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CORNELL
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

Comeil

Uiiippc:ity

BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND GIVEN IN 189I BY

HENRY WILLIAMS SAGE

CORNELL UNIVERSITY

l-IBRAj;Y

081

667 846

'^

Cornell University Library

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924081667846

INDEX TO THE PALACE OF MINOS

INDEX TO THE PALACE OF MINOS


BY

JOAN EVANS,
HON. FELLOW OF
ST.

D.LiTT.

HUGH'S COLLEGE

WITH SPECIAL SECTIONS CLASSIFIED


IN DETAIL

AND CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED


BY

SIR

ARTHUR EVANS

D.LiTT., F.R.S., I.B.A.

MACMILLAN AND
ST.
1936

LIMITED MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON


CO.;

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN

PREFACE
By SIR
It has been fairly claimed for
of the whole range of
it

ARTHUR EVANS
The Palace of Minos, in addition to
is

that

its local

aspects regarding the excavations at Knossos,

in a certain degree an Encyclopaedia

Minoan

culture so far brought within our knowledge.


itself entailed a lapse

But such an extensive publication


the result of active researches in
lating.

many directions

^new

of time during which

as

facts were continually

accumu-

One

inevitable consequence of such conditions has been that full information

regarding various subjects has to be sought through successive volumes, making


reference to collective results a difficult matter.
It is clear therefore that for

the

present work a general Index was a real condition of completeness.

On

the other

hand,
of
it

taken of this vastness and complexity of the material much time set forth, extending through four large volumes, two with separate parts, and amounting to over 3,000 pages ^the arduousness of the work required for indexing the whole can be well understood.

when account

is

here for the

first

This hard task was nevertheless undertaken by my sister. Dr. Joan Evans, the whole being carried out by her with competent method to an advanced stage. But, though the numerous questions that thus arose were constantly referred to myself, it became

more and more evident

that the ordered presentment of certain subjects, such as

could only be supplied by long years of research and of personal experience on the spot, must fall on my own shoulders more directly than I had at first contemplated.
It was clear indeed that certain important subjects involving elaborate analysis and classification, with the approximate chronological succession, must be dealt with by myself in considerable detail. Moreover, in taking over thus a series of headings it was necessary to a great extent to set aside the received canons of index-making, where the alphabetic order is fatal to connected statement. Among the subjects (marked 'A.E.') thus treated, as being of special importance as bases of archaeological study, are 'frescoes' and 'painted reliefs', the Minoan 'Genii' and Religion, 'Knossos', the 'pottery', 'seal-stones and signet-rings' both these latter covering a space of some two thousand years and to these must be added the

Minoan

'Script' in its successive stages.

been prepared of the

illustrative examplesi scattered

In each case a kind of catalogue raisonne has through the whole work.

'Religion' required a detailed analysis of the exceptionally interesting stage presented

by that of the Minoan World, and in which the primitive baetylic cult of trees and artificial pillars is combined with artistic representations of the divinities themselves. Supplementary to this, under the heading 'Genii', references are given to the collective evidences of the rise (initially under Egyptian suggestion) of a peculiar class of Minoan daemons acting as beneficent divine agents. As the logical and often minutely descriptive arrangement here adopted under important headings is accompanied in each case with full references to the pages of
natural stones as well as of

vi

PREFACE
fulfilled,

the volumes concerned the functions of a true Index will be adequately


a skeleton classification of these subjects
interested.

while as regards find-spots the alphabetic order has been preserved. At the same time
is

provided for the use of those specially

From

the point of view of students, indeed

many

of

whom may
it

certainly not be

able to afford the whole, necessarily expensive work, this Index


in a separate
institutions.

Volume may be

useful

form

as a private

key for reference to copies of

in public libraries

and

INDEX
A
Aah-hotep, Queen, axe inlaid dagger of,

of, see
ii.

Aahmes, King

Adder-mark ornament on frescoes (cont.) from Phylakopi, I. 547, 548, 550, ill. 42 on hearth, fixed, in Megaron at Mycenae,

iii, 361, 453, 649,

1-390. SSI. I"- 350,


III.

730,
II.

III.

112, IV. 266, 527


of,
i.

IV. 180 movable, from Knossos,

I.

390, 551,

Aahmes, King, axe


361,
III.

420, 550, 712, 715,

112, IV. igi, 266

350 n. 2, IV. 178 ff. on pottery, L.M. la, iv. 643

11. 362, iv. 874 Ab-nub-mes-Wazet-User, see User Abusir, L.M. la cup from, iv. 267 n. i Abydos, axe of Middle Kingdom type from

date of accession of,

L.M.
360, 364

lb, IV. 184, 185, 271, 289, 290,

415 Alabaster vases from, 11. 223 n. i Ostrich-egg flask from, 11. 222 Pottery from, paralleled by late Neolithic finds at Knossos, 11. 12 ist Dynasty, I. 58

Tomb

of Courtiers

at, iv.

IV.

L.M. L.M. L.M.

II, IV. 192,

Ilia,

11.

325 122 n. 2,

iv.

335

III6, IV. 311, 329,

origin of,

736 from Cretan adder's markings,


I.

181, 182

sacral

character of,

549-50, in. 42,

350

n. 2, IV. 178-80, 184, 185, 289, 290,

325

Adler, Dr., on construction of pit-graves at

M.M., from

12th Dynasty

tomb

at, i. 18,
II.

31, 256, 258, 261, 268, 270, 290,

209,

Mycenae, iv. 237 Adonis, association of with Minoan Goddess,

tomb of Princess Hetep supposed


possible attack

216, IV. 108, 130, 137, 265


at, 11.

56 i8th Dynasty at, tin flask from, 11. 179 Achaeans, confederates of Lykians, I. 664

on Knossos by,
of

11.

345, 346

comparison of with 465, 468 death of Bethlehem, mourning 162


III.

III.

143

Minoan
in.

Boy-God,

at

476

for,

i.

builders

tholos

tombs
122 n.

at

Mycenae, iv. 237 Achelous river, lions found near,


Achilles, shield of,
I.

ill.

Adorant, on sealing from lustral area of Little Palace at Knossos, n. 523 votive figure of, from sanctuary of Juktas,

311, 314,

ill.

76, 78, 82,

I-

159 108

loi, 132, IV. 959 analogies with silver rh3rton from Mycenae,

Adriatic Sea, communication of with Delos,


II.

III.

lOI
11.

trade route from to

mouth of Rhone,
South

Achineos, Cape,
222,
223,

232
I.

Acrobats, Minoan,

15,

II.

752, in. 175, 176,


see

170 n. 4 Adze-axes, bronze,


II.

from
i.

House

at

428:

and

Bull-sports,

Tumblers Adad, I. 198, IV. 427


Adalia, clay figure from,

copper, E.M. loi miniature gold, E.M.


II,

Knossos,

II.

629

II, n.

629 n. 3

47 Adana, black granite statuette from, 11. 220 Adder-mark ornament (sacral), diffusion of
first

I.

Adze
(at

sign,

on cornelian prism-seal, n. 204 on tablets from 8th Magazine at Knossos,


669-71
of,

IV.

described as 'wave motive'), iv. 188, 191


I.

Aegean Sea, formation


Aegina, coins
of,

n. 5

on arrow plumes from West Temple


Repository at Knossos,

early relation of with Pontic coasts, iv.

766

548-9
191

on axe of King Aahmes, I. 550, iv. on dress, I. 549, 550 on frescoes from Knossos, i. 547,
550,
II.

jewellery from, Helladic stronghold


11.

found

at

Knossos,

11.

5-6

53, iv. 175 n. 5


of, II.
II.

548,

Minoan pottery from,


Aegisthos, see Aigisthos

564 134 n. 3, 211, IV. 274

705, 731, 818 n. 2

AELIAN
Aelian cited,
iv.

[2]

ALABASTER
Aigisthos, 'tomb of, at

157
liparite

Mycenae

{cont)
11.

Aeneas, 11. 483 Aeolian Islands,

L.M.
from,
i.

lb (and c) pottery from,

487,

23, 87, 412,

IV.

244, 293

494, II. 169: and see Liparite obsidian from, II. 56


Aesir,
iii.

Ain Shems, alabaster vessel from, 11. 256 n. i Ain Tab, buU's-head rhyton from, 11. 538, 658
Aiora, festival at Athens,
IV.

147

26

Aesop,

IV.

509
11.

Air view of Palace, facing


742, 756: and see

iv. xxvi.

Africa, trade of with Crete,

Egypt, Libya North, dolmens in, II. 181 flasks from, iv. 91 n. 2
i.

11. 266 n. 3 Aiaiwasha, raids of on Egypt, described in

Aja, goddess, wife of Shamas,

records at Medinet

Habu,

11.

346

Agamemnon,

10

by King Kinyras, iv. 805 Agate pommel of cruciform sword from Chiefcorslet sent to

coin-types 536, 539 found near in time of Xerxes,


of, iv.

Akanthos, city arms


lions

of, iv. 536,

537

iv. 536 Akashou, Keftiu name on 'London Tablet', IV. 517 Akhenaten, pottery from tomb of

tain's grave at Zafer


seal,

Papoura,

bead,

from N.W.
iv.

iv. 865 Treasure House

at Tell-el-

at

Knossos,

343

Amarna,

iv.

1013
iv.

from Mirabello, iv. 493, 576 from Mycenae, iii. 230, iv. 41 572, 610 from Orvieto, iv. 465 from the Peloponnese, in. 218 n. i
,

Akish, PhiUstine name,

517
flair

Akkad, 11. 264 Akumianakis, Manolis


II.

{epistatis),

in ex-

ploring transit route (Great South Road),

in Cassel Museum, iv. 169 with wounded wild-goat, iv. 542 with couchant oxen, iv. 566 with Genius and cow, iv. 443 worn by Cup-Bearer on fresco from S. Propylaeum at Knossos, 11. 705 cylinder, from Kakovatos, iv. 462, 574 from N.W. Treasure House at Knossos, II. 619 from Rethymnos, iv. 500 from Arkhanes, iv. 508, 509 lentoid, from Kydonia, IV. 466 with lassoing of bulls, in. 188 prism, from Papouda, I. 477

62 n.

Alabaster, banded, found


IV.

on

island of Dia,

from Tiryns, 227, 897 595, date 237 image E.M. from Central Crete, 64
friezes
11.

976 n.

IV.

of, IV.

imitated in frescoes,
in pottery,
of,

of,

I,

i.

i.

356, 419,

11.

161,

444

M.M.

II, iv.

122

use

vases

L.M. lb, IV. 271 E.M. II, I. 90 M.M., I. 177


of:

alabastra

from
IV.

Room
938

of

the

Throne
at

at

Knossos,

Agesilaos,

discovery of

prehistoric script

at

amphoras
II.

from

Wotkshops

Knossos,
Knossos,

Haliartos by, iv. 672 Agonistic scenes in M.M.

269, IV. 727

IH

art, iv.

600
Crete,

bridge-spout from
IV.

Temple Tomb
11.

at

Agriculture,

Nilotic,

influence

of on

976
i.

II. 54: and see Pastoral Agrilo Vounaki, Mycenae, remains of

Minoan

57 from Vat Room Deposit, Knossos,


cylindrical,
11.

cups, from El Kab,

170

road near, iv. 60 Agriml, see Goats, wild

256 n.

Aha, tablet of, 11. 38, iii. 314 Ahmose, Queen, 11. 35 n. 3

n. 6.

from

figure vase

from Byblos,

11.

258

Egypt, connected with Ta-Urt,


at Rifeh,
11.

II.

259

Thisbe, 515 name Asiatic 'tomb of, Mycenae,


iv.

Aigisthos, IV. 26 n. 5 murder of by Orestes

from tomb

257

on bead-seal from
with, IV. 517 11. 43 n. 2

flask,
II.

Egyptian, of the time of Rameses II,

of,

affinities

'fonts'
IV.

179 n. 2 from Central Court at Knossos, in. 15,

at

936

ALABASTER
Alabaster, vases of (cont.)
gallipot,
IV.

[3]

ALTARS
Alabastron,

Minoan
la,

(cont.)
iv.

late

pre-dynastic,

from Knossos,

L.M.

from Anibeh,

267, 358

123 rhytons from Crete,


vases, Egyptian,
II.

11.

822, 827, in. 199


at

from Chamber Tomb at Byblos, 11. 825 from lustral basin of S.E. insula, Knossos,
I.

from cemetery

Abydos,

576,

II.

331
of the Throne,

223 n.

from
IV.

Room

Knossos,

from Royal Tomb at Isopata, iv. 339 from Temple Tomb at Knossos, iv.
338,339
in

648
II.

from Palaikastro, L.M. la, 11. 476 from Kolonaki cemetery at Thebes,
492 n. 3

University

College

Museum,

11.

223 n. I with cartouche of Queen Hatshepsut,


IV.

from Volo, L.M.


I.

lb, 11. 659 n. i use of in connexion with lustral basins,

778
origin of

422, IV. 648


I.

M.M..III6 pedestalled

vases,

Minoan, from Harbour Town of Knossos,


II-

III.

402

Alamo, faience beads from, i. 492, 493 Alashia, Lykian base for sea raids, 664

663,

2SS

Albania, belief in snake as house-guardian in,

from Room of the Throne, iv. 938 from sepulchral chamber of Temple

North, tower-houses

IV.

153

Tomb

309 Syro-Egyptian, from Harbour Town of 371 Knossos, 422 Syrian, from Minet-el-Beida, 778 votive from Khafaje, Alps, Ligurian, 813 171 weights, disk-shaped, from Knossos, 653 Altars from Hagiar Kim, 188 and Gypsum from Hal-Tarxien, 187 Knossos, 218 Alabastron, Egyptian, from tomb Abydos, on Syro-Hittite 130 454 Ashmolean Museum, from Psychro Cave, 48 57 Mycenae, from Treasury of Tri-columnar Hall from 4th Shaft Grave Knossos, 824 144 Middle Kingdom, origin of Minoan incurved, limestone, from private chapel in
III.

Knossos, iv. 1006 from Minet-el-Beida, iv. 778 from 4th Shaft Grave at Mycenae,
at

IV.

iv.

of, 11. 299 Aldbourne, discoveries at, I. 492 n. 5 Aleppo, trade-route to, iv. 771 Alexandria, foundation of, I. 292 Pharos island at, I. 18 Aliki, L.M. two-handled goblet from, Almond-stone, see Ironstone Alphabet, see Script
11.

iv.

tablet

iv.

IV.

11.

see

11.

at

at

I.

IV.
^

cylinders, iv.

in

11.

baetylic,
circular,
IV.

11.

at

at

II.

pedestalled vase, iv. 778, 779

High
at

Priest's

house

at
of,

New
Kahun,
1 2th

Empire, from tomb of Maket


11. 488 Dynasty,

terra-cotta

model
of

Knossos, iv. 209 from East Wing of

Palace at Knossos,

prototypes
III.

of

Minoan

connexion
represented

402 1 8th Dynasty, resemblance to gold chalice on Camp-stool Fresco, iv. 390, 391 from 4th Shaft Grave at Mycenae, in.
pedestalled pots.

triglyph friezes,

il. 607 with half-rosette 11. 607, iv. 210

and

on
11.

crystal

bead-seal

from

Idaean Cave,

607, iv. 211

represented on either side of throne in

309,

IV.

lid of,

391 with

Room of the Throne at Knossos, 11. 607, iv.


name
of Hyksos

King Khyan,
Knossos,
II.
i.

919
represented on the Lions' Gate at
nae,

from North
i>

Initiatory

Area

at

Myce-

18, 26, 297, 319, 380, 410,

416-22,

35 n.

Minoan, 357 IH, imitated from Egyptian M.M.


303,
type,
I.

n- 1. 360,

III.

9, IV. 130,

229

607, IV. 614 represented on fa9ade from


II. 11.

Town Mosaic

from Knossos,
miniature,
i.

607
11.

415-17

220-3,

607, iv. 200

ALTARS

[4]

AMULETS
(cont.)
I.

square, within old frontage of W. Palace of Knossos, 614 opposite N.W. Treasure House,
ii.

Altars (cont.)

Amethyst, scarab
wall of

from Psychro,
seals,

199

11.

612

M.M. II, i. 273 M.M. Ill, I. 673


from 3rd Shaft Grave
11.

miniature, limestone, with double axe and


sacral horns in relief,

lentoid
IV.

at

Mycenae,

from N.W. angle of

Palace, iv. 200-2

from miniature M.M. Ill terra-cotta shrine from Loom Weight Basement,
IV.

in sword from Mallia, 273 from stone box from


hilt

558

tessera

S.

House

at

201
11.

isodomic, represented on steatite rhyton

tripod hearths used


IV. 143, 151, 152,

from Knossos,

614
as, 11. 20, iii.

350

n. 2,

from
from
II.

179 from Gournia, 11. 283 n. 3 from vault under S.E. angle of Palace at Knossos, II. 334
late
II.

Knossos, II. 373 Amethystine spar, vase fragments of from Room of the Throne, iv. 934 Amira, finds in tomb at, 11. 174 n. 2 Amisos, see Eski Samsoun Amnisos, a port of Knossos, 11. 839 frescoes in houses at, iv. 453 n. 4 of formal gardens from, iv. xi, 1002 Amon, identity of with Libyan God of the

Shrine of the Double Axes at


Sacrificed

Knossos,

283, 336 House of the

Oxen,

283, 302
I.

from Niru Khani,


Alybfe, see

437
at,
i.

soothsayer, 191 Amorgos, halberd-like blade from, copper dagger from, 100 marble from, 47, 48
as
11.
I.

Oasis,

II.

191

11.

170 n. 3

n. 3

figurine

I.

Halys
161,

Amathus, sacred grove and tomb


111.74,78

Amphitheatre, Roman, arena of. III. 223 Amphitrite, relation of with Minoan Goddess,

Amazons, traditional headgear of, iv. 197 Amber from Kiev, 11. 174 n. 3 beads, from tomb at Amira, 11. 174 n. 2 from tomb of Double Axes at Isopata,

11.

IV.

953, 958

Greek legend of Ring of Minos, iv. 958 Amphoras, alabaster, from workshops at Knosin
sos,
III.

174

bronze, from Kurion, 504 Metropolitan Museum,


11.

269, IV. 896, 897

in

New

York,

tomb of Senmut, 425 limestone, from 170 trade-route, from North Germany to Aegean, 900 pottery, under Pottery 174

from tomb at Kakovatos, 11. 174 from Shaft Graves at Mycenae, 11. 174 from Tiryns Treasure, 11. 174 n. 2
II.

II.

505 n. I depicted in hands of Minoan envoy on


11.

studs,

sculptor's

worshop

at

KJtiossos, IV.
see

II.

along lUyrian (E. Adriatic) coast,

11.

198

Amrit, Phoenician stela with Resheph from,


III. 478 Amulets, Minoan, iii.

Amenemhet H, King, tomb of, 11. 256 n. i, 744 Amenemhet III, King, 11. 213 im. i and 2, 655,
658
seals of,

from Abydos,

11.

209, iv. 130

Amenemhet
II.

the Scribe, ceiling of

tomb

of,

axe Neolithic, from Knossos, 15 chalcedony dove, from Mochlos, 102 foot-shaped, E.M. I-M.M. from
as,
11.
i.

411

I,

tholoi,

205, 732, 733 n. I Amenti, significance of name,

11.

27

pendant, with 410 M.M.


III.

Amethyst beads, E.M. II, from Amira, 11. 174 from Pyrgos, il. 79

95 n. 2

I.

flying eagle,

from Knossos,

45 hand-shaped, matrix 1.488 iron ore perhaps used leg-shaped, E.M.

11-45 Egyptian,

11.

for,

from Knossos,
15

as, Neolithic, 11.


i.

Ill,

125
18, 19

from Pyrgos,
I, i.

scarab,

271

I. 84 Egyptian influence on,

i.

AMULETS

[5]

ANKHIALfi
Anemone on M.M. 1II6-L.M.
Zakro, 473 la jar from
of:

Amulets, leg-shaped (cont.) pebble as, Neolithic, from Knossos, ii. 15 seal, I. 671, 673, 674: and see Seals, bead,
talismanic

Anglo-Saxon rings, Chinese types of bezels both similar to Minoan, IV. 510 n. 3
Anibeh,

Amu-neseh, tomb of, 11. 728 n. i Amurru, Amorite god, i. 198, 11. 264
Amygdalolithos, see Ironstone

L.M. la

pottery

alabastron

from,

iv.

Amyklae, Apollo of, in. 480 tomb of Hyakinthos at, I. 161, iv. 421 throne at, Theseus and Peirithoos on,

188 and

n.

see

Vapheio
79
Kurios,
11.

Anagyri,

11.

Anarrapsis,

discovery

of

cave

of

Eileithyia by,

839 n. 3

Anatolia, connexion with


5, 6, 14, 16, 20, 161,

Minoan

Crete,

i.

3, 4,

attendant on Earth Goddess, 6 bones from Knossos, 10 foster-parents of divine children, in. 466 Asiatic decoration, 119, n. 274, in. 423, 416, 528, 529, 530, 554-7 Egyptian decoration, n. 448 Minoan decoration
I.

at, iv. 267 n. 4 Animals, accommodation for in Neolithic houses at Knossos, 11. 18

267, 358 date of cemetery

IV.

of,

11.

as

in

I.

IV.

in

in

618, 667, 668,

II.

4, 12,

E.M.,

1.

15, 112, 117, 118, 119, 123-5, IV.


I.

486

15. 28. 45. 167, 221, 267, 658, III. 424, 475,

M.M.

Crete M.M. M.M. Minoan reaction on, 658 108n. 260, 333, 530-2, 651, 827-31, bull home 118-27, 172-85, 189, 190, 220, 221, 23 double from, 8-10, 235, 488, 499-501 Entrance Systems from, 375 diffusion n. 764-5 M.M. III6-L.M. 694, L.M. H. 259, 354, 388, 450, 527-32, 659, 695 Lightning gods 192-9, 204, 523-90 23 Phaestos Disk connected with, 654-8 L.M. 224-6, 588243, 244, 538, pottery from, Copper Age, 115 90, 601-10 Kahun, 211 possibly imported L.M. n. 588-90 650, 651, derivatives of askoi shaped Priest-kings name groups in Linear Script79 B, use of Class 345 revealed in Anatomy, Minoan knowledge 711,713 High House Knossos, sculpture, 783, in. 428, 429, 498, 502,
11.

464, 488, 935 n. 2 with Etruria, iv. 190 with Mycenae and Tiryns, 11. 21 Southern, possible emigrations to from, II. 268
IV.

259, III. 204 (from this time onwards animal representations


la,

173, 180-3,

II.

tabooed in vase painting


605-7,
cf. I.

till

L.M.

lllb,

i.

578) II, I. 273-5, IV- 487 (seal-stones, &c.) Ill, I. 539-43, 670, 671, 673, 686-90,
in.

sports, original
profiles

of, iv.

II.

iv.

IV.

of, 11.

la,

I,

of, iv.

III.

IV.

I.

II,

II.

III.

IV.

I.

to

11.

n. 3

Ill,

157,

IV.

of,

I.

as, iv.

sling in,

11.

in

of,

IV.

11.

sacrificed, in
IV,

Priest's

at

504, 506, 507 Anau, primitive steatopygous figurines from,


I.

211

and

see

Hagia Triada, sarcophagus


I.

51, IV.

428 n.

Minoan use
Ancilia of
.

Anchor, attribute of Minoan Goddess, iv. 24; in Linear Script Class A, 11. 248, 249, iv. 678
of, il.

249
52 sacred shield,

Roman

Salii, origin of, 11.

compared with Minoan


III.

314

Andrae, Dr., discoverer of votive clay house fronts from Temple of Ishtar at Babylon,
II. 372 Anemomylia, Minoan houses of Harbour

votive from Juktas, 158 from Petsofa, 153 and Birds, Marine Naturalism Ankh, associated with Ta-Urt, Egyptian ornament, n. 207 439 Minoan ornament, 200, 281, 434, n. 545, 185 Minoan Linear A, 219, 685 Linear B, 685 canopied, Mycenae, 255
figures of,
I.

from

see

Style,

IV.

in in

I.

19,

IV.

in

script.

iv.

iv.

at

iv.

Town

Ankhiale,
IV.

L.M.

Ill 'Mino-Cilician' sherd from,

near,

11.

237, 238, 255

534

ANKHIALfi

[6]

ARGONAUT
Apodoulou,
IV.

L.M. Illb school of pottery 534 Anklets, sign of dignity 727 on youths Procession Fresco from
at,

Ankhiale

{cont.)

steatite

cup with inscription from,

in Asia,

11.

'726,

657 Apollo of Amyklae, identified in Cyprus with

silver,

in

Knossos, II. 726 Annals, Egyptian, mention of Minoan tribute


in, II.

Delphinios,

Resheph,

iii.

480

associated with
11.

Minoan God11.

dess in Crete,

844
77
iv.

536

as leader of a leaping dance,

Anoia (Mesaritika), Crete, L.M. Ill painted clay

sarcophagus from, iv. 338 (on Ida) modern marriage dance at, iii. 75, 76 Anointing, ceremony of, i. 422: and see Alabastron Anta, 5th Dynasty tombs at, ill. 102, iv. 554 n. 3 Antae, early Anatolian examples, 11. 695 Antef I, stela of, 11. 24 n. 2 Antefoker, tomb of at Thebes, iv. 507 Anthesteria festival, swinging in connexion

tomb

dance in honour of, at Delphi, temple of, at Knossos, 11. 844 Hyakinthos, II. 786 n. 3, iv. 421
of, at

508

Amathus,

I.

161
of, to

ApoUonia, coins of, iv. 557 n. 3 ApoUonius of Tyana, pilgrimage of Diktynna, 11. 765

temple

Apomarmas, Minoan road


Apron,
see

near,

11.

79

Dress
i.

Apsidal houses,
in

149

with, IV. 26

Antimony, use of for personal adornment, 11. 44 Antioch in Pisidia, worship of Mother Goddess
at, II.

recesses in megalithic monuments of Malta


and Britain, 11. 181 Aqueduct, Venetian, over 66 n. 2 Arcade, see Arches
Archers, on
Kairatos,
11.

Middle Helladic culture, 11. 21 N. of Gulf of Corinth, 11. 40

277, IV. 935 n. 2 sanctuary of Men Askaenos near,

I.

4,

62,

IV.

935 n. 2

Antithesis in
IV.

Minoan

art,

i.

319,

iii.

515, 516,

584-90 Antoninus Pius, coins

M.M.
I

II

Town Mosaic, I.
siege

302, 308,
I.

52 n. 3 Ants, on ivory bead-seal from Mesara, iv. 511 on rock carvings of Col di Tenda, 11. 170 n. 4
of, 11.

Anubis, 11. 788, iii. 151 Apef, serpent conquered by Ra, 11. 841 Apepi, Hyksos King, i. 420, 718 Aper, Egyptian knot, i. 434
Apes, see Monkeys Apex, on coins of Julius Caesar, 11. 794 Aphrodite, affinity of, with Minoan Goddess,

on L.M. rhyton with scene, from Mycenae, 100 on sealing from Temple Repositories, on ivory half 74
ill.

II-

754

314;

11.

754
239,

cylinder, iv.

Arches, decorative, on
243> 244. 245. 261
at

M.M.

II pottery,

i.

on crystal pommel from 3rd Shaft Grave Mycenae, in. 108 of dashes on L.M. Ill pottery, iv. 333
I.

association of dove with, 412 2 grave 161 Paphos, temple 211 Aegina, temple over Tomb of Minos 960 Ariadne, Cypriote, form of Minoan Goddess,
cult
i.

II.

838

Archigallus, chief priest of Atys,

3
I.

iv.

n.

Architecture,

Minoan, copied, on pottery,


IV.

of, at

245, 263,

of, at of,

II.

in Sicily,

295, 339, 348, 349, 351 on seals, 11. 220, iv. 518, 547, 565, 568 influenced by Egypt, 11. 521, 522

IV.

influence of,

on Malta, 11. 187 portrayed on silver rhyton from Mycenae,


92
uniformity of in

III.

74
of, rv.

III.

snake tube transformed into dove-cot in

Astarte, tubular
Apis, bull of.
III.

honour

143

vessels from temenos of, at IdaUon and Kition, iv. 144, 166 ApiUim, name of owner on Babylonian cylinder from Candia, 11. 266

M.M. III-L.M. 1, 11. 570 Archdn Basileus of Athens, 11. 406 Arena, Minoan, conjectural form of, ill. 223 miniature model of, iii. 435 Arene Candide Cave, shells from, i. 55
Argar, faience beads from,
i.

492, 493

206

Argonaut,

see Shells

ARGOS
Argos,

[7]

ARROW PLUMES
Armament, development of in L.M. IbL.M. II, IV. 826-71: and iee Arrows, Axe, Bow, Chariots, Corslets, Daggers,
Javelins,

99 with Knossos, 41 887 from, 619 343 Aspis vases from, Deiras cemetery, L.M.
relations of,
ii.

I.

n. 4, iv. 334,

seals

11.

n. i, iv.

Swords.
8, iv. 473,

site, steatite

I.

23 n. 2
style

II

Palacfe

amphora from,

IV.

332, 333, 340

Armenoid types in Crete, I. see Physiognomy Armlets, from Neolithic

474: and
Sahara,

sites

in

L.M.
IV.

Ic goblet with barred lily from,

tholos tomb near Heraeon, 40, 41 arrow from, 838


11.

368

n.

plate

iv.

222 n. 5 gold, from Troy, I. 97 silver, from Inner Shrine of Throne at Knossos, iv. 930
II.

Room

of the

stelae in, IV.

245
I.

represented on
434, iv. 572
11.

Cup

Bearer fresco,
11.

II.

lentoid seals from,

705
represented on Procession fresco,

Neolithic remains near,

n.

720
of

Ariadne, i. 3, 'clew-box'
at

from House of Knossos, 308, 309 dance in honour 67 dancing-floor Knossos, 74. 78, 233 head on coins of Tenedos, and Aphrodite
of,
11.

11.

298,

iv.

447

Armour,

Egyptian,

on

representations

Sacrificed

Oxen

of, iii.

of, at

11.

585, in. 73,

816, 817 Minoan, Axe,


IV.

Resheph, in. 478 worn by warriors on bead-seals from Thisbe,


see

Bow,

Corslet,

Cuirass,

Dagger, Greaves, Helmet, Javelin, Shield,


11.

of,

276

see

Sword Armoury Deposit,


clay,

see

Tablets
IV.

Aristarchos,
Aristides (a

on Homeric riding, iv. 831 workman), theft of Minoan tablets


development of butter-

by, IV. 697


Aristotle, description of
fly

votive M.M. 153, 158 Arrow-heads, structure 840 bronze, from Knossos, associated with
I, I.

Arms, crossed, sign in Linear Script B,


of, iv.

685

seal-

by.

III.

149 n.

ings countermarked with arrow sign, iv.

Arkadia,

Minoan

pottery from

tombs

in,

11.

137 n. I Arkalokhori, E.M. Ill pottery from, I. 59, 114 hoard of votive Double Axes from Cave

617
flint,

chisel-edged

Cretan, Proto-Nilotic (of Neith) and Libyan,


II.

Sanctuary at, iv. 346, 347 rapier swords from, iv. 846 and Suppl.

possible
PI.

48, 51, IV. 172, 173 epipalaeolithic (Late


11.

origin of,
II.

Capsian) 49 n. 7; from the Sahara,

LXVIII

222 n.

Chamber Tomb 219 Palace 64 well-house 44, 65 Knossian dominion 683 gold signet-ring from, 355 219 jasper signet-ring from, 418 pottery from, 65 from, 42, 315, 508, 526, 588 and TruUos
at. III. at, 11.
at, 11.

Arkhanes, Minoan road

to, 11. 64,

547

from Denmark, n. 49 n. 6 from Portugal, n. 49 n. 6 obsidian, from 4th Shaft Grave


IV.

at

Mycenae,

838
of, iv.

over, IV.
II.

Arrow-plates, original form

n. 2,

III.

in.

from Chamber Tomb 4 Dehdra, 839 bronze, from Armoury Deposit Knossos,
at
iv.

838, 839
at

11.

IV.

seals

iv.

93,

836-40 from Tomb of the Double Axes

at

see

Isopata, IV. 838

Arm,

bent, sign, offertory significance of in


iv.

678 on offertory bowls from Knossos and Apodoulou, IV. 657 and open hand sign, in Linear Script A, I. 619

Linear Script A,

from Middle Helladic Shaft Grave at Mycenae, iv. 839 n. i from Hunter's Grave at Zafer Papoura,
IV.

838
Repositories

Arrow plumes, bone, from Temple


at

Knossos,

i.

496, 548-9, in. 431

ARROW PLUMES
Arrow plumes, bone
from
{cont.)

[8]

ASTERIOS
Asia, connexions of with Crete, see Assyria,

Central

Shrine

at

KLnossos,

48, SI, IV. 175 sign, association of with find of arrows, iv. 617
II.

Babylon, Chaldaea, Sumer Asia Minor, cormexions of with Crete, E.M.,


I.

119,
'

II.

256, 265,
1. I.

III.

808
III.

on

steatite bead-seal

from Candia
11.

dis-

M.M.,
L.M.,

276, 280,
11.

315, IV. 808, 986

trict, II.

835 n. 5 50
in Linear

15, 16, IV.

770-85

on bead-seal from Mallia,


as terminal to

name groups

Script B, IV. 759, 760


as terminal in

Cypro-Minoan

inscription

from Enkomi, iv. 759 Arrows, reference to stores of, on tablets from Armoury Deposit at Knossos, iv. 836, 837 Arslan Tash, ivory plaque with cow suckling calf from, iv. 555

fixed open hearths 20 possible Cretan plantations on S.E. 192 ports connexion with Harbour Town of KLnossos, 167 and Anatolia, Byblos, Minet-el-Beida,
in, 11.
littoral,
II.

with Greece,

168, 169

of,

11.

see

Ras-Shamra, Syria
Asia, Western, cult of

Double Axe
11.

in, II.

29

type Delphinia, 250 578 Diktynna, 842 Tauropolos, 46 on Macedonian 46 with Minoan Goddess,
Hellenistic
of, IV.
11. 11.

Artemis, hair-offerings

to, iv.

477

69, 70,

iv. 45,

coins, iv.

relation of,
11.

I.

567,

250, IV. 45 n.

from, with some Linear Script B, 755, 756 sealings with maeander patterns from, 202 shrine Minoan type 755 Asklepios, hair-offerings 477 shrine Lebena, 39, 84
jar

Asine, stone bowl from,


reflecting

31 n. i decorative figures,
IV.

II.

n. 3

of,

at, IV.

to, iv.

of, at

11.

Artisans, large

numbers

of, resident in

Palace of

Knossos, III. 276, 277 Aryballos, Minoan, resemblance to Egyptian,


II. 497: and see under Pottery Ascalon, 11. 251

Askoi, diffusion of, iv. 79 Aspendus, coin-types of, 11. 345, Aspergillum, see Sprinkler
in Chaldaea, iv.

ill.

99
156

Ass, as draught animal in Babylon,

11.

810

cult of

Ash-Altar,

Dove Goddess at, iii. 457, iv. 411 M.M., at Sanctuary on Juktas, 1. 157,
relief

158 Ash-chest, from Volterra,


on,

of Kapaneus

on painting in Tomb Thebes, painted from Phaestos,


at

in Egypt,
tomb

in Crete,

11.

156, iv. 831

11.

157

11.

448
11.

terra-cotta,

157

m.

87 n. 5

Assarlik, stirrup vases from,

11.

136

Ashes, ritual transportation of, in Russia, iv. 152 contained inclosed interior of movable hearth

Assiut,

of Hepseba
i.

at, 11.

207 n. 4

-assos ending,

663, 664

in

Snake Room, Knossos,

iv.

151

Assur, faience
of Ishtar

woman-head cups from Temple


at, IV.

Ashlar masonry,

372, 514 used to face walls of Light Areas, iii. 377 at Knossos, for bath in Caravanserai, II. 119
11.

M.M.

Ill,

771
scene

Assur-bani-pal,

monument with dancing


ill.

in Palace of,

69 n. 6

N.E. Entrance Passage, ill. 160 S.E. House, II. 391 cist below S. Propylaeum, 11. 699
Viaduct,
II.

Assur-nazir-pal, frieze of, at Nineveh, iv. 432 Assyria, influence of Minoan art on, iv. 530,
S34> 548

98

at Palaikastro,

House B,
see

11.

567

Ashmolean Museum,
Ashtoreth, see Ishtar

Oxford

on Ionian and Cypriote art, iv. 539, 557 on Greek gem-engraving, iv. 548
relations of with Egypt,
11.

26
i.

Astarte, see Ishtar

segmented beads from, mouthpiece of L.M.

Ashur,

II.

179

Asterabad, primitive figurines from,


11.

48, 49,

179 n. 11
I

Cypro-Minoan

428 n. I gourd-shaped gold vessel from,


IV.
i.

11.

26

faience rhyton from, IV. 534, 535, 779

Asterios,

10

ASTERISKS
Asterisks in decoration,

[9]

AXES,
A-ur, port near Canopic

DOUBLE
I.

E.M.

Ill,

i.

112

Mouth

of Nile,

292

M.M.
L.M. L.M. L.M.

II,

I.

261

342 369 Ill, III. 519 n. 2


Ic, IV.

16, IV.

Ausean Libyans, Goddess of, II. 51, 191 Avdu, bead-seal from, iv. 791, 822, 823

ring from,
ill.

on sphinxes and 369 marks, on


as tattoo

origin of, IV.

griffins,

549 Egyptian figurine,

I.

iv. 807 Avernus, n. 483 Aveyron, stone beads from dolmens Avgo, magnetite pendant from tomb Axes, double:

of,
at,

n. 180
in. 411

519 n. 2

on stucco head from Mycenae,

in. 519

Asterusian Mountains, II. 78, 81 Astrakous, Cypro-Minoan haematite cylinder from, IV. 425
Atargatis, see Derketo

Athenaeus, cited, in. 393 Athene, connexion of with Libya, 11. 51, in. 314 with Juno Sospita, 11. 52 with Minoan Goddess, iv. 45 n. i Saiitic, of Herodotus, n. 191 Taurobolos, iv. 45 n. i Athens, cult of Minoan Goddess at, 11. 50 seals, bead, from, iv. 532, 583 cyhnder, from iv. 409 Acropohs, NeoUthic deposits on, n. 4 n. i ivory rehef of Sphinx from, n. 778 stone reUef of Uons and bull from, IV. 537 Erechtheion, sacred snake as guardian of, IV. 150 n. 4, 154, 156 Parthenon, metopes of, 11. 595 National Museum, bronze figure of male adorant in, in. 460 disappearance of fragment of M.M.
Ill Capital

in Anatoha, 23 Arkalokhorio, 346, 347 Asia, n. 276, 781 986 Asine, 755 in Caria, 479 Crete, 160, 218, 223,
I.

cult of,

I.

