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UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR -a theory of language that aims to describe and explain human language.

As far as SLA research is concerned, UG is only relevant in order to understand the acquisition process, namely what it is that learners have to acquire. -all human beings inherit a universal set of principles and parameters, which control the shape of human languages and make them similar to one another. What Constitutes Knowledge of Language? Linguistic theory aims to describe the mental representations of language stored in the human mind. It aims to define what all human languages have in common they are also very different, as revealed by our struggles to master foreign tongues. Principle Rules of the language or abstract principles that permit or prohibit certain structures from occurring in all human language i.e. the properties that all languages possess grammar, speech, sounds, and meaning The friend I am closest to and who was so supportive when I lost my job last year bought a new car yesterday My friend bought a new car yesterday. She bought a new car yesterday. The friend that I met in Japan last year bought a new car yesterday. Parameters systematic ways in which human languages vary which determine the syntactic variability amongst languages. E.g the head parameter Head-first (right branching)phrases: Heads precede their dependents Head-last (left branching) phrases: Heads follow their dependents John has put the book on the table (English) Jan hat das Buch auf den Tisch geledt (John-has the book on-the table put)(German) How is Knowledge of Language Acquired? Chomsky believes that children could not learn their first language so quickly and effortlessly without the presence of an innate language faculty to guide them. The arguments put forward in support of such a belief are that on the basis of degenerate input. Children create a mental representation of language that is not only much more complex than could be expected. L2 learners they are exposed to equally fragmentary input and are required to construct abstract representations based on such input. L2 learners are generally cognitively mature and, therefore, are presumably better able to handle abstract concepts. they are already proficient in their native language and because they already have a mental representation of that language, with all parameters set. Role of UG in SLA Full Access Hypothesis-Like children, L2 learners still have access to UG. The fact that they do not achieve full mastery is due to their different needs. Indirect Access Hypothesis-UG is not directly involved in SLA; it is indirectly accessed through the L1, with parameters already set for that language No Access Hypothesis-UG, because it is biologically triggered, atrophies with age and is not available to adult learners. These learners have to depend on general problem solving devices.

Partial Access Hypothesis-Some aspects of UG (for example principles) might still be available and others (for example some parameters) are not. weaknesses methodological; the study of naturalistic performance is not seen as a suitable opening into mental representations of language. Firstly, UG-based SLA research has been criticised for focusing almost exclusively on syntax. Even if recent interest in phonology, morphology and the lexicon should redress the balance somewhat, semantics, pragmatics and discourse are excluded. Secondly, the UG approach has also been exclusively concerned with the developmental linguistic route followed by learners when learning an L2. The social and psychological variables which affect the rate of learning process are ignored. Strengths bring out students potential usage of scaffolding based on students culture and social implications The first stage is termed the silent period for learners to process language input whereby it promotes immature production. This may be the reason why some learners resist or avoid to produce the language taught. The second stage is the formulaic speech whereby learners are exposed to sample of useful and frequently phrases for learners to refer to in communication. the last stage of developmental sequence is the application of semantic simplifications to the learners language. Another issue to be considered is the acquisition order of language learning. By knowing which structures are learned prior to others, teachers may be able to sequence the order of content in the English Language syllabus to suit the learners. The teacher plays an important role in the selection of comprehensible input to suit learners level. In order to select the appropriate input, teachers have to be equipped with the knowledge and skills of teaching methodology. Teachers have to assist their learners as much as possible by providing them with language necessary to pass to the next level of language competence. Fossilization is another issue only attributable to L2 acquisition. While all L1 learners reach full competence in the target language, some forms in the target language of the L2 learners might be fossilized. social issues should be considered by teachers. Second language learners may choose to learn a language variety other than the standard form. Therefore, it is the teacher's responsibility to decide on which variety of the target language to take as the norm

Topic 2:theories of language learning main goal-to bring about learning.

