filled shape elements in the design file.

Setting: Color by

Draw as

Effect: How to divide surface model into the areas: Elevation - each theme area represents an elevation range. Slope - each area represent a slope range. Domain - create theme polygons from neighbouring triangles assigned to the same domain. How to draw the boundary of each theme area: 3d shapes - follows surface model elevation. 2d shapes - draw at zero elevation.

Page 103 10 Generating Displays

Display Drainage
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Display Drainage tool computes and displays how drainage water would run along a surface model. It uses a grid based approach to determine water flow. It starts by placing an imaginary rain drop at each grid square and then determines where that rain drop would travel. It compares the elevation of the square center point with that of each of the neighbouring squares. If a lower elevation is found, the rain drop travels to the neighbouring square to which the slope is steepest. This process continues until each of the rain drops have reached a pit or a local minimum elevation point. Display Drainage tool creates normal design file elements which are not linked to a surface model. TerraModeler does not know how to update or erase elements created by this tool. To display drainage: 1. Select the Display Drainage tool. The Display drainage dialog box opens:

2. 3.

Fill in settings values in the dialog. Click OK. This computes the drainage water flow and displays the results temporarily in all open views. The display will be updated every time MicroStation updates the view contents.

Viewing drainage display


Drainage display shows the paths of rain drops as they would travel according to the grid based calculations. Arrows indicate the flow direction and line weight gives an indication on how many rain drops travel along that path. Red rectangles mark places where drainage water would gather. As the rain drops will never travel outside the surface model, you may see several rectangles at the outer edges of the model.

Page 104 10 Generating Displays

Drainage display will remain visible as long as you keep the Drainage Detail window open. This window allows you to control the level of detail in the display. When set to High, the drainage display will show each single rain drop. As you move the setting closer to Low, the application will leave out smaller rivers and only display the major paths.

Drainage Detail window lets you view the runoff area of individual squares. To view runoff areas: 1. 2. Click on Show area. As you move the mouse inside a view, the Runoff area field will display the runoff area for the square under the mouse location. This is the combined surface area of all the squares from which a rain drop will travel to or through the selected square. (Optional) Enter a data click if you want to display the boundaries of the runoff area. These will be drawn as a shape element using active symbology.

3.

Page 105 10 Generating Displays

Display Region Triangles


Not Field

Display Region Triangles tool displays a surface model colored by regions which are defined by closed shape elements. The triangles and the parts of triangles falling inside each region are drawn using the color of the boundary shape. You might use this tool to visualize land use regions, soil type regions or property boundaries. This display method is always written to the design file. To display region triangles: 1. 2. Use MicroStation Selection tool to select region boundary shapes. Select the Display Region Triangles tool. This opens the Display Region Triangles dialog:

3.

Enter settings values and click OK. This writes region colored triangles to the design file.

Setting: Surface Level Create graphical groups Draw triangles outside regions

Effect: Surface model to display. Level on which to draw region triangles. If on, the triangles inside each region will form one graphical group. If on, draws triangles which are outside all boundaries using the given color.

Page 106 10 Generating Displays

Display Raster Triangles


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Display Raster Triangles tool sets up orthoimages as rendering materials and displays triangles in a manner suitable for rendered images. MicroStation can create visualizations where raster images are used as surface materials for specific elements. For this to function correctly, one has to build a link between vector elements and the raster images used as surface materials so that the correct raster image is used for each vector element. MicroStation assigns rendering materials to a specific element level and color combination. Display Raster Triangles tool accomplishes three tasks: Creates rendering material definitions for given georeferenced raster images. Assigns each rendering material to a specific level and color combination. Draws surface model triangles inside each raster rectangle using the assigned level and color. To display raster triangles: 1. Select the Display Raster Triangles tool. This opens the Display Raster Triangles dialog:

2. 3.

Enter settings values and click OK. (Optional) If you selected GeoTIFF files in the Rasters field, the application will ask you to select GeoTIFF files to use. Select the desired files and click OK. This creates the rendering material definitions and draws triangles accordingly. You can now use MicroStation tools to create rendered images.

Setting: Surface Rasters

Mode

Effect: Surface model to display. Source of raster images: GeoTIFF files - you select files to use. MicroStation references - rasters attached by MicroStation. TerraPhoto references - rasters attached by TerraPhoto. Drawing mode: Preview triangles - display triangles when view updates. Write triangles to file - write to file. Write boundaries only - display and write a rectangular boundary for each raster image. Only the boundary will follow changes in the surface model.

Page 107 10 Generating Displays

Setting: Colors

Level Color Smooth facets for rendering Material Palette

Effect: Level and color usage: Automatic - raster images get automatically assigned levels and colors. Either level or color increases from one raster to the next. Manual selection - application builds a list of assignments and lets you modify those. Level to assign to the first raster image. Color to assign to the first raster image. If on, smoothens random point edges between triangles. Material file to create. Palette file to create.

Page 108 11 Computing Quantities

11

Computing Quantities

Quantity tool box


The Quantity tool is used to compute quantities between surface models, to find the intersection between two surfaces or to compute surface model areas.

Compute Quantity is the tool you will use most often. It calculates volumes between two surfaces using the grid method. You can calculate volumes from the entire surface models or you restrict the calculation area by using a fence. Define Section Templates and Compute Section Quantity tools should be used when you want to calculate volumes along an alignment using the traditional end-area method.

To: Compute quantities with grid method Compute quantities using prismoidal method Compute quantities along an alignment Define section templates for trenches Compute trench quantities using section templates Compute tunnel volume from section elements Draw intersection of two surfaces Compute surface area

Use: Compute Quantity Compute Prismoidal Quantity Compute Alignment Quantity Define Section Templates Compute Section Quantity Compute Tunnel Volume Draw Surface Intersection Compute Area

Page 109 11 Computing Quantities

Compute Quantity
Compute Quantity tool computes quantities between two surfaces and produce results summing up both cut and fill volumes. The calculation is based on a grid method. You can control the accuracy and speed of calculation by entering the grid size. You can use a fence or a selected shape element to define the area for calculation. To compute quantities using grid method: 1. 2. 3. Select the Compute Quantity tool. The Compute Quantity window opens. Select upper surface and lower surface. Fill in values for calculation settings. Click on Calculate push button to start computation.

Setting: Upper surface Lower surface Limit

Limit surface Inside fence Step Surf cut limit

Display

Draw as

Effect: Upper surface for calculation. Lower surface for calculation. Limiting factor to restrict calculation to occur: Area - only where Limit surface is defined. Lower limit - only above Limit surface. Upper limit - only below Limit surface. Surface to limit calculation. If on, calculation will take place only inside a fence or a selected shape element. Grid size. A small step will produce more accurate results but the calculation will take longer. Surface cut limit. Computes cut volume separately for places where the cut depth is less than this limit. Will also calculate surface cut area for billing purposes. Display method for calculation results: No display - nothing is drawn. Draw temporarily - as temporary elements. Write to file - as permanent elements. How to draw results graphically: Vertical lines - a vertical line at the center of each calculated column. Horizontal lines - as horizontal lines. Filled shapes - shapes filled with color.

Page 110 11 Computing Quantities

Compute Prismoidal Quantity


Not Field

Compute Prismoidal Quantity tool computes quantities between two surfaces and produce results summing up both cut and fill volumes. The calculation is based on a prismoidal method: the application compares the triangles of the two surfaces. This is the mathematically accurate method for computing quantities. You can use a fence or a selected shape element to define the area for calculation. To compute quantities using prismoidal method: 1. 2. 3. Select the Compute Prismoidal Quantity tool. The Compute prismoidal quantity window opens. Select upper surface and lower surface. Fill in values for calculation settings. Click on Compute push button to start computation.

Setting: Upper surface Lower surface Inside fence Display

Effect: Upper surface for calculation. Lower surface for calculation. If on, calculation will take place only inside a fence or a selected shape element. Display method for calculation results: No display - nothing is drawn. Draw temporarily - as temporary elements. Write to file - as permanent elements.