447,

III.

348

6, iv.
iv.

at

in
at

29,

iv.

n. 2,

iv.

iv.
i.

in

4, 15, loi, 159,

n. 28, 29, 332, in. 152

n.'

2, iv.

883:

and see Gournia, Knossos, Mochlos, Niru Khani


in Egypt, n. 28, 29
at at

Gournia, n. 339 Knossos, i. 4, 218, 425, 427, 430-47, II. 160, 332, 724, III. 346, IV. 883: and
see Isopata,

Mycenae, Niru Khani, associated with


at

Tomb of Double Axes at


351
I.

IV.

at

59

hair-offerings, iv. 483

with Mother Goddess, i. 514, n. 277 with snake cult, iv. 159 with Zeus Kasios, iv. 781 n. 2
bronze, from cave at Arkalokhori,iv. 346, 347, and 378 Fig. 315 bis
i.

from the 'Tomb of Klytemiv.

Theseion,
'Atreus,
Attica,

nestra' at

Mycenae from,
legend

229

of Ring

of

Minos on

from Chamaezi, 194 from Delphi, 834 from Hagia Triada, n. 283 from Knossos, Harbour Town,
11.

n.

iv.

198,

painting on walls of, iv. 957 metope of Marathonian bull, in. 230 Atlas, region of, rock-carving from, n. 51

199

House of the

Frescoes, in. 347, 348


II.

N.W. House,
S.E. House,

Tomb

of, see

Mycenae
in population of, IV. 26

Minoan element
3, 12,

tholos tombs in, n. 40

comparisonof,with Minoan Boy-God,iii.468 with Syrian God, 479 Kybele or Ma, 473. headgear 197
iv.
filial

Attis,

I.

162

from Mochlos, 194 from Nirou Khani, 437, n. 281


i.

Treasury Deposit, in. 414,


i.

II.

629 629

iv.

482

from Phaestos, n. 781 from Psychro Cave, 627, 632,


I.

iv.

212

relation of, to

in.

copper, from Sub-Neolithic House, Knossos,

traditional

of, iv.

Atys, see Attis

from Tomb
gold,

II.

14

II at

Mochlos,

I.

loi

Augur on

lentoid
iv.

gem from Chamber Tomb


420

at

from cave
290) 347

at Arkalokhorio, iv.

346 (Fig.

Mycenae,

Aunjetitz class of cemetery, n. 175 n. 4

from Knossos,

iv.

883


AXES,

DOUBLE

[lo]

AXES,

DOUBLE

Axes, double, gold (cont.)

from Knossos, iii. 404 silver, from cave at Arkalokhori, iv. 347 steatite, from late Shrine of Double Axes
plated,

Axes, double, representations of (cont.) IV. 43: and see Hagia Triada, sarco-

phagus from
at

from

Knossos,

II.

336
i.

Palaikastro, iv. 212

terra-cotta,

from Tello,

15
i.

reduplication of edges of,


IV.

583, 584,

11.

336,

from Argos, 434 from 169 from Knossos, 434 from Mycenae, 170
i.

on

seals,

i.

559, iv. 343, 446, 541, 550, 614

lalysos, iv.

I.

iv.

342-4

from Sphungaras,
sealings

i.

673
iv.

representations of:
in combination with

on

from Knossos,
I.

343, 619 n.

i,

adder mark, iv. 185 ankh, iv. 185


barley corn, iv. 627 bull-catching, iv. 20
butterflies,
11.

from Zakro,
on
signet-rings,

627

434
139

iii.

787 347

foliage of sacred tree, iv.

ogival canopy, iv. 319


pillar, IV.

348 rope design, iv. 643

141

on on on on

rosette, iv. 360,

and triglyph,
sacral knot,
I.

614
iv.

from Knossos, 11. 557 n. 2 from Mycenae, 11. 832 from Vapheio, iii. 141 steatite lid from Knossos, 11. 29 n. stela from Mycenae, IV. 245 from Panamara, IV. 479 stone matrix from Siteia, I. 479 inlaid sword blade from Thera,
130 n. 4

iii.

227
iii.

433,

bivalve shell derived from, in

L.M. Ib-

170 on crystal vase from Egypt, 11. 28 on frescoes from Knossos, I. 443, 444, 632,
iv.

snake frame,

from399, Mycenae,
III.

II.

724, III. 34, 297, 433, IV. 20, 348 I. 24 n. i, 632, 11. 602,
altar

36, 60, IV. 348

on limestone
201

from Knossos,

iv.

200,

ceramic ornament, iv. 369 Melian goblins derived from, I. 559, 703-4 plants derived from, i. 584, 610, iv. 292 Axes, double: sign, in hieroglyphic script, i. 281 in Linear Script A, I. 644, iv. 447, 686, 689 in Linear Script B, iv. 570, 685, 686, 734,
Ic

L.M.

on mould from Siteia, I. 514, 11. 724 on plaques from Town Mosaic, i. 312 on pottery:
Egyptian predynastic,
iv.

as

742, 758 mason's mark,


425, 427,
I,
I,

I.

134, 209, 218, 347, 394,

436,

449,

456,

463,

II.

145 n.

28

664 n.

146, 249, 323, 582 n. I, 613, 818, III. 13 n. 3, 14, 244, 346,

E.M.

III,
I, I.

I.

63, 108

M.M. M.M. M.M.


L.M. L.M. L.M. L.M. L.M.

172, IV. 85

on
447, 583, 584

II,

I.

237, 241, 242

religious significance of,


stands for, iv. 212

369, IV. 971, 973 pottery, i. 561, iv. 734, 742, 758
i.

425

III,
I, I.

I.

415 n.
II.

I,

433,

200, IV. 643

from Knossos,
High

i.

437,
11.

11.

334

la,

II.

16, IV.
Ic, IV.

435, 475 185, 239, 290, 360


244, 290, 292, 369 373, 605, IV. 227, 318, 319, 619, 620
iv.

Caravanserai,
Little Palace,
Priest's

139

II,

II.

342. 348, 360, 883

11. 527, 820 House, iv. 211 Queen's Megaron, iii. 347, 367, 369 S. House, II. 323 n. i, 386, iv. 212

L.M.

Ill,

II.

n.

4
i

proto-geometrical,

376

Mainland,

on relief i. 508 on sarcophagus from Hagia Triada,

293 from Gournia,

iv.

S.E. House, IV. 212 nn. S.E. Angle, 11. 334


11.

and 4

334,

N.W. Treasure House,

W.

Quarter,

i.

450, iv. 213


11.

620

AXES,

DOUBLE
(cont.)
ii.

[u]

BALEARIC ISLANDS
(cont.)

Axes, double, stands for


iv.

from Mallia, 323 from Mycenae, 213 from Psychro Cave, 212 Axes,Neolithicstone,fromKnossos,ii. from Harbour Town, 229
iv.
11.

Temple
from,
10, 13,15
IV.

Babylon

of Ishtar
II.

at,

votive house fronts

372

Bacchylides, story of Theseus and

Minos by,
wall-

957 n. I, 958 Background, treatment


painting,
II.

of,

in

Minoan

Axes, single: bronze, of King Aahmes,

114
11.

from Vapheio tomb,

i. 420, 550, 712, 715, n. 361, III. 112, IV. 266 Syrian class, iv. 414-18

-in fresco of Captain of the Blacks,


in fresco of
black,

-in Priest-king relief,

786

11.
11.

Kadmeion
frieze

at

Thebes,

755 749
11.

of Dervishes, 274 from Ecbatana, 274 from Mallia, 271, 274, on 721, from Van, 274
II. 11.

iv. 418 from Beirut, 11. 721 n. 4 from Cyprus, 11. 721 n. 4, iv. 416, 418 from Dodona, 11. 175 on signets in Priest-king's hands, iv. 414-19 ceremonial, from Bactria, 11. 274 on coins of Julius Caesar, 11. 794

on

from Caravanserai,

Ill
'desert-belt',
11.

448

rock-work,

11.

728, 730, in. 90

of

sea,

II.

90

religious scenes

on Minoan signets,
11.

in. 137

Bactria, ceremonial axes from,

11.

IV.
iv.

416, 417

signets,

i.

16,

11.

413, 925

11.

162 tomb of stone represented on bead-seal, 132 signet from Knossos, 160 in Minoan 222, 223 worship, 160-2
pillar, as

Baetylic altar

274 from Psychro Cave, 11. 48


divinity,
I.

11.

I.

trinity

religion,

I.

I.

Chaldean, dissemination of, iv. 417 copper, from Knossos, 11. 14 Egyptian, I. 420, 550, 712, 715, 11. 361,
1X2, IV. 266, 415 schist, from Mallia,
11.

m.

on gems from mainland, iv. 550 Baganda, canoes of, 11. 241 n. i Bagdad, Egyptian lion weight from, I. 421
Baetyls,

Balagrae, shrine of,

271, 274, iv. 416, 417 Syro-Egyptian, evolution of, iv. 414 ff.

11. 39 n. 5 Balance sign, as Egyptian hieroglyph, iv. 659 in Linear Script A, i. 619, iv., 659, 660,

in ceramic ornament, iv. 366, 643 sign in Script Ideographic A, iv. 679

680

in Script Linear B,
Axe-hammer, 'Axe-plants' on M.M.

668, 682, 683, 686 bronze, from Milatos, iv. 46 n. 4


iv.

Ill pottery,

I.

610

by numbers, 660 in Linear Script A, combined with open hand sign, iv. 660 in Linear Script A, combined with bent
in Linear Script A, followed
IV.

B
Baal-Haman, association of with Pillar
Trinities,

arm

sign, iv.

657

in Linear Script B, iv. 660, 661 in Linear Script B,


sign, IV. 661
11.

combined with ingot

connexion of with Goddess Tanit,


identity of with
II.

II.

191

191 n.

Libyan God of the Oasis,


11.

191

Ba'al-keren,

connexion of with Balagrae,

39 n- S
Babylon, connexions with Minoan Crete,
11.

importation of cylinders from Crete, 186, 197, 198, 54 to Minoan weight system, symbolic forked weapons loi
to
IV.

253-66

i.

15,

in Linear Script B, as official title combined with personal name, iv. 658 in Linear Script B, used to countermark bull sealing, iv. 618 earliest occurrence of, iv. 656 on libation bowls from Knossos and Apodoulou, IV. 656, 657 Balcony scenes, on Mainland frescoes, II. 602, III. 60

relation of,

iv.

654

in,

i.

Naus or Navetas

Balearic Islands, Covas in, in. 322


in, 11. 181, in.

322

BALFOUR
Balfour,

[12]
II.

BEADS
milk
of

Mr. Henry, on evolution of bow,


4, IV.

Basketwork
analogies
IV.

churns
with

from

Kordofan,
pithoi,

49 n.

172
cult of snakes in, iv. 1015
11. 4 from Enkomi, Cyprus

bottle-shaped

Balkans,

modern

East, Neolithic pottery of,

(in-

645, 646 imitated in sculpture and pottery, see Plait-

Balls, votive clay,

scribed), IV. 759, 760, 761 from Juktas, I. 159, iv. 761 from Petsofa, i. 153, iv. 761

Bates,

work Mr.

Oric, on connexion between Cretan and Egyptian art, II. 54 n. 5 on identity of Neith with Ausean goddess,
II.

purpose of inscriptions on, iv. 761 dagger from, 11. 173 n. 2 Banner sign, in Linear Script B, follovs^ed by numbers, iv. 725 Bar ornament on bandeau of stucco head from Mycenae, Tirynthian comparison, ill. 519 Barbotine v?ork, see Pottery, barbotine
Ballygavsrley, Irish

51 n. 2, 191
tholoi

on

on Seal Island and on Nile,

11.

37 Bathrooms,
Baths, clay,

see

M.M.
I.

under Knossos Ill, from S.E. Bathroom at


579, 580,
II.

Knossos,
-

379 n. 2

from room near Magazine of the Lily


Vases,
III.

Barley corns in
IV.

M.M.

I sphragistic

ornament,
iv.

385
II.

626, 627
sealings

from House of the Fallen Blocks, from Archives Deposit,


i.

on
598
in
IV.

305

from House of the Sacrificed Oxen,

M.M.

Ilia ceramic ornament,

415,

II-

627

3S from East Slope,

11.

288

associated with double axe


IV.

on

sealing,
III.

compared with L.M. II examples,


386
II,

with genius,
Minoan use
628

627

iv.

627

L.M.
II.

from Caravanserai

at

Knossos,

of as food, iv. 622

Barley, four-rowed,
IV.

on coins of Metapontion,
iv.

from bathroom of Queen's Megaron,


334,
III.

122

six-rowed, Minoan,
Knossos,
II.

II.

381, 385, IV. 893

628
iv.

from Swiss Lake-dwellings,


Barley sign, in Linear Script B,

628

from Phylakopi, in. 115, iv. 330 compared with M.M. Ill examples,

625, 626 Baritakis, Ali Aga, overseer of excavations at


iv.

HI. 386
stone, for foot washing, in Caravanserai,
11.

149 n.

i,

692,

Barn

sign, hieroglyphic, iv.

678 715, 716


11.

116, 118,111. 253

on Vlychia Terrace,

11.

104

Barnacle work, see Pottery, barbotine


Barnacles, see Shells
Basalt, Spartan, see Lapis lacedaemonius

Bathykles, story of Theseus and Peirithoos on

Bases, sacral, see Altars


Basilica, Early Christian, historic origin of,
II.

406
analogy of with Megaron of Royal

Amyklaean Throne by, iv. 188 n. i Mons. H. Jus at, 11. 222 n. 5 Bats, on M.M. Ill sealings, iv. 490 wings, on M.M. Ill sealings, i. 703, 705, 706 Battye, Mr. A. Trevor, on Cretan flora, 11.
Batna, collection of

46 n.

2,

70 n. 4

406 relation of with Basilike of Archon Basileus at Athens, 11. 406 Basilike of Archon Basileus at Athens, 11. 406 Basins, alabaster, from Knossos, ill. 25 bronze, L.M. la, from N.W. Treasure House at Knossos, 11. 637, 643, 644, 779,
11.

Villa at Knossos,

11. 454 n. 2 Bauhin, Caspar, on Cretan dittany, 11. 70 Beads, amuletic, in shield form, in. 315 perhaps used as dice, i. 477 engraved, origin of signet-rings, IV. 510, 511 represented on kilt of Minoan tributary on

on

rollers in Crete,

IV.

300, 727
I

represented on tunics of youths744Procession in


743,

tomb

of Rekhmara,

11.

stone, from Knossos,

from L.M.

houses

at

Mochlos,

11.

624

11.

599, in. 26, 27

segmented,

fresco

from Knossos,
i.

11.

726

23, 491-4, n. 179, 180, 190

BEADS
Beads, segmented
(cont.)
I.

[13]

BEES
(cont.)
11.

from Egypt,

491, 492,

11.

179 and n.

II (pre-dynastic)

from Ashur, 11. 179 n. 11. (c. 3000 B.C.) from the British Isles, I. 491, 492, 11. 179, 180 (Early Bronze Age) from Crete, 11. 179 from Enkomi, I. 493 from S.E. Spain, i. 491, 492, 11. 180 imitated on birds' bones from Hal

star-shaped, from Egypt, 493 from Enkomi, amber, from Amira,493 174 n. 2
I.
I.

Tarxien,

11.

190

11.

amethyst,

from Kakovatos, 11. 174 from Knossos, 11. 174 n. 3 from Tiryns, 11. 174 n. 2
i.

95

from Amira, 11. 174 n. 2 from Pyrgos, 11. 75 cornelian, from Pyrgos, 11. 75
crystal,
I.

Neolithic, E.M. 95 E.M. 194,111.315 M.M. 170, 179, 76 M.M. 477, 489 M.M. 174, 179 498, 315 L.M. 151, 887 75, 174, 963, 964 L.M. and 862 Bead-festoons, use of in L.M. lb ceramic ornament, 494427, 493, 510, 285, 286, 287, 288 in L.M. ceramic ornament, 288, 289 in L.M. ceramic ornament, 32 285 493, associated with crocus pendants, 285, 286 with marine motives, 286, 287, 288 with 493
13
II,
I.

Beads

Ill,

II.

I, I.

II.

IV.

II,

I.

IV.

Ill,

I.

II.

n. 9,
IV.

III.

I,

11.

III.

n. 2,

II

III, iv.

shrines,

I.

in

11.

IV.

Ic

IV.

II

iv.

in 'toilette' frescoes,

11.

iv.

iv.

iv.

'

sacral ivy,

I.

Bead-seal, see under Seal

Beaked jugs, E.M.

II,

I.

74
11.

95
11.

Beans, Egyptian, importation of, 179 n. 11


at

54, iv. 595


11.

faience,

from Ashur,

from Crete, 11. 179 from Temple Repositories


I.

Knossos,

498,

II.

179 n. 9

from Vat Room Deposit, I. 170 from Pyrgos, 11. 75 glass, from Kalkani, iv. 887 n. 2 from Knossos, iv. 964 from Mycenae, iv. 887 n. 2 gold, from Kalathiana, 11. 194 from Knossos, iv. 963 from Kumasa, iv. 76 from Mycenae, ill. 151 from Pyrgos, n. 75 in form of pair of argonauts, iv. 862
-of chrysalis,

worn by Libyan men, 34 worn by Queens of Meroe, 35 rarely represented Minoan 219 of dervish on bead-seal from Knossos, 219 of from Central Crete, 46 of proto-Libyan stone images, 219
11. 11.

54 use of for food in L.M. times, iv. 621 Beards, typical of primitive Nilotic race, 11. 32

from store-room

at

Knossos,

in later

art, iv.

priest

IV.

figure

11.

iv.

Bedevi Kamara, medieval bridge near Candia,


II. 230 Bedouin represented playing Beni Hasan, 11. 837

lyre

on tomb

at

of toad,
lapis lazuli,
steatite,

ill. 151 of wirework cylinder,

11.

194

IV.

76
11.

III.

315
179

from Crete,

represented of Egyptians on scene from Tomb of Anta, 102 represented on tomb of Men-kheper"ra-senb Thebes, represented on745 ith Dynasty Egyptian
as allies

siege

ill.

n. 3

at

11.

from Gortyna, iv. 489 from Kalathiana, 11. 179 n. 10 from Knossos, 11. 13 ^- from Platanos, 11. 179 n. 10 stone, from dolmens of Aveyron, from Egypt, 11. 179 from Knossos, 11. 13 from Mesara, 11. 52

monument,

11.

177 n. 2
11.

11.

Bee, Egyptian sign for,


as

55

180

I. 281 Beehive-tombs, see Tholoi, under Burials. Beer, Minoan brew, I. 415, IV. 625, 628, 722 Bees, in Cretan legend of Zeus, I. 281 (hornets) on gold pendant from Mallia, iv. 75

M.M.

II hieroglyph,

"5

BEETLE
Beetle (water), on
Fig.

[14]

BITSILA
(cont.)

M.M.

la pots,
Ila:

i.

173, iv. 74,

44 6w a

Syro-Anatolian
257
Bicknell,
n. 2

Bethshemesh

fibula

from tomb

at,

11.

Beetle (land),

on M.M.

handled bowl,

I.

239, 240, IV. 74, Fig. 43 bis h sacred, pellet of, IV. 115: and see Scarab

Mr. Clarence, on Maraviglie


11.

of Col di

Beirut,

sub-Minoan

single axes from,


Bell,

crystal scarab from, iv. 533 11. 721 n. 4, iv. 415

170 n. 4 Bird, flying, sign in Linear Script A,

Tenda,

iv.

683

Beisan, Chaldaean form of axe from, iv. 417 n. 2

in Linear Script B, iv. 685, 713 on figure from Tylissos, i. 634

Mr. C.

F., iii.

56 n.
12

i
1.

Bells, votive sheep,

M.M. la,
i.

175, iv.

689 n. 2

Beloch, Professor,
Belt, see

Dress Benaki, Mr. A. E., iv. 467 n. i Benches, gypsum, in ante-room of Room of the Throne at Knossos, iv. 904 in South House, n. 386 stone, in lobby near Central Court, 11. 803 wood, on stylobate of Queen's Megaton,
III.
11.

from Psychro, i. 634 710-12 Birds, as symbols of divinity, 1. 440, 447, 614 on seals and sealings E.M. in, I. 123 n. 4 on
tablet
i.

Bird-griffins,

IV.

461,

M.M. n, 1. 274, 275 M.M. HI, III. 411 n.


L.M.
I, IV.

I, IV.

490

461, 1018

368 Benghazi, i. 17, Bengtsson, Dr.


Nestor,
ill.

756

butterflies

with argonaut and butterfly, on lentoid from Knossos, IV. 1018 clay image of, Neolithic, from Knossos, i. 43,

S.,

on

on Ring of

44

148 n. 4 Beni Hasan, cemetery at,

11.

522, 557

model boat from, 11. 757 n. i paintings in tombs at, I. 419, 709, 714, 11. 49, III, 728 n. I, 837, III. 102, IV. 554 relief of cow and calf at, iv. 554 Bennu, bird painted on crystal boss of pectoral from Gurob, iii. 108

on M.M. pottery, 182 E.M. HI, formed 117, 119 on diadem from Siphnos, 95 wall-paintings, 111-16,454,469, 4 90: and Ducks, Pheasant, Swallows vases shaped
I
I.

M.M.

I,

from Petsofa,
as,

I.

153

seals,

I.

silver

I.

n.

in

11.

iii.

see

Roller,

as

E.M. in, from Kumasa and Kodjadermen,

Berenice, dedication of hair to Aphrodite by,


IV.

477
of, iv.

Berenton, spring
Berlin

454

Museum,

agate lentoid with

cow and

calf in, IV. 553

bronze L.M. I female figure in, i. 507, 508 Egyptian composite bow in, 11. 49 n. 4 Museum fiir Volkerkunde, modern ostrichegg vessels in, 11. 223 n. 2 Beryl tessera from stone box from S. Hbuse at Knossos, II. 373 Beth-dagin, bronze sword from, 11. 273 n. 2

from Mycenae, 560 6 Birds' heads, E.M. shaped 95 wing, 415 wings, on M.M. 706, 707
I.

I. 115 Melian, from Knossos, i. 557, 558 from Melos, i. 560, 561

n.

II seals
-

as,

i.

ivory,

ill.

Ill, sealings,

I.

Bisellium sign in Linear Script B, iv. 787, 795


Bissing,

Bismantova, two-storied pot from, 11. 429 Baron Fr. W. von, on analogies between Minoan and Egyptian siege scenes,
III.
^

104 n.

Beth-el,

Minoan

analogies with,

i.

160, 161

Bethlehem, traditional death-place of Thammuz or Adonis, ill. 475, 476 Beth-Shan, associated with Saul and David, iv.

snake-tubes from Temple of Ashtoreth


IV.

168

at,

stone 88 2 on Marseilles ewer,


vases,
I.

on date of contents of tomb at Abydos, II. 210 n. I on Egyptian figure vases, 11. 256 n. i on Egyptian revival of archaic forms in
n.
11.

510 n.

167
at,

Bitch on late seal-impressions from Knossos,


IV.

Bethshemesh, clay figure vessel from tomb


II.

580

257

Bitsila, see Visala

BITUMEN
Bitumen from Mesopotamia

[IS]

BONES
(cont.)
at
IV.

gives origin to art

732 use of to secure arrow-head to


ii.

of inlaying,

shaft,

11.

on fresco Tiryns, 574 on bead-seals, 573, 574


iv.

Boar-hunts

49 n. 6
Blegen, Dr.

Boat-cover,

Egyptian,
n. 3

quadruple
I.

spiral

on,

C,

discoveries of
11.

L.M. la near
41 n. 4
iii.

II.

206

Argive Heraeum,

n. i,

discoveries at Zygouries,

470

n. 6

models
i

Boats, in pre-dynastic Egypt,


of,

17

E.M.,
I.

I.

17,

75

on Ephyrean pottery, iv. 368 n. 4 on Early Helladic ornament, iv. 250


Blind-worms, self-knotting
faience,
of, iv.

Cycladic,
n.

17

on Nilotic painted clay bowls, 193 697, 698 on sealing from Temple Repository, 697 fragment of from House of the Sacrificed Oxen Knossos, Body, votive of parts M.M 310 L.M., 310, 697, 698 158 borne by Minoan on tomb of Boegia Miletos, Cretan associations
'Blossom'-bowl, lotus cup origin
at
of, 11.
11.
i.

176

from Beni Hasan, 11. 757 from Zafer Papoura, 11. 563

11.

offerings

of,

I,

steatite,

11.

I-

153,
at

tributaries

of, iv.

Men-kheper'ra-senb, 11. 747 n. i Blue bird fresco, see under Fresco Blue, Egyptian, used in M.M. frescoes, I. 534 Blue-stone, bead of from tholos in Mesara, I. 52 Boar, comparative rarity of in Crete in L.M.
period, iv. 869
sacrifice of,
iv.

47

40 type of shield from,


tholoi in,
11.

Boeotia, fibulae from,

11.

138
11.

allied to Hittite,
at, 11.

53

Boghaz-Keui, rock carvings


n. 6, IV.

275,
iv.

ill.

69

sea outlet on Minoan bead-seals, Eski Samsoun, 572 764 Bolivian mummies, gold eye-bandages on bead-seal from Mycenae, 572 97 stand shape from Ur, Bombah, Gulf 424 37 on E.M. prism Bone arrow-plumes from Central Shrine 571 on bead-seal from Knossos, 523 175 on M.M. from Temple Repositories, 274 548, 549, domestic, on bead-seals, 572 431 on beads, segmented, from Malta, 492, 190 cup from 574 from Spain, 492 rhyton, 676 from Platanos, segmented, from Knossos, Boar's head on E.M. Ill 408 carvings. Reindeer period, with alphabeti119 tushes, on Minoan helmets, form 230, 407 from Knossos with alphabetiform 868 from Minoan helmet from L.M. Ilia 405-9 implements. Middle Neolithic, from Zafer Papoura, grave 868, 869 Knossos, on helmets, represented on ivory 42, from Domestic Quarter, from Mycenae, 869 485 rhyton from from Temple Repositories, represented on 496 knobbed evidence of intercourse 868 Mycenae,
of, at
iv. of,
I.

417

steatite

in

of,

iii.

of, 11.

seals, iv.

at

Siteia, iv.

IV.

II seal,

i.

I.

iv.

III.

steatite

Palaikastro, iv.

I.

11.

steatite

I.

I.

seal

bracelets,

iii.

I.

ill.

87, 98,

signs,

ill.

IV.

fish

signs,

III.

at

iv.

relief

I.

11.

13

iv.

inlays

i.

silver

i.

iii.

98, iv.

objects,

represented on steatite rhyton,


Triada,
iv. 868 ornaments, Early Helladic,

ill.

184

represented on sealing from Hagia


iv.

between Crete and Italy, 11. 169 n. 3 from Megalithic monument at Hal-

870

Minoan Mycenaean on M.M.


in in

Boar-hunts in Crete, iv. 869 in Greece, iv. 869


art,
I.

720 574
inlaid

model of from Knossos, 20 from tholoi Kakovatos, 197 170 tubular from tombs, 21
pillar
ill.

Tarxien,

11.

182

64, iv.

plates studs,

at

11.

II.

objects,

Sikel I

I.

frescoes, IV.

Bones, animal, from Neolithic houses at Knossos,

II

dagger-blade

from

II.

10
S. Portico,
11.

Lasithi, iv. 848

from drain by

161

BONES
Bones
(cont.)

[i6]

BOXES
(cont.)

human, from M.M. Ill pithoi from Minoan


station near

Bow

Mouth

of Gazanos,

ii.

231

from Hagios Onuphrios, n. 36 from Knossos, Roman burial, 11. 433

lb, II. 50, IV. 835 connexion of with snake frames, I v. 171, 175 Bow-hke motives on sealings from Zalcro, iv. 174 Bowls, small (for milk), associated with snake

L.M.

Temple Tomb,

iv.

986, 990, 1008-10

from tholoi, 11. 45 from Zafer Papoura,


Bora,

iv.

1008
11.

Boots, Hittite, portrayed at Ivriz,

728

n. i

carinated, from Egypt, from Knossos, 56 from E. Treasury


11.

cult, IV. 149, 150,

157

11.

56

crystal,

at

wind of

Adriatic,

11.

84

n. 5

from Lustral Basin of


11.

Room

Knossos, in. 409 of Throne,

Boreas, see Borras

Bornholm, hut-shaped urns from, Borras, N.N.E. wind, 11. 84


identity of with Euroclydon,

132 n. 3

IV.

diorite,

930 4th Dynasty Egyptian, in. 270 Egyptian, fragments of, from Knossos,
clay
of, in.

11. 84 with Levantine Gregalia, II. 84 n. 5 Bosanquet, Prof. R. C, exploration of cave

at

Skalaes by,

I.

32

on

origin of ogival

canopy motive,

II.

491 n. I 32 Boston Museum, chryselephantine figure of

Minoan Goddess in, in. 438-41, iv. 38, 179 Boustrophedon method of writing, Hittite usage adopted in Minoan inscription of Samsoun
terra-cotta, iv.

769
I.

in

M.M.

II hieroglyphic script,

280

Bow:
'plain'

984, 985 derivatives 402 Minoan gold, from tholos Midea, n. 505 from Isopata, lacedaemonius, L.M. 270, 402 limestone, from Caravanserai Knossos, n. 123 Knossos, manufacture of 56 porphyry, Egyptian, from Knossos, 988 under Pottery serpentine, from Temple Tomb, 1006 Minoan, from Byblos, 825
IV.

n. 3

at

lapis
II.

II,

57, 58,

III.

n. 3

at

liparite,

at

11.

11.

30,

56, IV.

n.

pottery, see

iv.

silver,

il.

type (African and European) as symbol of Libyan Goddess Neith, I. 584,


II.

from 5th Shaft Grave


II.

at

Mycenae,

641 n.

I,

642

Earlier Nilotic type 48, 49, surviving in Somaliland, 49


of, 11.
still
11.

48, IV. 172

iv.

172

on
and Mallia,
II.

M.M.
11.

la seals from Knossos

50, IV. 172,

835
horn,
n.

composite, Asiatic, type


50, IV.

made of goat's
11.

type found Egypt, 49 of Egypt, 49 4 on Phaestos 655 on bead-seal from Knossos, 413 on 50 73 attribute of Minoan Goddess,
Hittite
rarity

835
in

in

from Palestrina, I v. 418 from Ras-Shamra, iv. 782, 783 from Regulini Galassi Tomb, iv. 539 from Vapheio Tomb, II. 641 n. i steatite, from sacellum at Phaestos, n. 217 from Petsofa, iv. 657 stone, from Neolithic house at Knossos, n. 16 from tholos B at Platanos, n. 193
Egyptian predynastic,
iv.

11.

n.

disk,

i.

and
48,

985
625

n. i

see Libations, vessels for


iv.

iv.

signet-rings,

11.

n. 2, IV.

Bowl sign. Linear Script B, Bowman, see Archer

as

II.

IV.

reference to manufacture from Armoury Deposit, used by Lykian warriors, hieroglyph, 49 origin 49
11.

175 of boy-God,

Boxes, used for storage of tablets,


ivory,
,iv.

iv.

668
195 n.
6,

from Enkomi Tomb,


of,

in.

11.

831, 832, 842


of,

on Tablets

533 n. 5 fragments
III.

from

E.

Treasury

at

iv.

832 i. 665

Knossos,

409
at

from Tylissos, I. 482 from Tomb of the Tripod Hearth


835

Zafer

of, 11.

pictograph, on disk from Phaestos,

iv. 73,

M.M.

III-L.M.

la, IV.

835

302 limestone, with tesserae of precious materials, from S. House at Knossos, 11. 373
iv.

Papoura,

BOXES

[17]

BRONZE

wood,

Boxes

{cont.)

overlaid with gold,

from 5th Shaft

L.M.

Braziers {cont.)
lb, from Hagia Triada, iv. 881 Bread offered to snakes in Poland, iv. 158 Breast, in cult of goddess, i. 656 painted stucco relief, from E. Hall

Grave at Mycenae, iv. 253 and see Chests Box-fittings, bronze, from M.M. Ill
at

floor cists

at

Knossos,

35 on m. 688-93, 29 ^^S 4 Knossos, 211, 600 (from Knossos) Breccia, column bases 498, 500-8, on fragments of stucco from E. Hall 212, 213, 370, 386, 485, 235 imitated pottery, E.M., 100 Knossos, 500-4 on and 188 M.M. 688-93, 615 600 M.M. n, 238 498, 500, 503, 504, associated with of Grand Stands, M.M. ni, 597, 600, 601, 602 hammer from Temple Repositories, 468 689-91 mace from tomb Isopata, 357 Boxing bout scheme taken over for heroic quarries Kakon Oros, 212, 370, 602, combat on Mycenae 691 Boy-God, God 234 rhyton from Treasury of Tri-Columnar Boys playing pavement game, on M.M. 111b
steatite reliefs,
IV.
I.

Boxers, on

318, 452 fresco from Tylissos,


I.

Knossos,
iii.

III.

508

Breasted, Prof., on date of accession of


II.

Mena,

i'-

" 2,

n.

of,

at

i.

relief

at

III.

IV.

III.

in

iv.

seals

sealings,

I.

11.

n. 2,

I, I.

178,

III.

IV.

I.

pillars

i.

1.

of,

i.

of,

at

iv.

signet,

I.

of, at

I.

see

IV.

of,

fresco (miniature),

ill.

396 and

PI.

XXV

Hall at Knossos,
Axes,

11.

822

vases E.M., 572, 234 487 M.M., 235 Brescia, bronze halberd from neighbourhood 408, 409 represented on M.M. lllb bronze 172 Bricks, sun-dried, Domestic Quarter from Harbour Town, 235 represented on L.M. figurine of Goddess Knossos, 327 House B under Kouloura of West from Knossos, 337 represented on fresco of Captain of the Court, 69
of,
I.

opp. p. 370 Bracelets, bone, segmented, from drain near E. Treasury at Knossos, ill. 408, 409 faience, matrix for, from Knossos, i. 488 ivory, from drain near E. Treasury, iii. 405,
figure

from Inner Hall of Hall of the Double


III.

346 234
90,
IV.

from

Tomb of Atreus at Mycenae, iv.


n. 4,
IV. 95,

of,

II.

II.

in

at

I.

11.

in

IV.

in

755 Brachycephalism in Hittite reliefs, in S.W. Asia Minor, i. 7

Blacks,

II.

I.

7.

Minoan

Crete,

i.

7,

8,

11.

45, iv. 986,


at

1008-10
Brackets, faience,

from Temple Repositories

Knossos,
steatite
;

I.

524

House, 11. 390 in E. Magazine, 11. 519 in Little Palace, 11. 519 in houses at Niru Khani, 11. 281 Bridge, Minoan, over Vlychia, II. 150, 152, 153 Cyclopean, at Mycenae, 11. 98 n. 2, 99 Roman, over Kairatos, 11. 552
in S.

mould for, from Knossos, i. 488, 489 from mainland, I. 489 n. i Bradoni, Monte, E.M. dagger-blade from (with
Iberic tin cone),
11.

Bridge-spout,
at

alabaster,

from Temple

Tomb

169, 176

Branch,

as

vegetation symbol on talismanic

bead-seals, iv. 446, 448


sign, as
III.

mason's mark,

i.

394,

11.

582

n. i,

found 491, 492 North, type of halberd from,


in,
I.

Knossos, iv. 976 Britain, Early Bronze Age in, I. 23 Megalithic monuments in, 11. 181 Segmented paste beads of Minoan type
11.

170

374, IV. 903, 904

Britomartis, see Diktynna

Brassempouy, steatopygous female figure from,


45, IV. 427 Braziers, M.M. I,
I.

from below W. Magazines

at

Knossos,

I.

172

on bronze hydria from Kurion, Bronze, use of Egypt, 176 imitated L.M. la
early
in
11.

Brittle-stars,

on L.M. lb

pottery,

11,

488

iv.

457
11.

vessels

in

pottery,

436

BRONZE
Bronze vessels imitated in
(cont.)

[i8]

BRONZE

L.M.

II pottery, iv.

310
utensils in

Bronze used for

common

L.M.

II

period, 376 deposits and hoards Knossos, near Stepped 632, 792 E. Treasury, 399 N.W. Treasure House, n. 623-59
iv.

period, IV. 353 substitution of iron for in proto-geometric


objects,

Bronze objects, deposits and hoards of, bulls' heads (cont.) borne by Minoan tributaries on tomb of Men-kheper'ra-senb at Thebes, 11. 746 cauldrons, from N.W. House at Knossos,

of:

at

11.

'623

Portico,

11.

'

iii.

Town Houses,
S.

from house S.E. of House, 630 from Tomb of the Tripod Hearth, Isopata, 637 from Phaestos, 131 from Tylissos, 123, 569, 570, 624
S.
11.
II. 11.

II.

629

at

n. 3

11.

from Tomb of the Double Axes, 838 from Hunter's Grave Zafer Papoura,
iv.

11. 625-7 House, II. 390, 630, 632 N.W. House, II. 415, 627, 629, 637 from tomb in Zafer Papoura cemetery, 11. 550 amphora, from Kurion, 11. 504, 505 n. i depicted in hands of Minoan envoy in tomb of Senmut, 11. 425 arrow-plates, from Armoury Deposit, iv. 837

from Olympia, iv. 797 from N.W. House at Knossos, 11. 629 collars, from lUyria, 11. 198 cup, Vapheio type, from Mochlos, I. 345,
chariots, votive,
chisel,
II. 480, III. 177 dagger-blades, from II.

N.W. House
n. i,

at

Knossos,
11.

at

from 195 719, 720, 845, 848 from Mycenae, 681, 714-17, 720,
Lasithi,
I.

629

754,
361,
130,

III.

Ill, IV.

i.

11.

IV.

838

452, 473, 73, "I- 95,


527, 531, 575 ewers, from Egypt,
IV.
11.

"2, 118-24,

from N.W. House at Knossos, 11. 629 axes, double, votive, from cave at Arkalokhorio, bronze, gold and silver iv. 346,
adzes,

347, 378 Fig- 315 bis from shrine at Delphi,

11.

834
ill.

from Knossos, E. Treasury,


414

404,

from Knossos, N.W. House, 11. 629 from Knossos, S. House, 11. 629 from Knossos, Harbour Town, iv.
198

from N.W. Treasure House Knossos, 645, 339 from House S.E. of House, 631 from 4th and 5th Shaft Graves Mycenae, 632, 645 from 632 from Chieftain's Grave Zafer Papoura,
at
II.

645

IV.

n. 5

S.

11.

at

II.

Palaikastro,

11.

n. 3

at

IV. 117,

860

figure of acrobat
III.

and bull from Crete,


11.

11.