Behaviourism behaviour can be conditioned by altering the environment certain response can be produced by manipulating & giving certain stimulus. Motivation to learn was assumed to be driven by drives such as hunger,rewards and punish Skinner-language is a conditioned behaviour Children starts out as clean slates & language learning is process of getting habits printed on these slates through +ve & -ve punishement. Learners are viewed as passive & learn language step by step=imitation>repetition>memorization>controlled drilling>reinforcement. Problem- rewarding students cause lose interest in learning -detrimental effect on other students in the classroom. Principle Use system reward Provide immediate feedback for complex & difficult concepts Provide practice, drill & review activities to enhance mastery of facts Sequence material from simple to more difficult to enhance understanding Reinforce when students demonstrate the modeled behaviour. State learning outcomes Establish a contract with students on the work to be done & what reward will be given.

Cognitivism Cognitive theories of learning indicate that learning is a multi-faceted, complex & dynamic process. Focus on mind, black box & attempt to show how info us received, assimilated, stored & recalled. People are not programmed animals. People are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, & whose actions are a consequence of thinking. Changes in behaviour are observed, but only as an indication of what is occurring in the learners head. Uses metaphor of the mind as computer. Process of relating new information to previously learned information Also defined as a change in the learners schemata. Actively involved. Errors also accepted. Learner as an active participant. Teacher provides effective instruction to help learner acquire knowledge more effectively. Principles Present info in an organized manner (simple to complex). Bring to mind relevant prior knowledge. Provide review & repetition of learning Provide opportunities for students to elaborate on new info Help students process info in meaningful ways Behavio Cognitiv Focus urist ist An active A blank View about the mind slate. Basically alike organizer. Varied, with multiple intelligences and learning styles. Teacher plans and S-T Roles sets goals for learning. One Student s participate in planning and goalsetting.

best way of teaching.

Teacher teaches with variety.

Motiva tion

Reward is motivation.

Learnin g is a motivator. Student s are taught what and how Student s are involved in

Students Curricul um Content are taught what.

Teacher assess. Assess ment Product is important.

peer and selfassessment. Product and process are important

Social Constructivism Learning is an active, contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it. Learning is a social activity. Cooperative, collaborative & group investigation methods allow students to discuss ideas, beliefs & values with their peers & teachers. Learners interpret what they hear, read & see based on their previous learning, habits & experiences. Learner actively involved in the learning process and teacher as facilitator. Learning is enhanced when students learn how to learn, engage in discussion & shared responsibility.

Students should be provided with authentic & challenging projects that encourage them to work together with one another. Authentic settings would be provide learners with opportunities to see a prob from diff perspective as well as negotiate & generate solutions through sharing & exchange ideas. Authentic environment learners assume responsibilities for their own learning. Principles Encourage student autonomy & initiative-students take responsibility for their own learning -respect students ideas & encourage independent thinking Promote higher order thinking amongst students-ask questions that will influence student response -challenge students to analyze, justify & defend their ideas Engage students in meaningful learning-provide students opportunity to express their ideas -involve students in real world situations Humanism Humanism refers to a movement in psychology which emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. Humanism has its roots in counseling psychology and focuses its attention on how individuals acquire emotions, attitudes, values and interpersonal skills. Humanistic psychologists believe that how a person feels about learning is as important as how the person thinks or even behaves. They describe behaviour not from the viewpoint of the teacher as do behaviourists but rather from the vantage point of the student who is performing the activity. the idea of self-actualization, the growth of a person to achieve whatever degree of individual satisfaction they are capable of achieving. A student learns because he or she is inwardly driven (self-motivation), and derives his or her reward from the sense of achievement that having learned something affords student-centred The humanist teacher is a facilitator the humanist teacher is also concerned with the students affective or emotional needs. Humanists believe that feeling positive about oneself facilitates learning. Principles Establish a warm, democratic, positive and non-threatening environment for the students to work in. Provide learning experiences that will lead to the development of habits and attitudes that teachers want to foster. Teachers should be role models and set good examples for students to emulate. Students are given choices (with limitations) and freedom (with responsibilities) to plan and carry out activities. Teacher facilitates the learning process and share ideas with students. Learning is based on life experiences, discovery, exploring and experimenting. Respect students feelings and aspirations. Provide opportunity for success. De-emphasize rigorous, performance-oriented, test-dominated approaches. Students are allowed to set their own goals and follow their own pace Experiential learning is encouraged.