Page 111 11 Computing Quantities

Compute Alignment Quantity


Not Field

Compute Alignment Quantity tool computes quantities along an alignment element.

To compute quantities along an alignment: 1. 2. Select an alignment element. This element will often be a three dimensional complex chain. Select the Compute Alignment Quantity tool. The Compute alignment quantities window opens:

3. 4.

Fill in settings values in the dialog. Click the Calculation button to open up a calculation window.

TerraModeler has two tools for computing quantities along an alignment. Compute Alignment Quantity tool calculates volumes using the grid method and requires that you have an existing surface model for the excavation. Compute Section Quantity tool uses section templates to define the excavation and calculates volumes using the end-area method.

Page 112 11 Computing Quantities

Define Section Templates


Not Field

Define Section Templates tool lets you create a list section templates, which are of definitions of typical cross sections. TerraModeler's cross sections templates are meant to be used in computing trench excavation quantities. The cross section templates are automatically saved into a file with the same directory and name as the active design file. The file extension is KDB. For example, if the active design file is d:\dgn\proj12.dgn, the section templates will be saved to and loaded from file d:\dgn\proj12.kdb. To define section templates: 1. Select the Define Section Templates tool. The Define section templates window opens:

2.

Use the Add button to add new template definitions to the list.

Add and Edit buttons open up the Section template window which is used in defining a section template. A small circle in the center of the template picture symbolizes the spot, where an alignment element goes through. Dz specifies an initial depth below that spot.

The shape of the cross section is defined as component lists that extend to the left or to the right from the initial Dz point. A component can be a line or a slope. A line has a vertical and a horizontal distance. A slope has a fixed angle at which it extends until it reaches a specified surface.

Page 113 11 Computing Quantities

Compute Section Quantity


Not Field

Compute Section Quantity tool lets you attach templates to station ranges along an alignment element. This template list can be used for computing quantities or for generating an excavation as cross section elements. To attach templates to an alignment: 1. 2. Select an alignment element. This element will often be a three dimensional complex chain. Select the Compute Section Quantity tool. The Alignment templates window opens:

The template list consists of rows with a station range and a name of a section template. A gap between station ranges of successive rows is interpreted as a linear transformation between two template types. You can skip a station range by selecting template type 'None'. Such a station range will not be included in the calculation. It is a good idea to save the template list into a file, from which you can retrieve it later. Select Save command from the File menu to create a text file list the templates. Calculation button closes the list window and opens a calculation window.

Page 114 11 Computing Quantities

Compute Tunnel Volume


Not Field

Compute Tunnel Volume tool computes the volume of a tunnel defined by cross section elements drawn into their true 3D positions. The cross section elements may represent the design of a new tunnel or may be created based on the point cloud from a terrestrial laser scanner. The cross section elements should be closed vector elements (shapes or complex shapes) drawn perpendicular to an alignment element running along the tunnel. The interval between consecutive cross sections may vary. To compute tunnel volume: 1. Select the Compute Tunnel Volume tool. This opens the Compute Tunnel Volume dialog:

The upper list contains a list of alignments defined for the tool. The lower list displays all the cross sections defined for the alignment selected in the upper list. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Use Selection tool to select an alignment element running along the tunnel. Click Add next to the upper list to add the selected alignment. Select the row of the alignment in the upper list box. Use Selection tool to select cross section elements for the alignment. Click Add next to the lower list to add the selected cross sections. Validate the created list of cross sections. Make sure that station positions and surface areas make sense. Click Compute to start the volume computation. This opens the Report tunnel volume dialog:

9.

Enter settings values and click OK. This computes the volume and displays a report.

Page 115 11 Computing Quantities

Draw Surface Intersection


Draw Surface Intersection calculates the intersection of two surfaces and draws linear elements along the intersection. These linear elements represent a line of intersection along which the two surfaces have exactly the same elevation. When calculating the line of intersection, TerraModeler compares individual triangles from the two surfaces with each other. If the planes of two triangles intersect each other, the intersection is drawn as a line segment. This tool will often be used when computing cut and fill volumes as it creates a linear element showing the location where the two surfaces have the same elevation. The line of intersection is the cut and fill boundary of two surfaces! To draw intersection of two surfaces: 1. Select the Draw Surface Intersection tool. The Intersect surfaces window opens:

2.

Select the two surfaces and click OK. The line of intersection is drawn using active level and active symbology.

Page 116 11 Computing Quantities

Compute Area
Not Field

Compute Area tool computes the surface area covered by a surface model. It produces results both as a two dimensional area and a three dimensional area value. The three dimensional value is the true surface area of the triangles. The two dimensional value is computed using only x and y coordinates of the triangle vertices. You can use a fence or a selected shape element to define the area for calculation. To compute surface area: 1. Select the Compute Area tool. The Compute Area window opens:

2. 3.

Select surface to compute. Fill in values for calculation settings. Click on Calculate push button to start computation.

Setting: Compute

Domain Slope Paint calculated area Label 3d area of each shape

Effect: Area to compute: Whole surface - compute the whole surface model. Fence contents - compute only inside or outside the fence. Selected shapes - compute only inside selected linear elements. If on, compute only triangles assigned to the selected domain. If on, compute only triangles in a give slope range. The lower and upper limits are given as slope percentages. If on, draw each calculated triangle as a temporary shape element. Can be set only when computing inside selected shapes. If on, places the computed three dimensional area of each shape inside the shape as a permanent text element.

Page 117 12 Using Domains

12

Using Domains

Domains tool box


The tools in the Domain tool box are used to define domains, to assign domain information for triangles and to display domains.

You can use domains to separate different types of surface regions from each other. By defining a list of domains, you can create your own classification system for surface regions. This classification system will often be created for visualization purposes. It allows you to distinguish different looking surfaces regions from each other. Typically, you would create a list of domains for various regions of the ground surface. This list could include such domains as Ground, Grass, Rock, Forest or Road. You assign a unique coloring scheme and a unique level for each domain. Display Domain Triangles tool draws surface model triangles using coloring schemes and levels assigned for each domain. Having each domain on a unique design file level makes it easy to do further manipulation with MicroStation's tools. Patterning and material assignment capabilities let you: Apply area patterning on all triangles belonging to a certain domain. For example, you might want to pattern the area of Grass domain. To do this, use Selection Tool to select all triangles on a certain level and Pattern Area tool to apply the area patterning. Assign rendering materials to triangles belonging to a certain domain. To accomplish this, choose Assign Materials from Settings / Rendering menu. Drape an aerial photograph on a surface model using material assignment. To: Define domains Assign a view for dynamic domain display Set domain of triangles inside an area Set domain of triangles between two linear elements Set domain of triangles Display triangles using domain coloring Use: Define Domains Domain View Set Area Domain Set Domain Between Lines Set Triangle Domain Display Domain Triangles

Page 118 12 Using Domains

Define Domains
Not Field

Define Domains tool opens a window for defining domains. The window contains push buttons for adding new domains, for editing a domain and for deleting a domain. The domain definitions can be saved to a text file or loaded from a previously saved file. When you open a design file, TerraModeler will automatically load the domain definition file that was used last with that design file.

To add a new domain: 1. Click on Add push button. This opens the Domain dialog box:

2.

Fill in setting values for the new domain. Effect: A free description text. Surface used when assigning coloring scheme elevation boundaries. Level for displaying triangles.

Setting: Name Elevations Level

Page 119 12 Using Domains

Domain View
Not Field

Domain View lets you assign a view which will display domain assignments of the surface model you are working on. Whenever MicroStation redraws the contents of the assigned domain view, TerraModeler will draw surface model triangles as temporary elements using domain colors. It is a good idea to assign a domain view when you are setting the domains of triangles. It provides the best way of seeing the effects of your work. To assign a domain view: 1. Select the Domain View tool. The Domain View window opens:

2.