650,

from Niru Khani, 11. 281 from Phaestos, 11. 787 from Psychro Cave, 11. 212 single, from Adriatic Coastlands (from Phoenicia), iv. 417 n. 3 from Chaldaea, iv. 417 n. 3 from Syria, iv. 418 {see Axes) from Vapheio tomb, iv. 418 axe-adze, from S. House at Knossos, 11. 629 axe-hammer, from Milatos, iv. 46 n. 4 basins, from N.W. Treasure House at
Knossos, II. 473, 620, 622, 642, 643, 644, 779, IV. 300, 727

220-2
651
I.

of female votary, in Berlin Museum, of male 460, 461, 38


votaries,
iii.

of bulls, votive,

507
I.

iv.

from Knossos,
632; Harbour

S.
11.

Propylaeum,
iv.

Town,

235,

198

goblets, common L.M. use from Tomb of Tripod Hearth


II

from Phaestos, iii. 461 from Psychro, i. 681, in. 461 from Tylissos, 11. 47 n. 4, in. 450 of Syrian God Resheph, in. 477, 478 of Hittite God Teshub, in. 478 n. 6
of, iv.

at

303 Zafer

from near Stepped


box-fittings,
bulls'

bowl, from

N.W. Treasure House,


Portico,
11.

11.

427

Papoura,

I v.

364
11.

633
I.

greaves, from Glasinatz, Bosnia,

from W. Magazines, heads, from Majorca, I. 22

318, 450

hair (bronze wire), of ivory figurines

198 and n. 2 from E.

Treasury

at

Knossos, in. 432

BRONZE
Bronze objects, deposits and hoards
(cont.)
of,

[19]

BROWN

hair

of mane from E. Treasury, 413 (bronze of gigantic wooden statue


lion's
ill.

curls)

173 from 172 from 6th Shaft Grave Mycenae, 173 from Scandinavia, 170 from 170 from Spain, 170
Italy,
11.

halberds,

from E. Hall, ill. 522, IV. 612 from Britain, 11. 170 from Calvatore, 11. 172 n. i from Gambara near Brescia, 11. 172 from N. Germany, 11. 170, 173 from Ireland and N. Britain, 11. 170,
170,

Bronze objects, deposits and hoards of {cont) rim, gold plated, of silver rhyton from 4th Shaft Grave at Mycenae, iii. 89 saws, from Knossos, 11. 672, iv. 798 S. House, II. 629 House S.E. of S. House, 11. 632 from Hagia Triada, iv. 798 scales, from chamber tomb at Mavro Spelio,

II-

556

172,

at

11.

172,

from Cyprus, 11. 134 from near Knossos, iv. 319 situla, from well at Knossos, iii. 258 spear-heads, from Mace-bearer's Tomb
shrine,
signet-ring,

at

n.

11.

from Grave 20
stand,

Isopata, IV. 356

at

Mochlos,

IV.

842

Sicily,

11.

11.

handles, looped, from

W.

Treasury, Knossos,

from M.M. Ill floor


hinges,

1.469

cists,

I.

452

from M.M. Ill floor cists, I. 452 horns of consecration, from N.W. Treasure House, II. 619 hydrias, from Kurion, li. 652, 653, III. 310,
440, 456

Knossos, 702 hoards


II.

from Old Paphos, 11. 602, iii. 61 stilus (suggested), from Palaikastro, ill. 13 swords, from tomb at Amira, 11. 174 n. 2 from Beth-Dagin, 11. 273 n. 2 from Dodona, 11. 175 from Gezer, ill. 312, 313 perhaps votive, from S. Propylaeum
large
of,

at

M.M.
iv.

Cave, Arkalokhorio,

Ill, from Votive 846 and Suppl. PI.

implements,
jar, 'pithoid',

M.M.

I, I. 194, 195 depicted borne by Minoan envoy


11.

from shaft graves

LXVIII.

on tomb of Senmut,
javelin-heads, depicted

648, iv. 262

from Thera,
tablet,

at

Mycenae,

I v.

241, 301

ill.

130 n. 4

on Miniature Fresco from Knossos, iii. 82 jug, from near Stepped Portico, 11. 632 from S. Slope, 11. 436 from Chieftain's Grave at Zafer Papoura, II. 636 key, pin-shaped, from doorway of passage over N. Lustral Basin at Knossos, ill. 12 from Inner Hall of Temple Tomb, iv. 993 knives, from S. House, 11. 629 from Temple Tomb, iv. 1004 lamp (with chain of trimmer), from Tomb of the Tripod Hearth, 11. 636 mirror-plate from Chieftain's Grave at Zafer

votive
II.

inscribed,

from Psychro,
672
S.

I.

632-5,
tessera,

790
II.

n. 3, III. 69, 462, IV.

from stone box from


374

House
Hearth

at

Knossos,
vessels

from
II.

Tomb

of Tripod

at

from 161 from N.W. Treasure House, 471 from Grave 14 Zafer Papoura, 563 represented on fresco fragment from
11.

Isopata,

635, IV. 353, 727 S. Portico at Knossos,

11.

at

11.

Papoura, iv. 860 oenochoe from rock tomb

house at Tylissos, ill. 36 borne by Minoan tributaries on tomb of Men-kheper'ra-senb at Thebes, 11. 746 brought by envoys from Keftiii on tomb of Senmut, IV. 266

at Byblos,

11.

655,

weapons
Mallia,

of
11.

Priest-king

from
iv.

Palace

at

82s
pans, from near Stepped Portico at Knossos,

271 weight from Diktaean Cave,


Early, in

655
for,
11.

from house S.E. of


rapier,

II.

632

Bronze Age, N.W., chronological data


S.

172

House,

11.

631

razor,

from Sicily, 11. 626, 627 from Temple Tomb, iv. 1004

170 Scandinavian, 5th Period, 11. 132 Brown, Prof. Baldwin, iii. 212
11.

N. Germany,

BROWN
Brown, Mr. Burton, excavations
IV.

[20] at Ankhiale,

BULL'S HEADS
on ivory relief from S. House at Knossos, II. 388 on prehistoric slate palette, 11. 27 on stone reliefs from Atreus Tomb at Mycenae, ill. 193-7, IV. 10, 228 on painted stucco reliefs from N. Entrance
Passage at Knossos,
IV.
iii.

Bulls (cont.)

534
the

Brown, Ford Madox, Elijah and


son, by,
11.

Widow's

306

n.

Brussels,

Bubastis,

Musee du Cinquantenaire, 11. 222 base of statue of King Khyan at, I. 421

Bucolic, see Pastoral

Bucrania on lentoid with sacrificial scene, iv. 568 Buhen, Egyptian alabastron from, i. 417 Building, methods of. Neolithic, I. 34, 35

172, 174, 176, 177,

16

from House of the Sacrificed Oxen,


II.

M.M.
699,

E.M.

II,
I,

I. I.

172,

II.

353
II.

310, 355 n.

128, 129,

143, 145, 281,

III.

200
II, 204, 209, II.

M.M. M.M.

370

Ill,

I.

316, 390, 392, 445, 466-8, 255, 349, 353, 565, 683,

576, 579-82,

II.

L.M.

III.

271, 287
I, II.

65, 105, 372, 683


ill.

'Mycenaean',

200
ill.

92 represented on Town Mosaic, 303-6 represented on Phaestos Disk, 657, 658, 663 represented on and seaUngs, 564,
III.
I.

322 Buildings, represented on Miniature Frescoes from Knossos, iii. 83-5 represented on silver rhyton.from Mycenae,

Megalithic, in Malta,

from N.E. Entrance Passage, 11. 782 on E.M. Ill seal from Platanos, I. 119 on M.M. Ill seal-impressions, 11. 355 n. 2 on L.M. gems, 11. 495 n. 2 associated with Minoan Genii, iv. 440, 458 attacked by lion, on lentoid gems, iv. 533 on seal from Vapheio Tomb, ill. 123 griffins on bead-seal from Crete, iv. 624 galloping, figure of borne by Minoan tributary on tomb of User-amon at Thebes,

I.

seals

I.

565, 673, 674, 685, 686

Bukarest

Museum, fragment

of painted stucco

figure of in bronze group from Crete, 650 on dagger-blade of Queen Aahotep 649 on dagger-hilt of King Neb-Khepesh Ra, 649 on L.M. 4 jasper 589 significance 649
II.

II.

738

I,

II.

II.

n.

II

intaglio, iv.
of, 11.

religious

from Mycenae in, 11. 750 Bulb design, on L.M. la sherd from Zakro,
IV.

133
of.

Bulls:
figures

Middle
I.

Neolithic

clay

from
11.

Knossos,
,

clay votive,

44 from Cave Sanctuaries,


Juktas,
I.

65

from from

158

to Apis, 206 funereal 43 in of Minoan Goddess, on bead-seal from Crete, 42


III.

by Minoan Genii, iv. 443 licking hind foot, on Minoan seals, iv. 560 on silver staters of Gortyna, iv. 560 sacred character of, n. 324, 676, iii. 205, 206
led
sacrifice of, in
rites, iv.

Pillar cult

11.

324

iv.

Petsofa,

I.

158

from Palaikastro, I. 180 silver, borne by Keftiu envoy depicted on tomb of Men-kheper'ra-senb at Thebes,
inside bowls
II.

by envoy depicted on tomb of User-Amon, 11. 648 inlays of on dagger from Lasithi, iv. 848 from tomb of Queen Aahhotep, 11. 361 on fresco from Tiryns, iv. 576 on bronze hydria from Cyprus, 11. 652 on ivory casket from Enkomi, iii. 195 n. 6

borne

536, 648, 649, 651, 746

from Mycenae, I v. 41 from Thisbe, Iii. 227, iv. 40 painted sarcophagus from Hagia Triada, IV. 42 and see Hagia Triada, sarcophagus from scratching head, on Minoan seals, IV. 561 sketched on jar from Asine, iv. 758
:

Bull-shaped rhytons,
Bull's heads, bronze,

434 on miniature fresco of embroidery,


III.

259-65 22 faience, from Ivory Deposit at Knossos,


I.

189, 190,

11.

from Majorca,

i.

iii.

40

BULL'S HEADS
Bull's heads (cont.)

[2 I]

BURIALS
on frescoes and painted stucco reliefs a favourite theme from M.M. Ilia onwards,
III.

on gold repousse plaques from Mycenae, 253 on L.M. onyx lentoid from Argos, 434, 435 on pottery rhyton from Minet-el-Beida,
IV. I
i.

Bull-sports (cont.)

185
I.

M.M.
485,

Ilia,

375-8,

II.

355, 356, 474,

iv.

599. 782,

III.

176, 177, 190, 195, 208,

on

777
sealing
II.

from
619
II,
i.

Domestic
237

Quarter

at

M.M.
IV.

rhytons, M.M.
658

Knossos,

n. i

228, 537, 874 527, 528, III. 2, 61, 62, 178, 180, 185 n. I, 189, 208, 209, 310, 433,
IV. 8, 10,
1.

III6,

20
la,
I.

Cypro Minoan, from Ain Tab,


from Erech, 11. 264 from Knossos, Little Palace,

n. 538 n. 2,

L.M.
L.M. L.M.

366, 394, 447, 571,


III.

II.

356,

485, 782,
11.

209-32, 307, 331, 495-525


676,
IV.

lb, IV.

892
892, 893,

262

n. 3,

II, II. 620, 674,

408, 527-30, 539, III. 108, IV. 727 drain near Royal Road, 11. 531, 533 Tomb of Double Axes, i- 514

I. 445, iii. 207, 208, iv. 44 ivory figures of performers in, from Knossos,

904 Mainland,
II.

from Mycenae, Atreus Tomb,

iii.

195 n.

358, 650,

III.

428, 436, 437, IV. 31

4th Shaft Grave, i. 222 n. 2, 11. 530 of painted pottery vs^ith L.M. lb sacral ivy from Eski Samsoun (Amisos), 11. 659
(cf.

538 n. 2), IV. 765-7 on tombs of Rekhmara, Useramon, and

on painted crystal plaque from Room of the Throne, iii. 109 on M.M. I pottery, i. 188-90 on L.M. Illa pottery, iv. 372 on steatite rhyton from Hagia Triada, ill. 90,
225

weight

Men-kheper'ra-senb, 11. 535, 536, 740 (lead filling), Diktaean Cave, iv. 655
III.

on

seals

Bull-sports
acrobats' performance in.
of, 11.

bronze figure 220-2 650, 574. 582, 615, 618 ivory figurine of from E. Treasury leaden from Knossos, 344 haematite from Troy, Knossos, 650, 428, 433 99 on cup A from Vapheio tomb, m. 181, 182 Burchell, Mr. James T., on Egyptian candle female, engaged from El Tab, 2 127 35
ill.

222, 223, 232

and seahngs, I. 374, 377, 431, 675, 686-9, 694, II. 524, III. 185, 187, 188, 218-20, 225, 226, 227, 230, IV. 550,
sling,
11.

at

Bullets,

II.

III.

sling,

ill.

P.

in, 11.

stick

II.

n.

sexual transformation

of, iv.

21

Burdah,
Burials,
at

see

Bombah

Anatolian origins of, ill. 450, iv. 23 associated with Minoan Goddess, I. 447, 11. 678, III. 206, 207, 433, IV. 20 ff., 39 S.
character
of,
I.

on Asiatic side

2, 15, 189, 190, ill.

204

ff.,

225,

226-8
208, 231 205 in Cappadocia, I. 15, 11. 259 n. 4, at Rome, introduced by Claudius,
at, iii.

spectators
la,

M.M.

III.

Amrit, ill. 478 at Bethshemesh, 11. 257 at Byblos, 11. 654, 655 at Minet-el-Beida, iv. 771, 775, 776 at Myndos, 11. 43 at Myra, i. 657-8, 663

iv.
ill.

23

229

in Spain,

iii.

227
ill.

n. 3, 228, iv.

40

in Thessaly,
tradition
of,

229, 330, iv. 45 in bull-grappling exploits of


iv.

Herakles and Theseus,

46

Ras-Shamra, iv. 771, 772, 776 Ur, III. 260 Burials, Egyptian: cemetery at Beni Hasan, 11. 40, iii, 522 Neolithic, near Cairo, 11. 181 n. 3 at Harageh, 11. 212, 213 nn. i and 2
at
at

on coins of Larissa, iii. 229 on cups from Vapheio, i. 245, 525, 676, 715, . 717, II. Ill, 276, 363, 452, 790 n. 2,
III. 2,

comparison with Minoan,


stela.

of Amenemhet
of Antef
I, II.

11. 32 Early Middle Kingdom, 11. 176, 177

at

III, 177-85, 188, IV. 10, 22,

444

24

n.

Thebes, 2

11.

732

n. 5

BURIALS
Burials, Egyptian (cont.)

[22]

BURIALS
Minoan
(cont.)

Burials,

tombs, 1 8th Dynasty, ii. i66 at Abydos, ii. 232 n. i, iv. 130, 137, 415 at Beni Hasan, 11. iii East of Hierakonpolis, 11. 37 at Gebel-Genamish, 11. 37 n. 4 at Naqada, 11. 26

Rifeh, 257 757 Thebes, 736-48 of Queen Aahotep, 361 of scribe Amenemhet, 732, 733 of Amu-neseh, 728 of Antefoker, 507 of Kenamon, 448, 450 of Maket, Kahun, 488 of Men-kheper"ra-senb, 207, 535, 648, 269 649, 651, 728, 738, 745, 747, of Puemra, Thebes, 739, 754 of Rekhmara, 226, 534, 656, 728, 739-44. 269, 329, 653, 753 of Senmut, 425, 534, 647, 648,
at
11.

Coffins,

wood, suggested use of in Temple Tomb at Knossos, iv. 977: and see
Sarcophagi
practised
in
iv.

Cremation,

Crete

in

proto-

376 Cult aspect of graves, in. 144


Graves, Pit:
at

Geometric period,

at Siut,
at

II.

11.

Late
at

11.

Knossos, Tomb of the Cow, 11. 554 Geometrical, N.W. of Temple Tomb, IV. 1018

11.

n. i

Mycenae, Danai
Knossos,
iv.

as builders of, iv.

237

11.

n. i

Graves, Shaft:
at
at

iv.

858

11.

at

11.

11.

IV.

at

11.

11.

116, 166, 176,


IV.

date of contents 240, 241 period of use


latest

Mycenae, i. 24, 27, iv. 839 n. i synchronism of contents with those of tholoi, IV. 236 ff.
of,
I.

720, 721,

IV.

222,

of, IV.

244

11. 166, 178, 727, IV. 262, 266, 464, 729 n.

Vapheio, I. 24 at Volo, I. 24
at

3,

880,

gravestones, see Stelae


jar burials, see

of King Sneferu, 56 of Ukh-hotep, 744 of User-amon, 166,


11. 11. II.

882

Urns
11.

Larnax,

see

Sarcophagi
35
iv.

Libyan
534, 535, 736-8,

practice, relation with,

648,

III.

178, IV. 104,

Ramesseum, iv. Burials, German:

44 434

Zafer Papoura, Grave 44, 11. 563 Chieftain's Grave, 11. 563,
Ossuaries, cave, E.M., at Pyrgos,
I.

860-6

56, 59, 70,

hut-shaped urns, II. 132 from Mecklenburg, 11. 132 at Nienhagen in Saxony, 11. 175
Burials, Italian:

II.

10, 12,

280
I,

cist,

M.M.

at

Hagia Triada,

i.

107,

Cells and compartments attached to


at Palaikastro,

149-50

hut-shaped urns,
Regulini Galassi
in Sardinia, in Sicily,
II. 11.

11.

130, 131
11.

sepulchral cave at

Monte Bradoni, Tomb, iv. 539


i,

169

149-50 126 attached to tholos tombs,


I.

at

Pachyammos,
11.

I.

11.

18; at

170 n.

181

Seal Island,
tholos,
1.

37
II.

70, 103, 149, 150,


11.

18, 35, 80, 131


*
11.

181
11.

at Christos,

43, 81, 82

at Volterra,

169, in. 87 n. 5

at

Burials, Maltese
II.

Bronze Age,

at

Hal-Tarxien,

at

Hagia Triada, i. 107, 149, Hagios Onuphrios, 11. 80

36,

80

190

at Kalathiana, at
11.

*Burials,

Minoan:
230

Komo,

11.

11. 29, 55, 194 n. 2 88 (suggested)

connexion with Harbour Knossos, 551 L.M., Zafer Papoura,


II.

cemetery at Isopata,

at

Kumasa,

I.

21,

11.

Town
11.

of

at

Marathokephali,
I.

11.

39 80
36, 37 n. 3, 39,

in Mesara,

i,

107,

11.

at

i.

13,

230, 550
at,

45.52
date of,
II.

preponderance of poor interments


II-

41
11.

563

connexion with Libya,

45

* Objects from burials are not indexed here but will be found under the locality of the burial.

BURIALS
Burials,
(cont.)

[23]

BURIALS
Minoan (cont.) Tombs, Chamber, at
at Karakovilia,

Minoan, Ossuaries, tholos in Mesara


connexion with Mycenaean
tholoi,

Burials,

Dibaki,

11.

at Isopata, iv. 353, 356,


11.

90 841

II.

66, IV.

237 n. I Libyan origin of, 11. 53 Nilotic elements in contents of,


possible
I.

135, 138
iv.

at
11.

Knossos,
11.

11.

370,

849, 858, 962

at Mallia, at

234
11.

193, IV. 525


at

Mavro

Spelio,

337, 555, 556, 557,


iv.

Mochlos,

at Patena, iv. at Platanos, at Porti,


,

72 90
36, 81

III.

274 in Kalkani cemetery, Mycenae,

170,

11.

II.

174 n. 3

17s n. 5, 887 at Zafer Papoura, also serving as shrine,

at Pyrgos, at Siva,
11.

11.

380
iv.

M.M. 150 M.M. 586 L.M., 580, 310 from Anoia, 338 from Hagia Triada,
I, I.

80 Pit-caves, at Knossos, 11. 563, Sarcophagi, E.M. Ill, i. 126


55,
Ill,
I. I.

with rock-cut grave in form of Double Axe, II. 379, 285


858

form

of, II.

43, 551
of,
11.

prototypes

557
i.

and

see

Rock

Tombs
Tombs,
at

Cist,

E.M.

Ill,

125, 126

IV.

Mochlos,

I.

73,

III.

261
11.

iv.

i. 223, 427, 437-41, 447. 635. " 324. 334. 336, 406, 650, 721, 834. "I- 39. 69, 138, IV. 42, 44, 295, 401,

North Greece, 11. 40 Tombs, House, E.M., I. 103,


in

40

from Knossos,
IV.

402, 403, 426, 580, 823, 824


11. 499 Gypsades, 11. 549 Zafer Papoura, 11. 499 11.

107 at Gournia, I. 150, 191 at Mochlos, I. 70, 72, 89, 103, 107, 11. 40 Tombs, Keel-Vaulted, near Canea, iv. 776
I.

M.M.

at n. 4, iv.
ill.

Enkomi,
date

iv.
11.

from Ligortino, 787 338 from Milatos, 499, from Pachyammos, from Pyrgos, 59 from Trypeti, 83
11.
i. i.

329

at Isopata,

771 n. 5 329, iv. 13, 773-6, 960

n. 2,

116, 138,

of, IV.

776
iv.

structural identity of with Syrian

iv.

46

n. 4,

47

tombs
at at

at

150, 586
11.

n. 2,

75
i.

Mouliana, Trahonas,

Ras Shamra, iv. 320


iv.

771

771 n. 5
11.

11.

in

West

Crete, iv. 776

Stelae, in relation with baetylic images,

161,

at

Zafer Papoura,

283, 550, 563,


to stelae

iv.

within vaults of tombs, tholos tombs Argos, from cenotaph Dendra, from Chamber Tomb 4 246 from Mycenae, 201,
in
at

162

858, lOII

iv.

244-6
345 iv. 245

Tombs, Rock,
IV.

in relation

above,

iv.

24s
I.

at

at Isopata,

343, 441,

11.

279, iv. 43

at

Mavro

Spelio,

at at

Knossos,

11.
11.

547,

ill.

IV.

Mycenae,
at

697, iv.

274 244
204, 260, 858,

11.

iv.

248, 256

Tomb, Temple,

Knossos,

iv.

Grave Circle, iii. 199 Rock Tomb, iv. 244, 245 Shaft Grave no. 5, iv. 250, 252, 253,
831, 849

956, 961, 965-70, 973-83, 990-9, lOOI, 1002, 1004, 1007, 1015-17

chronology of, iv. 973, 1007 earthquake victims buried in,

iv.

989,

Shaft Grave no.

6, iv.

248

990

Tomb,

L.M.
II.

near

Harbour

Town

of

later use of, iv. 1004,

1015-17
,

Knossos,

235

pavilion and inner court of iv. 999-1001

Tombs, Beehive, see Tombs, Tholos Chamber, at Amira, 11. 174 n. 2


at

Dendra,

iv.

839

970-4, 977-8, 989-90 snake cult in connexion with, IV.1014-15

Pillar crypt of, iv.

312

n. 3, 950,

BURIALS
Burials,

[34]

BUTTERFLIES

Minoan, Tombs, Temple (cont)

Burials,

resemblance of to traditional 'Tomb of Minos', described by Diodoros, iv. 978


of

hut-shaped,
II.

Minoan, Urns
13 1-2

{cont.)

Minoan

relation to Italian,

Minos

in Sicily, tradition of, iv. 960,

978

Tombs, Tholos,
struction of,

primitive ossuary type, con-

Burials,

to German and Scandinavian, 11. 132 from Phaestos, 11. 130, 133 Sub-Minoan and Geometrical, 11.
n. s, 137,

date

of, II.

35 seqq. 38, 65
II. 11.

74
Burials,

154 Post Minoan,


at at

in

Crete,

at

Hagios

house origin

distribution of,

37-40
40, 65 type:
40, 41 n. 4, iv.

Thomas,

of, 11.

76 Knossos,
11.

11.

154, 433
II.

Tombs, Tholos, Mycenaean


Argive Heraeon,
24s
at at
11.

Matala,

11.

87
at

Burials,

near Matium, North African,

280 n. 2, 552 Chaouach, 11. 18 r

Kakovatos,

11.

43, 364, iv. 243, 402


n. 3

at at

461 n. 7 at Krasi, 11. 39 n. 4, iv. 676 at Menidi, 11. 596 n. i at Midea, 11. 505
iii.

Kampos,

Hadrumetum, III. 420 Kubbah, 11. 39


11.
11.

in Libya,
at Tipasa,

37 39

Burials, Scandinavian, at

Bornholm,

11.

132 n. 3

at

Mycenae,

11.

40, 41,

iii.

261

builders of, iv. 237 dating of, iv. 222, 236, 241 Megalithic character of, 11. 41

132 n. 4 in Smaland, 11. 132 n. 4 at Smalle, 11. 132 n. 4 in Scania, 11. 132 n. 4
at
II.

Hammar,

Minoan
lintels
;

origin of, 11. 40 seqq.; compared with those of Mesara

in Burials,
Busiris,

Sweden, 11. 132, 133 South Russian, 11. 428

similar vaulting of contemporary II. 43 well-chamber at Arkhanes, near Knossos (M.M. III6, L.M. la), 66

'Tomb 'Tomb 'Tomb


IV. 10,

of Agamemnon',
of Aigisthos', of Atreus',
III.
11.
I.

iii.

43 n. 2
343,
11.

43,

11. 27 But and ben type of house, 11. 40 Neolithic, at Magasa, 132 E.M. II, at Mochlos, i. 72, 73 tomb, at Mochlos, i. 102 of sanctuary on Juktas, i. 158

163-4. 590, 671,

38, 192-202, 517,

223, 228, 352, 613 n. I 'Tomb of Klytemnestra',

Butmir, Neolithic pottery from, Buto, see Wazet


Butterflies,

I.

14
of,
iii.

i.

344,

Aristotle
I

on development
ill.

II.

36, 41, IV. 223,

229
iv.
11.

'Tomb
at

of the Genii',
i.

887

n.

Orchomenos,
3, III.

202,

205, 592,,

594, 599 n.

208

n. 2, 371, IV. 242,

874
in Peloponnese, date of,
11.

40, iv. 243,

244
at

Vapheio,
I.

II.

364, IV. 243, 419

at Volo,

Tombstone,

97, 500 see Stela


Ill,
i.

Urns, burial, E.M.

125, 126

M.M.

Ill,

I.

584-6
126, 585,
11.

from Mochlos, i. 584 from Pachyammos, i. from Sphungaras,


672-5,
II.
i.

primitive mythologies, 151 4 symbol of human 149-51, 789, 154 from 3rd Shaft Grave Mycenae, 151 on 'Ringof Nestor (with chrysalisof Common White) from Kakovatos, 149-51 on Greco-Roman sarcophagus, 154 on gold from 3rd Shaft Grave Mycenae, 788 on from Knossos, 1018 149, on sealing from Palace, 789,
in as
n. soul,
11.

149 n.

ill.

gold,
III.

at

'

iii.

iii.

scales
11.

at

seals

in.

iv.

Little

11.

iii.

68,

185,

69

364, 424, 500, 507, IV. 252


76, 78-80, 585,

on stucco
II.

from Zakro,
787,
III.

11.

787

relief of Priest-king

from Knossos,

364

69

BUTTERFLIES

[25]

CANDIA
on bead-seal from Arkhanes, iv. 315 on amphora from Knossos, iv. 307 on ewer from Temple Tomb, iv. 1007 on stirrup vase from Zafer Papoura,
IV.

on votive double axe from Phaestos, and Chrysalis Butterfly motive, origin 114 E.M., 69 E.M. 2 84
see
of,
I.

Butterflies (cont.)

C's, three (cont.)

ii.

787

63, iv.

IV.

I, IV.
I.

n.

300

n. 2

E.M. E.M.

75 Ill, I. 108
I, I.

II,

C's, two, in 'Late Revival' ceramic ornament,


'iv.

M.M. M.M. M.M.

23 n.

2, 166, IV.

84

in

280, 372 L.M. Ill mainland ceramic ornament,

II,

I.

Ill, IV.

237 490
Ill sealings,
I.

IV. 316, 747 Cable patterns, E.M. Ill,

I.

112

Butterfly wings

on M.M.

703,

M.M.
Caffre cat,
III.

Ill,

I.

41S, 594, 595

705, 706 Buttons, steatite,

on inlaid dagger-blade from Mycenae,


iv.

E.M.

Ill,

from Hagios OnuI. i.

114

phrios and Kouphonisi,


tin,

112, 113

Cairn, sacred,

455
at, 11.

found near Volterra,

loi

Button-seals, see Seals

Buxton, Dr. Dudley, on bones from Temple Tomb at Knossos, iv. loio
Byblos, alabaster figure vase from,
at,

Neolithic burials near, 181 Museum, Egyptian marble


11.

Cairo, earthquake of 1926

318

n.

n. 3

vase
iv.

in,

11.

chamber tomb Cretan imports from, 654, 655, 825 coin-types connexion of 535 Keftiu on Egyptian monuments, 650 by W. Max Miiller with Kupni, 2 657 temple 61
11.

11.

258

223 n. I Cakes, barley, as offerings to snakes,


Calabria, Calcite
11.

158
of

168

figure-vase

from Harbour

Town

of, IV.

w^ith

11.

identified
II.

Knossos, II. 255, 256 Calendar, Egyptian, 11. 29 Calf, gold-bead in shape of, Knossos, iv. 963 Calf's head, prepared for table, on lentoid gem
Calves,

n.

prostitutes at,

iii.

Byty, see Bee, Egyptian sign for

from Mirabello, iv. 491 on painting in tomb at Thebes, 11. 448 on Minoan seals and sealings, iv. 543, 544,

M.M. sculptural ornament, in Mycenaean ornament, 199


in
11.

C-curves, in

E.M. ornament,

11.

195, 199
iv.

567 Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, bronze stilus from Palaikastro in, ill. 13 marble figure of Minoan Goddess in,
III.

255

199, IV. 32, 193

C's, three, in

L.M.

ornament, derived on
lb, iv. 314,

Camels, introduction of into Egypt, 11. 157 Campeador, the Cid, in Spanish bull-fights,
III.

Palace style pottery of Knossos from


triple

227

marine group of L.M.


II, IV. 280,

'Camp-stool' fresco,

315

inL.M.

30on.

2,

313, 315 n. 2,

11. 605, iv. 359, 365, 387, 396, 882, Coloured PI. XXXI. on sealings, religious associations of, iv. 387

320, 321, 353, 361, 1007 in L.M. Ilfl, IV. 353


in in in

III, IV. 372 reappearance of in Rhodes and Cyprus,


IV-

L.M. L.M. L.M.

116, IV. 307,

308 358

Ill, IV. 280,

Canea 231 dances, earthquakes


II.
^

Canaan, Minoan wares imported Candia, aqueduct to, 11. 62


gate,

into,

i.

11 n.

Minoan

settlement to

W.

of,

traditional, of district, in.


at, 11.
11.

75

312-25,

iv.

989

315

in 1304,

321

combined with octopus and papyrus,


IV.

308
ogival canopy, iv. 320, 321

in 1508,11. 313, 321 in 1810, II. 314 in 1856,


11.

314,315

CANDIA
Candia, earthquakes at (cont.) in 1926, II. 316-18
fortified
11. II.

[26]

CAT
half, limestone,
II.

by Venetians, Knossos, 231 founded by Saracens, 231 Cappadocia, Harbour, 2 289, Harbour Town of Knossos near, 298, 259 Knossos, Harbour Town 229 and with Museum, dangerous construction 205, 23
11.

Capital {cont.)

from near Stepped Portico

at

814, 815, Suppl. PI.

XXX.
ill.
i.

figurines of

Teshub from,

478

3, 4, 61, ill.

iv.

early sealings from, with bull-sports,


3, II.

15 n.

i.

n. 4,

III.

205
iii.

II.

see

bulls ceremonially draped,

of,*

11.

IV.

314
III.

n.

2
to in earthquake of 1926,
II.

Capsian trapezoid
317,

fiints, 11.

49

n.

damage

50 n. I removal of frescoes to, objects in passim objects found near: Babylonian cylinder, 11. 266
:

'Captain of the Blacks', on fresco fragments from House of the Frescoes at Knossos,
II.

iv.

IV.

755, 756, Coloured PI. 376, 886, 887

XIII opp. 756,


of, II.

Caravan-routes, African, antiquity


Caravanserai, see under Knossos

755

M.M. HI
bead-seals,

deposit,
11.

11.

231

Carding, vessel perhaps used for,


Caria, connexions of with
6,
II.

11.

308
Crete,
i.

834, 835 776, iv. 953 100, 104, 547, 551


11.

Minoan

4,

roads from, walls 350


11.

signet-rings,

11.

of, II.

of Double Axe 479 mercenaries from, weapons


cult
in, iv.
I.

43

of,

I.

loi

Candles, Minoan,

128 Candlesticks, Egyptian, 4th Dynasty,


599.

Carinated bowls, Egyptian form, of diorite,


578,
I.

17

127 n. 2 on tomb of King Teta,

"

11.

127 n. 2

"55 M.M. in, from Magazine of Lily Jars Knossos, 578, L.M., from N.W. 579Caravanserai, 127 of
I.

from tomb of Tutankhamen, 11. 127 n. 2 Minoan, types of, 11. 127 E.M. n, from tholos at Siva, I. 578, 579,
at

from Knossos, I. 85-90, 11. 31 n. i, 56 from Miamii, I. 58 from Temple of King Sahure, 11. 56 Carpenters, saw as sign of in Linear Script B,
IV.

797

Cart, four-wheeled,

on Class
of,

tablet

from
156,

Tylissos, IV. 809


terra-cotta
IV.

model
see

from Palaikastro,

II.

11.

807, 808

from Nauplia, 11. 128 Cane, C-shaped prints of in

Casa Romuli,

Rome

M.M.

II vase-

Casket, see
in

painting, I. 245, 246 Canea, 11.44, 3 13 ring with engraved ivory bezel from,

Box Caskey, Mr. L.


Cassel

462 keel-vaulted
IV. IV.

D., on figure of Snake Goddess Boston Museum, iii. 439


agate bead-seal in, iv. 109

iii.

125,

Museum,
21,

Castelluccio, objects

from

Sikel cemetery

at,

tombs

in

neighbourhood

of,

I.

22
II hieroglyphic (personal badge),

776
'aryballos'
iv.

Cat, as

M.M.
9,

Canopy ornament on

Tomb
Cap,
see

at

Knossos,

from Chamber 849 and see Ogival


:

Canopy
Dress Capart, Monsieur, on ostrich-egg cup from Abydos, 11. 222 n. 2
Capellae of the Lares, hut-like,
Capital,
11.

in Nilotic scene on dagger-blade from Mycenae, 361, 114 on Phaestos 653, 656, 657 on fresco from Hagia Triada (stalking
11.

I.

281

ill.

disk,

i.

pheasant),

I.

539-41,

11.

354, in. 114


tail

131 n.

from Knossos (pheasant's

fragment

form of, i. 344, 345 plaitwork, M.M. Ill, from entrance to Kljrtemnestra Tomb at Mycenae, iv. 846,
Ill palm-tree

M.M.

847

wild,

found near), I. 540, 541 from Egypt, i. 541 on Minoan seals, i. 278, II. 203,
in Crete,
iii.

iv.

588

114 n. 3

CAT'S

HEAD
iv.

[27]

CHALICE
as paving for lightwells,
II.

Cat's head sign in Linear Script A,

682

Cement, Minoan use of


523
II.

on

offertory

bowl from Apodoulou,


of, 11.

IV. 657 Catamarans, fixed rudders

240

on L.M. domestic, horned,


Hearth,

Cattle

i. 695 563-8 signs in Linear Script B, iv. 722-4 signs in Linear Script B, iv. 723 Cauldron, tripod, from Tomb of the Tripod

on

M.M. HI

seals,

seals, iv.

11.

637
S.E. of S.

from II. 630 from from from


II,

House

House

at

Knossos,

above pavement of Central Court Knossos, 800 pavement of upper rooms of Caravanserai, 107 Roman pavement over Theatral Area, 18 runnel by steps of Theatral Area, 247 and Tarazza Censers from Royal Magazines, Knossos, 568 from Niru Khani, 437 and Incense burners
early
II.

at

iv.

in.

see

I.

I.

see

N.W. House,
Phaestos,
Tylissos,
11. li.

11.

415, 629

Cereal signs in Linear Script B,

iv.

623, 624,

131 n. 3
123, 567, 570, 624
I.

721, 722 on bead-seal with bull and griffins,


Cerigo,
11.

IV.

624

Caves, use of in Crete as sanctuaries,


68, 651, IV. 411

162, 163,

5;

M.M.
5

I steatite

pot from

tomb

votive bronze bulls from, 651 buildings, 39 and Arkalokhorio, Korykian, Miamii,
11. 11.

at, II.

199, 200, IV. 255


11.

Cerigotto,

see

Ida,

Psychro, Skoteino, Stravomyti

Cavetto mouldings of
IV-

73

>

74; on
iv.

M.M. la gypsum tables, M.M. Ill stone vases, 11.

697 n. 3 Cedrenus cited,

673 n. 2

Ceiling patterns, Egyptian,

i. 258, 358 perhaps influenced by Minoan rugs and sails, 11. 206 in tomb of Amenemhet at Thebes,

Cesnola Collection, see New York Cestus, used round wrist of Toreador on fresco from Knossos, in. 216 Chad, Lake, route from Tripoli to, 11. 756 Chafing-pans from Royal Magazines at Knossos, I. 568 Chains, gold, E.M. II, from Mochlos, I. 95 Chalandriane, walled stronghold at, I. 156,
III. 6, IV. 78 Chalcedony dove pendant from Mochlos,
I.

102,

II-

205, 732

intombofHepsebaatAssiut,ii.207n.4 in tomb of Senmut, ill. 31


in

407 ring from Cyclopaean House


IV. IV.

at

Mycenae,

553

seals,

M.M.

Ill,

i.

677, 685

hypogaeum
early,
II,
I.

at Hal-Saflieni,

11.

184,

185, 196

Minoan,

I.

201

Ill, II. 205 template for, on seals, 11. 203, 204. With Double Axe motive, restored, iv. 614
spiral,

M.M. M.M.

258, 260, 261, 274, 291

from Athens, iv. 532 from Isopata, 11. 764 n. 3, 766, iv. 501 from Knossos district, iv. 500, 50 1 502, 543 from Lasithi, iv. 571 from Vapheio, iv. 573
,

with Minoan Genius,


Chalcolithic period,
I.

iv.

431, 435
iv.

Greek fifth-century scaraboid,


Chaldaea, connexion with
16,

536
I.

from corner sanctuary of N.W. InI.

21, 32, 38, 57, 68, 100

sula of Palace at Knossos,

424,

ill.

30, 31,

Minoan

Crete,

15,

Coloured PI. XV. with papyrus pattern, in painted relief, L.M. la (Queen's Megaron), in. 371-4, iv.
874. 875 sculptured,
I.

of tholos
III.

at

Orchomenos,
54

origin of of inlaying 262, wheeled vehicles 809 tradition of God-given law 16


art
in, 11. in, iv. in,
i.

69 with Egypt,

II.

26, 27, 28

iv.

93

202,

II.

205,

371, IV. 242, 874


i.

Chalice, faience,

from Temple Repositories

at

Celts, Neolithic, types of,

53,

E.M.

from Magasa,
I, I.

i.

32

Knossos, II. 188 gold, represented on Camp-stool fresco,


390. 391

IV.

68

: :

CHALICE
Chalice (cont.)
affinity
iv.

[28]

CHARIOT-WHEELS
to

Minoan, of with i8th Dynasty alabastron, 390, 391, 392 pottery, E.M., from ossuary Pyrgos, 12 offered Goddess on L.M. seaUng, 594 on signet from Tiryns 392
at
11.

Chariots, Sumerian type B, diffusion of (cont.)

Aegean

area, iv.

815

persistence of in Chaldaea to age of


iv. 813, 814 on plaques from Malatia, IV. 814 on bead-seals from Knossos, iv. 815; from Thisbe, iv. 816-19; misunderstood by Commandant de Noailles, 817 n. 2 -on L.M. Ill vases from Enkomi, iv. 819 Minoan type with solid hind wheels (Linear Class A) on tablet from Tyhssos, 11. 156, ly.

10,

Sargonids,

to

iv.

treasure, iv.

Chalkis, copper ingot from,

11. 624 Chalky inlay on Neolithic incised pottery,

i.

20,

36

Chamaezi

M.M.

I oval

house

at,

i.

139, 147,

ii.

40

n. 2,

796
later,

518, IV. 160 n. 3

Minoan

dual form of type C,


of, II.

bowed

bronze implements from, I. 194 votive figurines from, i. 151 inscribed pithos from, I. 639 vyaterpipe from, iv. 160 n. 3

behind, L.M. II, use


795, 820 ff. diffusion of in

244, IV. 579,


area, iv. 821,

Aegean

825

Chamber-tombs, see Burials, Minoan Chaouach, Tunisia, rock tombs at, 11. 181
Chapels, in Minoan private houses, 11. 279 Chapouthier, Monsieur Fernand, discoveries at
Mallia,
11.

connexion of with Assyrian warchariot, IV.

819

structure of, iv. 791 survival of into Geometrical period


in Greece, iv. 825

269

n. 4,

271 n.

2, iv.

75 n. 2
Mallia,

on cupped pavement
III.

table

at

392
date of

on fresco from Tiryns, iv. 825 on frieze from Megaron at Mycenae,


III.

on

Hieroglyphic

Deposit
271 n. 689 n. 2
11. i

at

87
in

Mallia, iv. 676 n. 3 on date of jar from Mallia,

L.M. Illa ceramic ornament,

IV.

372

on horned helmet sign, iv. Charbonneux, Monsieur J., discoveries


Mallia, 11. 271 n. 2 Charcoal, use of in sepulchral vessels,
11.

at

133
154,

Chariots
introduction and evolution of,
III.
i.

coupled with papyrus on amphora from Enkomi, Cyprus, iv. 375 drawn by griffins on sarcophagus from Hagia Triada, iv. 823, 824 on bead-seal from Avdu, iv. 791,
822, 823

16,

11.

87 n. 2, IV. 808-25 244, used for hunting on mainland, iv. 579, 580, 831 Assyrian, connexion with Minoan type, iv. 819

on cylinder
IV.

seal

from Astrakous,

425

Chaldaean type A,
clay

iv.

809-1

model of from Kish, iv. 809 on mosaic from Ur, iv. 810, 811 on cylinder from Kish, iv. 810 Cypro-Minoan, influenced by Syro-Egyptian

on bead seal from Vapheio, iv. 420 on L.M. sealings, iv. 615 on stela above 5th Shaft Grave at Mycenae, iv. 250 on Chariot Tablets from Knossos,

on krater from Enkomi,


Egyptian two-wheeled,
iv.

type, IV. 822

IV.

658

808
793

Minoan origin
Syro-Egyptian,

II. 155, 802, IV. 787-9, 819, 821, 831 Geometrical period, votive bronze from Olympia, iv. 797

of, iv.

295
of

manufacture

imitated in Crete,
of,

iv.

influence

on

Cypro-

on

relief

from Egyptian

Minoan,

IV.

822

Thebes, iv. 791 Sumerian type B,


81S

Chariot-wheels, evidence of wholesale


IV.

manu795

811-19

diffusion of, to Hittite regions, iv. 814,

on Tablets from Armoury Deposit, four-spoked, Egyptian, 796


iv.

facture of, at Knossos, iv. 793, 795


iv.

CHARIOT-WHEELS
Chariot-wheels, four-spoked {cont.)

[39]

CHRYSALIS
at

six-spoked, Egyptian,
Italian, iv.

Minoan,

iv.

796

Chevron ornament {cont) on shale slab from Chieftain's House


Kavusi,
Chiaroscuro,
III.

iv.

796

391

797

in

hatched shading on Griffin

Syrian, iv. 796

Fresco
Childe,
I.

from
XV.

Room

of the

Throne

at

on Geometrical vase from Kavusi, iv. 797 on Greek vase of Melian class, iv. 797 eight-spoked, Assyrian, iv. 796 Balkan, iv. 797 Cypriote, iv. 796 Italian, iv. 797 Syrian, iv. 796 .nine-spoked, on clay vessel from Este, iv.
797 497
n. 3

Knossos,
Prof.

912, 913

V. Gordon, on Minyan ware,


11.

194 n. 2 on predynastic Egyptian stone bead,

signs

179 n. II Children, burial of toy vessels with, iv. 1008 ivory figures of, from Palaikastro, ill. 446
Chisel, bronze,

on bronze
n. 3

vessel

from Glasinatz,

iv.

Charioteers,

Roman,

iii.

V of Spain, iii. Cheese, offered to snakes in Poland, Chequer patterns, M.M. Ill, 11. 600
Charles

229 227 n. 3

iv.

158

708 from Chamaezi, I. 194 from N.W. House at Knossos, 11. 629 jasper. Neolithic, from Knossos, 11. 13, 14 Chishull, Mr., on Boegia at Miletos, iv, 47 n. 4 Chita, see Leopard Christian chapel on Mount Juktas, I. 153
Christianity, underlying affinity of with
religion,
ill.

for in Linear Script B, iv.

Minoan

L.M. II, IV. 348 L.M. Ill, IV. 350 Sub-Mycenaean and
350 n. I Egyptian origin Chersonesos, i. 298 seals from, 11. 843,
of, 11.

144 Christos Avthentis, church of on Asterusian

Geometric,
600,
iv.

iv.

Mountains,

11.

81

348

on Dikte, 11. 81 on Juktas, 11. 81


primitive shrine near,
11.

submergence of coast
726
Chester,

81

iv.

553
at, 11.

tholos

at, II.

43, 81 n. 6
I.

87 n.

2,

234
iv.

Chest, perhaps as sign in Linear Script B,

Mr. Greville, donor of bead-seal Ashmolean Museum, iv. 667 n. i acquirer of prism-seal from Karnak,
503 n- S

to

iv.

Chests, painted stucco, from

Loom Weight

area

253, iii. 488 wooden, containing arrows,


at
i.

Knossos,

from Armoury

Deposit,
inlaid

IV.

836, 837

and

Town Mosaic, I. 302, 311,313 from M.M. Ill floor-cists, i. 451, 452 from W. Temple Repositories, i. 469
with
see

Boxes Chevron ornament on embroidery on frescoes from Threshing Floor Deposit at Knossos,
III.

Sub-Neolithic, 78 Minoan, 28-30, 34 358 E.M. 30 E.M. 102 E.M. 126 M.M. 202 M.M. 416 M.M. 270, 290, 291, 299, 300, 552, 553 M.M. 421 M.M. 874 L.M. 276 L.M. 322, 881 L.M. 322, 729, Sub-Minoan, 27 944 Mycenaean B, 351
i.

Chronology, Egyptian,
I.

30, 31,

290

38, 56, 70, 74,

11 n.

i, 12, 13,

25,

n. 4,

II.

I, I.

70,

II.

II,

I.

Ill,

I.

I, I.

198,

la, IV.
I.

II,

Ilia,

I.

lllb, IV.

la, IV.
lb, IV.

II, IV.

I.

iv.

37, 38
iv.

Chrysalis,

on ivory comb from Temple Tomb,


1005

on pottery amphora from Zafer Papoura,


III.

471
signet

on

from Thisbe,

iii.

471

on

from Kalkani Cemetery, Mycenae, 11. 788 n. 2, iii. 149, 151 from 3rd Shaft Grave at Mycenae, iii. 151 on 'Ring of Nestor' of Common White
gold,
butterfly,
11.

788,

ill.

149
ill.

signet from Vapheio tomb,

140, 141 149


,

CHRYSALIS
Chrysalis
as

[30]

COCKCHAFERS
Minoan
(cont.)
11.

symbol of resurgence, new

to

Cithara,

Ancient Religion, ill. 141, 142 Chryselephantine figures of Minoan Goddess and God, see under Figurines ChrysocoUa, see Malachite
Chrysolakkos, see Mallia

as hieroglyphic sign,

834.
silver

City of

Minoan type represented on

and
I.

rhyton from Mycenae, in. 89, 92


see

Town Mosaic
H. M., on Minoan
latrines,

City of Refuge, see Juktas


Clarke, Capt. T.

Chukar-Caccabis, resemblance to partridge on frieze from Knossos, 11. no n. 2 Chukur Kend, stone figurines from, I. 50 Chumnos, Georgios, account of Tree of Paradise by, II. 483 n. 2, in. 148 Church, Prof. A. H., analysis of faience by, i. 489 tin from Abydos by, 11. 179 n. i Churchill, Capt. E. G. Spencer, Minoan bronze bull in collection of, 11. 650, 651, III. 220 Cichorium spinosum, perhaps represented on
frieze of Pavilion of Caravanserai,
11.

228

n. 2

Claudius, bull-sports introduced in


III.

Rome

by,

229

Clavus,

Minoan

parallel to, IV.

398

Clay, blue-black, found in Crete,

11. 328 used in Minoan roof and terrace pavements {tarazza), ii.' 98, 107, 145, 327, 328,

core of Horns of Consecration from Domestic

699,700,712,716
Quarter
at

Knossos,
iv.

11.

160 n. 3

used as stopper for water-pots,


Cilicia,
II.

113
i
I.

of movable tripod hearths from Knossos

11.

113 n.

connexions of with Minoan Crete,

15,

cylinders of Late Mycenaean well


III.

and Mycenae,
257

179

at

Melos,

167, 169 n. 2, 656, IV. 408, 713, 763,

935 n. 2 with Cyprus, 11. 656, iv. 763 with Keftiu on Egyptian monuments,

Minoan plantations 422, 497, 534, 763 culture 720 exported to Crete from, 169
in, iv.

11.

656

saff^ron

in, iv.

silver

11.

Circle motive, in
IV.

L.M. la ceramic ornament,

264

in

Circles, linked,
IV.

Mycenaean ceramic ornament, iv. 265 on L.M. la jug from Knossos,


at

envelope from Cappadocia, 23 of Neolithic houses Knossos, 18 foundations of Minoan roads, 54 nodules from room Knossos, 767 from Hagia Triada, 484 table in pavement of sacellum Phaestos, yellow, perhaps used 392 Egyptian wall by 449 and Pottery, Stucco, Tablets,
iv.

of well at Ur, in. 259

floors

at

11.

11.

at

II.

11.

n.

ritual

at

11.

195, in.

painters,
see

II.

Sealings,

264 on rhyton from Shaft Grave


265

Tarazza, Terra-cotta

Mycenae,

Clerestory, above S.
II.

Propylaeum

IV.

688; above Lustral


iv.

at Knossos, Basin of R. of

Circus, see Bull-sports


Cist-ossuaries, see Burials,
Cists, analogy of

Throne,

922, 924, Fig. 897

Minoan
attached to Neolithic
181

Climate, Cretan,

with
18

cells

Maltese Megalithic monuments, M.M. in use 236, 316, 442 Tiryns, 202 and under Knossos
in
of,
I.

buildings,

11.

11.

11. 2, in. 138 Club, naked barbarians armed with, on silver rhyton, Mycenae, iv. 97, 98; Carian use of. III. 99, 100

at

11.

n. 3

see

on Phaestos disk, in. 99, 100 on coins of Kos and Selgg, in. 100 n. i in cult of Goddess at Comana, i. 656
i

Cistus, see

Rock-rose
11.

Cithara, Minoan,

834 influence of Egyptian type on, 11. 835 in ritual scene on Hagia Triada sarcoII.

as attribute of Herakles, in. 100 n. Clytemnestra, see Klytemnestra

Cobalt, see

Kyanos
in

Cobble-paving,
n. 105 Cockchafers, on
I.

Caravanserai at Knossos,
II goblet

phagus,

834
of strings
11.

original

number
Delphi,

of, 11.

834

M.M.

from Knossos,

used

at

834

240,

and

see Beetle (land)

COCKLES
Cockles, see Shells
Coffins, see Burials,

[31]

COLUMN-BASES
cow
(cont.)
11.

Coin-types,

Minoan
;

Coiled spray motive, on pottery from Knossos, I. 598 from Melos, I. 598 from 4th Shaft
;

Grave
Coinage,
:

at

Mycenae,
see

i.

598, 599

Minoan dumps
Currency

predecessors

of,

iv.

664 and
II.

Coins, Greek, of Aegina, found at Knossos,

5-6 of Akanthos, of Aspendus,


of of of of of
of

539 11. 345 Byblos, IV. 535 Colchis, IV. 767 Comana, iii. 100 Corcyra, iv. 557 Eryx, 11. 765 n. 3 Gortyna, iv. 560, 562
11.

iv.

2 493 goat attacked by Goddess with hounds, 252 330 936 mask, 831 attacking Ma, 100 539 Minotaur, 767 shnger, 345 Tal6n, 116 warrior, 46 Zeus suckled by cow,
dates,
II.

suckling infant Zeus,


n.

278

n. 2

lion, iv.
11.

539 765 n. 3

Isis Pelagia,

11.

labyrinth, in.
ladle, IV.

lion's

11.

n.

lion

bull, iv. 535, 536,

539

goat, IV.

III.

iv.

11.

11.

n.

11.

n. 3

11.

278

n.

2
iv.

of Kalymna, of Knossos, of Kos,


III.

46

n. 3

III.

330
I

843 Colchis, connexion of with


11.

Velchanos,

100 n.
ill.

Minotaur on coins
628
i,

Minoan Crete,
707

767

of, iv.

of Larissa,

229
46, 557, 564 n. 3
iv.

of Macedon, of Malla, of Motya,


IV.

iv.

536

of Metapontion,
11.

843

Col di Tenda, rock-cut figures above, 11. 170 Collars, bronze, from Illyria, 11. 198 Columns, Egyptian, 11. 520, 521, in. 513 Minoan, fluting of, i. 344, 11. 520, 521, ill.
322. 323. 381

765 n. 3 of Phaestos, 11. 116 n.


of Praisos,
II.

form
palm.

of,

I.

342, 343, 344, 345,

iii.

63, 64,

278

n. 2 n. 2 n. i

321, 322, 323


III. 513 proportions of,

of Priansos, of Rhegion,
of Salamis,

11.
11.

493 831

11.

674, 689
of,

11. 11.

53 n. 2

round and rectangular, alternation


II.

of Segesta, of Selge,
II.

765

n. 3

345

n. 3, in. 99,

100 n.

of Tarsus, iv. 536 of Tenedos, 11. 276

539 Roman, of Antoninus Pius,


-of Julius Caesar,
contorniate,
I v.

of Velia,

iv.

11.

52 n. 3

936
11.

of P. Licinius Stolo,
11.

52 n. 3

252
52 n. 3
iv.

Artemis Tauropolos, 936 628 attacked by


aspergillum, iv.

Coin-types, ancilia,

11.

46

barley, iv.

bull

lion, iv. 535, 536,

539

licking hoof, iv. 560

of Domestic Quarter, 381 of N.W. 18 of Palace, 520, 521 Mallia and 567 on from E. 510, 513 on from Megaron Mycenae, on rhyton from Mycenae, 100 and
in.

567 superposed, in. 62-4, 92, 100 wooden, n. 692, in. 321 of Hall ofthe Double Axes at Knossos, in. 321 of S. Propylaeum, n. 689, 692 of Stepped Portico, in. 322 of Queen's Megaron, in. 355
Insula, in.
11.

Little

at

Palaikastro,

11.

frieze

Hall, in.

frieze

at

in. 85

in.

see Pillars

cow and
club.

scratching head,
III.

IV.

561, 562

Column-bases from church of Hagios Jannis,

bull-sports.
III.

229
I

100 n.
calf, iv.

from Knossos, E. Hall,


iv.

Visala, n. 73 n.

i.

323, in. 485


I.

557, 558

Area of Spiral Fresco,


Lustral Area,
i.

370, iv. 235

scratching head,

361, 562

410

COLUMN-BASES
Column-bases, from Knossos (cont.) N.W. Treasure House, ii. 617
Pillar Sanctuaries, S.
i.

[33]

CORN
cross

Constantine,
of, iv.

on

altar

block on coins

202

Propylaeum,
Porch,
II.

11.

441 688
III.

Contarini, Pietro, letter

from Girolamo Donate

W.

670, 689
I. i.

361

N.W.

Portico,

422,

N.E. Portico,

386
III.
I.

321 n. 2 Villa, frieze in by Tiepolo, iii. 56 Contraction of bodies in tholos tombs, 11. 45 Cook, Prof. A. B., on Minoan Genii, iv. 432
to, II. 313,

W.

394 Queen's Megaron, Domestic Quarter,


I.

Portico,

360

351, 352

Central Court,

11.

804

hearths Knossos, 20 Neolithic, from Knossos, M.M. ni, 554-6, 565-8


at
11.

Cooking, see Knossos, Kitchen


pots,

n. i

11.

10

I.

from 73 M.M. H, 211-13, 370, 410 M.M. HI, 211, 323, 343 breccia, 370, 386, 485, 235 gypsum, 343, 351, 352, 441, 617, 689, 164 670 limestone, 394, 422, 689, 738 n.i, 361, 13 688 polychrome, 370, 425 re-use 212 square, 629 stone, 391, 360 on Miniature Fresco, 63
Visala,
I.

Light Area of Pillar Hall, ill. 164 S.E. House, I. 425, II. 391 from Niru Khani, 11. 234 from Phaestos, 11. 688
11.

ritual

connexions
i.

of,

I.

567
11.

Copper Age,

13

cemeteries in Cyprus,

273 n. 3

adze-axes, E.M. H, loi rounded Egyptian,


I.

Copper, E.M.
axes,

use

of,

i.

68

iv.

415
11.

I.

I.

III.

iv.

I.

II.

III.

'moustache-cups' (Egyptian), daggers, E.M. H, 54


i.

from Neolithic house at Knossos, votive, from Mochlos, I. loi


11.

14

57

99,

11.

half,

II.

l.

11.

III.

IV.

oval,

II.

i.

of,

i.

11.

II.

III.

ill.

Coma

Berenices, iv.

477

Egyptian Crete, imitated 193 exported Egypt, 637 fragment from Mochlos, 57 gold-plated, from Vat Room Deposit Knossos, 170 from Cyprus, 624
vessels of,

from from from from

Cyclades,

i. i.

100
21

Kumasa,

Lagash, 11. 276 Monte Bradoni,


to
11.

11.

169
in

I.

I.

at

I.

ingots,

11.

Comana, coins of, ill. 100 cult of Goddess at, I. 656 Comb, ivory, from Temple Tomb

at

Knossos,

IV.

1004, 1005

from Mycenae, iv. 1005 n. 2 from Palaikastro, IV. 1005, 1006 gold, from Mycenae, iv. 1005 n. 2
11.

Compasses, invention of ascribed to Tal6s,

used in decoration in Egypt and Crete,


92 n. 2 Conch, see Shells Conduit, Minoan, from Kolybo, II. 463
Cone-seal, see Seal

116 n.

114 spearhead from Hagios Onuphrios, swords from Cyprus, 273


III.
11.

from Greece, 11. 624 from Hagia Triada, 11. 624, iv. 652 from Knossos, 11. 624 from Sardinia, 11. 624 from Tylissos, 11. 624, iv. 652 inlays on bronze dagger-blade from Mycenae,
1.

100, loi

iv.

Coractas garrulus, see Roller


Corbels, probably used for arches of viaduct at

Knossos,
spring
of

II.

96

Mavro

coins
Gulf

Corey ra,

i.

of, IV.

557
11.

Corfu, see Corcyra

Conglomerate, use of in

M.M.
I.

construction,

Corinth, Neolithic remains near,

imitated in M.M.
in

I.

211,

II.

670

I pottery,
i.

179

M.M. HI

pottery,

597, 600-2

169 Minoan port near, 11. 168 Corn, offerings of, at Knossos,
of, II.

i.

497

CORN

[33]

CRETE
and
calf [cont)

Egyptian hieroglyph, 802 on Chariot Tablets, 668 storage Knossos, 629, 630
sign,
iv. iv. of, at iv.
i.

Corn

(cont.)

Cow

faience,

from Temple Repositories


IV.

at

Knossos,

I.

498, 510-14, 524,


iv.

554

ivory from Nimrud,

555

Cornelian beads, E.M.

bead-seals, M.M.
M.M.
Ill,
I.
:

from Amira, 11. from Pyrgos, 11. 75


II,

95 174 n. 2
i.

II,

273, 278,
II.

11.

203

307 n. 2 from Arkhanes, iv. 42, 526, 588 from Chersonesos, 11. 843
673, 675,

from Crete,
Central,

iv.
11.

18

419,
11.

iv.

453, 533
i

East, IV. 446, 447, 497

560 of Hathor, star-symbols 536 123 used decoy for bull on Vapheio
of, 11.

on L.M. seals and sealings, iv. 553 on Greek coins, IV. 557, 558 -on Hagia Triada sarcophagus, 11. 650 head of, from Lagash, 11. 262 led by Minoan Genii, iv. 443 licking hind foot, on L.M. \a seals, IV.
n.
i, ill.

as

Cup

B,

Vapheio, iv. 570, 690 pendant, from Knossos, ill. 410 Cornice, Minoan, triple gradation
8, III.

from from from from from from from from from from

Goulas,

203 n.

III.

183
see Bull-sports

Hydra,
Klitara,

iv.

466
130
633, 793, iv. 400, 849

Cowboys,

ill.
11.

Cowley, Sir A. E., on ox-head sign in Hittite


script, IV. 713 n. 4 Cowrie, see Shells Crabs in Minoan ornament,
reliefs

Knossos,
Lyktos,

iv. iv.

571

Melos,

444
iv. 170, iv.

Mycenae,
Phaestos,
Siteia, ill.

402, 544

434, 435

95 n. 3

clay moulded on dead specimens, from W. Court, 521, 522 on sealing from Temple Repository Knossos, 695 on Geometric vase from Milatos, 164
i. I.

11.

502, iv. 105

at

iv.

of,

I.

686-

Craftsmen's signs,

i.

124, 134, 483, 484, 485,

513; mark of architectonic origin in i. 686, 687, iv. 566 block, stepped, of Porch of Central Court at

gem

types,

Corslet,

Cypro-Minoan, 803 Egyptian, time, of Rameses 803 Minoan, types of on Chariot Tablets, 803 worn by 401 of 'Peoples of the 804 sent by King Kinyras to Agamemnon, 804, of Shardana, 803 sign in Linear Script B, 787, 802, 803, 805
iv.

Knossos, II. 814 bronze talent as equivalent of on Chariot Tablets from Knossos, iv. 653, 805
parallels
II's
iv.

488, 496, III. 408 Crane-dance instituted by Theseus in honour of Ariadne at Delos, iii. 74, 75, 78 Crespellano, late Bronze Age pottery from, 11. 428, IV. 637
Crests, feather,

on Phaestos
32,
ill.

disk,

iii.

95

Crete
climate of,
11.

138, iv. 2
87,

iv.

votaries,

I v.

Sea', iv.

iv.

805,

iv.

deserted Middle Ages and communications by draught animals, 793 827, 83 by wheeled 807, 808 route 167-91 and Roads, Minoan
in
in, iv.

coast of, submerged,

11.

234

later, 11.

85

iv.

vehicles, iv.
across,
11.

transit

see

iv.

Cornwall, distribution of tin from,


Corridas, see Bull-sports

11.

179

dances in, traditional, ill. 75 earthquakes in, 11. 312-25, iv. 989

Corybantes,

i.

6
in,
I.

contrast between M.M.


656
II.

Eastern, in

E.M.

age,

I.

165
I

and

M.M.

II in,

Cos, ritual use of club


Covas, primitive
III.

214

n. 2

monuments in Balearic Islands,


of with Ishtar,
iv. iv.

emigration from,

322
calf, relation
i.

II. 321 Eteocretan race and language, survival of, II.

Cow

and

555

843
11. 5, iv.

with Hathor,

19, 512-15,

554

ethnic elements in,

464

CRETE
Crete
(cont.)
i.

[34]

CRETE
Egypt
{cont.)

Crete, relations of, with

insular advantages of,

19
i.

Neolithic,

i.

14,

11.

12, 14, 15,

22-59
80-93,
10 n.
6,
II.

invasions of, from north,

27

E.M.,

I.

17, 18, 26, 64-9, 75, 78,

Keftiu of Egyptian records identified with,

101-3, 113, 114, 120-6, 357,

656-8; possibly Cilician coast in narrower geographical sense, 11. 657 piracy on coasts of, 11. 85
II.

22-59, 362,

IV.

486
II.

M.M. M.M.

I, I.

133, 180, 193, 199,


I.

202

political conditions in, in

M.M. III-L.M.
L.M.
I, 11.
I.

I,

237, 238, 241, 256, 258, 261, 266, 268, 270, 271, 274, 280, 281, 283,
II,

" 559-71. I"- 6; in


IV.

883; in Early Iron Age,

348, 11 ; in

285-300, 311, 314, 315,

IV.

130

M.M.

relations of,

times, II. 39, 84 with Africa, 11. 742, 756 and see relations of with Egypt and Libya with Anatolia, i. 3-6, 14, 16, 20, 161, 6x8,
:

Roman

319, 320, 344, 345, 358, 376, 410, 412, 415-22, 476, 488, 490-3, 498, 509, 510, 534, 539, 541, 553, 568,
I.

Ill,

667, 668,

II.

4,

12,

IS, 28, 45,


IV.

167,

584, 601, 683, 684, 700, 704-7, 709, 715, 718, II. 467, 476, III. 402, IV. 248 L.M. I, I. 297, 344, II. 76, 166, 205, 361,
521, 522,
III.

221, 267, 658,

III.

424, 475,

464,

115, 372, IV. 265, 281

935 n- 2 with Assyria, iv. 530, 534, 548 with Babylon, iv. 422, 497, 654, 808 with Chaldaea, i, 15, 16, 69 with Cilicia, I. 15, ll. 167, 169 n. 2, 656, IV. 408, 422, 534, 713, 763, 935 n. 2 with Colchis, IV. 767 with Cyclades, i. 13, 20, 36, 62, 72, 74, 75,
84. 90. 95. 101-3, III, 112, 114, 115,

L.M. L.M.

II,

I.

18, III. 446, IV. 330, 339, 749,

803
Ill,
III.
11.

religious,

305 841 n.

6, iv.

464, 983

and see

Ta-Urt
i. 462, 11. 54, 61, 88, 168, 192, 214, 221, 508, IV. 284, 595, 654, 655, 718 relations of, with Etruria, II. 130, 131, iv. 188

trading,

relations of, with Greece,

I.

12, 13, 20, 33,

II.

148, 166, 168, 172, 177, 247, 274, 466,

557. 558. 560, 561, n. 15, 193, 309,

4-5, 41 n. 4, 65, 168, 217, 432,*452, 697, 833, III. 128, 418, IV. 8, 26, 227, 228,
229, 248, 253, 539, 549, 550, 754, 755, 870, 871
Neolithic,
i.
I.

with539. Cyprus,

IV.

715
i.

15, 16, 153, 160,


III.

11.

14, 15,

134. 505. 654,

480,

IV.

398, 407,

4,

497. 758, 763. 827 with Cyrene, I. 285, 11. 39, 84, 756
i.

E.M.

Ill,

14 114

relations of, with Egypt,

19,
I,

11.

2, 697, iii.

M.M. M.M.
L.M. L.M. L.M.

II, IV. 283,

284

Ill,

I.

23, 445, 485, 594, 595, 599,

106,283,
predynastic,
II.

IV.

403 n.
16,

654:
25,
56,

600, IV. 222, 236, 746


la, IV. 334, 746, 870,
lb, IV. 281, 283, II,
IV.

478, 44, IV. 172, 173, 525, 526, 940 n. 2,


i.

13,

17,

871
see

420, 887

982

n.

4
11.

852,
I c

853,

945: and

protodynastic,
526, 984 IVth Dynasty,

58, 60, iv. 503-5, 525,

Pottery,

L.M.

i.

17,

11.

56, iv.

235 n.

Vth Dynasty, 11. 56 Vlth Dynasty, iv. 520 Middle Kingdom, i. 18,
986, 987

n. 360, 625, iv.

Linear Script A, iv. 746 Linear Script B, iv. 716, 887, 945 conquest of by Minoans in L.M. lb, iv. 283, 887 epic tradition, iii. 106
colonization

from Crete,
i.

11.

571, 626, iv.

Xlth Dynasty, 11. 177 Xllth Dynasty, IV. 248, 249


Xlllth Dynasty, iv. 248, 249 New Empire, i. 18, iv. 880, 986, 987

283, 887

XVIIIth Dynasty,
9,

11.

178, 362, 536,

647-

with Libya, 464, 986 with Malta,


190,
III.

relations of, with Italy,


i.

20, 21,

11.

169

312,

11.

45, 756, iv. 34, 172,

I.

263, 342, 492,

II.

180, 182,

736-48,

III.

30, 31, IV.

269

322

CRETE
Crete, relations of {cont.)
Palestine, iv.

[35]

CRYSTAL
{cont.)

with 88 with Pontic region (Amisos, 764-9 659, with 626, 494, 978 959, 960 with Spain, 58 492, 494, 180 with Sumeria, 253-66, 261,
&c.),
IV.

658,
627,

Cross

patterns,

E.M.

Ill,

i.

12
at

ii.

M.M.
'

la, IV.

84
Knossos,

on robes in Procession Fresco


II.

Sicily,

1.

3,

22,

11.

IV.

n. I,

I.

22,

n. 2,

II.

179,

II.

III.

IV. 125,

and M.M. 94 symbol of Minoan Goddess in chthonic 514-17 mason's mark, 327, 663
circle patterns,

731

la, iv.

aspect,

I.

sign, as

11.

with Syria,

421. 9SS
I.

in Linear Script A,
15, 16, 197,
II.

i. i.

516
516, iv.

33, 192, 244,

in Linear Script B, in

760

267, 655, 656, 658, 743, 82s, III. 47S, IV. 398, 417, 401, 422, 497, 771 et

in Cypriote syllabary,
in

Cypro-Minoan

script, iv.
i.

769

516
i. 514 280

with Troy,
720
Crisa,
11.

seqq., 781

Mainland

script, iv.

743
i.

i. 20, 58, 62, 97, 191, 193, 194 saffron culture revived in, by Venetians, iv.

-as primitive pictograph of star,


as beginning of sign-groups,

snake-skin used as charm

in, iv.

168

841

as end of sign-groups, iv. 759, 760 Cross-hatching on sherd from Harageh, iv. 131 Crown of Minoan Goddess, on mould from
Siteia,
11.

Crockets,

on gypsum throne from Room of the Throne at Knossos, iv. 918


iv.

724

Crocodile, associated with Ta-Urt,

457 associated with Minoan Genii on hydriafrom

of

restored
Priest-king,

on Procession Fresco, 11. 724 on relief in S.N. Corridor,


i.

Kurion, iv. 457 sign, Egyptian, I. 289 Crocuses, gold, on E.M. II pins from Mochlos,

95 boss of pectoral from Gurob, 108 bowl from E. Treasury Knossos,


in.
at

" 473, 775-89 Crystal beads, E.M. II,

on faience votive robes from Ejiossos, 469 on frescoes from House of Frescoes Knossos, 450, 458, 459, 464, 363 on M.M. 106 185, M.M. 263, 264, 269 259, 81 L.M. L.M. 510, 285, 286 L.M. 289 L.M. 321
ii.

1.97

at

II.

iii.

pottery,

lb,

i.

iv.

in. 409 from Lustral Basin of Room of the Throne, iv. 930 cylinder from Vat Room Deposit, i. 170 flake from Neolithic stratum, n. 14 hilt plate of cruciform sword from Domestic
iv. 854 from Hissarlik, i. 471 from Knosso3, Lustral Basin of Room of the Throne, i. 472, in. 109-11, iv. 928, 930 E. Treasury in Domestic Quarter,

II,

I.

Quarter,

la, IV.

inlays,

lb, II. loi,


Ic, IV.

IV.

II, IV.

Crocus-gatherer fresco, i. 539 'Crooked Nostril' (Stravomyti) Cave,


Cross, as astral sign
IV.

!" 399> 405>


11.

409
i.

11

n. 3

W. Temple Repository,
480-2,
III.

318, 469-75,

among

primitive peoples,

484 94 faience inlay from Knossos, 516 from Lustral Basin of Room of the gold, from 3rd Shaft Grave, Mycenae, 516 Throne, 930 marble, from West Temple Repository, from Mavro rii 2 of eye of head rhyton from Knossos, 517, 94 on blocks of Constantinian Palace, n. 530, 108 202 miniature painting on, 107-33, 930 on Hathoric cow, 513 pendant from Gournia, 411 adopted by Minoan 514, pommel of dagger from Lustral Basin of 123 on objects from Temple Repositories, 515, Room of the Throne, 93
i.
i.

409, IV. 92 from 4th Shaft Grave at Mycenae,

jewellery,

i.

iv.

lens

Spelio, in.

n.

I.

IV.

bull's

Little

altar

coins, iv.

in.

i.

in.

^v.

cult,

i.

in.

in.

i.

iv.

684

from 3rd Shaft Grave

at

Mycenae,

in. 108

CRYSTAL
Crystal,

[36]
(cont.)
11.

CYCLADES
steatite (cont.)

pommel

Cups,

410 scarab from M.M.


III.

273 pyxis-cover from E. Treasury at Knossos,


Beirut, iv. 535
I, i.

of sword from Mallia,

seals of,

199, 271, 273,

274

Sumerian, engraved, 529 Vapheio type, iii, 175, 380, 507,


iv.
11.

from Hagia Triada, 11. 47, 742, 779, 790, III. 83, IV. 400 stone, from Knossos, 11. 633, in. 178
iii.

177:
at

M.M. M.M.
from from from from from from

IT, IV. 93,

523

and

see

Cups, gold, from Vapheio

Ill, I. 673, IV. 511 Arkhanes, iv. 93, 315 Idaean Cave, 11. 607, iv. 211, 344 Knossos, iv. 588

represented on

tomb

of

Senmut

Thebes,

534, 737, iv. 729 n. 3 as sign in Linear Script B, 11. 533, iv.
11.

Phigalia, iv.
Siteia,
i.

466
i.

274, iv. 523 673, iv. 511


11.

spindle-whorls, from Amira, 174 supplies Knossos, 93 from near S.W. House, 88 from stone box by House, vase with double axe from Egypt,
of, at
iv.

Sphungaras,

n. 2

tablet

iii.

tessera

S.

11.

11.

373 28

Cuirass, see Corslet

Culverts of viaduct at Knossos,

11.

96

Cuneiform inscription of Rusas II, 11. 169 n. 2 Cup-bearer fresco, i. 8, 550, 11. 337, 353, 684, 704-12 (Coloured PI. opp. p. 707), iv. 3, 6 high position of in Egypt and under Oriental
monarchies, iv. 806 Cups, bird's-nest, from near Stepped Portico at Knossos, II. 633 bronze, from Mochlos, M.M. Ill, iii. 177 Communion, Greek Orthodox, iv. 391 n. 6 diorite, from Knossos, 11. 57
faience,
11.

729 from Knossos, 135 3 Cup-sign, in Linear Script A, 715 in Linear Script A, on base of vessel from Melos, 715 in Linear Script B, 533, 687, 715, 729, 806 in Linear Script B, coupled with throne and sceptre 687, 806 in Linear Script B, in name groups, 715 980 Cupped-blocks, from Hierakonpolis, from Knossos, Temple Tomb, 978, 980, 981 from Mallia, 392-4, 24 from Mesara tombs, 982 from 980 from Phaestos, 392
votive,
11.

n. i, iv.

iv.

IV.

11.

iv.

sign, iv.

iv.

IV.

iv.

iii.

iv.

IV.

Palaikastro, iv. in.

n. i

from Deir-el-Bahari, 57 from Enkomi, 765 gold, from Mycenae, near Grave
IV.

Curia Saliorum, described as hut, 11. 131 Mr. C. T., iv. 28 Currency, Minoan: gold bars as medium of, IV. 664, 665
Currelly,

n. i

from
Salamis,
Circle,

Cypro-Minoan
iv.

tomb

at

Old

IV.

365 3rd Shaft Grave, 4th Shaft Grave,

11.
i.

504
223, 469,
11.

rings medium 664, 665 from Mycenae, 664, 665 from Mycenae, 665
as
of, iv. iv.

665

'skilling'

iv.

188,

Curvilinear ornament, Egyptian,

IV.

183 n. 4, 363, 391, 958 5th Shaft Grave, iv. 122, 183 n. 4 from Vapheio, i. 245, 525, 676, 715, 717,
Ill, 276, 363, 452,

11. 176, 195 Maltese, n. i8c, 183 Minoan, 1. 164, 165, n. 176, 185, 193, 195,

208

II.

790

n. 2,

III. 2,

III,

of Nestor, 958 under Pottery from Midea in Argolid, 507 represented on Camp-stool Fresco, said to have fragments
iv.

177-85, 188, IV. 10, 22, 444 'moustache', Egyptian, from Knossos,
pottery, see
silver,

11.

57

Minoan
Customs

and see Spiral 'Custom-House' at Komo, n. 88


oil-jars

from,

11.

166

11.

iv.

steatite,

of,

365 been

Minoan, n. 254, 255, 372 Cutters, copper, from Mochlos, i. loi Cuttle-fish, see Octopus Cybele, see Kybele
control,

found with Ivory Boy-God, in. 444 from Apodoulou, iv. 657

daggers, copper, from, drain-construction

Cyclades, cylinder seals from,


i.

iv.

496
4

100

in, 11.

299

n.

CYCLADES

[37]

DAGGERS
(cont.)
11.

fixed hearths 2i from, ensigns on, 26 houses, rounded, 139 Tower, 299 from, 2 pendant, dove, from, 44 407 pottery from, under Pottery primitive marble images from, 47, 48, 428 44 429
in, ii.