Select View in which you want to see the current domain assignments. Effect: Speeds up view update by drawing only the active domain.

Setting: Draw only active domain

Page 120 12 Using Domains

Set Area Domain


Not Field

Set Area Domain tool sets domain of all triangles inside or outside a fence. This tool uses the center point of a triangle when deciding if a triangle is inside or outside the fence. To set domain of fence contents: 1. 2. 3. Place a fence or select a shape element to define the area. Select the Set Area Domain tool. Accept fence contents. The triangles inside or outside the fence will be set to the active domain.

Setting: Surface Set to Fence

Effect: Surface model to operate on. Domain to which triangles will be assigned. Fence mode - inside or outside.

Page 121 12 Using Domains

Set Domain Between Lines


Not Field

Set Domain Between Lines tool sets domain information of all triangles between two linear elements. This tool is designed to be used with linear elements that are close to parallel to each other. To set domain between two linear elements: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Set Domain Between Lines tool. Identify the first linear element. Identify the second linear element. Accept the two highlighted linear elements. The triangles between the two linear elements will be set to the active domain. TerraModeler uses the center point of a triangle when deciding if the triangle is between the two linear elements.

Setting: Surface Set to

Effect: Surface model to operate on. Domain to which triangles will be assigned.

Page 122 12 Using Domains

Set Triangle Domain


Not Field

Set Triangle Domain tool sets domain information of individual triangles.

To set triangle domains one triangle at a time: 1. 2. 3. Select the Set Triangle Domain tool. Choose method One at a time in settings window. As you move the mouse, the shape of the underlying triangle will be dynamically displayed. To set the domain of a triangle, enter a data click.

To set triangle domains by painting: 1. 2. 3. Select the Set Triangle Domain tool. Choose method Paint in settings window. Enter a data click in the first triangle to set. As you move the mouse after the first data click, all triangles the mouse passes over will be set to the active domain. To end assignment, enter a second data click.

Page 123 12 Using Domains

Display Domain Triangles


Not Field

Display Domain Triangles tool draws triangles for a surface model using domain coloring schemes and domain levels. To display domain triangles: 1. Select the Display Domain Triangles tool. The Display domain triangles dialog box opens:

2. 3.

Select Surface and display Mode. Choose OK.

This tool is very similar to the Display Triangles tool. In fact, domain triangles is really an alternate way of displaying surface model triangles. You can update domain triangles with the Update Displays tool or erase them with the Erase Display tool.

Page 124 13 Placing Single Display Elements

13

Placing Single Display Elements

Display Single tool box


The tools in the Display Single tool box are used to place single contours, elevation texts or slope arrows.

To: Place a contour at a single elevation Place an elevation text Place a slope arrow

Use: Place Contour Place Elevation Text Place Slope Arrow

Page 125 13 Placing Single Display Elements

Place Contour
Not Field

Place Contour tool draws a contour at a single elevation. This tool will calculate the surface elevation under the mouse position and draw a contour for that elevation. You can place the contour at a precise elevation by locking the elevation to a key-in value. To place a single contour: 1. Select the Place Contour tool. As you move the mouse, the application will display a contour running through the mouse location. 2. Enter a point on the contour. A contour is drawn for the surface elevation at the entered location.

Page 126 13 Placing Single Display Elements

Place Elevation Text


Not Field

Place Elevation Text tool places a single elevation text. It shows the surface elevation at a given location. The label will be generated so that the decimal point is located at the given position. This tool can be used to label the difference between two surfaces as well. Text font, size and numeric format will be determined by leveling point settings. See Leveling points category on page 36 for more information. To place a single elevation text: 1. 2. 3. Select the Place Elevation Text tool. Choose Elevation option in the Write field. Enter a location for the elevation label. The surface elevation will be drawn at the given location. To place a surface difference label: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Place Elevation Text tool. Choose Difference option in the Write field. Select upper and lower surfaces. Enter a location for the difference label. The difference between the two surfaces will be drawn at the given location.

Page 127 13 Placing Single Display Elements

Place Slope Arrow


Not Field

Place Slope Arrow tool places a single slope arrow. The slope arrow shows the direction in which water would run at a given location. The arrow length indicates how steep the surface is at that location. To place a single slope arrow: 1. 2. Select the Place Slope Arrow tool. Enter a point for the slope arrow location. A slope arrow will be drawn at the given location. See Place Slope Arrow / Arrows category on page 33 and Place Slope Arrow / Labels category on page 33 for settings related to the slope arrow.

Page 128 14 Managing Surfaces

14

Managing Surfaces
TerraModeler supports an unlimited number of surfaces during the same session. Surfaces tool opens a window where you can manage surfaces. You can open surfaces, save surfaces, rename a surface, view surface data, copy surfaces, import and export data etc.

Opening a surface file


TerraModeler's surface models area saved as binary files on the disk. When you create a new surface model, the application will give it a default file name by combining the design file name with an extension such as T00, T01, T02 and so on. You can change the file name and store it anywhere on your computer's disk drives. Similarly, you can open previously saved surface models from any directory on your computer. To open a surface file: 1. 2. 3. From the File menu, choose Open. The Open surface dialog box opens. Locate and select the file you want to open. Click OK. This reads in the surface model file and adds it to the list of open surfaces.

Saving surfaces
TerraModeler keeps open surface models in the RAM memory of the computer. Modifications to the surface model will affect only this copy until the model is saved to the disk. You can save surfaces using any one of three options in the File menu of the Surfaces window. To: Save one surface to the disk file assigned to it. Save one surface under a new name. Save all modified surfaces. Choose from the File menu: Save surface Save As Save All

You can save the design file and all surfaces simultaneously. If Immediately Save Design Changes is switched off in the Operation category of user preferences, MicroStation's File menu will have a Save option. Choosing this option will save the design file and all surfaces at the same time if When saving design file setting is on in the Saving Surfaces category of TerraModeler user settings.

Page 129 14 Managing Surfaces

Opening a reference surface


Sometimes it may be safer to open a surface model as a reference surface. This means that you can view the surface, create displays from it, use it in calculation but you can not make any changes to it. This is very useful if you just want to use a surface file somebody else has created. When you open it as a reference surface, you can not accidentally modify the other person's work. To open a reference surface: 1. 2. 3. From the File menu, choose Open reference. The Open reference surface dialog box opens. Locate and select the file you want to open. Click OK. This reads in the surface model file and adds it to the list of open surfaces. You can use the reference surface in all tools which do not modify a surface. When a reference surface is opened, the application will read a copy of the model into RAM memory. It will use that model during that session and will not detect if somebody else makes changes to the reference model file.

Modifying surface settings


To modify the basic information of a surface, choose Modify settings from Edit menu. This opens a dialog box where you can modify the surface type, enter a new name for the surface or assign a new file name for the surface.

Modifying profile settings


To modify settings controling how surfaces will be drawn in profiles, choose Profile settings from Edit menu. This opens a dialog box where you modify the symbology of a surface when drawn in profiles or cross sections.

Page 130 14 Managing Surfaces

Excluding outer boundaries


To exclude outer boundaries, select a surface in the list and choose Exclude boundaries from Edit menu. This command will exclude narrow, long triangles from the outer edges of a surface model. You can enter the maximum length for outer boundary triangles.

You can use this command several times with different maximum lengths. If the results of the first round do not please you, you can rerun the process with a new maximum length. It is a good idea to check the results with Exclude Triangle tool using Paint method.

Modifying surface elevations


To modify elevation values, select a surface in the list and choose Modify elevations from Edit menu. This command will modify surface elevations using a mathematical equation.

The old elevation of a point can be used in the equation as variable Z. The equation is actually a C language expression. You can use any mathematical functions MDL recognizes. Valid expressions include such functions as sin(a), cos(a), tan(a), exp(a), log(a), log10(a), pow(a,b), sqrt(a), ceil(a), fabs(a) and floor(a) where a and b are floating point values.