Cyclades

(cont.)

galleys

fish

ii.

in,

i.

in, 11.

palettes, stone,

11.

n.

iv.

see

copper swords from, 273 dove 406, 407 gold mouth from, 99 pottery from, under Pottery increased 463 with Assyria, 539
cult in, iv.

Cyprus

plates
see

i.

rainfall in,

after afforestation,

11.

n. I

relations of,

iv.

I.

II.

n. 2, 193, IV.

n. I.

with Cilicia, 11. 656, iv. 763 with Crete, i. 15, 16, 153, 160,
422> 497. 758-63, 827

11.

14, 15,

relations of:

134, 505. 654. "I- 48o> IV. 398, 407, 417,

with Anatolia, i. 20 with Crete, 11. 193, 539


11.
1.

Neolithic, 15 E.M., in, 112, M.M. 166, M.M. 309 Linear Script A, 715
95, loi, 103,
I, I.

13, 20, 36, 62, 72, 74, 75, 84, 90,

114, 115

148,

168, 177

Ill,

II.

iv.

construction use of 191 walled strongholds and Melos


street
silver in,
I.

with Egypt, II. 242 with Greece, 11. 20

in, 11.

299
6

n.

in, ill.

syllabary 516, and Enkomi, Kition,755 Kurion, Maroni Cyrene, coast 34 of with Crete, 285, 756 with Greece, 37 Roman province 84 Silphium on coins 284 for 48
of,
i.

with Egypt, I. 18 with Greece, iv. 539 seals, cylinder, from, iv. 496 snake cult in, iv. 166 n. 2
iv.

see

of, 11.

relations

i.

11.

39,

11.

of, 11. 39, of,


I.

slab

offerings

at, 11.

see

Cylinder-seals, see Seals

Cymbals of Kybele,
Goddess,
iv.

associated with

Minoan

D
Dadoes, frescoed, M.M. II from Knossos, i. 251,
pattern,
iv.
i.

held by Goddess and attendant on signet 252; M.M. Ill Labyrinth 356-9 from Thisbe, L.M. B-L.M. 472 355, 893, 894 from Cymbal-player's Tomb Mouliana, of gypsum Knossos, 334, 347, 598, 220 668-9, 472, 44. 272, 381, 877, 878, 896 from graves Egyptian Thebes, 472 marble 698, 699; imitation
iii.

219

II, II.

at

slabs,

i.

11.

III.

IV.

"I-

IV.

at

iii.

slabs of,

11.

do.,

Knossos Rhea), wood, probable material of Minoan


at

Cynocephalus, Egyptian, E.M. imitations I. 83, 119, 120 adorant ape of, 11. 763 Cypress groves, Cretan, i. 344
(of
11.

of,

356, IV. 890 Daedala in Caria, i. 6


I.

maker
IV.

Daedalos,

I.

2, 3, 6, 709, 11. 114, 626, in. 78 of dancing-ground for Ariadne at

7, iv. i,

18
statues,

Thebes, in. 74 gold honeycomb for Goddess of Eryx,


15s

HI- 523

possible export of,

from Crete,
i.

11.

248
11.

use of in buildings,
III.

343, 344,

145,

321, IV.

I,

970

Cyprus, Apollo of Amyklae identified with

Xoana, in. 524 Daemon, see Genius Daggers bronze, from Chamaezi,
iv.

bronze axes from, single-bladed,


IV.

Resheph
415

in, iii.

480

11.

721 n. 4,

hydrias from,

11.

652, 653, iv. 310


iv.

chariot-wheels

shrine from,

11.

in,

134 8-spoked,

796

from Gournia, 85 from Hagia Triada, from Knossos, 243, from 195 848 from MalUa, n. 271-3
i.
i.

i.

194

195, iv. 848


11.

415, 629

Lasithi,

1.

n. i, 719, 720, in. iii,

IV.

DAGGERS
Daggers, bronze

[38]
(cont.)
i.

DEA CAELESTIS
i.

from Mycenae,
11.

Dancers, on fresco from Queen's Megaronj


550,
III.

8,

714-17, 720, 11. 361, 452, 473. 730. 1"- 9S> 112, 113, 118-24, 130. IV.
S27> 531. 575, 848
II.

70, 71, 370, 371,


IV.

Coloured

PI.

from Psychro, 754, 845 from Troy, 182 from Vapheio, 96 128 copper, E.M., 182 with 54 from near Kalathiana, 80 from ossuary Kumasa, 21 from Lagash, 276 from Monte Bradoni, 176 from Phaestos, 24 4
IV.

in

opp. 370,

terra-cotta

group from Palaikastro, in. 72,


69-73,
iv.

73,

439

n.

n. 5 iii. n. i, 127,

Dances,

ritual, in Crete, in.

1000
32,

i.

relation

n. 5 99, 11. early Nilotic, 11.

tholoi

11.

on miniature fresco from Knossos, in. 66-80 on vase from Hagia Triada, i. 19 on signet-rings, in. 68, 70
72
in
III.

at

i.

associated with ecstatic possession, in. 69,

11.

11.

169,

honour of Apollo in Homeric Hymn,


77
;

iv.

n.

at

Delphi,

iv.

508
in. 72, 73, 75

from Hagia Triada, iv. 848 horned, from Mycenae, iv. 848 from Zafer Papoura, iv. 848 inlaid, from tomb of Queen Aah-hotep,
flanged,

Minoan Goddess,
leaping, in. 77

modern Cretan,
11.

in. 75, 76, 77, 78 ring, in terra-cotta group from Palaikastro, 72, 73, 439 n. 2 tumbling, in. 77 Dancing-ground of Ariadne at Knossos, in. 74,
III.

453. 649, from Knossos, 243 from 848 from Mycenae, 681, 714-17, 720,
i.

III. 361,

730.

12, IV. 266,

527

Lasithi, in. iii, iv.


i.

11.

361,

from Thera, 130 from Vapheio tomb,


in.
Irish,

452, 473. 73.- 95. IV. 527, 531, 575

"2,
n.

113, 118-24, 13.

in.

4 96

Knossos, Danube, cowries used


at

78,80

in. 78, 79 cultural province of, n. 175 as ornaments in valley of, iv. 109
i. 663, 666 n. 756

n. i, 127,

128

Dardany, confederates of Lykians,


Darfur, route from Benghazi
to,

from Ballygawley, n. 173 n. 2 leaf-shaped, from French dolmens, n. 172 n. 2 from Zafer Papoura, iv. 857 silver, from Kumasa, I. 21, 99, 100, n. 169 square-headed, on seal from lustral basin of Room of the Throne at Knossos, iv. 932

Date-palm, see Palm David, expulsion of Philistines from Beth-Shan


by,
IV.

168
Garis,

Davies,
at

Mr. N. de

on tomb of Kenamon

triangular,

i.

used in Minoan

99, n. 80, 169, 176, 182 n. 5 sacrifice, iv. 42 n. 3

Thebes, 11. 448, 449 n. i on use of yellow clay by Egyptian wall-

worn by men

in figurines

from

Petsofa,

i.

153

Mrs.

on stela above 5th Shaft Grave at Mycenae, iv. 250 on M.M. I seal, i. 196, 197 prince on cup from Hagia Triada, 11. 791 Dagger-hilt of King Neb-Khepesh Ra, 11. 649

II. 449 N. de Garis, copies of paintings in tomb of Kenamon by, n. 448 n. 2 Dawkins, Prof. R. M., co-operation of in restored drawings of silver rhyton from Mycenae, in. 90 n. 2 discoveries in Kamares Cave, i. 239, 264,

painters,

n.

minute gold pins Mycenae dagger), from Normanton,


with

4 wooden,

IV.

113 n.

I
i.

(as

excavations at Magasa,

32, n. 13, 18

in.

pommel,

119 n. 2
crystal,

on dialect use of bluchos, n. 104 n. i on ivory figurines from Palaikastro,

in.

from

lustral basin of

Room

of the Throne at Knossos, iv. 931 Dalmatia, domestic snake cult in, iv. 153

446 n. I -on ivory relief from Sparta, 11. 246 n. i on Minoan and Bantu use of sheath, n.
35 n.
I
i.

Danae, chest of, i. 311 Danai, supposed builders Mycenae, iv. 237

of

Pit-graves

at

-on string-cut vases,

589

n. i

Dea

Caelestis of Carthage,

11.

191

DEAD
Dead, disposal of, see Burials Death-masks, origin of, i. 97, 98, 99 Decency of Minoan art, 11. 279 Decimal system, see Numeration Deer, attacked by lions, on Minoan seals, iii. 123, IV. 586 carried by Genius on Minoan seal, iv. 441

[39]

DICTYS
11.

Delphinia, epithet of Artemis Diktynna,


Delphinios, see Apollo
Delta, connexion of with Crete,

844

Western, connexion of with Libya,


conquest of by Mena, 56, 756, Eastern, invasion of by Hyksos,
11.

iv.

982, 983
11.

23

iv.

982

in Minoan 578 -in Mycenaean 579 hunted by dogs on Minoan gems,


fallow,
art, iv.
art, IV.

11.

27
table,

and see Egypt, Alexandria Demargne, Monsieur J., on Diktaean


157 n. 3 Demeter, 11. 615 connexion of with
IV.

iv.

532,

577-80

by lions on Minoan gems, iv. 532, 577-80 -by huntswomen in chariots on fresco from
Tiryns,
iii.

on vessel from Mycenae, 578 Kaiossos, 496 suckling fawn, on from Mycenae, from, 558, 559 245 on fresco from Hagia Triada, 354 Denmark, arrows from, 6 49 on gold from 5th Shaft Grave Depilation, Egyptian practice of general, in Mycenae, Crete, 253 34 on ivory plaques from Arslan Tash, 555 Derketo, goddess of Ascalon, 251, 411 connexion of with Minoan Goddess, 251 on and 272, 453, Derna, 89 441, 580 on Helladic and Anatolian Dervishes, dancing, 72 559
red,
silver
iv.

123, iv. 580

n. 5 sacrifice of, at

i.

seal

iv.

Minoan Goddess, dedication Hagios Thomas, 76 epithet Tauropolos applied 45 Denderah, bronze jug from, 2 245 clay from, 258 Dendra, arrow-plates from, horned sword from, 851 839 signet-ring from, 171
to at
11.

ill.

467

to, iv.

n. i

I.

n.

figure-vessel

11.

iv.

iv.

iv.

stelae

iv.

11.

flint-tipped

11.

n.

plates
iv.

at

11.

iv.

11.

iv.

seals

sealings,

I.

11.

ill.

123,

11.

IV.

11.

vases,

I.

iii.

Deforestation of Crete in
518, 519, 565 Deiras, see Argos

Minoan

times,

11.

463,

ceremonial axes Deukalion, I. 10, 11


Dia, island
of,
I.

of, li.

274
11.

Dhty, Egyptian word for


298,
11.

tin or lead,
4, 328,

177 n. 3

Deir-el-Bahari, fragment of 'moustache cup'

329

57 Hathor shrine
Delilah, iv. 476

from,

II.

at, I.

514
at, I.

Dekhela, limestone quarries


Delos,
I.

295

banded alabaster found on, iv. 976 n. i Diadems, gold, E.M. II, from Mochlos, I. 95^ from shaft graves at Mycenae, 11. 217,

communication with Hyperboreans, crane dance 78 worship of Minoid nymphs 74


at, ill.

of daughter of Senusert
168

IV.

239

II,

i.

261

11.

'Diaskourai', twin girl attendants of

Minoan

in, ill.

Delphi, connexion of with


833. 841
in

Minoan
at, iv.

Crete,

II.

dance honour of Apollo 508 marble omphalos 840 340, painting of Theseus and Peirithoos Dibaki, Minoan tombs 188 90 of Dice, used in Minoan pavement games, 477 prism beads used tomb of Dionysus 838 477 bronze double axes from, 834 Dichali, Roman road 84 quarries stone head rhyton of Late Minoan 84
signets
II.

at, II.

at,

iv.

Double Axes Knossos, 339 on the 'Ring of 340, 342 on from Mycenae, 340, 342 from Thisbe, 342 on from Hagia Triada, 340, 342
at
11.

342, in. 458 figurines of, from late shrine of the


11.

Goddess,

Nestor',

11.

11.

sealing

11.

n.

at, 11.

rite

hair-offering

at, IV.

in.

395

at, 11.

as,

I.

11.

at, 11.

lioness'

at, 11.

type

from beneath adyton of Apollo's


11.

Dictys, reputed discovery of inscribed tablets

shrine,

832, 833, IV. 727

from tomb of

at

Knossos,

iv.

673

DICTYS
Dictys Cretensis, Chronicle ascribed to cited,
II.

[40]

DOGS
(cont.)

Disks

289, IV. 672


associations of, iv. 47
iv.

faience, for inlay,


IV.

from

Room
iv.

of the Throne,

Didyma, Cretan
Dikaia, coins of,

Dikaios,

Mr. Vounous

P.,

561 discovery of clay model at


iv.

from Tell-el-Yahudiyeh,
ivory,

940 from Tell-el-Amarna,

940, 941
iv.

941
IV.

in

Cyprus by,

166 n. 2

from tholos tomb


11.

at

Old Pylos,

17s Eteocretan name for Artemis, 45 guardian of harbours, 843 huntress, on L.M. gem, 577 promontory 2 214 temple of Lyktos, 843 Dimini, but and ben dwellings 564 gold from tholos 500 Neolithic fixed hearths 20 primitive settlement 564
IV.
iv.
11.

Diktaean Cave, see Psychro Diktynna, i. 496, 511, 548, 11. 48, 70, 250 associated with Artemis, iv. 24, 45 epithet of Minoan Goddess, 11. 765, 842,

Minoan 85 159, 160, ceramic, M.M. 627 M.M. 256, 258, 261, 264, 265,
architectural,
II.

242 n. 2 ornament, Maltese,

185

III.

I, 11.

II,

I.

267, 268

M.M.

Ill,
la,

II.

iv.

of, 11.

n.

and loop,
on

L.M.
11.

II.

437, 627 422, 488

218

at

11.

at, 11.

linked, on L.M.

steatite

bowl from Phaestos, II. 217 II dagger, on gem from

lilies

at, i.

97,

at, 11.

at, 11.

Knossos, IV. 922, 923 used as Minoan weights, IV. 653 winged, on Cypro-Minoan cylinder from
n. 4,

Diocletian, palace of, at Spalato,

11.

Diodoros

cited,

I.

9,

10, 638,

11.

7,

684 230

on bead-seals,
Distaff, as

Astrakous,

iv.

425
I.

626, IV. 18, 155, 9S9-6i Dionysios of Syracuse, iv. 220

iv. 548 mason's mark at Knossos,


11.

334
11.

Dionysos, hair-offerings to, iv. 477 head of, on coins of Tenedos, 11. 276 kantharos as symbol of cult of, iv. 447

omphalos tomb 838 with Ariadne, 447


of, 11.

on

Dittany, Cretan,
Divination,

69, 70,

449

n.

frieze of pavilion of Caravanserai,

iii

Minoan methods

of, iv.

420, 573,

relations

iv.

Diorite, bowls of, Egyptian,


III.

i.

23,

11.

56, 221,

270, IV. 984, 985


II,
I.

E.M.

17,

85-91

seated
801,

III. 402 n. 3 Egyptian figure of User, from Knossos, I. 18, 286-90, II. 60, 219, 220,

imitated in pottery,

945 Dnieper, amber from, 11. 174 n. 3 Dodona, 11. 168 bronze perforated axe from, 11. 175 early dove cult at, iv. 411 swords from, 11. 175 votive bells from, I. 175 Dog-headed sea monster, on sealing I. 697-9, IV. 952, on silver rhyton, ill. 96, IV. 952,

III. 5, IV.

985
of, 11.

Dioscorides,

Codex

70

n.

Dioskouroi of Zeus, paralleled Minoan Goddess, 11. 342


Diospolis Parva,

4 by 'Diaskourai' of cupped block

953 (cf. Hippocamp and Skylla) Dogs, as guardians of temples of Diktynna,,

brown

alabaster

982 'Dipylon' type of fibula,


IV.

from,

11.

138
11.

shield, allied to Hittite,

53

Dirk, see Dagger Disk, inscribed, from Phaestos, see Phaestos


disk

Disks amber, gold edged, from Axes, II. 174 n. 3

Tomb
597

of Double

clay, as seals to packages, iv.

on L.M. for E. Crete, 764 confronted, on L.M.I6-L.M. II 614 M.M. from Petsofa, 153 Chaldaean inkstand in form 422 in Minoan 487 hunting scenes with, transferred to 525 on E.M. II from Mochlos, 93 on M.M. 197 on cylinder from Arkhanes, 509 on ivory half 74
collared,
I seal
11.

II.

765

seals,

iv.

I figures of,

i.

of, ill.

art, iv.

later

lions, IV.

steatite lid
i.

i.

I seals, seal

iv.

cylinder, iv.

DOGS

[41]

DOVES
fastenings
in S.
III.

Dogs (cont.) on E.M. Ill seal from Platanos, I. 120 on silver diadem from Siphnos, I. 95 n. 4 scratching, on bead-seals, IV. 544, 545 seizing stag, on haematite lentoid from E. Crete compared with Odysseus' brooch,
524, seizing wild-goat,
IV. IV.

Door

on hut-urns, 11. 132 House at Knossos, 11.


993

n.

382, 384,

13, IV.

of Hall of the
III.

Double Axes

at

Knossos,
iv.

319 -of Entrance Hall of Temple 993


see

Tomb,

on M.M. lentoid from and Key Knossos, jambs, Minoan, 337, 369, 448, 382, 518, 524 and Bitch, Greyhound, Hound, Mastiff 212 266, 340, 565, 714. 995 Dogs' heads, middle Neolithic from mason's mark, 664 Knossos, from cemetery 22 45
II
I.

11.

see

"I- 12,

IV.

n. 3,

clay,

sign, as
slabs,

11.

n. i

I.

44,

at Castelluccio,

I.

on sealings, Temple Repositories, i. 695 Dohan, Mrs., see Hall, Miss Edith H. Doliche, worship of Zeus at, iv. 46 Dolichocephalism, I. 7, 8, 11. 45 and see Phy:

Dor,

69 Dorpfeld, Dr. W., identification of Nestor's


ill.

ecstatic possession of servant at,

Pylos with Kakovatos,


visit to

11.

43,
11.

ill.

145 n. 4

siognomy, Portraits Dolium, see Shells


Doll,

Mr.
on

Christian,

on stone drain-heads,
Little Palace,

I.

Knossos in 1903, Double Axe, see Axe, Double bow, see Bow
sickle, see Sickle

585

378
fluted

columns in

11.

Double-spouted vessels, i. 81, 82 Doves, associated with Minoan Goddess,


44. 222-4, 440. 508. 576, 635,
II.

I.

43,

521 n. 3
plans, sections,

337, 339,

and elevations by,

I.

226,

227, 341, II. 384, 414 n. I, 516, 521, III. 300 reconstitutions by, 11. 350 n. i. III. 288 Dolmens, near Cairo, 11. 181 n. 3

IV. 24, 159,

cult of,
IV.

391, 405, 406, 407 connexion of with Naked Goddess,

French, stone beads from, North Africa and Nile


in
I-

at Ellez in Tunisia,

426, 427 Cypro-Minoan,


iv.

iv.

407

11.

181
11.

Cypriote,

406, 407

180
11.

Greek,
181
IV.

iv.

406
comparatively late date
iv.

Valley,

Palestinian,

of,

on fresco from Queen's Megaron


330. 507. 522, 543. 544.

Dolphins, associated with Priest-king on beadseal from Knossos, iv. 414


at

Knossos,
377. 378, 607, 608,

emblems of Christian Baptism, clay images


508,
III.

411 Syro- Anatolian,

406, 408
11.

celestial aspect of goddess,

339
I.

Ill-

alighted, sign of spiritual possession,

6 in ceramic ornament,
IV.

152 n. 2
:

M.M.

Ill,

I.

parallel
I.

dove lighting on Jesus

at

609

223

on from Pachyammos, 608, 609, 500 on rhyton from 822, 314, 272, 955 on Minoan 6 391 675, 676, 414, 497, on heads from Majorca, 22 500 on signet-ring from Harbour Town, 250 on goblet from 4th Shaft Grave Mycenae, on from Knossos, 502 391 on Linear Script A, shrine from Knossos, Dolphin's head 641
jars
i.

L.M. L.M.

II, IV.

305
11.

lllb, XV. 313

Pseira,

I.

11.

ill.

90,

IV.

of, from Gournia, I. 508 from Palaikastro, I. 180 from Palestine, iv. 391 n. 6 from Petsofa, i. 153 on Greek Orthodox Communion Cups,

iv.

seals,

i.

iv.

n.

bull's

I.

11.

at

steatite vessel

11.

IV.

sign, in

i.

terra-cotta

I.

160,

in Linear Script B, iv. 685

Domovoy, Russian domestic spirit, iv. 152 Donato, Girolamo, on 1508 Candia earthquake,
11.

on

223, 224, III. 331, IV. 406 figure of Goddess from Knossos,

iii. 337 gold shrine from 3rd Shaft Grave at


11.

313, 321

Mycenae,

615

DOVES
Doves
(cont.)

[42]

DRESS

on group of dancers from 73 on post of swing from Phaestos, 26 M.M. vessel formed 172, 405 on clay cylinders of domestic 406 pendants shaped from Cyclades, 407 from Mochlos, 102 on and 117, 524, 405, 459> 486 on votive from Psychro, 683 Minoan species with rockdoves, dusky plumage, 405 rock, descent of domestic pigeons from, 411
terra-cotta
Palaikastro,
iii.

Draughtsmen, Minoan (cont.) on M.M. Ill ivory signet from Hagia


Triada,
IV.

522
iv.
i.

terra-cotta,
IV. 25,

Dress, Minoan:

Anatolian influence on,

197
15

as,

i.

146,

173,

Babylonian influence on,

IV.

Libyan influence on,


Syrian influence on,
401, 882 embroideries on,
III.
11.

11.

33, IV.

34

cult, iv.

11.

33, 721, iv. 398, 399,


n. i, 732, 733, 766,

as,

iv.

i.

307

seals

sealings,

I.

11.

IV.

37, 40, 42,

67

female, E.M.,

tablet

I.

M.M.,

I.

11. 32, 33 125, 153, 197, 276, 500-6, 546-8,

religious

identified

IV.

their

ib.

reflected in ideograms,
IV.
11.

679-81,

III.

94

iv.

white,

indigenous in Crete, iv. 41 in hands of priestly figure,


Palestinian, iv.

iv.

405, 406

412

n.

Dove-cots, pottery, evolution of from snaketubes, IV. 165

aprons, 26 bodice, 33 4 cap, peaked, 426 33 bell-shaped, M.M.


n. 3 n.
ill.

iv.

700

cloak,

II.

skirts,

and

II, iv. 27,

161, 162

Dovetailing, used for stone blocks lining floor


cists,
I.

flounced,

M.M.
ib.;

la,

i.

197; Babylonian
1, 11.

453
i.

influence visible,

M.M. III-L.M.

Drachm

signs in Linear Scripts,

619

Drachmani, pottery from, I. 168 Drain (or water main), habitat of

common

ring-snake, iv. 148


at

Knossos,

see

under Knossos

at Phylakopi,

11.

299 n. 4
of, IV.

Drain-pipes, Minoan, varieties

143 section of, origin of snake-tubes, iv. 144 Draughtboards, Egyptian, i. 473, 476, 477, 480,

of dancers, 70, 72 371 of Court 546-8, 49, 52 of performers in 21 of 500-6, 679-81, 70, 450 of Goddess, n. 337, 724, 438, 470,
stays, IV.
III.

33,

III.

426,

27 31, 32
IV.

n. i,

ladies,

i.

in.

bull-sports, iv.

votaries,

i.

in.

in.

iv.

28, 31, 32, 196, 197, 401,

402
of, iv.
iv.

male sheath and loin-clothing


fashionable character
of, 11.

Minoan, from Enkomi,


from Knossos,
IV. 24, 92,
i.

IV.

522; deposited in tombs,


i.

i.

485,

11.

47

767,

33 27

473, 476, 485 n. 4

170, 387, 388, 470-86,

method of hair-dressing: fringe of


III.

Syrian influence on,

iv.

402

curls,

522, 928
i.

212, 520-24 (bronze)


11.

on E.M. Ill 124, playing draughts) 522 connexion 480 Greek, 476 Roman 476 Egyptian hieroglyphic, 125
seals,
i.

from Mycenae,
(potter

430, 481-4, 486,


125,
11.

11.

47

47, iv. 521,

religious

of,

I.

i.

(latrunculi),

I.

sign,

I.

parallel to

E.M.

signet,

I.

125, 478, 479,

11.47

M.M.

II imitation of,

I.

281
I.

Draughtsmen, Egyptian predynastic,


jackal-headed,
i.

478

476 476 n. 2 Minoan, from Knossos, i. 302, 387, 388, 477-9


lion-headed,
i.

M.M., 153, 35 679-81, 235 L.M., 535, 705, 706, 721, 731, 755 apron, 197 not worn by children, 446 letoutforolderpersons. 449,450,461 cap 475 387 461 734, 743, 744, 754, 755, 569 n. 235, 781, 87 Libyan sheath, 34 n. 267, 750-2, 6 461
34,
I.

male, E.M.,

197,

II.

II.

739_^,

iv.

belt,

in.

III.

(biretta), iv.

gloves, IV.
hat.
III.

kilt, II.

IV.

leggings,

in.

iv.

sandals,

loin-clothing,
11.

in.

n.

728

DRESS
Dress, Minoan, male (cont.)

[43]

EARTHQUAKES
(cont.)
as,

32 of of of huntsman, of
tunics,
II.

35 sheath or penistache, 444. 447. 448, 45 shoes, 728 33


sash,
II. II.

11.

34, 35, 47,

iii.

sidelocks,

11.

vases shaped from Phylakopi, 81 Duck-hunting, Egyptian 115 oninlaiddagger-bladefromMycenae, n. 361, 114, 115 on gold pendant from Aegina, 175
IV.

Ducks

in

art, in.

in.

IV.

n. 5

n. 3, 725,

744

acrobats,

11.

752
403 120

flute players, iv.


ill.

of tumblers, of of warriors,
votaries,

priests, i. 68, 683, 11. 770, iv. 215, 401, 404, 882 Syrian influence on, i. 16, iv. 882
iv.

between Shaft Graves and tholoi at Mycenae, iv. 240 Dumps, gold and silver, precursors of coinage, IV. 664 silver, from Knossos, iv. 664 gold, from Old Salamis, iv. 664

Duhn,

Prof. Friedrich von,

on

relation

Dumuzi,

see

Thammuz
on Minoan column form,
i.

502, 503
ill.

Durm,
461,
iv.

Prof.,

343
IV.

11.

339, 742,

401, 882

nn. 3 and 4

iii.

86, 87, 100


iii.

Dussaud, Monsieur, on Diktaean Table,


157 n. 3

Egyptian,
of Ishtar,

11.
I.

35, 75, 77, 197, 198


iii.

104

Dyrrhachion, coins

of, iv.

557

n. 3

478, iv. 401 Drill, tubular, use of on Neolithic stone vases,

of Resheph, n. 15, 31

E
Ea-bani,
I.

on bead-seals,
Drip-ornament, on
n. I, IV. 638,

iv.

93
Ill pottery,
11.

69, 356,

11.

28, in. 450, iv. 18, 459,

M.M.

811

639

on

505
lapis-lazuli cylinder

Droop, Prof.

on L.M. lb pottery from Aegisthos tomb at Mycenae, 11. 487 n. 5


J.

P.,

Eagle,

from Knossos, iv. 423 on amethyst pendant from Knossos, in.


.

restoration of frescoes by,

i.

372 n.

i,

373 n.
11.36

I,

546 n.

3, in.

302

n. 2

on cylinder from on talismanic gems,


Ear,

4"

Initiatory Area, iv.


iv.

424
art,

541
religious

translation of Dr.

Xanthudides work by,

symbolic,

in

Minoan

n.

sign, following bent-arm sign on offertory bowls from Apodoulou and Petsofa, IV. 657 on Vase Tablet, iv. 732 origin of, in rain pictograph, iv. 658 Drought, symbols of, on talismanic bead-seals,
^

Drop

790 n. 2, in. 69, 152 n. 2 on gold signet from Vapheio tomb, n.


790
n. 2

on votive
Ear-ring,
fresco,
II.

tablet

silver,

represented

from Psychro, in. 69 on Cup-bearer


IV.

706

IV.

446

Earth, sign

of,

on talismanic bead-seals,

448,

Druce, Dr. G. Claridge, on water-lily motive on cups from Knossos, 11. 463 n. 2 Drum, limestone, in Room of the Stone Drum at Knossos, iv. 925, 926 Ducks, gold pendant, from Knossos, in. 412 in Egyptian art, iv. 330 in ceramic ornament, L.M. II, iv. 330, 334,
337

449
Earth-goddess, see Goddess

Earthquakes, beliefs as to cause


religious
to,

reaction n. 312-25, in Crete, n. 213, 673


a.d. 66,
iv.

of,

n. 324, 538
in. 12

L.M. L.M.

Ilia, IV.

334
333

313 A.D. 375, II. 313 A.D. 1250, n. 313 A.D. 1490, n. 313
A.D. 1856, A.D. 1875,
II. II. II.

A.D. 251, n.

III6, IV. 313


iv.

315, 318

on Minoan 330 instantaneous sketch of three


seals, in. 116, iv.

Mycenaean,

313
318,
III.

n. 2, 491,

588

A.D. 1926,
at

50

in contrasted'

Candia,

iv.

989
II.

action, iv.

492

A.D. 1304,

321

EARTHQUAKES
Earthquakes, in Crete,
A.D. 1508, A.D. 1810, A.D. 1856,
11.
II.

[44] at

EGYPT
(cont.)

Candia

(cont.)

313, 321

Egypt, connexions of, with Crete 5th Dynasty, 11. 56


6th Dynasty,
iv.

314
II.

520
i.

A.D.

314, 315 1926 (writer's experiences),


II.

IV.

Middle Kingdom, 986-7


I

18,

11.

360, 625,

316-18, III. 289 at Knossos, end of


at close of

ith Dynasty,

11.

177

M.M. II, 11. 43, iii. M.M. Ilia, 11. 348, iii.
II. I,

14 12

M.M.

III6,

loi, 214, 286-9, 3ii>

347. 357. 360, 365. 374. IV. 632, 633

mla,

40i-3. 48S.
11.

towards end of L.M.

353

III.

280, IV. 872, 878, 988, 989 as cultural termini define

Minoan

248, 249 Empire, I. 18, iv. 880, 986, 987 13th Dynasty, iv. 248, 249 i8th Dynasty, 11. 178, 362, 536, 647-9, 736-48, III. 30. 31. IV. 269 Neolithic, I. 14, 11. 12, 14, 15, 22-59 E.M., I. 17, 18, 26, 64-9, 75, 78, 80-93, 101-3, 113, 114, 120-6, 357, II. ion. 6,
IV.

i2th Dynasty,

New

Period,

319, iv. xxvii et passim at end of L.M. II, iii. 495, 942 in time of Nero, 11. 289
11.

22-59, 362,

IV.

486
133, 180, 193, 199,
I.

chronology of, 11. 291, 292, 320 connexion with chthonic cult, 11. 540 effects of, II. 161, 165, 319, 666
political effects of,
11.

237, 238, 241, 256, 258, 261, 266, 268, 270, 271, 274, 280, 281, 283,
II,

M.M. M.M.

I, I.

II.

202

285-300, 311, 314, 315,

IV.

130

321
i

319, 347 at Ragusa, 11. 321 n. i, 322, iv. 990 n. Earth-shaker, delight of, in bulls, 11. 324

at Phaestos,

11.

319, 320, 344, 345, 358, 376, 410, 412, 415-22, 476, 488, 490-3, 498, 509, 510, 534, 539, 541, 553, 568, 584, 601,
I.

M.M.

Ill,

683-4, 700. 704-7. 709-15. 718,


476,
III.

11.

467.

403,
I,

IV.
I.

248
II.

Ebers Papyrus, Calendar


Eccles,

of,

i.

3
11.

L.M.
274

297, 344,
III.

76, 166, 205,

Ecbatana, ceremonial axe from,

361, 521, 522,

115, 372, IV. 265, 281

Miss

E., iv.

347
ill.

n. 2

L.M.
749. 803
:

II,

I.

18, HI. 446, IV. 330, 339,

Ecstatic possession,

69-73
n. 3

Edoni, coins
IV.

of, iv.

564

Mycenaean,
Greek, i. 19 icommercial,

Iii.

305

Eggs, offerings to snakes in Greece and Rome,

158

ostrich,

imported into Crete,

11.

756
307
i.

i. 462, 11. 54, 61, 88, 168, 192, 214, 221, 508, IV. 284, 595, 654, 655,

Egg-shell ware, see under Pottery

718
11.

Egg-stands, clay, from Knossos,

religious,

11.

841 n.

6,

iv.

464, 983

Egypt:
art of, influenced
II.

by Minoan

Crete,

18,

192-208, 226, 227, 361, 448-50, 453,

influenced

4.74, III. 104, 112, 168, IV. 191,

by Sumerian

266, 504, 554 sphragistic art,

IV. 505 connexions of, with Anatolia, 12th Dynasty, II. 221 with Crete, i. 19, 11. 2, 697, iii. 106, 283, IV.

11. 242 chronology of, I. i, 25, 30, 31 emigration from, I. 17, 66, 102, II. 24, IV. 982 faience roundels from, i8th Dynasty, iv. 92 figure vases from, i8th and 19th Dynasties,
II.

and see Ta-Urt with Cyclades,

256

inlays from, late prehistoric, iv.

403 n.
44, IV.
n.

I
i.

pre-dynastic,
II.

13, >6, 17, 25, 56, 478,

946 n. 2 isodomic masonry of Ramesside date in, II. 188 prehistoric palette from, i. 190 Semitic element in, 11. 27, iv. 506
snake cult
in, iv.

172,

173, 525, 526,

940

n.

2,

157

982

4
11.

proto-dynastic,
525, 526, 984

58, 60, rv. 503-5,

Syro-Hittite cylinders influenced by, iv. 458 wheeled vehicles in, xv. 808

and
i.

see

Burials,

Frescoes, Pottery,

Script,

4th Dynasty,

17,

11.

56, iv.

235

n. i

Seals, Delta,

Thebes, Tell-el-Amarna, &c.

EGYPTO-LIBYAN
Egypto-Libyan connexion with Crete,

[45]

EPIC
(cont.)

M.M.

I,

Embroidery
influenced

on influence in E.M.
figures
seals,

I.

196

i.

123-5
Ill,
i.

103

on
III-

influence of

by inlaying, I. 452 on wall-painting,


I.

n. i, n.
II.

731

114

pottery,

121, IV. 100

under Middle Kingdom, i. 18 meanders on seals, I. 122 J Egypto-Minoan style of ornament, iv. 733 Eileithyia, Cave of (above Amnisos), 11. 839, 840, IV. xi; sherds from, 11. 552: and see Nekhebet El Amra, discoveries at, 11. 23
Elateia, matt-painted

represented on frescoes, from Hagia Triada,


n. 732

from Knossos, Threshing Floor Heap,


37. 38.

40
11.

Procession Fresco,
733, 734

725, 730, 731,

Ladies in Blue, n. 730, 733, 734

jug from, i. 23 n. 2 Elbe, export of amber from, 11. 174 Electrum inlay on bronze dagger from Shaft

on tomb of Men-kheper'ra-senb,
Engrailing, see Inlaying

from Phylakopi,

in.

40

II.

207
211

ring from Mycenae, 832, 463 Elephants, African, known Minoans, 742 Syrian, hunted by Thothmes 743 tusk from deposit Phaestos, 742 boar's tusk necklace from, 870 pottery kernos from, 75 6
11.

Grave

at

Mycenae,

in. 131

Emery, Naxian, I. 14, 55 Engelbach, Mr. R., discoveries at Harageh,

11.

ill.

to

11.

III,

11.

Engraved gems, see Seals Engraving, Minoan, use of 'blunt point'


217 n. 3 Enkomi (Old Salamis, Cyprus), with Syrian coast, iv. 780
II.

in,

of,

early

at

11.

Eleusis,

iv.

relation

of

i.

n.

inscribed stirrup vase from,

iv.

744

Eleutherna, inscription from, in. 259 Elgin, Lord, in. 2, 192, iv. 10

El Kab, alabaster objects from, 1. 75 n. 4, 76, n. 57 candlesticks from, n. 127 n. 2 double-spouted vessel from, i. 82 moustache cup from, 11. 57 offering table from, I. 75 n. 4, 76 EUez, Megalithic dolmen-like monument at,
n. 181

alabaster n. 256 from tomb amphora with chariot scene from, 374 bronze stand from, n. 602, 61 casket from, 195 6 clay from, copper ingot from, n. 624 759 cylinder depicting dove from, 407, 408 draughtboard from, 473, 476, 485 4 faience from, 765, 771 gold currency bar from, 665
vessel
at,

n.

iv.

in.

in.

n.

balls, inscribed,

iv.

cult

iv.

I.

n.

iv.

iv.

El Mahasna, beads from,

491 n. i pre-dynastic draughtsmen from, i. 478 gaming board from, I. 485


I.

dumps from,

iv.

664
IV.

Elunda (Olous), E.M. serpentine vessel from,


I.

66
11.

Elyros,

Elysian

fields,

87 n. 3 connexion

of

with

Minoan

religion, in. 155 n. 2

un-Greek character of, iii. 155 n. 2 as background to Priest-king relief, 11 786


.

and'see 'Ring of Nestor' Embalming, practised by Keftiu

495 haematite weights from, 494,655, 656 ivory mirror handle from, 533, 804 from, 315, 372, 658, 659, 829 limestone fragment, from, 759 scarab from, n. 494 ring from, n. 494, 495 vases from, 136 tomb oblong vaulted, 771 vase fragments from, n. 818-20
iv.

mouthpiece from,

iv.

kraters

iv.

inscribed,

iv.

silver

stirrup

11.

at,

iv.

n. 5

folk, n.

748

n. i

Entrance system, Anatolian, diffusion

of,

n. 694,

Embroidery
bull's

adder mark in, on fresco, 11. 731 head trophy in, on fresco, in. 40
11.

and triglyph in, on fresco, on frescoes, in. 733, 734 sphinxes in, on fresco, in. 40 swallows in, on fresco, in. 40
half-rosette

731

network

in,

69s Envelope, clay, from Cappadocia, iv. 23 Epano Zakro, figurine from, iv. 162 Epic survivals of Minoan themes, i. 314, 693, 699, III. 125, 126, IV 513-515: and see Homer, Oedipus; Orestes, Aigisthos and

Klytemnestra Periphetes
;

EPHOROS

[46]

EWERS
cited,
i.

Ephoros, cited by Strabo, iv. 46, 47 Epimenides of Knossos, used as source by Diodoros, iv. 959 Erech, captured by Lugal-zaggisi, 11. 264 flower-cone mosaics from, iv. 124 steatite bull-shaped rhytons from, 11. 260,

Eusebius

11

Eutresis, boar's tusk necklace from, iv.

870

Euxine, trade of Keftiu with, 11. 659 Evans, Sir Arthur, experiences in Candia earthquake,
II. 316 caught by sea opposite 11.86

St. Paul's Island,

262, 264
Eretria, coins of, iv. 558, 561

his vision

on Grand

Staircase,

III.

301
i

Erigone, daughter of Aigisthos and Klj^emnestra, iv.

collection of Minoan bead-seals


rings,
I. 432, III. 116 n. beaked, associated

and signet
n.

26 n.

2, iv.

485

Ikaros, iv. 26

Ewers,

with

vegetation
iv.

Erment, L.M. 16, jug from, iv. 275 n. i Eryx, Elymian Goddess of, offering of gold honeycomb, the work of Daedalos, to, iv.
154
associated with hounds,
11.

symbols, on talismanic bead-seals,

449,

450
gourd-flask prototypes of,
metallic origin of, iv.
iv.

450

449

765

ritual

use

of, iv.

43

on coins

of, 11.

765
outlet of

Eshmun, 11. 39 n. 5 Eski Samsoun (Amisos), maritime


Hittite capital, iv.

^- bronze, from Byblos, 11. 655, 825 from Egypt, 11. 646 from Tomb of the Tripod Hearth
Isopata,
II.

at

764
11.

Minoan type
IV.

of pottery from,
;

658, 659,
IV.

629, 764, 765

painted with oats,


iv.

629;

635 from Knossos, Central Treasury, 11. 655 N.W. Treasury, II. 637, 645-8, IV.
n- S

two-stalked ivy,
votive

ram

764, 765 from, inscribed,

iv.

339

768

near Stepped Portico,

II.

632
11.

Esquiline, see

Rome

llouse S.E. of S. House,

631

Este, clay vessel from, iv. 797 n. 3 Eteocretans, cult of Diktynna among, iv. 175 race and language of, survival of, 11. 843

Etesian winds, influence of on sea-faring,


20,

i.

17,

Harbour Town, 11. 235 from Mycenae, 11. 632, 633, 646 from Palaikastro, 11. 632 n. 3 from Chieftain's Grave at Zafer Papoura,

84

n. 5

Etruria, connexions of with Anatolia, iv. 190

in

II.

636, IV. 117, 860


11.

faience, Syrian prototypes of,

daemon Tukhulkha with adder 188 Grotta deir Oreo hut-urns from, 130, 131
in, iv.
11.

with Crete,

11.

130, 131

from Central Treasury

at

655 Knossos,
11.

11.

mark

6S5

Eujuk, Hittite sphinxes outside citadel gate


III.

of,

420
iii.

Eulalia, Infanta of Spain, in bull fight,

228

Euphrates,
II.

11.

26

Euripus, trade-route from Asia Minor to Greece,

gold, from 3rd Shaft Grave Mycenae, 127' from Knossos, 6 56 Marseilles, 507, 274, 277 under Pottery from 4th Shaft Grave Mycenae,
at
iv.

from Eastern Temple Repository,

633

liparite,

11.

n.

11.

loi,

iv.

pottery, see
silver,

at

167 Euroclydon,

see

Borras
10
11.

n. 633 gold-plated, from 5th Shaft Grave,

11.

Europa,

name for Cretan Mother Goddess, 765 Greece Europe, connexion with Crete, North, connexion with Greece, 174
see
11.

i.

3, 9,

borne by envoy on tomb of Senmut,


647, 648 by tributary

646, 647

11.

on tomb of User-amon,
at

halberds from,

11.

173
ill.

Eurystheus, King of Mycenae,

and Hercules,
at

230

II.

738

stone,
I.

from N.W. Lustral Basin


II.

Knossos,

relief of
11.

from Hellenika slope

411-14, 419,

348,

349,

697

n.

2,

Knossos,

546

IV.

229

EWERS

[47]

FAIENCE
(cont.)
of,
I.

on L.M. Ill on talismanic bead-seals, 358 447 and Oenochoe


pottery, iv.
iv.

Ewers

(cont.)

Faience

colours

490

disks for inlaying,


-

see

Eye

of charging bull on fresco relief from Knossos, III. 174 of Horus, II. 790 painted on prow of ship, I. 311 sign. Linear Script B, in name groups, IV. 713 Linear Script B, on steatite bead-seal

from Egypt, iv. 92 from Knossos, iv. 92, 940 from Mycenae, i. 430, 481-4, 11. 47 n. 3 from Tell-el-Amarna, 11. 47 n. 3, iv.
from Tell-el-Yahudiyeh, from Tylissos, i. 482
IV.

940
941

835 n. 5 symbolic, I. 706, in. 69, 152 n. 2 in field of gold signet-ring with Boy-God,
district, 11.
II.

from Candia

Egyptian origin of, i. 488, 11. 23, 54 ewer, from Knossos, Central Treasury,
E.
figurines,

11.

655

Temple
11.

Repository,

11.

633

Syria,

655
II.

842
signet-ring

from Knossos, Temple Reposi318, 237, 288, 357, 744,


III.

on gold

from Isopata,

11.

790,

tories,
IV.

I.

440,

III.

68 on gold signet-ring from Vapheio

Tomb,

on gold bands from Mochlos,


'Eyes' (or loops)

II.

790

n. 2

26 n. 3, 32, no, 177, 199, 465 S. Propylaeum, i. 632, 11. 702 fragments, from Knossos, House
Sacrificed Oxen,

of the

i.

97

on bronze ewer from Knossos,


11.

on L.M. lb

II.

64s

fruit,

pottery,

645

hilt

iv. 934 Room from Temple Repository, i. 498, 499 plate of cruciform sword from Mycenae,

310 of the Throne,


11.

IV.

852

horse's head cups

influenced

from Enkomi, iv. 765 by metal-work, IV. 780


II.

animal,
Faience

Fable of Wild Goat and Dog, on from Arkhanes, iv. 509

M.M.

Ill seal

oriental character of, iv. 509

Egyptian, 92 from Knossos,


11.

inlays, Cretan, history of,

732
i, ill.

I.

516,

11.
i.

88 n.

408
92,

E.M.

II,

I. I. I.

85
487,
252,
II.

M.M. Room
966, IV. 93

Ill floor

cist,

452
i.

of the Throne,

485,

iv.

M.M. M.M. M.M.


IV.

la,
II,

940

II.

188 n.
II.

Ill,

I.

452, 468, 482, 490-4, 498-508,

Temple Repositories, i. 452, 468, 469, 471, 480-2, 498-508, 510-12, 521-3, III.
409
E. Treasury, in. 399, 405, 409

510-12, 521-3, 553,


1013, 1014
I, IV.

179 n.

9, 188,

476,

L.M.

534, 535
I.

W.

Magazines,

I.

318

from

489, 490 beads, from Almeria, I. 492 from Britain, I. 23


Crete,
II,
11.
I.

analysis of,

E.M.

179 85

from Knossos, from Mycenae,


bull's

M.M.

Ill,

I.

490-4
490-4,
11.


179 n. 9

i. i.

492

bead-seals from Melos,


Sacrificed Oxen,

iv. 445 'blossom-bowl' from Knossos, House of the


11.

Vat Room Deposit, i. 487, 11. 666, iv. 93 from Mycenae, i. 430, 481-4, II. 47 n. 3 from Phaestos, 11. 731 from Tell-el-Amarna, iv. 940, 941 from Tell-el-Yahudiyeh, I v. 941 from Tylissos, i. 482 invention of, by Tehenu of Delta, 11. 53, 54 knots, I. 47 n. 3, 440, 483, 11. 284 from 4th Shaft Grave, Mycenae, i. 430,

310
li.

chalice

head from E. Treasury, iii. 434 from Temple Repository, i. 499,

188

431. 483 manufacture of, at Knossos, i. 488-90 mouthpiece of ostrich-egg rhyton from Mycenae, i. 594, 11. 224 of rhyton from Ashur, iv. 779, 780

FAIENCE
Faience
(cont.)

[48]

FIGURINES
11.

Fig-trees, sacred character of, in Crete,

615

from tomb at Abydos, 11. 210 ornament from Tiryns, 11. 202 n. 3 panel of marine ornament from Knossos,
objects

in Greece,
in

11.

128 pendant from Knossos, I. 499, ram's head cup from Enkomi,
I.

521,

II.

453,

III.

on gold signet-ring from Knossos, on rhyton from Knossos,


steatite

Rome,

11.

615 616

11.

11.

615 615

11.

IV.

476 765
11.

Figure vessels from Bethshemesh,

11.

257

reliefs
IV.

from Temple Repositories,


iv.

288, 360,

552 rhyton from Ashur,


robes, votive,
II.

from Byblos, 11. 258 from Egypt, II. 255, 256 from Harbour Town of Knossos,
256

11.

255,

534, 535
i.

from Knossos,
11.

435, 498, 506,

469, 476, IV. 718 seals from Karakovilia,

Syro-Hittite, from Vari,


spray from
IV.

138
iv.

from Mochlos, 11. 258 alabaster, 11. 258 calcite, 11. 255, 256
painted stone,
li.

498
I.

258

Temple
I.

Repository,

498, 499,

terra-cotta,

11.

257

1013, 1014

Figures, female steatopygous,

on stone

reliefs in

Town-Mosaic,
210

249, 301-14, 355, 488, 11. 188, 370, 607, 754, III. 7, 85, 87, 162, 342, IV.
in,

Malta,
Figurines
alabaster,

II.

188
tholos

from
i.

ossuary

at

Hagia

with Minet-el-Beida, IV. 771 vessels, for worship of Hathor, 11. 57 from Knossos, i. 252, 11. 824, iii. 277
trade

from Mycenae,
woman's
Fair Havens,
11.

741, iv. 690 head cup, from Assur, iv. 771


11.

84-6 Falcon, Egyptian cult of, 11. 28 n. 5 Family, head of, importance of in Minoan
times,
II.

395
Charioteers,
ill.

32 bronze, of acrobat and M.M. 650 of youthful male adorant (perhaps BoyGod), Harbour Town, 234, 235 of Snake Goddess 507, 508, 176-8 of 651 of Resheph, from Lebanon, 478
II.

84 from tholoi of Mesara,


83,

Triada,

bull,

Ill,

II.

11.

(Berlin)

i.

II.

bulls,

II.

III.

Fasciae

worn by Roman

229

Fence sign in Linear Script B,


Ferro-concrete,

and

iv. 685 use of in reconstruction of Palace at Knossos, 11. 350, 352, ill. 288, IV. 2 Festoons in Minoan shrines, I. 445 in E.M. Ill ornament, I. 112

see

Bead-festoons
of natural stone,

Fetish figure,
Palace,
11.

from
11.

Little

342, 520 Fibulae, associated with stirrup vases,


type,
11.

Boeotian 138 Dipylon 138 from Muliana, 376 from Chamber tombs Karakovilia, 138 Syro-Anatolian 2 257 2 from Bethshemesh, 257 T-shaped, S.E. European, with
type,
11.

136

from Mycenae, ill. 477 from Patso, ill. 477 from Tiryns, ill. 477 of Teshub, in. 478 n. 6 from Latakieh, in. 478 n. 6 of votaries of Minoan Goddess from Crete, in. 460, 461, iv. 38 from Knossos, S. Propylaeum, n. 702 of adult male adorant, perhaps from Harbour Town, iv. 198, 199 from Phaestos, in. 461 from Tyhssos, n. 47 n. 4, in. 450

chryselephantine, see Ivory


clay, see Terra-cotta
diorite, of

high-stilted,

iv.

at

11.

User, from Knossos,


S.

i.

18,

286-90,

triangular^type,
11.

11.

n.

n. 60, 219, 220, 801,


faience,
II.

n.

from Knossos,
702

985 Propylaeum, i. 632,

III. 5, IV.

associated

hut-urns,

11.

132 n. 3

Fig-branch sign in hieroglyphic script, i. 280 Fig-leaves, gold foil, on coffin from 3rd Shaft

Grave

at

Mycenae,

11.

615

Temple Repositories, i. 501 seqq. (Snake Goddess and Votaries), in. 440, IV. 26 n. 3, 176, 177, 199, 465 granite, from Adana, 11. 220

FIGURINES
Figurines
(cottt.)

[49]

FILTER
37 from Spain, n. 180 from Sparta, 429 stone, E.M. 64 194 extended type, evolution 51 Palace, n. 342, 520 type, from from Harbour Town, n. 235 from tholos ossuaries of Mesara, n. 193,
iv.
I, i.

Figurines, steatopygous (cont.)

ivory, of acrobats,

from ivory deposit from


at

from Phaestos,

i.

Domestic Quarter
650,
III.

Knossos,
IV.

11.

358,
to

of Boy-God, probably companion piece


chryselephantine
novsf in

428, 436, 437,

31

figurine

of
ill.

Goddess
143, 443,

size of, IV.

Boston Museum,
IV.

of,

I.

50,

452, 454-6,
S. Crete, iv.

471
attire,

fetish

Little

another with gold-plated

from

of children from of Minoan Goddess,


;

467-73

Palaikastro,

ill.

446

chryselephantine,

now in Boston Museum, ill. 438-42, 455, IV. 28, 38, 40 now in Toronto Museum,

primitive Aegean,
Anatolian,
iv.

IV. 28,

31,34, 36, 37, 38, 472


i"\j.

from 447 Spain, n. 180 S.E. proto-Libyan, 219 adorant, 13 female, from Asine, 755, 756
III.

IV.

terra-cotta,

I.

IV.

427
11.

427
23, 24, 29, 34,

Egyptian i8th Dynasty, in. 519 from Gournia, iv. i6i

n.

from Hierakonpolis,
781

from Knossos, Neolithic,


13, 129, IV.

i.

43-7, n. 12,

429
I.

from Kalathiana, 11. 80 from Naqada, 11. 32 lead, of Goddess, from Knossos, li. 540 of pugilist, from Kampos, iii. 461 n. 7 limestone, of Goddess, from Knossos, 11. 32,

E.M.,
339. 342

late shrine

115 of Double Axes, n. 336,


amphitheatre, in. 452,

near

Roman

4S3

III.

marble, of

518, IV. 35, 193, 194, 199 Minoan Goddess, in Fitzwilliam


in. 199, iv. 32, 35, 193

of from Keros, of from Thera, 835 primitive Cycladic,


flute-player,

Museum,
harpist,

Harbour Town, iv. 197 from Kumasa, n. 33 from Mavro Spelio, n. 556
Petsofa,
I.

in.

4.0,

835

151-3, n. 33, 237 n.


i.

i,

in.

11.

shell,

I. 20, 115, 11. 44 n. 2 from Mesara, 11. 32, 193 of woman from Central Crete, 11. 46,

439. 450, IV. 162 from Phaestos, Neolithic,


IV.

37,

521,

no
11.

IV.

no
represented borne by

of Goddess, from Gournia,


143

Prinia, iv. 161

339, iv. 139,

silver, of bull,

Minoan

envoy on tomb of User-amon, 11. 648, 738 of Resheph, Minoan and Mycenaean examples of, in. 466 from Nezero, in. 477 steatite, from tholos ossuary at Hagia
Triada,
i.

from of Mesara, of woman from Tylissos,


tholoi

83,

84

11.

32
in.

426
i.

male, from Knossos,


Palaikastro,
11.

from Knossos, late Shrine of the Double Axes, n. 336, 337, iv. 429 from Mavro Spelio, in. 469, 470 from Prinia, iv. 139 from rustic shrines, iv. 410 lyre-player and dancers, from of
72, 73,

439

n. 2,

841 n. 5

late shrine of

Double

steatopygous,

distribution of,

20,

45-7,

Axes, n. 336, 337

from 427 from 428 from from Cyclades, 429 from Malta, 22 n. 190 from Naqada, 190
Anatolia, iv.
Asia, iv.
I.

49-52, 161, n. 12, 13


n.

house under Kouloura of W. Court,


IV.

67

Crete,

14, 64,
iv.

II.

35, iv.

427, 429

i.

n. 3,

il.

32,

from Petsofa, I. 151-3 from Tylissos, i. 633, 636, in. 461, 462 from Zygouries, in. 470 n. 6 of ox, from Knossos, iv. 3 Filter, type of from Harageh, n. 213

FINALBORGO
Finalborgo, rock sculptures near, Finalese Cave, clay figures from,
Fir, possible export of
ii.
i.

[so]

FLYING-FISH
iv.

170 n. 4

21 n. 2

Flock sign in Linear Script B, IV. 687 Flocks and herds in Linear Script B tablets,

Fire, evidence of at
IV.

from Crete, 11. 248 Knossos at end of L.M.

710
II,

Floor, see

Pavement

943

Floor-cists, see Cists

Fire-box, clay, from Hall of the Double Axes,


"I- 347 Firth, Mr. C.

M., on tomb

at

Sakkara,

11.

497

n- S

Fish, bone, with signs and numbers,

from E.

^ ensigns, Cycladic,
Egyptian,
11.
II.

Treasury at Knossos, iii. 405-9 cult use of, I. 635 as food in Minoan Crete, i. 555, 677
11.

Flounced object in Minoan cult, I. 434, 435 Flounces sign, on Linear Script A tablet from Hagia Triada, 11. 249 Flower-cones, Sumerian, iv. 124-6 from Ur, iv. 423 Minoan parallels with, iv. 124-6
'

Flowers,

faience,

Minoan cultivation of, in. 278, iv. 1002 from Temple Repositories at
I.

26,

242 242

Knossos,

496, 498, 499, 500,


la, iv.

IV.

423,

on ship on pyxis from Messenian Pylos,

fresco M.M. Knossos, gold, from E. Treasury Knossos,346 404, 411 on M.M. 182
of,

247

Ill, at

i.

at

ill.

pottery,

I,

i.

M.M.
seals

Ill,
i.

I.

607
iii.

in goldwork, M.M. 75 L.M., 269 on M.M. 537-9, n. 378, 391 L.M. 114, 447, 454-9, 464, 465 Disks for 471, 472, 474: and laying on M.M. 182-5
I.

1013, 1014

frescoes,

Ill,

I.

la,

II.

inlays,

I.

see

in-

pottery,

I, I.

on and 120, 123 673> 677> 446, 491. S4i 453. on votive from Psychro, 633 and Flying Fish, Skaros, Tunny
sealings,
i.

Melian,

598,

385

n. 4, 272,

M.M. II, I. 256-70, IV. 124-6, 132 M.M. III6-L.M. la, 11. 472, iv. 260

II-

iv-

tablet

i.

see

on and

L.M.
see

la,

I. I.

269,

II.

loi,

469

sealings,

697

'Blossom-bowls', Naturalism

Fishing,

on M.M. Ill
40

fresco

from Phylakopi,
Ill,
i.

Flutes, in embroidery design

on

III.

seal

from Knossos, M.M.

555, 677,

IV.

500
IV.

on fresco fragments from Threshing- Floor Deposit, iii. 39 bone, from Mycenae, in. 39 played to accompany ecstatic dances, in. 69
sacrifices, in.

Mr. G. M., on excavations at Beth167 nn. 3 and 4 discovery of Flaceliere, Monsieur Robert, cupped table at Mallia by, iii. 392 Flask, from Abydos, ostrich egg, 11. 222
Fitzgerald,

Shan,

from Knossos, M.M. 179 from Phylakopi, Middle Cycladic, from Troy, 179 from Yortan, 179
II, 11.
11. 11.

tin, II.

179

11.

179

of rhyton from Knossos,


Flying-fish, faience,

139 marriage dances, in. 39, 40 Flute-player, dress of, iv. 403 Cycladic marble image of from Keros, in. 40 on Hagia Triada sarcophagus, iv. 42 Fluting, of wooden columns, I. 344, n. 520, 521 of gold goblet from Mycenae, iv. 122
11.

822
i.

Flying-bird sign, see under Bird

from Knossos,
128,

521, n.

Fleur-de-lys pattern,
261,

M.M.

II,

i.

243, 244, 247,

II. 495 connexion of with Three Palms motive,

II-

495

Mediterranean, hands Minoan fondness


fisher's

453, ni. 128

in.

129, Fig. 83, in

for, 11.

307
i.

Flint arrow-heads. Neolithic,

from Sahara,

11.

-^ on

fresco

from Phylakopi,
III.

522, 536, 542-4,

implements,

222
knife,

n. 5

from Gebel-el-'Arak,
trapezoid,
11.

11. 27 resemblance of to

on

on Minoan gems,
127, 128

n. 453,

128, 378
i.

678, iv. 494

inlaid dagger-blade

from Vapheio,

III.

arrow-heads,

49

n.

FLYING GALLOP
Flying gallop in Minoan

[Si]

FRESCOES

Fodder

art, I. 558, 711, 713-20 Linear Script A, iv. 689. in Linear Script A, coupled with horned helmet sign, iv. 689

sign, in

and

Fortifications (cont.)
see Siege-Scenes Foster parents of divine children, in Greek

in Linear Script B, associated with horse

in Linear Script B, iv. 801, 802, 806

religion, in. 466 Fountain on fresco from House of the Frescoes,


II. 460, 461, III. 254 Fraktin, Hittite relief from, iv. 410 n.

in Linear Script B, associated with


sign, IV. 802,

sign, IV. 801,

802

cuirass

Franchet, Monsieur, on technique of mottled

806

ware,

i.

79
11.

n.

4
n.

in Linear Script B, phonetic

and ideo-

Fraxinella ('Burning bush'), confusion of with


dittany,

graphic use
Font,
alabaster,
IV.

of, IV.

802

70

Foliate ornament, see Leaves

Frazer, Sir James,

4 on Burmese
III.

beliefs concern-

from basement of Central

ing butterflies,

151 n. 4

purple

Court,

936

on

hair-offerings, IV.

476

n. 5,

478

n.
:

gypsum, in basement of Central


IV.

Frescoes (described and classified: A. E.


too Reliefs of painted Stucco)

see

Court,

936

from passage to ante-room of


the Throne,
iv.

Room

of

pure lime material


532 pigments used in,
I.

of,

Mr. Noel Heaton's

Food, Minoan, beans as,

935, 936 barley-corns as, iv. 622


iv.

analysis,

595, 621

low

relief in,

11.

i. 533, 534 783, in. 517

Dolium
fish as,

as, iv. 1
I.

10

proportions of,

11.

460
922, 924

sss, 677 octopus as, IV. 65

reproductions

of, iv.

peas

as, iv.

621

on teeth of skeleton
iv.

rock borders

of, 11. 706,

730
of, 11.

scenery favourite subject


i.

452
I.

effect of 'hard tack'

stratigraphic evidence,

536-8

from Temple Tomb,

loio n.

i
11.

unique features

of,

but true fresco process,


11.

of
Fork

Foot, of ivory figurine from Knossos,


terra-cotta figurine,

728

532

from

M.M.

Ilfl

c. 16 inches high, stratum near Roman

damaged by earthquake of 1926,


dating of,
I.

317

536-8, in. 32

amphitheatre,
sign, as

ill. 452, 453 mason's mark at Knossos,

11.

290
i,

Forsdyke, Mr. E.
III.

J., 11.

192, iv. 144 n. 6


Spelio,
11.

discoveries at

Mavro

555 n.

on L.M. on

influence of,

on
I,
I.

inlaying, in. 117, 118

pottery,

seals,

Ill, I. 554, 603-9 n. 428, 468-512 675-8, 687-92, III. 146, 156,

M.M.

246 on household snake at Kalinovo,


470,
IV.

iv.

186, 220, 313, 314, IV. 512, 518, 615, 949 stylized vegetation on, n. 452, 456, iv. 343,

154 n. 2

on pottery from Kahun, 11. 211 from near Pyramids, 11. 210 on sculpture from Atreus Tomb Mycenae, iii. 193 n. 3
Fortifications at Knossos, of

541, 1004 textile types on, n. 114 Egyptian wall-paintings, association of with
at

seqq.,

134 372 early Keep, I. 134-8 on Town Mosaic, i. 302, 307, 11. 372 discovery of new Western Enceinte Wall
11.
i.

M.M. I date,

1.

Cretan Frescoes, i. 541, n. 166, iv. 399, 880 in cemetery at Beni Hassan, n. 40, iii in tomb of Kenamon at Thebes, 11. 448 of Rekhmara, n. 166, 226, 534, 728,
IV.

Chalandriane, 6 on road over Lasithi range, of harbour Pharos, 295 Andreas, 156
at

of fortificatory character, iv. 77, 78


156,
iii.
11.

329, 653 of Senmut at Thebes, n. 166, 425, 627, 648, 727, IV. 262, 266, 464, 749 n. 3,

880

78

n. 3

at

i.

of User-amon, iv. 44, 648 from Tell-el-Amarna wall and pave-

at St.

i.

ment,

III.

168, IV.

748

FRESCOES
Frescoes
(cont.)

[52]

FRESCOES
M.M. Illb {cont.)
485, IV. 6, 285,
ii.

Frescoes, Chronological Place,

Chronological Place of Frescoes: E.M. II origin of (surface wash of deep


red),
I.

682, 817, 818,

III.

'Saffron
(from
II

M.M.

72 fragment of from Knossos,


Gatherer' ascribed
I,

11.
I.

199
265,

to,

266, 520 n.

604,

II.

317

n. 2, 354, 452,

469, 728, III. I, 21, 22, IV. 718, 895 M.M. Ila Nature-printed with sponges

Influence of
M.M.

N.W.

Portico),

iii.

361, iv. 109

similar printing

on

M.M.
109
355,

and bossed) 166-70 from N. Portico, 474, sprays from basement of Portico and House, 426, 536 marbled dado, 356, 895, 896 stooping lady from Phylakopi, Melos, by Knossian 544-7 panel from Phylakopi, by
olive-tree

foliage (slightly
II.

III. 15,8,

olive

S.

S.

I.

i.

iv.

artist, I.

flying-fish

Polychrome pottery, ill. 361, Illfl marbled dado, i. 356,


pattern),

IV.
11.

labyrinth 894 maze band from area


spiral

356, ly. 893, (or

II. 356-8 above Loom-

Knossian artist, iii. 131 n. 3, 132 Miniature class, I. 28, 42, 221, 342, 527, 535. 536, 547-9. II- 160, 354, 358, 566, 585. 603, 742, 803, III. 2, 16 n. 3, 23, 308, 42. 44. 46-65, 66, 81-106, 130, 146,
208, 297, 396, 403, 433, IV. 20, 224, 841,

weight

Basement (in M.M. Ilia medium), I. 249, 323, 371-4 suggested diagonal arrangement
of,
I.

880

n.

372-4, 377

spiral frieze

from

M.M.
i.

Ilia stratum

fragment showing part of Miniature columnar structure under base-slab of the later West Facade of Central Court,

beneath

pavement,

Magazine of the
374, 375

M.M.
III.

III& date of,

iii.

31, 34, 35

'Medallion' Pithoi,

M.M.

Illb

Dolphin
i.

Fresco

(Queen's
i.

Temple and Grand Stand, 11. 585, 46-65 (Coloured PI. XVI, opp. p. 47)

Megaron),
544-7

330, 542-6, in. 377-9 'Ladies in Blue' from Great E. Hall,


patterns of their robes,

Sacred Grove and Dance, in. 66-74 (Coloured PI. XVIII, opp. p. 67) Siege Scenes, in. 81-8
Bull-catching scene on crystal plaque,
III.

11.

730-2,

734

n-

108-11

toilette

scenes in style of 'Ladies in

Blue' from earlier


II.

W.

Entrance Passage,
iv.

680-2
influence of

Theatral Sport on fragments from Deposit of Ivories, in. 207, 209 a kind of pictorial shorthand, due
to necessary rapidity of fresco process,
i.

on gem- type,

518

influence of their bead festoons

528
fully

Mag. XIII, 443, 447, 527, 528 shrine with double axes (same 160 crowds of 443, of Miniamen,
I.

IV.

on vase painting (L.M. lb and L.M. Ic), 284-8 bull's head from between Kasella floors,
pillar

developed by

M.M.

116, in.

34
in.

paralleled with

Ring of Nestor,
'_

146, 949 translation of into

Ring design

as a

Kasella),

1.

11.

anticipation
i.

Miniature fresco panel, in. 156, 157 Transitional M.M. III6-L.M. la: House of the Frescoes. Evidence of
earliest floor level

ture style (same Kasella),


lily

527, 528
i.

sprays,
PI.

S.W.
VI)

House,

536-8

(Coloured

(bridge-spouted vase with light on brown pattern and painted clay tumbler M.M. lb otherwise earliest

spikelets of reeds,

S.W. House,

i.

537-9

cat stalking pheasant, fragments

from
354,

L.M. L.M.
la,
II.

la) to transitional

M.M.

III6-

N. Border, i. 538-41, iii. 114 from Hagia Triada, I. 538-41,


III.

la phase, n, 435-7. Latest style not later than

L.M.

11.

114 Jewel Fresco (partly

450, 451 (Fig. 264) 'Blue bird' (Roller) panel with

relief), I.

525, 526,

rocks and flowers, n. 454

FRESCOES
Frescoes,

[S3]

FRESCOES
L.M.
lb {cont.)

Chronological

Place,

Transitional

Frescoes, Chronological Place,

M.M.

III6-L.M. la (cont.) panels showing marked Egyptian influence, ii. 447-51 (blue monkeys, papyrus thicket, 'desert belt') plant types and flowers, u. 455-9 (Coloured PI. XI)
Jet of Fountain,
11.

772-90, 11. 353, 427, 644, 685, 774-95 (Coloured PI.


flat), I.

painting on the

Frontispiece, ji. Pt. 2), iv. 6, 323, 400 lilies on, compared with those of

L.M. la

stylized
lb

vases,

11.

Iris

786, 787 on, anticipation of


786, 787, iv. 323, 324

Partridge Frieze
its

460-1,

m. 254

L.M.
flowers

and L.M. II conventional


vases,
i.

in Stepped Pavilion of
(11,

on

Caravanserai, II. 108-16

Frontispiece)

butterfly on,

compared with L.M.

date Transitional
II.

M.M.

Illi-

L.M. la, L.M. la:

126
11.

la sealing,

788, 789 painted stucco remains in and near Cor11. 11.

Palanquin Fresco,

Shield
13

770-3 found with L.M. la seal-impression, 11. 767 its longrobed priestly figures, iv. 398-401 Reeds, swallow, and banded pebble, S.W. House, II. 378, 379
; ;

718-36 showing tributebearers from Keftiu on Egyptian tombs of Thothmes Ill's time (Senmut, Useramon, Puemra and Rekhmara), ir. 736ridor of Procession,
similar
figures

41
'Cup-bearer' fresco, I. 8, 550, 11. 337, 353, 684, 704-12 (Coloured PI. XII, opp.
p. 707),

Frescoes,

i.

336, 337,

iii.

302,

304-14, IV. 6, 341, 735, (Coloured Plate XXIII)


influence of

786,
iii.

881

725-6
E. Quarters of Palace,
fresco
iv.

on

pottery,

309881

extension of processional scenes to

N.W. and
:

209-24, Dancing Lady,


in). III.

supply model for Tiryns fresco (on smaller scale Malachite introduced), III. 304-6 Linear Script A on, 11. 440-2 Taureador Frescoes (largely included
IV.

Camp-stool
tuary,
II.

from N.W. Sanc-

605, IV. 359, 365, 379-96, 882


it

(Coloured PI. XVI, after p. 384)


reasons for placing
early in

892, 893

iii.

369-73 (Coloured
iii.

PI.

XV)
380-4; and
la,
III.

396 finest of the Taureador frescoes probably of this Period, III. 211 (Coloured

L.M.

lb, IV.

Spiraliform Friezes of,

influence
L.M.
lb:

4- 333-8

of on pottery,
;

L.M.

imitation
211

PL XXI) L.M. II:

308-13, 381

L.M.

II, IV. 303, 339,

341

intarsia work of borders in some of the Taureador frescoes of latest palatial Age allied to this style, ill.

identical 'buds' on border bands of Knossian and Tiryns Friezes, IV. 877 (cf. Egyptian lotus designs) Procession Fresco (ascribed to L.M. lb

Upper layer of Cowboy fresco Porch referred 894, 895 foot from similar scenes,
to, iv.

in

W.

bull's

Ante-

Palace),

I.

424,11. 178, 452, 683, 684, 708,


PI.

Processional Friezes of S.W. Entrance


Thothmes
Parallel

718 and Coloured 297, IV. 399, 880

XII, 719, 757,

ill.

chamber to Room of Throne, iv. 893 'The Captain of the Blacks' (found at a higher level H. of Frescoes), 11. 755-7 and Coloured PI. XIII, opp. p. 756,
IV.

system related to parallel friezes of Ill's time (first half of 15th


II.

886-8

in processional female Kadmeion, Thebes, 748, 750 Priest-king (combined


11.

cent. B.C.),

719-48

figures,

relief

with

imitations of marble blocks on dadoes beside Throne, iv. 895, 908 and Coloured PI. XXXII, opp. p. 910 compared with those of Mycenae and Tiryns, iv. 895
late

FRESCOES
Frescoes, Chronological Place,

[54]

FRESCOES
Minoan
(cont.)

Argonaut with reed background, from


Upper
889-92

L.M.

II (cont.)

Frescoes, Subjects of:


fountain,
11.

Corridor, Domestic Quarter,


iv.

iv.

460, 461, in. 254 Genii with carrying pole, iv. 441, 442 God, descending, n. 136
510, 513, 517 horse's head, iv. 799, 829
iv. 574,

colour scheme of,

889 (Suppl.

griffins, in.

PI.

LXIV)

Griffin fresco.

Room

of the Throne, iv.

908-15 (Coloured
910)

PI.

XXXII,

opp. p.

waved
IV.

sections of background, con-

horses and grooms, iv. 830 hunting scenes, in. 123, 196, 519, 580,825,829 ladies, 11. 602, 730, 749, iii. 60
lilies, II.

ventionalized version of rocky landscape,

908-1

flowering reeds and marbled dado, compared with Argonaut frieze, iv. 210,

colour scheme and bands

211
13

473, 749, ni. 130 Linear Script B, n. 440-3 marine subjects, n. 507, iv. 306 Blue Monkeys, n. 361, 447, 450, in. 115 myrtle sprays, n. 457, 620

of, iv.

910-

omphalos, 11. 840 papyrus pattern, in. 371, 372


Partridge Frieze,
11.

of Griffin,
IV.

hatched shading on lower contours first attempt at Chiaroscuro,


striated foliage of

no,

114, 116, 449 n. i,

912, 913

452, 457, 460, 728, 730, in. 211, IV. 6 Priest-king, n. 353, 427, 644, 685, 774-95,
IV. 6, 323, 400 Procession, I. 424, n. 178, 452, 683, 684, 708, 710, 719-57, in. 297, IV. 399, 786, 880, 933

background

antici-

pated on M.M. III6 faience plant, iv. 1013; suggested by Palm leaves, as on

M.M. Ilfl vases, iv.


of

1013

L.M.

II frescoes, copied

on

'Palace Style' vases, IV. 1013

coloured version of sprays on cere-

monial incense burner from Temple Tomb, IV. 1012 (Coloured PI. XXXV) taken over on coloured pottery from Akhenaten's Palace, Tell-el-

rock work, n. 730 rocky landscapes, n. 450-4 rosettes, n. 592 n. 4, iv. 227, 339, 877 sacral ivy, n. 466, 478
sacral knot,
11.

284

reeds,

i.

426,
i.

shields,

391, 450, iv. 891 336, 337, in. 295, 298, 302, 30411.

Amarna,

iv. 1013 taken over on late wall-paintings

14,383,1V.
spirals,
1.

6,

341,786, 881,933

at Mycenae, iv. 1012 (Suppl. Subjects of Frescoes, Minoan: Blue Bird, 11. 454, 469, in. 90 Boxer, in. 498, 500, 502, 516

PI.

LXVI)

336, 337, in. 281, 294, 378, 381-3, 387, 517, IV. 6, 205, 339 sponges, III. 364
stag hunt, in. 123, iv. 580, 825 swallows on robe, n. 307 n. i, 766, in.
trees,
11.

40

bull-sports,

366, 394, 445, 447, 571, II. 356, 485. 782, III. 209-32, 307, 331, 495I.

620

triglyphs, iv. 228

525. IV.

44
i.

vetches, n. 454, 469

Cat and Pheasant,


cattle scenes, iv.

539-41,

11.

354, in. 114

violet, II.

464
I.

565
458, 459, in. 363 550,' n. 337, 353, 684,
8, 550, III. 70, 71, 370,

warriors, in. 36, 87

crocus clumps,

11.

window

scenes,

444, 445, n. 377, 409,

Cup-bearer,

i.

8,

704-12, IV. 3,6 Dancing Lady, I.


371,1V. 6

in. 60, IV. 875 wrestlers, in. 498

Subjects:

Mainland and Cyclades:


drinking

animal
11.

from

conical

rh5rton

Double Axe,
flying-fish,
i.

602, in. 60, iv. 348


11.

522, 536, 542-4,

453, in.

(Tiryns), n. 769 arm holding flower (Mycenae),

11.

750

128,378

balcony scene (Mycenae), n. 602, in. 60

FRESCOES
Frescoes,
Subjects:

[55]

FRESCOES

Mainland and Cyclades

Frescoes, Localities of, Knossos Palace (cont.)


11.

(cont.)

boar-hunt (Tiryns), iv. 574 bull and female acrobat (Tiryns),


45 Double- Axe,
IV. 44.
11.

ill.

208

603,

ill.

60, iv. 348


I.

flying-fish (Phylakopi),

536, 542-4,
iv.

ill.

128, 378 Genii with carrying pole, God, descending, 11. 136 horse's head, iv. 799, 829

Hall of the Double Axes, 283, 324, 372 343. well of Hall of the Double Axes, LightHI. 294,307, 331 Upper Hall of the Double Axes, 889 under Hall of the Double Axes, 331,
iv.

in.

441, 442

N.W.

'

332

Sanctuary Hall,

11.

605, iv. 359,


I.

horses and grooms (Mycenae and Tiryns),

830 hunting scenes (Tiryns),


IV. IV. 574, 580, 825,

ill.

123, 196, 519,

Early Tri-Columnar Hall, 525-6, 682, 817, 818, 285 485, Queen's Megaron, 330, 522, 543, 544,
III.

365. 387. 396, 882

II.

IV.

i.

829
III.

550,

III.

70, 71, 208, 281, 370-2, 377,


IV.

ladies,

11.