Page 131 14 Managing Surfaces

Thinning a surface
To delete unnecessary points, choose Thin from Edit menu. This command will thin a model by removing points too close to another. A point will be removed if it is within both the maximum horizontal distance and the maximum vertical distance from the closest adjacent point.

Setting: XY distance Z distance

Effect: Minimum horizontal distance between to points. Minimum vertical distance between to points.

Deleted points and triangles will remain as inactive data in a surface model. It may be a good idea to compress the surface model after thinning.

Compressing a surface
To minimize the amount of memory a surface model occupies, choose Compress from Edit menu. This command will remove previously deleted points and triangles from a surface model.

TerraModeler stores triangle indexes in display elements such as contour curves, triangle shapes or elevation texts. Compressing a surface model results in all of these indexes being invalid thus making it impossible for the application to update display methods created before compression. If any displays have been created, TerraModeler will ask if those should be erase before compression.

Page 132 14 Managing Surfaces

Deleting a surface
To delete a surface, select the surface in the list and choose Delete surface from Edit menu. This deletes a surface from the memory and deletes the related disk file.

Viewing surface statistics


To view surface statistics, select a surface in the list and choose View statistics from Utility menu. This opens a dialog box displaying surfaces statistics. Its shows the number of points, the number of triangles and the coordinate ranges in the model.

Copying surfaces
To create a copy of a surface, choose Copy surface from Utility menu. This command will create an identical copy of an existing surface.

Page 133 14 Managing Surfaces

Merging surfaces
To merge two surfaces, choose Merge surfaces from Utility menu. This command will merge two surfaces creating a combined surface.

This command is often used to create a surface representing the future ground by combining a design surface and an existing ground surface. The design surface, such as an excavation or a road, is set to be the primary surface. The merging operation will copy all the information from the primary surface to the new surface. The secondary surface, existing ground, will be used to enlarge the area of the new surface. The points from the secondary surface will be used only if they are located outside the primary surface. Setting: Primary Secondary Use Effect: All the information from the primary surface is copied to the new surface. Information from the second surface will be used only outside the primary surface. Which surface to use in places where both surfaces are defined: Primary surface - primary surface. Highest surface - higher of the two surfaces. Lowest surface - lower of the two surfaces.

Subtracting surfaces
To subtract two surfaces, choose Subtract surfaces from Utility menu. This command will create a third surface by calculating the elevation difference of all the points in two existing model.

Page 134 14 Managing Surfaces

Creating a statistical grid model


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To create a statistical grid model, choose Statistical model from Utility menu. This command will create a new surface by calculating statistical elevations based on an existing surface. The new surface will be a grid type surface. It will consist of evenly spaced points at constants intervals in both X and Y directions. These points will have an elevation value that has been mathematically calculated from the existing surface. When calculating an elevation for a grid point, the application will search for points in the existing model within a given radius from the grid point location. The new elevation can represent, for example, the average elevation of the points found.

Setting: Surface From Expand to rectangle Fence contents X step Y step Enter origin From area

Radius Z scale New Z

Effect: Surface to create. Existing surface from which to calculate values from. If on, expand the new surface to be a rectangular area enclosing all of the points in the original surface. If on, use only those points from the original surface that reside in fence contents. X direction interval between points in the new surface. Y direction interval between points in the new surface. If on, you can enter an origin for the new grid points. Shape of calculation area around a grid point: Circle - circle with a given radius. Square - radius is half the side length. Size of calculation area around a grid point. Constant scaling for the new elevation values. Mathematical expression to calculate for each grid point. This may include variables: Count - the number of points inside area. Average - the average of elevations. Sum - the sum of elevations. Gravsum - gravitational sum of elevations. Minimum - smallest elevation. Maximum - highest elevation.

Page 135 15 Importing and Exporting Data

15

Importing and Exporting Data


TerraModeler can import data from a variety of sources and output data to many file formats. Most of the import and export functions can be found in the File pulldown menu of the Surfaces windows. For data type: Graphical elements Triangles in design file Xyz text file SiteWorks surface model Intergraph grid file (GRD) Disimp grid file Ordnance Survey NTF grid file Raw binary grid file Elevation colored raster image Use for import: Triangulate Elements tool Import / Triangles Import / Xyz file Open surface Import / Lattice file Import / Lattice file Import / Lattice file Use for export: Export / Graphical elements Display Triangles tool Export / Xyz text file Export / Lattice file Export / Lattice file Export / Lattice file Export / Raster image

Importing triangles
To import a triangulated surface model created by another application, choose Triangles from Import menu. This command will read in triangle elements from a given level and create an identical surface model.

Importing XYZ text file points


To import points from a text file, choose Xyz file from Import menu. You can use this command to create a new model or to add points to an existing model. TerraModeler requires that one row in a text file represents one point. E, N and Z coordinates have to be stored as fields separated by white space, commas or semicolons. The text file may have fields that will be ignored. When you choose a file to import, TerraModeler reads in 25 first rows and opens File format for import dialog box. You can select the fields where E, N and Z coordinates can be found. Use as option button defines whether to use the points as random or as breakline points.

Page 136 15 Importing and Exporting Data

Exporting text files


To create a text file listing from surface model points, select a surface in the list and choose Xyz text file from Export menu. The Export XYZ dialog box opens.

When listing points to a plain XYZ text file, TerraModeler will output random points to one file and breakline points to another. When listing points to a survey file format, TerraModeler will identify random and breakline points by a feature code.

Exporting graphical elements


To draw surface model points into the design file, choose Graphical elements from Export menu. This command will draw different types of surface model points on given levels. Random and inferred points can be drawn as leveling text elements, as zero length lines or as X character text elements. Breaklines, contours, hole boundaries and outer boundaries will be drawn as linear elements.

This command may prove useful if you want to modify the surface in a manner for which TerraModeler does not have any suitable tools. For example, TerraModeler does not have a tool for shifting a group of surface model points horizontally. You can accomplish this by: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Export the surface model points into the design file as graphical elements. Switch all other levels off in a view. Move the graphical elements using MicroStation's fence tools. Delete the old surface model. Use Triangulate View tool to recreate the surface model from the shifted graphical elements.

Page 137 15 Importing and Exporting Data

Importing lattice files


TerraModeler can import lattice files and create a triangulated surface model using the grid based points. To import a lattice file, select Lattice file from Import menu. A triangulated surface model takes up a lot more memory than a lattice model, if all the lattice points are used in triangulation. The triangulated surface can upto 36 times bigger than the original lattice file. Therefore, it is often necessary to leave out some of the lattice points. TerraModeler is capable of leaving out less relevant points and still build a triangle network which is always within a user given tolerance of original grid points.

Exporting raster images


When creating elevation based coloring using Display Triangles or Display Grid tools, you are limited to the 256 colors in MicroStation's color table. As an alternative to this, TerraModeler offers you the capability to export a true color raster image where the color changes according to elevation. This can produce very smooth color changes. To export a raster image: 1. Select Raster image from Export menu. This opens the Export Raster Image dialog:

2.

Enter setting values and click OK. TerraModeler computes raster pixel colors and then opens a dialog for selecting output file name.

3.

Enter a name for the output file and click OK. A raster image is generated in Windows bitmap format (BMP).

Setting: Colors

Step Scheme

Degree

Effect: Color depth of the raster image: 24 Bit Color - true color image. 256 Colors - 256 colors. Grey scale - 8 bit grey scale. Size of each pixel. Type of coloring scheme: Cold to hot - varies from blue in low elevation to red in high elevation. Hot to cold - varies from red in high elevation to blue in low elevation. Selected colors - you can define the coloring scheme. Determines how the color changes in Cold to hot and Hot to cold schemes are computed

Page 138 16 Lattice Database

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Lattice Database
The lattice database is a collection of grid based files placed in the same directory. These lattice files are typically produced by a national land survey organization which produces elevation data covering the whole country. This type of data provides an inexpensive way to create a rough surface model of large areas or a quick way to derive a rough elevation value for any location in the country. TerraModeler offers some dedicated tools which can extract elevation values from a collection of lattice files. All of these tools search for lattice files in a directory that is specified in Settings tool's Lattice database category. All of the tools require that the design file uses the same coordinate system as the lattice files were created with. Supported file formats include: Disimp - used by Finnish National Land Survey Ordnance Survey NTF - used by UK Ordnance Survey Intergraph GRD - have to be orthonormal Support for more file formats may be added later on.

Drawing lattice database boundaries


Before using any other tools, you should normally check what areas are covered by the lattice database files. To do this, select Draw boundaries in the Lattice database submenu of Utilities pulldown menu in the Surfaces window. This option will scan through the lattice database and draw a rectangle in the design file showing the area covered by each file. The name of each lattice file will be placed as text element at the center of the corresponding rectangle.

Viewing lattice database elevation


View Elevation tool can display lattice database elevation under the mouse. In addition to triangulated surfaces, Surface option button lets you also choose Lattice database as the surface to view. As you move the mouse, TerraModeler will determine the correct lattice file and locate the elevation value closest to the mouse location. Additionally, you can use the Point on surface lock to place elements on the elevation of the lattice database. This offers an easy way to place an element on ground elevation anywhere in the country, provided that you have the elevation data available.

Page 139 16 Lattice Database

Triangulating lattice database points


Surfaces window offers a menu option for triangulating a fenced area of lattice database points. The fenced area may overlap several individual lattice files. A triangulated surface model makes it possible to insert new elevation data as random points or as breaklines. A triangulated surface model takes up a lot more memory than a lattice model, if all the lattice points are used in triangulation. The triangulated surface can upto 36 times bigger than the original lattice file. Therefore, it is often necessary to leave out some of the lattice points. TerraModeler is capable of leaving out less relevant points and still build a triangle network which is always within a user given tolerance of original grid points. To triangulate lattice database points: 1. 2. Place a rectangular fence. Select Import fence contents from Lattice database submenu of Utilities pulldown menu. This opens the Import Fence Contents dialog:

3. 4.

Enter settings values and click OK. This opens the Surface settings dialog. Enter a name for the new surface and click OK. The application processes all lattice files overlapping the fence and creates a triangulated surface model from the points.

Page 140 17 Flood Mapping

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Flood Mapping

Flood Mapping tool box


The Flood Mapping tool box is used to generate validated river cross sections, output those to calculation software and display results.

To: Import surveyed river sections Modify or extend river sections Output sections to calculation software Import resulting water levels Display the area covered by sections Display flood extents

Use: Import River Sections Edit River Sections Export River Sections Input Water Elevations Draw River Section Boundaries Display Flood

Page 141 17 Flood Mapping

Import River Sections


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Import River Sections tool reads in cross section survey files and draws these in the design file. The input survey files have to be in Eeby format. TerraModeler will first display the imported river sections in temporary mode and will open the River sections window which offers a number of tools for validating and modifying section information. To import river sections: 1. 2. Select the Import River Sections tool. This opens a dialog box which allows you to select one or several files to process. Add the desired file(s) to the list of files to process and click Done. TerraModeler reads in the selected files, draws the cross sections in temporary mode and opens the River cross sections window:

3.

Validate and modify the cross section information using the tools in the River cross sections window. When you close the window, TerraModeler will ask you if you want to write the cross sections permanently to the design file.

Moving river sections to correct location


Imported survey data may contain locational errors. To correct those errors, you can move the origin of a river section or modify the direction in which it is drawn. To move the origin of a river section: 1. 2. 3. Select a river section in the list box. Choose Move xy origin from Section menu. Enter a new origin point for the river section.

To modify river section direction: 1. 2. Select a river section in the list box. Choose Edit from Section menu.

Page 142 17 Flood Mapping

This opens the River cross section dialog:

3.

Enter a new bearing angle and click OK. The river section is drawn in the new direction starting from its origin point.

Generating a section view for a river section


When validating and positioning a river section, it may be useful to see a three dimensional section view from the cross section location. To generate a river section view: 1. 2. 3. Select a river section in the list box. Click View section button. Select a view. TerraModeler rotates the view and adjust the display depth so the river section is visible in the view.

Extending river sections


Surveyed river sections can be extended using a surface model of the ground. This will add points to either end of the section so that it accurately follows the ground surface elevations. To extend a river section: 1. 2. 3. Select a river section in the list box. Choose Extend from Section menu. Enter a new end point for the river section. You can continue from step 3 or click reset when you are done.

Page 143 17 Flood Mapping

Edit River Sections


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Edit River Sections tool lets you modify river sections which have been drawn to the design file.

To modify a single river section: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Edit River Sections tool. Identify the river section to edit. This opens the River cross sections window displaying the selected section. Modify the cross section information using the tools in the window. Close the window when done.

To modify several river sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Place a fence around the river sections you want to modify. Select the Edit River Sections tool. Accept fence contents. This opens the River cross sections window displaying the sections found within the fence. Modify the cross sections using the tools in the window. Close the window when done.

Export River Sections


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Export River Sections tool outputs extended river sections to Onda. You can output all of the cross sections drawn to the design file or use a fence to output only certain cross sections. To output river sections to Onda: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (Optional) Place a fence around the river sections you want to output. Select the Export River Sections tool. (Optional) Accept fence contents. This opens a dialog for selecting a name for the output file. Enter a name for the output file. Click OK.

Page 144 17 Flood Mapping

Input Water Elevations


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Input Water Elevations tool reads water elevation data as produced by Onda. This data basically contains elevation values for the cross sections used in the calculation. TerraModeler will try to find a matching cross section from the design file for each of the elevation values and draws a line string along the section at the computed elevation. These line strings can be used to create a surface model of the flood water elevation. To import water elevation data from Onda: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Set active level and color to be unique for the flood model in question. (Optional) Place a fence around the river sections you want to input. Select the Input Water Elevations tool. (Optional) Accept fence contents. This opens a dialog for selecting the input file. Select the input file and click OK. TerraModeler reads in the elevation data and draws line strings along the matched river sections using active level and symbology settings. You can use Triangulate View, Triangulate Elements or Insert Random Elements tool to create a surface model of the flood water elevation. Default exclusion logic does not work very well when creating a surface model from river sections. The Exclude outer boundaries field in the Triangulate surface dialog controls exclusion logic. For river sections, you should select By key-in length option and enter a Maximum length value such as 300.0 meters.

Draw River Section Boundaries


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Draw River Section Boundaries tool generates a shape element around the area covered by river sections.

Page 145 17 Flood Mapping

Display Flood
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Display Flood tool computes and displays the extent of flooding. It can compare several flood models (5 year, 10 year, 25 year, ) with the ground surface model and display each using a specific color. The calculation is based on a grid method. You can control the accuracy and speed of calculation by entering the grid size. To display flood extents: 1. 2. Place a fence around the area to compute. Select the Display Flood tool. This opens the Display flood window:

3. 4.

5.

Select ground surface model in the Surface option button. A list box display all other surface models and their current drawing settings. Go through these surface and select a unique color for each which should be included in the computation. Set Draw toggle off for all surfaces which should be ignored. Click OK. TerraModeler will compare each of the selected flood surfaces with the ground surface model and color the calculation grid accordingly.

Page 146 18 Lifting 2D Contours

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Lifting 2D Contours

2D Contours tool box


The 2D Contours tool box is used to lift 2D contour elements into 3D or to validate elevations of linear elements.

To: Lift 2D contours using contour labeling Set elevation of a contour element Validate elevations of linear elements

Use: Lift 2D Contours Set Contour Elevation Check Linear Elevations

Page 147 18 Lifting 2D Contours

Lift 2D Contours
Lift 2D Contours tool converts two dimensional contour elements into a three dimensional design file. The original elements may reside in two dimensional reference files. This tool scans the specified levels in either the active design file or in attached reference files for text elements and for linear elements. It tries to find a matching contour elevation label for each contour chain. A match is found, if the start or the end of a contour chain is close to an elevation label. To lift 2D contours into 3D: 1. Select the Lift 2D Contours tool. This opens the Lift 2D Contours dialog:

2. 3. 4.