602, 730, 749,

60

lotus

and palmette patterns (Tiryns), iii. 371, 372, IV. 874-876 buds, Egyptian type of, found alike at Knossos and Tiryns, iv. 877
tradition,
iii.

dependent on Knossian
304-6,
stag

shields (Tiryns), iii. 295, 304-6, iv. 786, 933


IV. 786 hunt (Tiryns), ill. 123, iv.'58o, 825 swallows on robe (Phylakopi), 11. 307 n. i, 766,111.40,44 trees (Tiryns), 11. 620, iv. 824 triglyphs (Orchomenos), iv. 228

Domestic Quarter, 44, 294, 297.403.433.1^.20,877 Spiral Fresco 323, 333, 351, 370-6,411,111.25 ante-room of Room of the Throne, 676, 309, 893, 904 Roomof the Throne, 1.382,11. 114, 116,
III.

378, 381-3, 507,

31, 34,

area,

i.

11.

IV.

353 n.

I,

785,

III.

510, 513, IV. 650, 749,


11.

warriors,

ill.

36, 87
i.

window

scenes (Mycenae),
III.

444, 445,

11.

377, 409,

60, IV. 875

Localities of Frescoes:

Corridor of the
161 n.
I,

Knossos Palace, Earlier Entrance Passage from W. Porch, 11. 676, 680
Procession,,
i.

424,
III.

11.

333, 683, 684,719-57,

485,

6,323 Grand 302, 304-14, 383, 341, 786, 881 under S.E. 413 Corridor of Painted Pithos, 383, 387 Court of the Stone Spout, 209-32 Room of the Stone Bench, 297 Room of the Clay Signet, 224 borders of East Hall, 356, 485, 782,
Staircase,
iii.

880 S. Propylaeum, i. 8, 550, 11. 337, 353, 684,704-12, IV. 3,6 S.-N. Corridor, 11. 644, 685, 774-95, iv.
IV. 399,

of Central Court, 803, 804, 16 20 34, N.W. 30-3, 42, 46-59, 106, 130 from 13th Magazine, 479, 480, n. 209, 224 599. 604, S.E. Angle, 124 E. Border, 896 W. Border, n. 742 N. Border, n. 603 N.W. Borders, 294, 875-6 W. Porch, 674, 676, 893, 894 N.W. Treasure House, n. 620 House of the Frescoes, n. 114, 116, 361,
vicinity
III.

891,892,908,910,912,913
n. 3, 33, IV. insula, in. 2, 23,

37, 38,

I.

III.

33, 61, 62, in.

IV.

iv.

in.

iv.

II.

IV.

440-69, 507, 733, 755, 756, in. 90, 115,


211, 254, 359, 363, 364, IV. 260, 306, 396, 886, 887
iv.

IV. 6,

Staircase,

iii.

High Priest's House, 205 Pavilion of Caravanserai, n.


109,

70,

107,

in.

in.

iii.

i.

11.

III.

215, 216, 495-525

House, n. 373, 378, 449 House of the Oxen, 310 E. Slope, 840
S. n.

114, 116, 449 n. I, 452, 457, 460, 728, 730, III. 211, IV. 6
i

no,

Sacrified

in. 189,

II.

FRESCOES
Frescoes, Localities of (cont.)

[S6]

GATE
and elevations by,

Fyfe, Prof. Theodore, plans, sections,


I.

Elsewhere in Crete from Hagia Triada,


see

604, 605, 732, 733> 836 and Hagia Triada, sarcophagus from from Niru Khani, 284 from Phaestos, 185 from Tylissos, 36, 88
i.

11.

229, 324, 326, 373, 406-10, II. 158 n. 3, 710, 814, III. 241, IV. 906-8 on triglyph and half-rosette band, 11. 605,

606
Fylfot in

11.

Minoan ornament,

i.

358,

11.

197

ill.

III.

35,

Mainland and Cyclades,

i. 24n. i, 444, 445. " 377. 409. 452 n. i, 599, 602, 730, 750, III. 36, 60, 84, 136, 207, 208, IV. 20,

G
Gadd, Mr. C.
J.,

on flower-cone mosaics from

from

227, 348, 441, 442, 799, 829, 830, 87s, 876

Orchomenos,

iii.

208 n.

2, iv.

Kirkuk, iv. 125 Gaia, comparison of with Mother Goddess,


III.

228
I.

467
169 n. 2

from Phylakopi, Melos, 542-4 (cf. 536), III.


II.

(flying-fish)

Galena, argentiferous, workings of in Troad,


II.

128,

37,

307 n. i, 766, Iii. 40, 44, (lily frieze) iii. 130-33 Thebes, Room of Kadmeion, 11. 730,
748, 749 (Processional lady)

(swallows)

Galley, see Ship

from Thera, 11. 473 from Tiryns, 11. 592

GalUpot, late predynastic alabaster, Knossos, IV. 123 Galopetra, see Milk-stones Gambara, bronze halbert from, 11. 172

from

n.

4,

(half

Games, bone fish and


II.

bracelets perhaps used in,

rosette) 730, (processional ladies) n. 3, (rhyton &c.) 769, (stag-hunt)

750
ill.

123, 196, (bull-grappling) 208, (shield fresco) 304-6, (papyrus frieze) 371, 372,
IV. 44, 574,

580, 786, 82s, 829, 874-6, 933

Friezes, position

alabaster,
IV.

and width of, II. 460 from Tiryns, Queen's Megaron,


Hall, iv. 897
of, 11.

bowl, Egyptian, 393, 394 possibly held Inner Court of Temple Tomb Knossos, 1000, looi of Minoan Goddess 24 pavement, Crete, 390, 392, 394, 395,
iii.

409

funeral,

in

at

iv.

interest

in, iv.

in

in.

396, 446
at Rome, in. 395 Gaming-boards, see Draught-boards Gardens, on frescoes from Amnisos, iv. 1002 Minoan flower, in. 278, iv. 1002 Garden sign, in Linear Script B, coupled with saff^ron sign, iv. 720 Gardner, Prof. E. A., on ivory figure of Snake Goddess in Boston Museum, in. 442 n. i Prof. Percy, on relation between shaft graves and tholoi at Mycenae, iv. 240 Garstang, Prof. J., on objects from Abydos, i. 268, II. 210, 222 n. I Gate, city, on silver rhyton from Mycenae, in.

227, 228

border mouldings 596 frescoed, under Frescoes from Menidi, 343


see

Men's

162, 163, 590,

ivory,

i.

limestone, from Knossos,


IV.

from Mycenae,
223, 225

11.

591 n. 3
11.

of AssUr-nazir-pal Nineveh, connexion of with and Rosette and triglyph


at

from Mycenae,

11.

695

iv.

432
11.

in relief,
see

portals,

592

friezes

Frit, glazed,
II.

segmented beads of from Ashur,

179 n. II
faience,
I.

Fruit,

from Temple Repository


498, 499

at

Knossos,

offerings of, to

Minoan Goddess,
58
i,

iv.
iv.

on Hagia Triada sarcophagus,


Fruit-stand pots,
i.

394 42
i,

Furtwangler, Prof., in. 185 n.

iv.

41 n.

bronze, formerly House Knossos, Lions', Mycenae, hieroglyph, M.M. Linear Script B, Linear Script B,
at

92

existing in
iv.

High

Priest's

207
under Mycenae

at

see
i.

II,

278
685, 702 terminal of

sign.

iv.

as

name

144 n. 6,431

groups,

IV.

702, 715

GAZA
Gaza,
I.

[57]

GEOMETRICAL DESIGNS
Genii,

2
station near

Minoan Ministers
(cont.)

of divinity, ewer-

Gazan6s stream, Minoan


II.

mouth

of,

holding

231

by lion on inlaid dagger-blade from Mycenae, iii. 123 and see Deer Gebal, associated with Keftiu on Egyptian monuments, 11. 656 Gebeh, Egyptian libation vase hieroglyph, used
Gazelle, seized
:

pouring libations over tripod cauldrons on shafts, iv. 454; over altar-blocks, IV. 454 over cairn, iv. 455 over pillar, iv.
;

459

in Crete,

11.

55
flint

on hydrias from Kurion, iv. 456-8 on great gold signet from Tiryns, bearing libations to seated Goddess holding
alabastron-like cup, IV. 393, 444, 461 as supporters of young God, I. 708,
ill.

ivory
IV.

Gebel-el-'Arak,

knife from,
II.

11.

27
ill.

knife handle from,

34,

515,

506 Gebelein, granite block at, i. 421 painted pans from, 11. 190 Gebel-Genamish, base of tholos at, 11. 37 n. 4 Gela, Ionian scarab with lion seizing bull from

365 n. 5, IV. 401, 460, 465-7; in company with winged goat, iv. 467
as carriers

and leaders of animals,

iv.

441-4. 575
_

Greek tomb at, iv. 536, 539 Gelon of Syracuse, i. 10 n. i

companions of lion-slaying hero, iv. 462 between lions on bases, in place of divinity, from tomb in Lower Town, Mycenae,
as
IV.

Gems,

see Seals

Genii (A.E.), Minoan Ministers of divinity, essentially Cretan creations, IV. 433 not representing votaries in skins of
victims, IV. 432 source of traced to Egyptian Hippopota-

461 ass-headed type

of,

on

fresco

from My-

cenae, IV. 441, 442

hippopotamus-headed type
seals, IV.

of,

on beadIV.

435 lion-headed type

of,

predominant,
IV.

mus Goddess Ta-Urt

(Thueris: Reret),

iv.

431-41; her astral relations reflected in connexion with Minoan Genii on seal stones, IV. 440, 441 analogy with assistance to Horns on Minoan cylinder from Kakovatos with Genius directing sword of lionslaying hero, IV. 462, 463 heads of on beadseals resemble hippopotamus, iv. 435 reflect pregnant aspect of Ta-Urt, iv. 434, 435; inherit her motherly and beneficent aspect,
; ;
; ;

433. 441-4. 4S3-6i, 466, 467 associated with barley-corn,

with

627

bulls, IV. 440,


iv.

458

457 459 on fresco from Mycenae, iv. 441, 442 on hydrias of Minoan fabric from Kurion, Cyprus, II. 504, 505, 652-4, IV. 556-8 on seals from Crete, iii. 270, iv. 259
iv.

with crocodile, with man-bull,

IV.

434, 435, 444;

as bearers of animals also

r^emble her,iv. 435, 441-4: and see Ta-Urt first appearance of on bronze hydrias of mature L.M. la date, about end of i6th
century B.C., exhibiting naturalistic marine
style, II. 505, IV. 456,

from from from from from


able)

Kakovatos, iv. 462, 575 Kydonia, ill. 465 n. 5, iv. 466 Mainland, iv. 550

Mycenae,
'Orvieto',

iv.

461
465, 466 (once no longer trace-

IV.

Castellani Collection, but

on L.M.

II sealings

457 from Area of Daemon

ewer-holding,
585

Seals, IV. 441, 605,

626 watering

palm-trees

as

protectors of vegetation, iv. 444, 453, 454,


related to simpler talismanic series of

bead-seals used as vegetation charms, iv.

447-5
connected with divine ceremony of
rain-bringing by pouring, iv. 450-2

from Phaestos, iv. 435 from Tiryns, IV. 392, 461 from Vapheio, iv. 392, 585 on sealings from Knossos, 11. 764, iv. 627 from Zakro, i. 274, 702-9 Genouillac, Monsieur H. de, on polychrome fromPontus, 11. 658nn.3 and4, iv. 764n.5 (ascribed by him to Hellenistic Age) Geometrical designs on African leather flasks,
IV.

91 n. 2

GEOMETRICAL DESIGNS

[58]

GOATS
Temple Tomb
at

Geometrical designs (cont.) -on rock carvings of Col di Tenda, 11. 170 n. 4 Geophyros, name for Platyperama stream, 11. 231 n. 2 Geraki, bead-seal from, iv. 446 n. 2 Geranos, see Crane dance Germany, North, amber route from to Greece,
174 halberds from, 11. 170 hut-urns from, 11. 132 Gesture language, Minoan, iii. 57, 152 Greek, iii. 57
II.

Glass beads from


IV.

Knossos,

964

from from

Tomb Robbers' cache, IV. 964 Tomb of the Genii at Mycenae,


n.

blue.

flake

IV.

887
III.

434, IV. 227 eyes of faience bull from E. Treasury at

434 from Knossos, 14 fragments in exterior clay Knossos, 258 n. 23


11.

Knossos,

III.

filling

of well at

III.

inlays, early Nilotic,

Neapolitan, in. 58 Gezer, L.M. I pottery from, in. 312, 342, 881

iv.

290,

Gharbis wind (South- West) (blowing at time of final conflagration of West Quarter of
Palace),
11.

83,

90

54 mauve, pounded,
at

from Menidi, n. 595 n. 2, 596 n. i from Mycenae, IV. 454, 455, 887 n. 2 of alabaster frieze from Tiryns, IV. 227

traditional invention of in

Tehenu

Delta,

II.

iv.

964
in spiral relief

from N.W. Insula

Giganteia, Megalithic

monument
450

at, 11.

181

of type of in Minoan 466, 515, 584 on Babylonian cylinder from Candia, 260 on ivory handle from Gebel-el-'Arak, 515 on jasper signet from Mycenae, 466
reflection
IV.
art, ill.
II. 11.

Gilgamesh,

I.

69,

11.

28, in.

Knossos, in. 30 Glass Island, Yali, near Kos, n. 14 (source of


transparent obsidian) Glazeware, see Faience

Gloves, see Dress

Goats, wild (the Cretan agriim)' associated with

27,

Minoan Goddess,
IV.

iv. 24,

570

28,

III.

partial domestication of in

L.M.

Crete,

in.

Gillieron,

Monsieur
I.

E., pere,

restoration

and
66,
PI.

834 drawing chariot on bead-seal from Avdu,

facsimiles by,

546

n. 3, in.
I,

54 n.

i,

IV.

89 n.

I,

130, 183 n.

and Coloured
XII,

791,823 and kids, faience plaque of from Temple


iv.

(vol. I)

I-V, VII,

(vol. II)

(vol, III)

Repositories,

XVIII
fils,

i. 311, 498, 510, 511, present habitat of, iv. 832, 833

552

drawings, restorations, and facsimiles

horns

of,

used for bows,


835

II.

50 n.

2, iv.

by,

II.

no, 284

n. i, 446,
III.

486

n. 3,

682 n.

2,

710, 721, 795,

34, 50 n. 2, 54, 90, 118,

832
size of, IV.

127, 157, 19s, 302, 345, 378, IV. 6, 117 n. 2

on inscribed Tablets from Knossos,


II.

&c. and Coloured

PI. (vol. n) X, XI, XIII, XIV, (vol. in) XVI, XVII, XIX, XX, XXa, XXII-XXIV, XXVIII-XXX, (vol. IV)

50 n.

2, IV.

832
flat-sided

seized
lentoid,

by dog on
I.

M.M.

II

XXXII,

XXXIV

275, iv. 525-7 prototype of scenes in which the lion is hunter

Girapetra, Isthmus of, n. 253 Girdle, see Dress

Gironde, lower, trade with Crete, 11. 180 Gjerstad, Dr. Einar, on tomb at Trahonas,
IV. 771 n. 5 Gladiators, Minoan,

hunted by dogs and lions on Minoan gems, IV. 532, 576, 577, 834 -by lion on hilt plate of sword from Zafer Papoura, IV. 865

on M.M.
i.
I.

Ill clay roundel

from Knossos,

691-4 on sealing from Hagia Triada, in. 502

620

on

pottery,

E.M.
I.

Ill,

i.

112, 182, 607

bronze vessel from,

Glasinatz, ring of

Minoan type from,


iv.

11.

175

797

n. 3

M.M. M.M.

I, I.

112, 182, 607 158, 159

II,

GOATS
Goats, wild, on pottery (cont.)

[59]

GODDESS
;

L.M.
on
seals

Ill, IV. 371,

373
i.

God: Minoan youthful {cont.) adored by warriors bearing gifts on Thisbe


4,

and

sealings,

123 n.

273, 274,

IV. 74,

32. 310. 311. 69s, 11. 495 n. 2, in. 316, 446, 488, 494, 500, 509, 522, 523, 532, 541, 542, 570, 576, 577, 588, 595, 834 relation of to domestic goat, iv. 834

similar

signet.

III.

471-4

adoration of

Magi

at

birth

of

Alexander, in. 474; and Christ, in. 474-6 (Naples signet-ring compared) comparison of with Adonis, in. 465, 468

remains of, from Neolithic houses at Knossos, II. 10 sacrificed, on steatite rhyton from Knossos, n. 537, in. 184 on painted sarcophagus from Hagia
Triada,
iv.

42

scratching flank,
Isopata, IV. 562
'

on clay

sealing

from
158;

mourning

with Attis, I. 3, IV. 468 with Hyakinthos, in. 465 connexion of with Aphrodite, n. 838 with Cretan Zeus, in. 467 with Minoan Goddess, n. 832, 838, III- 143. 454-7. 468-74, IV. 46, 483 death of, I. 153, 154, 162, in. 464
scene over his grave,

shown

votive figures

of,

from Juktas,

I.

from

Petsofa,

i.

153

on gold
II-

signet-ring, in.

figurine of,

464 bronze, from Harbour Town,


in. 469,

winged, as attendant on Boy-God, I. 708, IV. 401, 467, 610; on bead-seal from Kydonia, iv. 467 Goat's-head, Neolithic clay, from Knossos,

235
clay,

from Mavro SpeUo,

470

ivory, originally with vestments of gold


plate, in. 143,

handle of L.M. la rhyton 537, 777 on lentoid 559 hieroglyph, 713


as

I-

44. 45

from

Palai-

kastro,

11.

iv.

chryselephantine from
Gold
tonsured head,
iv.

443-56 connexion of with figure of 'Boston Goddess', in. 454-6, iv. 471
S. Crete, iv.

468-73

seal, iv.

Hittite

iv.

Goat

sign, in

Linear Script B,

iv.

713

Biretta of gold plate originally worn on


-genii

loin-plates of, iv. 473 Proto-Armenoid profile of, iv.

473-4

Goat-skin, attribute of Juno Sospita, 11. 52 Goblets, bronze, from Tomb of the Tripod

475

ministers

of, in.

465 n.

5,

iv.

401,

dove-handled, 391, 958 122 from Mycenae, 958 one-handled, 363 under Pottery 391 from 364
iv.

hearth at Zafer Papoura,

iv.

364

fluted, IV.

gold,

iv. 122,

275, 363, 391,

on sarcophagus from Miletos, on and 832,


seals

460, 465-7, 610 on fresco from Mainland, n. 136


iv.

47

sealings,

11.

in. 143, 464,

iv.

pedestalled, IV. 359, 363, 364, 389, 390 pottery, see


ritual, IV. 359, silver,

465, prominence of in L.M. age, 46 tomb on Juktas, n. 68, 81, 838, in. 468

470-4,

IV.

550

iv.

Isopata, iv.

warrior, on from Knossos and Hagia Triada, 842 465, with winged god, 708, 401, 467, 610
sealings
in.
iv.
I.

of,

iv.

depicted on Camp-stool Fresco,


389. 390 stone,
Pseira,
IV.
11.

iv.

355,

from 790 4 two-handled, 364, 389, 390 'Goblin', on M.M. II 274 on Melian 274, 559, 703, 704
n.
seal,
i.

Goddess of Ausean Libyans, identified with Athena by Herodotus, n. 51 Goddess, Hippopotamus, see Ta-Urt
Goddess, Minoan male spouse not usually represented, in. 459 adorants of, in. 459-63 animal forms of, i. 447 armed, in. 465, 467, iv. 400, 849 as Dove Goddess, i. 635, in. 73 n. i, iv. 391 figurine of, from late Shrine of the Double Axes at Knossos, n. 337, 705

vases,

i.

God: Minoan

youthful,

I.

2, 3, 6,

160, 161, 515,

635, II. 48, 278, III. 443-57> IV. 470-83 birth cave of, i. 154 n. 6
as

infant

on Mother Goddess's knees

GODDESS
Goddess, Minoan (cont.) as Earth Goddess {Gaia),
as huntress,
i.

[60]

GODDESS
iii.

i.

3, 6, iii.

458
577, 578

Goddess, Minoan (cont.) associated with Boy-God,


468-73, 475,
sports,
IV.

143, 454-8)

511, 548,
in

11.

765,

iv.

as looser of Earthquakes, iv. 187 as

lyre-player, Palaikastro,

terra-cotta

group from

ill.

73
i.

as

Mother Goddess,
III.

3, 4, 5, 154, 156, 161,

143, 451, 468-73, 475, 483, IV. 39

with hounds,
cult of,
I.

11.

765

159

on signet from Thisbe, iii. 470-4 parallel form at Antioch in Pisidia,


II.

277
parallel

form

in Anatolia

and

Syria,

II.

277 images of, I. 51, 52, 115, 469, 470 many-breasted, from Hagia Triada,

1-567

connexion of this polymastic form with cooking pots, I. 56 7


prototypes
of, i. 14 shrine of, at Knossos,
I.

464

as Patroness of Priest-kings,
as Stablisher, as
11.

11.

794
649,
iii.

541
i.

Goddess of Sports,
IV. 20,

447,

11.

207,

39
of, in

bull 207, 649, 447, 472 cow and 511-14 cymbals. 472, 219 Double Axes, 434, 479, 514, 277 708, 785 hounds, 765 Hyakinthos, 480 Kybele, 473 776 308, 413, 414, 334, 831, 526, 596, 914 Minos, 960 mountains, 596 sacred 250 sheep, 515, 370 400 swinging, 24 sword, 400, 849 variety of 24 457, 394, 628 wild 570 two small handmaidens (Diaskourat),
I.

483

II.

III.

IV. 20,

28, 31, 34, 39>


calf,
III.

I.

iv.

i.

11.

griffins,

I.

II.

II.

iii.

iii.

lily, II.

lions,

I.

II.

III.

IV.

IV.

iv.

tree,
I.

11.

IV.

sprinkler, iv.

iv.

IV.

attributes,

ill.

iv.

vine, IV.

goat, IV.

girl

chryselephantine image

Toronto

Museum,
as

iv. 28, 31, 34, 38,


i

472 (Coloured
PI.

340-2 (and Fig. 194), iii. 153-4 (attending guardian lion), 458, iv. 517, 518 (assistII.

Plate, IV, Pt.

Frontispiece)
i.

ing at toilette)

Snake Goddess,
Frontispiece of
187, 406

500-10 (Coloured
469,
of,
I.

V female companions of same age,

11.

341,

i), 11.

iv. 24, 159, 186,

male
baetylic

342,

III.

148
III.

attendants,
11.

459-63

chthonic aspect
" 339

447, 508, 509,

attitude of,

128, 129

image

of,
Iii.

chryselephantine, in Boston

Museum,

438-42, 455,

iv. 38,

179

form of, 11. 132, 324, iv. 610 bronze locks from wooden statue of, from Great East Hall at Knossos; iv. 612
celestial aspect of,
11.
I.

clay,

from Gournia and

Prinia, iv.

339
447, 508, 509,
II.

143. 159 faience,

chthonic aspect

of,

339,

from Temple Repositories

III.

12, 148, 149, 153, IV. 43,


11. 11.

44

at Knossos, i. 223 n. 3, 289, 291, 469, 486, 495, 500-12, and Frontispiece, 523, 11. 237, 317 n. 2, 744, III. 440, IV. 32, no, 177, 465

cult of, at Athens,

from Knossos, 11. 323, 540 liniestone, from Harbour Town,


lead,
II.

235, IV. 193 shrine of, at Knossos,


Prinia, iv. 143

Knossos, Mycenae, Psychro, on Juktas, 635


at

i. i.

7,

50 761

at

721

at

11.

48
II.

I.

154,

385

triple,

I.

11.

699

at

in ritual dance, in. 68

Gournia and

descending, in. 136


iii.

bow,

associated with various animals,


Attis,
III.
II.

457

473 48

figure

dress of, iv. 27, 401, 402 hut-urn of, clay, in

from Spring

Chamber

at

Knossos,

11.

128, 705

GODDESS
Goddess, Minoan (cont.) figure of, from Mavro Spelio,
in
IV.

[6i]

GOLD
tholos at Midea, 11. 505 from 3rd Shaft Grave at Mycenae,

marble, Fitzwilliam Museum, 193 stone, from Harbour Town, 235,


11.

ii.

337

Gold (cont.) bowl from


199,
butterflies

ill.

iv.

193

II. 151 caps on ostrich-egg rhyton from Mycenae,

756, painted stucco, from Mycenae, 757 519


ill.

head

of, clay,

from Knossos,

IV.

holding poppy heads on seal (as Gaia)

iii.

of faience vase from Knossos, 252 of cylinder from Knossos,


i.

II.

224

lapis-lazuli

iv.

.458
inscriptions connected with cult of,
i.

423

631-6
iv.

chalice depicted

on Camp-stool Fresco,
11.

iv.

marine aspect

of,

i.

635,

11.

249-52, 343,

no.

953.

migration

of, iv.

956,958 950-4
I.

390. 391 chrysalises

from Mycenae,
iv.

788,
n.

ill.

149,

151
161, 162,
ill.

mourning

for her son,

142
31, 32

comb from Mycenae,


cross

1005

offered chalice, iv. 594, 767 on frescoes from Knossos, 11. 712,

ill.

from 3rd Shaft Grave, Mycenae, I. 516 cups, from Mycenae, I. 469, ii. 188, 504,

on

11. 47, 340, 342, 633, 724, 764, 767, 793, 804, 831, III. 68, 136, 137, 14.2, 458, 465, 470-4, IV.
I.

seals

and

sealings,

160, 434, 464,

from Vapheio,
IV. 10, 22,

IV.

183 n.

5,

363, 365, 958


11.

452,

ill.

177-85, 188,

168-70, 460, 518, 550, 577, 578, 594, 607,


950, 952-4 receiving offerings from genii,
relation of with Amphitrite,
iv.

444 diadems from shaft graves

at

Mycenae,

iv.

460

239 double axes, votive, from Arkalokhorio, 347

iv.

958 with Artemis Delphinia, 11. 250 with Anatolian Lightning Gods, iv. 23 with Diktynna (Britomartis), 11. 175, 250 with Gaia, iii. 467 with Hera, iv. 45 n. i with Kybele, ill. 472, iv. 170 n. 2, 219 with Neith, 11. 48, 191 with Persephone, ill. 467 with Rhea, 11. 51, 334 with Wazet, 11. 51, 480, iv. 173 n. i, 983 Goddess, naked, iv. 426, 427, 428, 458 Goddess, Syrian, iv. 478, 557 Godoy, prohibition of Spanish bull fights

I v.

duck from Knossos, ill. 412 dumps from Old Salamis, iv. 664

dumps
(of

(also silver) predecessors of coinage


iv.

Egyptian and Oriental standards),

dust

from Libya, possibly imported


11.

into

Crete,

756
at

ewers from shaft graves


IV.

Mycenae,
Knossos,
I.

I.

498,

127

fish,

from E. Treasury from Magazines


at

at

ill.

404,

411

under,

ill.

227

n. 3

Gold:
axe-adze, miniature, from Mochlos
11. 629 n. 3 bands, with canopied ankh motive, from 5th

Shaft Grave at Mycenae, iv. 255 bar from Cypro-Minoan tomb at Old Salamis,
IV. 665 beads from tholos

from robbers' cache Knossos, from tholos Kumasa, 76 from 3rd Shaft Grave Mycenae, from Pyrgos, 75
at at
iv.

at Kalathiana,

11.

194

iv.

963
I.

from M.M. Ill 451, 458 from Temple Repositories, 457, 469-71, 480-2 from niche Room of the Throne, 934 from basin of Room of the Throne, 930 on from 3rd Shaft Grave Mycenae, 615 of boss of pectoral from
floor-cists,
I. I.

foil,

Knossos,

318, 571

in

iv.

lustral

IV.

fig leaves

coffin

at

11.

lining

crystal

at

676

Gurob, III. 108 goblets from graves


363. 365. 391 gourd-shaped vessel

at

Mycenae,

i.

122, 275,

I.

bosses on imported halberd from Mycenae,


II.

from treasure of Astra-

172, 173

bad,

II.

26

GOLD
Gold
(cont.)

[62]

GOLD

granulated work, of microscopic character, on lion from Long Corridor, iii. 412, iv. 75, 76
heart,

Gold, plating (cont.) on rim of silver rhyton from Mycenae,

iii.

89
11. 272 from Mycenae, in. 130 from Zafer Papoura, 11. 530, 563 on copper, from Vat Room Deposit, i. 170 on faience, i. 452, 457, iii. 434 on ivory, on sword from Mallia, 11. 273 on silver, on bowl from Mycenae, 11.

from Knossos,

hilt plates

ni. 401, 410 of cruciform sword from Chief-

sword-hilts from Mallia,

tain's

Grave at Zafer Papoura, IV. 865, 866 of horned sword from 5th Shaft Grave

Mycenae, iv. 848 inlays, on amphora from Knossos, iv. 897 on dagger-blades from Mycenae, I. 714at

17, 720,

II. 361, 452, 473, 730, III. 95, 112, 113, 118-24, 130, IV. 527, 531, 575

641 n.

I,

642

from Thera, ill. 130 from Vapheio tomb,

n. 3
ill.

96

n. i, 127,

head rhyton depicted on User-amon at Thebes, 11. 738 jewellery, from Mochlos, i. 95-8, iv. 125, 423 lilies from tombs at Dimini and Volo, I. 500 lion from Long Corridor at Knossos, iii. 412,
silver jackal's

on

128
of

tomb

II on wooden
n.

on ewer from Mycenae, 11. 647 represented on tombs of Senmut and User-amon, 11. 648, 738 on rhyton from Mycenae, 11. 530 on steatite, I. 387, 675, 676, 11. 503 on stone, pre-dynastic Egyptian, 11. 179
horns of rhyton from Knossos,
steatite bull's
11.

head
at

IV. 75, 76 mouthpiece from tomb at Enkomi, 11. 494 necklace from Chieftain's Grave at Zafer Papoura, 11. 563, iv. 862 oenochoe from 4th Shaft Grave at Mycenae,

rhyton, lion's

527 head, from 4th Shaft Grave


420, 827

fragment
rings as
scales,
III.

Mycenae,

11.

of,

from

Palaikastro,

11.

503

medium
IV.

of currency, IV. 664, 665


at

from 3rd Shaft Grave


661
ill.

Mycenae,

n. 633 pendants, from Aegina,

788,

from Knossos, E. Treasury, 401, 410 Upper E.W. Corridor, 412 from Kumasa, 412, 76 from Mallia, 75
iii. iii. iii.

iv.

175 n. 5

signet-rings, evolution of,

139, IV. 510,

iv.

iv.

from Mallia, iv. 75, 125 pins with antler head from Mycenae, iv. 579 forming spiral ornament on dagger hilt from Mycenae, iii. 119; compared with those on Normanton dagger hilt, Wilts. (Early Bronze Age), ib. n. 2 plaques, repousse, with labyrinth from Hagia
pin, flower-headed,

Triada,

359 n. 3 from Shaft Graves


i.

at

Mycenae,
IV. iv.

11.

195,

201, 217, 767, 777, 788,

253, 317

from
119

tholoi at

Mycenae,

242
iii.

512 450 from Aegina, 53 from Arkhanes, 355 219, 220, 418 from Avdu, 822, 823 from Candia, 953, 954 from Canea, 145 from Dendra, 171 from Enkomi, 759 from Isopata, 771, 776, 789, 2 140 from Kakovatos, n. 785 6 and Ring of Nestor from Knossos, 160, n, 188, 615, 832,
11.

511, 948 n. I L.M. la origin of,


11.

n. 2, iv.

11.

n. 2, in.

IV.

iv.

in.

iv.

I v.

11.

in. 68,

n.

n.

see

i.

of dagger

pommel from Mycenae,


silver

838, in. 136, 137, IV. 319


S.

House,

II.

373
iv.

on rim of
II.

bowl from Vapheio,


coffins,

641 n.

used on wooden caskets and


IV.

253, 977
figurines

plating,

on bronze hair of ivory from Knossos, Iii. 432

from Ligortino, 463 from Maroni, 759 from Mavrp from Mochlos, n. 249,
in.
iv.

Temple Tomb, Harbour Town,

393, 947 n. 250, in. 138

Spelio,

11.

557, in. 510

iv.

952

GOLD
Gold, signet-rings
832, 838,
III.

[63]
(cont.)
1.

GOWLAND
I.

from Mycenae,

161, 162,

11.

50, 278, 340,

95, 137, 140-4, 314, 463, 466,

from Pyrgos, 75 from Smyrna, 225 from Sphoungaras, 511 fromThisbe, 123, 137, 470, 340, 40, 219, 526, 527 474, from Tiryns, 245, 228, 392, 400, 430, 459 Vapheio, 70, 136, 140, 141, 149, from
11.

SCO, 514, IV. 512, 553, 565, 579, 584, 610 from Phaestos, II. 764, ill. 70, iv. 24 n. 4 from Platanos, ill. 139

ill.

iv.

11.

50,

ill.

IV.

11.

iv.

ill.

462, Thisbe,
474,
IV.

512 from Zafer Papoura, 11. 563 of Minos, IV. 947 seals from Knossos, iv. 665 Mycenae, 3rd Shaft Grave,
IV.

arsenal 87 breccia from, sub-Neolithic, coin-types with bull hoof, 560 with goat scratching 562 communication with port of Lebena, 84 conquest of Lykastos by, 74 importance of Minoan Age, 84 259 'Labyrinth' a limestone quarry, 533 earthquakes, 319 onyx lentoid from, 571 2 Roman centre of Cretan province, 231 road by, 84 of Hagious Deka, 76 bead from, 489 mentioned Odyssey, 86
at, 11.

Gortyna,

10

figurine

I.

48, 50,

of,

licking

IV.

flank, iv.

11.

11.

n. 5

in

11.

inscription

at, ill. at,

I.

liability of, to

11.

iv.

n.

11.

39,

11.

site

at

11.

steatite

iv.

territory of,

in

11.

iii.

125, iv.

Goulas, bead-seals from,

11.

203

n.

i,

iv.

446

501, 546
11.

744,

m.

125, 225, 227, 416,

IV. 18, 40,

174 n. 1,451,514,531,573,
11.

578, 816 shrines from

Mycenae,

187, 607, 615, 806,

639 prototype of beaked ewer, Gourd 450 forms E.M. 63 shaped gold Treasure of Astrabad,
I.

450 inscribed cup from,


flask,

n. 2,

iv.

in

pottery,

I.

vessel in

407

'skilling',

from Mycenae, iv. 665 spray from Knossos, i. 252 standard, reputed Babylonian, iv. 655 Egyptian, iv. 654

Minoan,
tessera

iv.

654, 655
S.

from stone box from


II.

House

at

Knossos,
toad,

374
ill.

from Kumasa, ill. 412, iv. 76 use of on chryselephantine figurines,


44o>
IV.

429,

333> 472. 473

weight seal from Knossos, iv. 665 wires inlaid in bronze dagger-blade
Vapheio,
iii.

destruction of L.M. 786, 885 7 houses 560, 561, 563 house-tombs 191 pottery from, E.M.
in
IV.

26 Gournes, M.M. I sherd from, I. 184, 186 Gournia, I. i, 11. 508 church of Hagia Pelagia at, 11. 251 crystal pendant from, in. 411 L.M. la dagger from, iv. 851
II.

lb,

11.

348, in. 308,

fortification of, in.


at, 11.

at,

I.

150,

I, I.

60, 62, 63, iv.

84

n. 2

from

on gold object from Hissarlik M.M. 92 194 M.M. work, E.M., 125 95-9, 597, 611 ancient L.M. 621, H. 486, 510, 539, 705 of from Temple ReposiKnossos, 265, 651 469 influence of on vase from, M.M. L.M., 191 323 shrine of snake Goddess from Mycenae, 508, n. 339, on sculptured 158-61 142 247 n. 580 area Golden Bough, 483 tower from, n. 603, 92 Golenischeif papyrus, account of mission of tripod hearth from, 283 Wen Amon 69 179 4
II,
11.

127

E.M. E.M.

II,

I.

80-2
107, 108 n. 2, 112, IV. 92

Ill,

I.

I, I. .176,

182, IV.

I.

26,

165,

IV.

Ill,

I.

thefts

la,

I.

n. i,

tories at

i.

IV.

n. I

pottery,

iv.

silver

I, iv.

stelae

at,

i.

IV.

IV. 27, 40,

n. I, 143,

11.

theatral

at,

terra-cotta

134,

in. 85,

in, iii.

n.

II.

n. 2, iv.

Gongs,

Burmese,

compared
iii.

with

Minoan

Gowland,

Prof.
i.

W., on
i

silver

mining in the

sacred shields,

315

Troad,

193 n.

GOYA
Goya on Spanish
bull fights, in. 227 n. 3
Graffiti, see Inscriptions

[64]

GRIFFINS
M.M.
Ill,
I.

Greece, relation with [cont.)


23, 445, 485, 594, 595, 599,

Graffito technique, influence of

on M.M.

Ill

600, IV. 746

pottery,

I.

594

storage of hieroglyph
'Grand

Grain, see Barley, Millet

Knossos, i. 236, iv. 621, 622 for, I. 280 Granary sign, in Linear Script B, iv. 623, 625
at

L.M. L.M. L.M.

la, IV.

746 887
852, 853, 945

lb, IV. 281, 283, II, IV.


11.

Cyclades,

20

script in. Linear

A (Melos, Santorin), iv. 745,


716, 887,
in, IV.

Stand' on Miniature Knossos, III. 47, 48

Fresco
11.

from
220

746

Granite, black, statuette of from Adana,

Granulation on M.M. jewellery, in. 412 Grape, juice of, offered to Minoan Goddess,
IV.

394, 628
iv.

snakes house-guardians 945 153 snake-skin charm 168 steatopygous female from, 45 trade-route from Asia Minor, n. 169
as as
in, iv.

Linear B,

iv.

figures

i.

to

Gras, bead-seal from,


tories, III.

446

n.

to Crete to

Grasses, on faience vases from

Temple Reposi-

on pottery, M.M.
L.M.
and
la,
II.

277

Ill,

II.

469
i, iii.

469, 811 n.

276, 277

see

Reeds

transference of Minoan L.M. 945 use of n. 345 tumblers 508


to, after II, IV.

and Egypt, 11. 168 N. Germany, 11. 174


seat of

government

sling in,

in, iv.

Graves, see Burials,

Minoan Minoan
11.

Greeks,

perhaps

settled

in

Hellas

before

Gravestones, see Stelae, under Burials,

Greaves, bronze, from lUyria,

Greece, apsidal type of house


I.

in,

198 absent in Crete,

settlement
in

Achaean invasion,

in. 133 n. 2

of, at Knossos, n. 432, iv. 18 Green, use of in Egyptian art, in. 305

boar-hunting 869 catastrophe end of L.M. 887 40 conquest of by Minoans in L.M. 283, 887 epic Minoan Element 106 gesture language represented Naples, 57 influence of Cypriote on, 539 on, Syro-Hittite 409 migrations to from Crete, 571, 626, 283, 887 Minoan element 40 Northern, bilingual stage 2 133 Phoenician alphabet 755 riding introduced 830 4 with N.W. Europe, n. 174
in, IV.