Click Settings to define symbology for lifted contours. Click OK to close Contour symbology dialog. Fill in settings values in the dialog and click OK. TerraModeler scans the given levels in the specified files for text and linear elements. These will be drawn in the active design file using contour symbology.

Setting: File

Levels

Labeled contours Unlabeled contours Labels Set symbology

Effect: Files from which to search for text and linear elements: Active design file - scan the active design file. Reference files - scan all reference files with Locate on. List of levels from which to scan for elements. For example: 61 - level 61. 15,21-24 - levels 15, 21, 22, 23 and 24. If on, lift contours for which a matching label has been found. If on, copy linear elements for which no elevation value was found. These will be copied to zero elevation. If on, you can enter an origin for the new grid points. If on, modify the symbology of elements according to settings defined using Settings pushbutton.

Page 148 18 Lifting 2D Contours

Set Contour Elevation


Set Contour Elevation tool lifts linear elements to a given elevation one at a time. It is designed to be used for lifting two dimensional contour elements onto correct elevation. To set elevation of contour element(s): 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the Set Contour Elevation tool. Enter elevation value in Elevation field. Identify the element to lift. Accept the element. The element is lifted to the given elevation. You can continue to step 2 or 3.

Setting: Find connected elements

Set level and symbology

Effect: If on, the application will try to find linear elements which connect exactly to the start or the end point of the identified elements. These connected elements will be lifted as well. If on, modify the symbology of elements according to settings defined using Settings pushbutton.

Page 149 18 Lifting 2D Contours

Check Linear Elevations


Check Linear Elevations tool validates the elevations of linear elements within fence contents. It will mark invalid elements by modifying level and color of the elements. To check elevations of linear elements: 1. 2. Place a fence to define the area to process. Select the Check Linear Elevations tool. This opens the Check Linear Elevations dialog:

3.

Enter settings values and click OK. This will process fence contents and modify all elements which exceed the given criteria.

Setting: Mark elements

Elevation

Level Color

Effect: How to determine invalid elements: Above elevation - mark all elements which extend above a given elevation. Below elevation - mark all elements which extend below a given elevation. With non-uniform elevations - mark all elements which have vertices at more than one elevation. List of levels from which to scan for elements. For example: 61 - level 61. 15,21-24 - levels 15, 21, 22, 23 and 24. If on, move invalid elements to the given level. If on, set invalid elements to the given color.

Page 150 19 Public Functions

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Public Functions
TerraModeler has a number of functions that can be called by other MDL applications. A third party can write an application which obtains elevation values from a TerraModeler surface model or which drives operations that TerraModeler performs. TerraModeler publishes public functions with mdlCExpression_symbolPublish(). This makes the functions available for any MDL applications. Many Terra applications use this method of interaction between different modules. For example, TerraStreet calls FnSurfaceZ() when labeling a profile with surface elevations.

Page 151 19 Public Functions

Calling Method
The functions can be called with mdlCExpression_ getValue(). The code example below illustrates the method:
void Example( void) { char Expr[120] ; char Name[32] ; int Ret ; if (TmCall( &Ret, "FnSurfaceCount()") > 0) mdlOutput_printf( MSG_PROMPT, %d surfaces, Ret) ; sprintf( Expr, "FnSurfaceName(%ld,%d)", (long) Name, 0) ; if (TmCall( &Ret, Expr) > 0) if (Ret) mdlOutput_printf( MSG_MESSAGE, Name is %s, Name) ; } /*------------------------------------------------------------------Call a function in TerraModeler. Store return value in *Ret. Return 1 if successful. Return 0 if TMODEL not found. Return -1 if failed for another reason. */ int TmCall( int { CExprValue CExprResult int *Ret, const char *Expr) Val ; Res ; Ok ; return (0) ;

if (!LoadApp( "TMODEL"))

Ok = mdlCExpression_getValue( &Val, &Res, Expr, VISIBILITY_CALCULATOR); if (Ok != SUCCESS) return (-1) ; if (Ret) *Ret = (int) Val.val.valLong ; return (1) ; } /*------------------------------------------------------------------Load MDL application with Name (such as TMODEL). Return 1 if succssful. Return 0 if application not found. */ int LoadApp( char *Name) { void *Ptr ; int Ok ; /* Is application already loaded? */ Ptr = mdlSystem_findMdlDesc( Name) ; if (Ptr) /* Not loaded, attempt loading */ Ok = mdlSystem_loadMdlProgram( Name, NULL, "") ; if (Ok == SUCCESS) return (0) ; }

return (1) ;

return (1) ;

Page 152 19 Public Functions

Function Prototypes
/*------------------------------------------------------------------Return number of triangulated surface models. */ int FnSurfaceCount( void) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Fill structure with information about triangulated surfaces. S points to a table of SurfInfo structures. Calling application should have allocated it to hold at least FnSurfaceCount() items. Return number of items filled in the table (=FnSurfaceCount()). */ int FnSurfaceList( SurfInfo *S) ;

typedef struct { int Id ; int DrawInProfile ; char Name[32] ; int Type ; char Reserved[76] ; } SurfInfo ;

/* /* /* /* /*

Id */ Draw in profiles? */ Name */ Type id */ For future development - ignore now */

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Copy name of surface with id I into Str. Return 1 if id I was valid. Return 0 if id was invalid. */ int FnSurfaceName( char *Str, int I) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Return profile color of surface with id I. Return 0 if id was invalid. */ int FnSurfaceColor( int I) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Compute bounding cube for surface with id I. Mn is set to be the minimum x,y,z of the surface model. Mx is set to be the maximum x,y,z of the surface model. Return 1 if successful. Return 0 if failed. */ int FnSurfaceMinMax( Dpoint3d *Mn, Dpoint3d *Mx, int I) ;

Page 153 19 Public Functions

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Calculate elevation Pt->z at location Pt->x,Pt->y from surface with id I. The elevation can not be calculated if: - the surface id is invalid - the surface is empty - the point is outside surface - the point is inside an excluded triangle Return 1 if successful. Return 0 if the elevation could not be calculated. */ int FnSurfaceZ( Dpoint3d *Pt, int I) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Calculate elevation for an array of x,y points from surface with id I. Tbl is a pointer to an array of x,y points. Cnt is the number of points in the array. The calling application should initialize the z values of the points to an invalid value such as -999999. If the elevation of a x,y point can not be calculated, the z value will remain unchanged. Return 1 if successful. Return 0 if the surface is invalid. */ int FnSurfaceArrayZ( Dpoint3d *Tbl, int Cnt, int I) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Drape an array of points over surface model with id I. Tbl is a pointer to an array of x,y points. Cnt is the number of points in the array. I is the id of the surface model. After the routine: *Pnt points to a table of generated points. *Val points to a table of characters which indicate what point intervals are valid. Val[0] indicates if point interval Pnt[0] - Pnt[1] is valid. Return the number of points generated. Return 0 if failed. */ int FnDrapeArray( Dpoint3d **Pnt, char **Val, const Dpoint3d *Tbl, int Cnt, int I) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Free the results from a call to FnDrapeArray(). Pnt points to a table of generated points. Val points to a table of characters. Return 0. */ int FnDrapeFree( Dpoint3d *Pnt, char *Val) ;

Page 154 19 Public Functions

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Drape descriptor Dp over surface model with id I. FileNr is the file number of descriptor Dp. Method determines what is generated for places where the original descriptor is outside the surface. If Method is 0 : Outside part will remain unchanged. 1 : Outside part will be drawn with active symbology. 2 : Outside part will not be drawn, thus resulting in a gap. Create new descriptor as *Pp (Dp is not changed in the process). Return 1 if successful. Return 0 if failed. */ int FnDrapeDscr( MSElementDescr **Pp, MSElementDescr *Dp, int FileNr, int Method, int I) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Has surface with id I been triangulated? */ int FnModelExists( int I) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Fill an option button with surface names. This function lets an external application create an option button for selecting a surface. If P == 0, list all surfaces. If P == 1, list all triangulated surfaces. */ int FnSurfaceOption( RawItemHdr *Raw, int P) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Fill option button with surface type names. Return 1 always. */ int FnSurfTypeOption( RawHdr *Raw) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Create a new empty surface model into which points can be added using FnAddPoints() or FnInsertPoints(). Type is the surface type as defined in Modeler user settings. Calling application should use zero (normally ground) or let the user select type from an option button (use FnSurfTypeOption). Name is an optional name for the new surface. If Name == NULL, surface type name is retrieved for the surface model name. Return ID of the new surface (0,1,...). Return -1 if failed (out of memory). */ int FnCreateSurface( int Type, char *Name) ;

Page 155 19 Public Functions

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Add random points to surface with id I. This routine can be used to insert points to an existing surface or to create a new surface. TerraModeler will always triangulate the surface during this function. Tbl points to an array of Cnt points. Cnt is the number of points in Tbl. If AskSet is true, ask triangulation settings. In a result of this call, Return true if points were inserted. Return 0 if unsuccessful. */ int FnInsertPoints( int I, int AskSet, Dpoint3d *Tbl, int Cnt) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Add points of type Type to surface with id I. TerraModeler will add these points to its point list but will not immediately triangulate the new points. This routine can be used to insert points to an existing surface or to create a new surface. Tbl points to an array of Cnt points. Cnt is the number of points in Tbl. Type is the point type: 1 = random 2 = breakline 3 = contour 10 = external 3D boundary 11 = external 2D boundary 20 = internal 3D boundary 21 = internal 2D boundary Return true if points were inserted. Return 0 if unsuccessful. */ int FnAddPoints( int I, Dpoint3d *Tbl, int Cnt, int Type) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Triangulate surface with id I. The calling application will typically call this function after calling FnAddPoints() a number of times. If AskSet is true, ask triangulation settings. Return 1 if triangulation was completed. Return 0 if unsuccessful. */ int FnAddDone( int I, int AskSet) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Retriangulate surface with id I after calls to FnAddPoints(). Return 1 if triangulation was completed. Return 0 if unsuccessful. */ int FnAddRetriangulate( int I) ;

Page 156 19 Public Functions

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Add a linear element representing surface elevations to a profile descriptor. This routine can be called by an application creating a profile in which surface(s) are drawn as line string type elements. This routine uses surfaces profile color and line style when adding elements to the descriptor. Dp is descriptor where elements will be added. L defines the profile settings and the alignment. Return 1 if drawn. Return 0 if failed. Return -1 if no need to draw: - surface is empty or - Draw in profile setting is off */ int FnProfileDscr( MSElementDescr *Dp, FnProf *L) ;

typedef struct { int SurfId ; int Lvl ; Dscr *Align ; double AlignLen ; double ExaggZ ; double RangeStart; double RangeEnd ; Dpoint3d Org ; int Scale ; } FnProf ;

/* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /*

Surface id or -3=all surfaces */ Level to draw on */ 2D alignment */ Length of the alignment */ Horizontal scale / Vertical */ Elevation range from */ Elevation range to */ Lower left corner of range*/ Horizontal scale */

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Find out grid elevation at location Pt->x, Pt->y. This function searches the lattice database for a grid file which covers the given location and reads the closest elevation value. Return 1 if Pt->z was successfully set. Return 0 if point was outside grid data files. Return -1 if no grid files were found. */ int FnGridZ( Dpoint3d *Pt) ;

Page 157 19 Public Functions

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Compute lattice elevation values from surface SurfId. The calling application should: 1. Fill in values in TinLtc structure 2. If integer (uor) elevation values are needed: * allocate memory as T->ElevInt (CntX*CntY*sizeof(int)) * initialize every value to an invalid value (such as 0x80000000) 3. If floating point (master unit (m))) elevation values are needed: * allocate memory as T->ElevInt (CntX*CntY*sizeof(double)) * initialize every value to an invalid value (such as -999999.0) 4. If elevations from excluded triangles are needed: * allocate memory as T->Valid (CntX*CntY*sizeof(char)) This routine sets only those elevation values for which an elevation from SurfId can be calculated. Lattice points outside the surface will not be affected. If the calling application provider T->Valid as non-NULL, TerraModeler will calculate elevations from excluded triangles as well and fill in T->Valid[] to indicate which point are: 0 outside surface 1 inside an excluded triangle 2 inside a valid triangle Return 1 on success. Return 0 if SurfId is invalid. */ int FnComputeTinLattice( TinLtc *T, int SurfId) ; typedef struct { Dpoint3d Org ; /* Origin point (lower left) */ double StpX ; /* X interval */ double StpY ; /* Y interval */ int CntX ; /* Column count */ int CntY ; /* Row count */ int *ElevInt ; /* Elevation as integer values (uor) */ double *ElevDbl ; /* Elevation as double values (master units) */ char *Valid ; /* Validity information */ } TinLtc ; /*------------------------------------------------------------------Calculate elevation Pt->z at location Pt->x,Pt->y from a surface of type Type. This routine will loop thru all surfaces to find one of matching type where location Pt is valid. Return 1 if successful. Return 0 if the elevation could not be calculated. */ int FnSurfaceTypeZ( Dpoint3d *P, int Type) ;

Page 158 19 Public Functions

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Compute elevation for each P->x,P->y point in table Tbl. Use first triangulated surface of type Type to compute the elevations. Tbl is a pointer to an array of x,y points. Cnt is the number of points in the array. The calling application should initialize the z values of the points to an invalid value such as -999999. If the elevation of a x,y point can not be calculated, the z value will remain unchanged. Return 1 if a surface of Type exists. Return 0 if no surface. */ int FnSurfTypeArrayZ( Dpoint3d *Tbl, int Cnt, int Type) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Open window for specifying how to display surfaces in profiles. Return 0 always. */ int FnAskProfSurfaces( void) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Compute slope end points starting from master alignment points Vrt[] using normal direction as defined by Nrm[].x and Nrm[].y. Find solution from first surface of type Typ where Prj[] is valid. Make sure slope end points are at least Dst from master points. Store end points in Vrt[]. If slope can not be computed, compute vertex by offseting master point by at least Dst. Return number of successfully computed points. Return -1 if no surface of type Typ. */ int FnSlopeVertices( Dp3d *Vrt, Dp3d *Nrm, int Cnt, double Rup, double Rdn, int Type, double Dst) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Display shaded surface of surface Idv in views Vwb. Vwb specifies views as a bit mask (bit 0 for view 1, ...). This routine does not update views. Return 1 on success. Return 0 if failed (I out of range). */ int FnDisplayShaded( int Idv, int Vwb) ;

Page 159 19 Public Functions

/*------------------------------------------------------------------Display contours for surface with id SurfId. Ap points to contour action settings. Sp points to contour settings. Sp may be NULL. Lp points to label settings. Lp may be NULL. Tp points to tick settings. Tp may be NULL. Return 1 on success. Return 0 if failed (no surface or invalid Ap). */ int // FnDisplayContours( int SurfId, ContAct *Ap, ContSet *Sp, ContLbl *Lp, ContTck *Tp); Contour action for FnDisplayContours()

typedef struct { int Mode ; int Type ; int DrawTicks ; int DrawLabels; int Draw1 ; int Draw2 ; int Draw3 ; int Reserved1 ; double Every1 ; double Every2 ; double Every3 ; char Reserved2[80]; } ContAct ; //

// // // // // // //

0=display only, 1=write to file, 2=preview 0=curves, 1=line strings, 2=soft line strings Draw contour ticks? Draw contour labels? Draw minor contours? Draw basic contours? Draw major contours?

// Minor contour interval (master unit) // Basic contour interval (master unit) // Major contour interval (master unit)

Contour settings for FnDisplayContours()

typedef struct { int ColorBy ; int Lvl1 ; int Lvl2 ; int Lvl3 ; int Clr1 ; int Clr2 ; int Clr3 ; int Sty1 ; int Sty2 ; int Sty3 ; int Wgt1 ; int Wgt2 ; int Wgt3 ; int Reserved1 ; int ClrCnt ; int Clrs[127]; long ClrElev[128]; char ClrFix[128]; int Domains ; int ElevLimit ; double ElevMin ; double ElevMax ; int Smoothing ; int AreaSkip ; double AreaMin ; int Complex ; int Thin ; double ThinDst ; double ThinDev ; double ThinAng ; char Reserved2[80] } ContSet ;

// // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // ;

Color Minor Basic Major Minor Basic Major Minor Basic Major Minor Basic Major

by 0=contour type, 1=elevation contour level contour level contour level contour color 0-255 contour color 0-255 contour color 0-255 contour style contour style contour style contour weight contour weight contour weight

Number of scheme colors Scheme colors max 127 Color elevations Fixed flags for elevations 0=all domains, 1=only selected domains 0=all elevations, 1=only ElevMin-ElevMax - lowest elevation to draw - highest elevation to draw Smoothen contours? Skip small closed contours? - min area (sq master units) Build complex chains? Thin contours? - distance (master units) - deviation (master units) - turn angle (degrees)

Page 160 19 Public Functions

//

Contour label settings for FnDisplayContours()

typedef struct { int LabelsOn ; int Pos ; int UpHill ; int Cut ; double Every ; int int int int int char char int int int char } ContLbl ; // Sty ; Wgt ; OwnSymb ; Lvl ; Clr ;

// // // // // // // // // //

0=major, 1=major&basic, 2=all 0=above, 1=on, 2=below, 3=start point 0=label downhill, 1=uphill Cut underlying contour? (if Pos == 1) Label interval (master units) Style Weight 0=contour level+color, 1=own level+color - own level - own color Prefix text Suffix text Number of decimals 0,1,2 or 3 Display plus? Display minus?

Prefix[12]; // Suffix[12]; // Decim ; // Plus ; // Minus ; // Reserved1[80] ;

Contour tick settings for FnDisplayContours()

typedef struct { double Every ; int OnlyDepr ; int Triangle ; int MaxUse ; double Length ; double MaxArea ; } ContTck ;

// // // // // //

Tick interval (master unit) Only depressions? 0=draw line, 1=draw triangle 0=all, 1=only closed contours < MaxArea Symbol length (master unit) Maximum area (sq master unit)

Page 161 19 Public Functions

Triangulate Survey
TerraModelers Triangulate Survey tool creates a surface model from survey elements. TerraModeler does not understand any details about survey elements or survey feature coding. TerraSurvey is responsible for deciding what elements and what feature codes can be used as valid information for the surface to be created. TerraModeler scans the design file and calls a function in TerraSurvey for each element to find out if that element can be used in triangulation. A similar calling sequence has been built for DigiCad and PRO600 applications. The example code below shows how an application should publish the functions TerraModeler will call.
#define PRO600_SYMBSET 250 /* Any value of your choice */ char *ProSym = NULL ; ProSym = mdlCExpression_initializeSet( PRO600_SYMBSET, 0, 1); mdlCExpression_symbolPublish( ProSym, Pro600StartTriMap, SYMBOL_CLASS_FUNCTION, (CType *) &intType, Pro600StartTriMap); mdlCExpression_symbolPublish( ProSym, Pro600AcceptTriMap, SYMBOL_CLASS_FUNCTION, (CType *) &intType, Pro600AcceptTriMap); /*------------------------------------------------------------------PRO600 should use this function to add grid points to the surface model. This function enables PRO600 to add points which do not have corresponding design file elements. Triangulate Survey command has been started for surface with id I. PRO600 can make calls to FnAddPoints() to add points to the surface. PRO600 should not call FnAddDone() from within this routine. Return 1 if Pro600AcceptTriMap should be called while scanning. Return 0 if Pro600AcceptTriMap does not need to be called. */ int Pro600StartTriMap( int I) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------TerraModeler calls this function for every design file descriptor if Pro600StartTriMap() returned 1. Pro600 should return one of the following values: 0 : element is invalid for surface type Type or element is not a PRO600 element 1 : random point element 2 : breakline element 10 : external 3D boundary 11 : external 2D boundary 20 : internal 3D boundary 21 : internal 2D boundary */ int Pro600AcceptTriMap( MSElementDescr *Dp, int FileNr, int Type) ;

Page 162 19 Public Functions

/*------------------------------------------------------------------This function enables DigiCad to add points which do not have corresponding design file elements. Triangulate Survey command has been started for surface with id value of I. DigiCad can make calls to FnAddPoints() to add points to the surface. DigiCad should not call FnAddDone() from within this routine. Return 1 if DigiAcceptTriMap should be called while scanning. Return 0 if DigiAcceptTriMap does not need to be called. */ int DigiStartTriMap( int I) ;

/*------------------------------------------------------------------TerraModeler calls this function for every design file descriptor if DigiStartTriMap() returned 1. DigiCad can set the exact point in *Xyz (for leveling text elements where the position of the decimal point is not accurate). DigiCad should return one of the following values: 0 : element is invalid for surface type T or element is not a DigiCad element 1 : random point element 2 : breakline element 10 : external 3D boundary 11 : external 2D boundary 20 : internal 3D boundary 21 : internal 2D boundary */ int DigiAcceptTriMap( Dpoint3d *Xyz, MSElementDescr *Dp, int FileNr, int T) ;

Page 163 20 Installation Directories

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Installation Directories
TerraModeler shares the same directory structure with all Terra Applications. It is recommended that you install all Terra Applications in the same directory. The list below shows a typical directory structure when TerraModeler has been installed in path C:\TERRA. c:\terra config tmodel.cfg docs example model.dgn model.clr license tmodel.lic ma tmodel.ma tmodel.dll seed tmodel directory where TerraModeler was installed for configuration files defines environment variables for documents and on-line help for example design files example design file example coloring scheme for user license files user license for application files application library for seed files for application settings

tmodel.pdf on-line help

Page 164 21 Configuration Variables

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Configuration Variables
MicroStation is able to locate TerraModeler with the help of configuration variables. When you install TerraModeler, the installation program will create a configuration file TERRA.CFG which defines the required environment variables. This file is placed in MicroStation's CONFIG\APPL subdirectory. For example, C:\USTATION\CONFIG\APPL\TERRA.CFG may contain: #------------------------------------------------------# # TERRA.CFG - Configuration for Terra Applications # #------------------------------------------------------TERRADIR=c:/terra/ TERRACFG=$(TERRADIR)config/ TERRADOCS=$(TERRADIR)docs/ MS_MDLAPPS < $(TERRADIR)ma/ %if exists ($(TERRACFG)*.cfg) % include $(TERRACFG)*.cfg %endif This configuration file will include all the configuration files in C:\TERRA\CONFIG directory. TerraModeler's configuration file TMODEL.CFG contains: #------------------------------------------------------# # TMODEL.CFG - TerraModeler Configuration File # #------------------------------------------------------TMODEL_LICENSE=$(TERRADIR)license/ TMODEL_SET=$(TERRADIR)/tmodel/ In a default configuration, MicroStation will automatically include these settings as configuration variables. You can use MicroStation's Configuration command from Workspace menu to check the values for these variables. In case these variables have not been defined correctly, you should define them manually. MS_MDLAPPS should include the directory where TMODEL.MA is located. TMODEL_LICENSE should point to the directory where user license TMODEL.LIC is located. TMODEL_SET should point to a directory where application settings TMODEL.INF can be stored.