149

Minoan

art, in.

305

Gregalia, see Borras

in, at
11.

\b, iv.

cist-graves in,

\b, iv.

tradition of,

in,

in.

Greyhounds, Egyptian name of, recurring in Berber (modern Libyan), n. 24 Minoan, on seals and sealings, iv. 580, 582 sacral connexion of, iv. 580-2 Gridiron sign used at Tiryns and Thebes, iv. 754

of,

at

"I-

art

iv.

art

iv.

li.

iv.

in, II. 21,

559 degenerate, on Helladic 559 Egyptian hawk-headed type 913, 914 Minoan type 558, 703, 710-14, 719, 913, 914 notched plume decoration on wings 549. 550 on frescoes Knossos, 382, 524, 549, n.
vases,
i.

Griffins, as guardians of treasure,

i.

of, iv.

of,

I.

4, 5, 18,

IV.

of,

I-

at

I.

in, in.

n.

114, 116, 353 n.

I,

785,

III.

40, 510, 513,

in, iv.

into, iv.

n.

relation

Minoan
IV. 26,

Crete,

I.

12, 13, 20, 33,

li.

4-5,

65, 168, 217, 452, 697, 833, in. 128, 418,

227, 228, 229, 248, 253, 539, 549,

55. 754. 755. 870. 871 Neolithic, i. 4, 14

E.M.

Ill,

I.

114
283, 284

112 361, on ivory from Knossos, n. 388, 190 on Melian 558, 560 on and 683, 785, 168, 408, 412, 426 513. 514. aspect n. 785,
II.

517, IV. 6, 169, 650, 749, 891, 908-14 on inlays of axe of Queen Aah Hotep, i. 550,
III.

reliefs

IV.

n. 3

pottery,

I.

seals

sealings,
IV.

I.

II.

in. 144,

154. religious

of,

I.

19,

in.

154,

M.M.

II, iv!

IV. 168,

412, 823, 824


GRIFFINS

[6s]

GYPSUM
(cont.)

winged, wingless
III.

Griffins {cont.)
in Ancient Art, iv. 913 in Room of the Throne at
,

Knossos

Griffin-lady,

IV. 913, 914 on 'Ring of Nestor', in. 154 on steatite bead-seal from Central Crete,

unique in history of Art,

154

n. I

Griffith,

Prof.

F.

LI.,

on date of Egyptian

sepulchral

monument from Knossos, I. 287 n. i, 289 on tomb of Men-Kheper'ra-senb, 11.


535
n- 3

176 n. 4 on inscription on Egyptian diorite


relief, 11.

column-bases Knossos, 343, 351, 352, 164 441, n. 617, 689, cut with saws, n. 632 dadoes, Knossos, 334, 347, n. 598, 668, 877, 878 272, 381, destruction preserve wine, n. 548 of by weather, 287 352, door jambs Knossos, 337, 369, 448,
at
I.

Gypsum

III.

at

I.

III.

44,

IV.

of, to

disintegration

11.

in.

at

I.

n. 382, 518, 565, 714, in. 12, 266, 340,

on

steatite

cylinders

from Abydos, on
frescoes

11.

209 n. 2

Grooms leading Mycenae and

horses

from
iv.

Tiryns, iv. 830 Grotesque element in Minoan naturalism,

995 450, 451, 453-7, 462 fonts from Knossos, purple gypsum, 25, 936 imitated 935,painted stucco, 356, 419, n. 161, lamps, 444 Argos, n. 41 4 from
floor-cists,
I.

IV.

212

n. 3,

in.

26, IV.

in

I.

n.

'

102 Grotta deir Oreo, demon Tukhulkha on fresco at, IV. 188 Grotto on M.M. II sealing, iv. 116 Grove, Sacred', Miniature Fresco from Knossos,
III.

from Crete, in. 199 from Knossos, i. 344, 345, (purple gypsum), iv. 936 Royal Villa, n. 404
S.E. House,
I.

in.

26, 27

429,
11.

II.

323, 324, 480,


ill.

32,

66-80
11.

Guard-station, Minoan, on Juktas,


at at

66,

78
11.

Kanli Kasteli, 11. 74 Knossos, by bridge over Vlychia,


11.

903 pavements,
orthostats,
IV.
IV.

in. 510

I.

364, 365,

798,

4, 234,

at Knossos, i. 319, n. 523, 669, 683, in. 17, 20, 323, 332 n. 4, 356, 366, 367,

153. 154

76 at Ruphas, 11. 80 Sphakoryaki, 11. 90 Guardi, F., painting of Teatro San Benedetto
by, HI. 56 Gudea, King of

at Pyrgos,

Lagash (Chaldaea), iv. 186 Guild of Minoan inlayers, in. 408: and
Inlayers

see

House, from chapel of High 211, 212 petrifying action n. 124 Knossos, 398, 401, 425, n. 406, purple variety much vogue, 25-7, 935.936 from Queen's marine
pedestal,
IV.

903

Priest's

of,

pillars, at
IV. 3

i.

in

in.

iv.

reliefs,

in

style

Gurnard,

influence

of on

Minoan type
11.

of

Megaron
202, 517,

at

Knossos, in. 365

flying-fish, in.

129
from,
iv.

L.M.

Gurob, alabaster vessel from,


la, alabastron

256 n. 269

crystal boss of pectoral from, in. 108

Gypsades, Hill of, see Knossos Gypsies, Hungarian, dancing of, in. 72 Gypsum, 11. 66 n. 2, 93 basins from Knossos, in. 25 benches from Knossos, Ante-room of of the Throne, iv. 904 S. House, II. 386
IV.

Room

chest, for storing inscribed tablets, in. 190,

956 stands for Double Axes from Knossos, n. 211, 212 334, 386, steps Knossos, n. 688, 816, 18 stylobate of Queen's Megaron, in. 355 fragment from House B under Kouloura West Court, 73 threshold 337, 369, 448, n. 812,
IV.

at Mycenae, in. 192228 from Klytemnestra tomb, iv. 228, 229 slab, inscribed, from Knossos, I. 621, 622,
IV. 10,

from Atreus' tomb

IV.

at

in. 16,

table,

of,

off

iv.

slabs,

i.

671

in. 12

GYPSUM
Gypsum
IV.

[66]

HAGIA TRIADA
(cont.)
at, I.

throne, in Room of the Throne, 338, Minoan port 299 from, 917 497, 576 use of building construction Knossos, Hagia Photia, M.M. cave burial E.M. painted pot from, 128, 203, 209, 211, 351, 352, 360, 385,
in.
seals
iv.

(cont.)

Hagia Pelagia

in

at

at, i.

185

I.

i.

63,

64

386, 390, 408, 410, 427, 530, 531, 579, 580, 582, II. 119, 373, 376, 382, 396, 403-5,

Hagia Triada, Palace


IV.

of,

I.

i,

12, n. 90, 412,

406

n. 4, 514, 518, 547, 588,

III.

9, 355,

203 weight from West Magazines, and see Alabaster


IV.

iv.

650

H
Haau
or Haunebu,

Hadranus,
II.

17 n. 4 Sikel God, attendant hounds


i.

communication with Komo, n. 90 destruction of Palace L.M. 786, 88s double axe from, 283 faience plaques from, maker's marks on, 2 488 162 from,
at in
lb, iv.
11.

braziers from, L.M.

786, 885

lb, iv.

881

n.

I.

n.

figurines

iv.

of,

of many-breasted

Mother Goddess from,

766
sepulchral stela with Goddess

Hadrumetum,

Tanit from, in. 420 n. i Haeiriatite, use of for L.M. lb

frescoes from,
III.

1-567

fortification at, in.


i.

7
11.

28, 539, 604, 605,

114,

seals,

11.

721,

4 bead-seals from Candia from from from from from from from from from from from
IV.

IV.

524 n.

31711.2,354,447,459,732,733 of cat and pheasant, i. 539, 541, n. 354,


114
I.

district, iv.
iv.

566
583

Central Crete, in. 116,

^ of Crocus-gatherer,

539

East Crete,

iv.

524
iv.

Crete, in. 316

of Leaping Roe, n. 354 of lilies, I. 604


413, 1018
of lyre,
11.

Knossos, in. 149,

836
11.

Mirabello province, in. 117 Praesos, in. 116 n. 4


Vatheia, iv. 413 from Astrakous,
iv.

of sacral ivy, of violet,


II.

478
I.

cylinder-seals,

425

Candia, n. 266
Crete, iv. 18 n.
i,

458
11.

Hagia Pelagia, iv. 497 Harbour Town of Knossos,


iv.

206,

498 from Platanos,

54

n. 2

Syro-Hittite, iv. 459 sling-bullets from Hissarlik, in. 99 weight from Knossos, iv. 655, 656
village

gold plate with labyrinth from, 359 ingots from, bronze, n. 535, 569 copper, 624, 652 ivory cone from, n. 199 dolium from, n. superposed, on objects from, pottery from, M.M. HI, 415 4 L.M. 309 sarcophagus from, of painted limestone,
II.

464

n.

IV.

liparite
pillars,

shell

i.

87,

56, 823 in.

64

i.

n.

la.

III.

i. 223, n. 324,- 334, 336, 427. 437-41. 447, 635, 406, 650, 721, 834, III. 39, 69, 138, IV. 42,

Hagia Anna, Hagia


Irini,

on Minoan Southern

road,

" 71. 73

Minoan limestone quarry


at, 11.

at, i.

532,

saws from, 632, sealings from, M.M.


11.

44. 295. 401. 402, 403. 426, 580, 823,


iv.

824
505,

798 IH^i-L.M.

la,

1.

wind erosion of 293 Hagia Paraskevi, church 83 dove from tomb 407 cylinder from tomb 763
cliffs

533 junction of Minoan roads

62,

66

670, 678, 680, 681, 691, 692, 712, 717, II. 340, 484 n. I, 763, 769, 832, in. 137, 151,
188, 314 n. I, 411 n. I, 465, 500, 502, IV. 513. 565 n. 4. 566, 572, 574, 591, 611, 820, 828, 868
steatite

near, in.
of, II.

n. 3

vessels

at, iv.

steatite

at, iv.

956

cup with

relief of

young prince and


400
i.

Hagia Pelagia (derivative of marine form of


Goddess), cult
of, 11. 251, 252, 843, iv.

soldier, n. 47, 779, 790, in. 83, iv.

rhyton from, with harvesters' rout,

19,

HAGIA TRIADA
Hagia Triada,
steatite
11.

[67]

HALEDON
female fringe, bronze curls of acrobats, 11. 35

rhyton

[cont.)

Hairdressing

28, 84, 85,

47, 224, 279, 472, III. 449, IV. 218; ostrich egg type of, 11. 224, 225

of, iii.

522-3

boxing scenes and bull sports,


690,
III.

I.

689,

35, 90, 22s, 498 Sphinx of Hittite workmanship from,

ill.

stone hammers from, M.M. Tablets, inscribed, from. Linear


Ill,
I.

420

I.

468
Script A,
248, 249,
11.

613, 616, 620, 621, 636,

II.

447, 658, 660, 677, 680, 732 tholos ossuaries at, I. 70, 83, 107, 149,
IV.

36,

80

of ivory figurine, ill. 432 on Vapheio cup, ill. 182 of ivories from Hierakonpolis, 11. 24 on miniature frescoes, ill. 49 of ivory statue of Snake Goddess, ill. 440 of steatite figurine from Tylissos, ill. 427 male, of acrobats in ivory figurines, ill. 432 on miniature frescoes, ill. 48, 67 barber's shop for,, with obsidian razor blades on M.M. HI floor of Room of Tall
Pithos, at Knossos, iv. 635 n. 2
of, 11.

bronze daggers from,


ivory seals from,
I.

I.

195, iv. 848

120, 125, iv. 522

larnax from,

iii.
i.

138
179, 189, 239, 415
at, 11.

worship of Zeus Velchanos


road,
II.

pottery from,

pendant locks 781 due Libyan of Minoan Tributaries


to

influence,

11.

33, 781

on

tomb

of

843 Hagia Varvara, village near Minoan Southern

Rekhmara
IV.

at

Thebes,

11.

741

Hair-offerings as substitute for

human

sacrifice,

76
at, II.

476

Hagio Pnevma, rock borings of quarries

233 Hagios Andonis, bead-seal from, iv. 446 n. 2 Hagios Georgios, bay of, I. 298 Hagios Jannis, church of, Minoan column-base

Double Axe cult, iv. 483 custom of widespread, iv. 475 made to springs and rivers, iv. 476
associated with
in ancient Greece, iv. in

477
iv.

Temple

of Zeus at Panamara,

478

Minoan

in, ii.'73 n. i,

91 pottery from,

to Syrian Goddess, iv.


11.

478
iv.

71
I.

kernos from,
IV.

Hagios Kyrillos, Roman road at, 11. 84 Hagios Myros, site of Rhankos, 11. 74 n. 2 Hagios Nikolaos, bead-seal from, iv. 446 n. 2 breccia from vicinity of, iv. 234 n. 4 E.M. I suspension pot from, i. 60
I. 76, 78 n. i Hagios Onuphrios, primitive ossuaries

on votive monuments, 159, IV. 481-3

480

Minoan,

Hala Sultan Tekke, sherd from,


intercourse,
Britain,
11.

iv. 368 n. i Halberds, diffusion of as evidence of trade

at, 11.

80,

4 copper spear-head from, loi E.M. pottery from, iii B.M. from, whorl from, 69 stone from, 46
I. i.

487

n.

60, 63,
I.

steatite seals

112, 113,

17-19

I.

68,

vessel

11.

Minoan South road by, 11. 68 Theodoros, church of, perhaps on Minoan South road, 11. 230 Hagios Thomas, Minoan Southern road by,
Hagios Hagios
Silas,

from 170 from Calvatone, 172 from Gambara, 172 from N. Germany, 170, 173 from Ireland, 172, 173 from 170, 172 from Montemerano, 172 from Mycenae, 172, 173 from Scandinavia, 170 from 170 from Spain, 170 represented on rock carvings,
11. 11.

170

n. i

11.

11.

11.

170,

n. 2

Italy,

11.

11.

n. i
i

11.

n.

11.

Sicily,

11.

11.

11.

170 n.

4,

Greek tombs 76 dedications Demeter and Kore


late
at, 11.

II.

76

171 Halbherr,

Prof.

F.,

first

archaeological

dis-

to

at, 11.

76
11.

coverer in Crete,
at

iv. ix,
ib.

x
iv. x,

Hagios Vlasis, Minoan Southern road by, 68 Hagious Deka, see Gortyna

discoveries

services to Author,

Hagia Triada,

and

see

Hagia Triada Haledon, see Octopus

HALIARTOS
Haliartos,

[68]

HATHOR
forearm sign
iv.

reported

discovery

of

prehistoric

Hand and

{cont.)

script in

tomb
i.

at, iv.

672
as
allies

on
of

Cypro-Minoan

cylinder

from

Halikarnassos,

10

Halizones,

mentioned in Iliad
11.

169 n. 2 possible connexion of with the Khalitu,

Trojans,

11.

425 open, sign, in Linear Script A, iv. 660 in Linear Script A, on tablet from Temple Repositories at Knossos, iv. 660

Astrakous,

169 n. 2 Hall, Miss Edith H., on connexion between


ivy leaf and ogival canopy motives,
n. 2
11.

489

on talismanic bead-seals from Sphoungaras, iv. 541 n.


i

Hall, Dr.

H.

R.,

11.

57

n. 2

on cylinder with bull sports, ill. 185 n. i on date of objects from Abydos, 11. 210; from Kahun, 11. 488 n. 4; from Sakkara,
II.

497 on Egyptian chronology,

n. 5

I.

30
in.

on ivory
446
IV.

figures

from

Palaikastro,

n.

256 bronze, from W. Treasury, 469 from Gebel-el-'Arak, 515 knob, 9 54 75 60 perforated, 193 54 30 40 281, 286 422, 424, band, 9 wishing bone, 9 and Knife-handles, Mirror handles
breastplate,
i. i.

Handles, applied,

M.M. H,

i.

259

ivory,

in.

II.
I.

ledge,
loop,

92, 93,

II.

n. 4,

I.

i.

92,

11.

9, 30,

n. 4,

roll, II.

strap, neolithic,
11.

I.

38,

tiered,

IV.

vertical

11.
I.

38, 40, 59,

11.

see

on jasper

relief

from Tell-el-Amama,
I.

530 n. 2 on Phaestos disk,

Handmaidens of Minoan Goddess, kourai', and under Goddess

see 'Dias-

666, 667

Harageh, block with name of Senusert II from,

on polychrome vases from Phaestos,


II.

204

n.

on rhyton from Mycenae, I. 668 on scarab from Crete, 11. 54 n. 6 on staff held by officer on cup from Hagia
Triada,
Halls,
piers.
11. 792 n. i Minoan, division of by door jambs

date of tombs Minoan pottery

II.

213

at, II.

213 nn. i and 2 from, 11. 209-21, 228,

iii.

250. IV. 53, 108, 131, 265 Harbour of Menelaos, 11. 89


at Pharos, Alexandria, I. 18, 291-7 Harbours, Minoan, I. 18, 297-9, 311: and see Amnisos, Gazanos, Harbour Town, Hierapetra, ICnossos, Komo, Lebena, Mallia, Matala, Matium, Niru-Khani, Palaikastro Hardy, Dr. Thomas, on primitive beliefs con-

as

III.

340

Hal-Saflieni, megalithic
II.

hypogaeum

at,

I.

22,

182, 184

Hal-Tarxien, megalithic 'temple' at, i. 22 bone objects from, I. 492 n. 4, II. 182 incised bowl from, I. 263, 11. 184 interments at. Bronze Age, 11. 190 model of building from, 11. 187 stone reliefs from, I. 188 Halys, silver from, mentioned in Iliad,

cerning butterflies, in. 151 Hare, on painting in tomb at Thebes, Harness, Minoan, iv. 824, 825, 830

II.

448

Harp, four-stringed, held by marble figurines from Keros and Thera, 11. 835
11.

Hart, see Deer


Haruspices, see Divination

169 n. 2

Hama, trade route to, iv. 771 Hammar, hut urn from, 11. 132 n. 4 Hammurabi, King of Babylon, date of accession
of, IV. 54,

Harvesters, rout of, on steatite vase from Hagia

Triada,
472,
III.

I.

19, 28, 84, 85,


IV.

II.

47, 224, 279,

425
for faience,

218 Hatasu, Queen, draughtboard and


449,
I.

men from
62,

Hatched ornament Linear Script A, 619, 640, 644 109 shading on Linear Script B, 685 and forearm Linear Script A, 682 Hathor, 416 289,
sign, in
i.

Hand, matrix

from Knossos, i. 488 painted stucco relief of, from E. Hall, in. 507
in
iv.

tomb

of,

485

in pottery,

i.

63, 75,

n. I, 112, 166, IV. 131

Griffin fresco, iv. 912-13


in.
n.

sign, in

iv.

i.

HATHOR

[69]

HELMETS
(cont.)

associated with Neith, 51 with Wazet, 480 cow symbols 536 195 emblems 360 head 419 for 57
11. 11.

Hathor

(cont.)

Hearths, fixed
in

North

Syria,
iii.

11.

20

of, stellar

of,

i.

549,

11.

262,

n. I, hi. 123,
of,
i.

19,

11.

of, ill.

vessels

cult of,

11.

Hatshepsut,

Queen-Mother
III,
11.

regent
iv.

for

350 at Zygouries, 11. 20 movable tripod, used in Crete from M.M. onwards, 11. 20, ill. 350 from oval house at Chamaezi, I. 147 from Gournia, iv. 151, 179 from Knossos, I. 390, 551, 571, ill.
343. 35 n- 2. IV. 72, 151, 152, 179

at Tiryns,

Thothmes

425, 647, 736,

266,

778 male attire of, 11. 35 n. 3 Hatzidakis, Dr. Joseph, discoveries in cave of Eileithyia near Knossos, 11. 839
at

from Mycenae, iv. 179, 180 from Niru Khani, 11. 283, iv. 179 from Zafer Papoura, 11. 563 associated with Snake Goddess,

iii.

Minoan
11.

station

near

mouth
ill.

of

Gazanos,
at

231
I.

at Mallia,

436,
11.
11.

11.

322
i,

n. 3,

394

Matium,

552
65 n.
232, 418
scroll

350 n. 2, IV. 143, 151, 152, 179 Heating apparatus of stone bath in Caravanserai at Knossos, 11. 122, 123 Heaton, Mr. Noel, on Minoan faience, I. 489
frescoes,
I.

at Tylissos,

531,

533,

in.

47

n.

i,

on origin of Minoan
II.

ornament,

211 n. 3
stucco, I. 530, 532, 535, III. 310 Heer, Dr. Oswald, on six-rowed barley from

217 n.

on votive

bells

and robes,

i.

175 n. 3

Haunch

sign of Ursa Major, iv. 436 Hauran, black steatite seal from, I. 119 Hauser, Prof. Friedrich, on sculptures from Atreus Tomb at Mycenae, iii. 195 HausouUier, Monsieur, on Boegia at Miletos,
IV. 47 n. 4 Hawk, sacred Egyptian,

Swiss Lake dwellings, iv. 628 n. i Hehn, Dr. Victor, on date and origin of dove cult in Greece, iv. 406
Heifer, see

Cow
at

Hekataeos cited, iv. 625 Helena, Empress, "church


III-

Bethlehem

built by,

relation of with

Minoan

475
at,

griffin, III.

Hay, Mr.
of

R.,

416 drawing of wall-painting in tomb


ivory

Helene, Princess of Spain, in bull-fight, in. 228


Heliopolis, temple prostitutes
in. 61

Senmut by, 11. 647 n. 2 Hazael King of Damascus, donor of

Hella, Scandinavian underworld, in. 147 'Helladic' culture, iv. 283, 294

plaque from Arslan Tash, iv. 555 Head and neck sign, in Linear Script B, iv. 685 Head, clay, of Minoan Goddess from Knossos,

Hellenika, see Knossos

Minoan, M.M.
308

Helmets, Hittite,

iv.

689, 690

II,

on

Town

Mosaic,

I.

307,

painted

tattoo

marks on,
iii.

iv.

756, 757

stucco, of

Minoan Goddess from

M.M.

Ill,

I.

680, 681
iv.

Mycenae,

519
at

Heads, M.M. I votive clay, i. 153 Headers in limestone building, of houses Gypsades, 11. 548 in structure of Tholos ossuaries, 11. 80 in viaduct at Knossos, 11. 98 Hearths, fixed, in Asia Minor, 11. 20
in Crete, Neolithic,
11.

on tablets from Mallia, L.M., in. 309, 347, IV. 869


boar's tusks on, in. 87 n.
868, 869
conical, iv.

688, 867
98, 184, iv.

i,

867
688-90, 867

crested, in. 98, iv. 867, 868

horned,
peaked,

iv.

17,

18,

20, 21,

leather, iv.
iv.

867
575
in. 98,

131 n- 3. 366, III. 35 in the Cyclades, 11. 20, 21


at

Mycenae,
I

i.

551,

iii.

343, 350, iv. 180,

on L.M. la pottery, in. 309, 347 on silver rhyton from Mycenae,


IV.

181 n.

868

HELMETS

[70]
(cont.)

HOMER
I.

on seals and sealings,


868 Helot Caste
at

Helmets, Minoan

ill.

95, IV.
in

575, 867,
classical

stone vases from, tholos 37


near,
11.

Hierakonpolis (cont.)
67, 92,
11.

44,

49

n. 2

Knossos,
iii.

known
259

Hierapetra, port of,

commerce with Orient

of,

period as Mnoia,

" 253
Hieroglyphs, see Script

Hepseba, tomb of at Assiut, 11. 207 n. 4 Hera, connexion of with Minoan Goddess,

Hieropotamos,
Knossos,
IV.

11.

90

Teleia,
Herakles,

IV.

45 n. 4

Hilt-plate, crystal,
IV.

from Domestic Quarter


at

at

hair-offerings to, iv. 477 Herakleia in Sicily, i. 3

Herakleion, see Candia


Herakleopolis, see

Sedment Minoan tradition


III.

of sword from cemetery 852 gold, of sword from 5th Shaft


faience,

854

Mycenae,

in bull-grappling

club
and

feats of.

230, IV. 46
of, ill.

as a

symbol

100

Grave at Mycenae, iv. 848 from Zafer Papoura, iv. 865 Hippocamp, boats' prows in shape of, iv. 951,
952
classical,

and the Nemean 122 described by Hesiod,


lion, iii.

Eurystheus, relief of from Hellenika slope at Knossos, 11. 546


i.

dog-headed,

Minoan

origin of, iv. 953

on sealing from Temple Re953


see

shield of,
III.

311, 314,

positories, IV. 952,

82,

94

n. 3, loi

Herbs of Keftiu, mentioned in Egyptian medical


recipe, 11. 748 Hermes, statue of on Mount Kyllene,
iii.

Hippopotamus Goddess, Hissarlik, see Troy


Hittite civilization,
I.

Ta-Urt

14, 15
I.

524
2, 51,

Minoan
815

contact with,

15, 280,

11.

268
814,

Hermos

river,

i.

14
l.

diffusion of
11.

Sumerian chariot

in, iv.

Herodotos

cited,

126, 664, 665,

37 n.

89, 168, 191, 242, IV. 536

Heron on fragment
182 Herring-bone
I.

of pottery

from Gournia,
dagger

190 sculptures, from Boghaz Keui,


circus sports,
i.

11.

275,

ill.

69
ornament,

n. 6, IV.

417
I.

on

from

Mallia,

II.

272

from Mount Sipylos,


seals,
I.

14

on pyxis from Patena, iv. 90 on oil jar from Trypheti, 11. 83 on ewer depicted on tomb of Senmut,
II.

15 Hofer, Dr. O.,

Hogarth,' Dr. D.

648
cited,
I.

on epithet Tauropolos, iv. 45 n. i G., discoveries on Hill of Gypsades, i. 252 n. 3, 11. 135 n. i, 390, 547, IV. 183, 204
in Diktaean cave,
i.

Hesiod

311, 314,

11.

834

n.

i,

ill.

82,

444

94 Hetep, Princess, tomb of


Heurtley,
III.

n- 3. loi

at

Abydos,

11.

56

171 'Hollow-ways', possibly records of ancient roads,


II.

on 'snake-frames',
63

iv.

Mr. W.

A., discoveries at Thisbe,

470 n. 7 Heuzey, Monsieur, 11. 46 n. 5 on Chaldaean objects, 11. 27 n. i, in. 423 Hides (of young elephants) worn by youths on steatite cup from Hagia Triada, 11.
742. 743 Hierakari, snake supposed to be eating honey-

Holy

Spirit,

conceived of as dove,
i.

i.

223

Homer

cited,

9, 10,

230, 566,

III.

297, 344, 11. 86, 169 n. 2, 39, 78, 120, 184, 395, 431,

47, 524, 834, 843 description of brooch of Odysseus, iv. 524 corslet sent by King Kinyras, IV. 805

IV.

cup of Nestor,

iv.

391

comb observed

near, iv. 155


iv.

ivory 781 pottery from,


34>

Hierakonpolis, cupped blocks from,


figurines from,
11.

980, 982

Elysion, in. 155 Hector's spear, iv. 843

23, 24, 29, 32, 33,

Knossos,

II. 566, 585 leaping dance of Cretan Apollo,

ill.

77

11.

28, 30

lion attacking bulls, iv.

537

HOMER
Homer, description of (cont.) Minoan works of art, ill.
9S9
Shield of Achilles,
iii.

[71]

HORUS
sacral, (cont.)

Horns,
131, 132, iv. 958,
76, 82, loi, 131,
III.

use of in

Minoan

architecture,

11.

160,

84
altar

on

from N.W. angle of

Palace, iv.

Dorian interpolation Odyssey mention of Cretan Rhadamanthys, references riding 830, 831
in to
in, iv.

132

200, 201
I.

of,

12

in. 155

IV.

on fresco, from Knossos, n. 160, in. 62, 224 in tomb of Rekhmara at Thebes, n.
pottery,

508 HomoUe, Monsieur Theophile, on baetyl of


in, iv.

tumblers

741

on
605

L.M. H,

i.

494, n. 134, in.

Snake Goddess on bead-seal, 11. 132 Horns (Syria), trade route to, iv. 771 Honey, offered to dead at Styx, iv. 157

n. 2

L.M. IIU,
on on
silver

snakes, i. 156-8 Honeysuckle, on fresco from House of the

II. 620 rhyton from Mycenae, in. 94 steatite rhyton from Knossos, n. 614,

on L.M. la pottery from Knossos,


Hoopoe, on fresco in tomb
Ill
at

Frescoes,

11.

464

752 on sarcophagus from Hagia Triada, 1.438,


IV.

11. 469 Beni-Hasan, 11.

43
n. 3, 550,

on 'Ring of Nestor', iv. 951 on seals, I. 708, iv. 211, 449, 455
610

from Caravanserai

at

Knossos,
11.

I.

70,

11.

no
as table delicacy in the Levant,

114

on shrine from Gournia, I. 508 from Loom Weight basement


Knossos,
di
IV.

at

Horai, regarded as rain bringers,

iv.

454

201

Horn-bow, see Bow, composite Horned figures on rock-carvings of Col Tenda, 11. 170 n. 4

on stone matrix from Siteia, I. 479 on votive tablet from Psychro, I. 633.
Horses,
first

appearance of in Chaldaea,
in

iv.

Horned ornament, Maltese,

i.

263,

11.

184
11.

Minoan, I. 261, 263, 11. 180, 184 Horns, sacral, from Knossos, S.W. area,
roof terrace of Central Court,

160

colour of Minoan introduction of Crete,


into

8io

frescoes, iv. 829, 830


I.

16, n. 244, 576,

11.

814

Domestic Quarter,
E. Hall,
III.

11.

160 n. 3

525 S. Portico, II. 160 Shrine of Double Axes, Palace walls, in. 84
miniature, from

I.

576,

11.

336

Loom Weight

base-

ment,

I.

221
I.

S.E. House,

435

miniature,

from

N.W.

Treasure
in. 153

House,

II.

619
of the

inventory of on from Knossos, n. 802 led by grooms on frescoes from Mycenae and Tiryns, 830 tufted manes of Crete and Mycenae, n. 244, 799, 828, 829 on L.M. 615 and Chariots, Riding Horse-sign Linear Script B, 800, 801 Linear Script B, associated with fodder
tablets
iv.

577, IV. 827, 828 into Greece, iv. 83

in

IV.

sealings, iv.

see

in

iv.

in

Tomb

Double Axes,
iv.

Temple Tomb,

965

from Majorca, i. 22 from Mochlos, i. 57 from Niru Khani, n. 281 from Palaikastro, n. 568 as mark of divinity, iv. 467
connexion of with snake frame,
sign in hieroglyphic script,
i.

sign, IV. 801, 802 Horse 's-head sign and derivatives Script B, IV. 722, 787, 799-801

in

Linear

name groups, iv. 711 preceded by saw sign, iv. 798 Hort, Sir A., translator of Theophrastus,
in
II.

70
I.

n.

4
iv.

iv.

175

281,

iv.

686

in Linear Script B, iv. 682, 683, 686

Eye

Horus,

289, III. 416 n. 2 associated with Ta-Urt,


of, II.

436, 463

790

HORUS

[72]

HYKSOS
figures {cont.)

Minoan
hair of,
of,
I.

Horus

(cont.)
ill.

Human
420

libation vessel associated with cult

on 'late revival' pottery, iv. 295 Hunting scenes on Mainland frescoes.


196, 5x9, IV. 574, 580, 825, 829 on L.M. III6 pottery, iv. 373

III.

123,

19

associated with Minoan Goddess, 765 Sikel God Hadranus, 766 on gem, 610 on and 274, 764 types of Egyptian and Cretan, 24 2 and Dog, Greyhound Houses, African {Mapalid), 39 Minoan, block system 561, 562
11.
11.

Hound,

as

M.M.

II hieroglyphic sign,

I.

281

on

seals

and

sealings,

I.

672, 680, IV. 74,

462, 493, 497, 500, 522-4, 550, 573, 574,

collared,
seals

iv.

577-80

sealings,

I.

11.

11.

n.

Huntsmen, talismanic bead-seals for, iv. 541 Hut, use of term for Curia Saliorum on Palatine,
II.

see

131 n.

circular

11.

for
n.
I

Roman

Capellae of Lares,

11.

131

of, 11.
ill.

central projection of,

85
II.

for Sanctuary of Penates at

Lavinium,
i8i n. 3

chapels

in, 11.

height
oval,

of, II.
II.

279 370
160 n. 3

131 n. I Hut-circles, Neolithic, near Cairo,

11.

hut-like,
II.

131
n. 2, 518, IV.
11.

Hut
39, 40, 131, 369,

floor at Phaestos,

11.

131 n. 3

40

rectangular,

417
n. 2, 518,

tower,
at
IV.

II. 299 Chamaezi, I. 139, 147,

11.

40

Hut-shaped pyxis from Melos, i. 112 Hut urns, from Etniria, 11. 131, 132 from N. Germany, 11. 132 from spring chamber at Knossos,
70s

11.

343,

160 n. 3

Cycladic,
at

11. 40, 299, 562 Gournia, 11. 560-3 in Greece, Minyan, &c., type, apsidal,

11.

from Latium, 11. 131, 132 from Phaestos, 11. 130 from Sweden, 11. 132
Huts, beehive, origin of tholos tombs, 11. 39 Hyakinthos, association of with Mother God-

20, 21,
at at

40 Knossos, see under Knossos Magasa, 11. 18


11.

near Matium,
at at

552

at

Mochlos, I. 70, II. 624, IV. 271 Mycenae, 11. 452 n. i, iv. 553 Niru Khani, 11. 281-5, 567, 683,
11.

grave of of
relation
iv.

dess,

III.

at

480 Amyklae,

I.

161,

11.

838

n.

to Apollo, iv. 421

to Minoan Boy God, ill. 465 Hybrid types in Minoan naturalism,

iv.

105,

179
at Palaikastro,

111-15
489, 567, 568
iv.

-of fish,

III.

129
IV.

'of

Kadmos'
II.

at

Thebes,

739

at Tiryns,

21
232, 567, 624

of insects, IV. 75 of plants, I. 539,

322-9, 360, 891

at Zakro,

at Tylissos,
11.

11.

of shells,

IV.

117-20

567
II. II.

and

20 Roman, at Fair Havens,


at

Zygouries,

Hydra, cornelian bead-seal from, iv. 466 Hydraulics, Minoan knowledge of, 11. 582, in.
85

see

Town-Mosaic
sign, in

241 Hydrias, bronze, from Cyprus,


IV.

11.

652, 653,

Linear Script A, I. 639 House-fronts, votive clay, from temple of Ishtar at Babylon, 11. 372

House fagade

310,440,456
of

prototypes
Hydrostatics,

L.M.
456

and

Mycenaean

pottery kraters,

IV.

House-tombs,

see Burials,

Minoan

Minoan

skill in, 11.


iv.

462

Hu,

Parva Human figures, not represented on Middle Minoan pottery, I. 605-7


see Diospolis

Hygieia, hair offerings to,

477

on Melian pottery, i. 607 on L.M. lllb, pottery, iv. 373

Hyginus, cited, iv. 957 n. i Hyksos, association of with Set, iv. 436, 437 derivation of word, I. 421 dominion in Egypt, I. 300, 420, 421, II. 27

HYKSOS

[73]

INLAYS
11.

M.M. and
Hymn
to

Hyksos

(cont.)

Incense-burners from Knossos,


I.

135, iv. 72,


20, 60, 166,

relations with,

26

1012 and Coloured PI.

XXXV
i.

see

Khyan, Neb-Khepesh-Re

Incised decoration on pottery,

Apollo cited, 11. 7, 841 Hyperboreans, communication of with Deles, II. 168

167 Incised signs on masonry, see Mason's marks Indian Ocean, Neolithic trade of with Mediterranean,
IV.

109
ill.

I
lalu, fields of, in
III.

Indians, American, pictographs of,


Ingots, bronze,

58
II.

from Hagia Triada,


11.

535,

Egyptian Isles of the Blest,

147
lb
iv.

copper, from Hagia Triada,


from
Tylissos, iv. 652
in
IV.

569

624, IV. 652


100,

L.M. pottery from, 367 currency of Ancient World, L.M. and L.M. 288, 653 equivalence of Knight's 315. 367 653 Late Mycenaean, Minas, 662 163 vases with from Ras Shamra, 163 782 cruciform sword from, 853 represented borne by Minoan envoys on Ibex on Cypriote cylinder nth Dynasty 408 625; on tomb of on Cypro-Minoan cylinder from Astrakous, Rekhmara, 653 Linear Script A, 662 Ingot 425 on wall painting tomb of Kenamon Linear B, Thebes, 787, 805 449 head on M.M. Linear Script B, combined with banner 173 modern ceremony over 661-3 Linear Script B, substituted Roman 455
I.

lalysos, lentoid bead-seal from, iv. 168

Ic

lllb, iv.

289, 313,

to

cuirass, iv.

iv. 35,

in

iv.

votive

snakes, iv.
iv.

silver,

iv.

seals, iv.

relief,

11.

11.

535, iv.

IV.

sign in
in

iv.

in

at

Script

I.

619, iv. 652, 653,

11.

pottery,

i.

661, 662, 663, in

Ibrahimiovci,

libation

sign, IV.

altar at, iv.

in

for corslet

Ibrahim Pasha, blasting of CiUcian Gates by, IV. 766


negro troops of, Ida, Cretan Mount, I.
315. 319. 464 n- 2
II.

757

n.

4
76,11.85,232,

documents written
of,
I.

805 Ink, Chaldaean and Minoan use


sign, IV.
in,

of, ill.

M.M.
III.

Ill,

423 evidence

4, 10, 61,

638

Inkstand, steatite Chaldaean,

422
11.

shepherds

of, 11.

39

Inlaying, origin of in Chaldaea,

262, 732,

and

see

Kamares Cave
11.

Ida in Troad, i. 6 silver workings near,


Idalion,

169 n. 2

Minoan,
of

93 Egyptian,

IV.

11.

54, 264, iv.

940

n. 2

11.

26, 54

tubular

vessels

from
166

temenos

influence of

on embroidery
iii.

patterns,

11.

Aphrodite Astarte
Ideographs, see Script
Idols,

at, iv.

731

absence of in primitive snake-cult at Knossos, IV. 158: and see Figures


I.

Sumerian,

III.

on on

frescoes,

211, iv. 576

pottery, iv. 91-3


11.

262, iv. 236, 315, 509

legendary grave of
I.

Idomeneus,

10

Inlays, crystal,
at Isopata,
11.

230

Iflatun Bunar, primitive stone figurines from,

469-75, 480-2, 11. 732 n. i, 109-11, 399, 405, 409, IV. 92, 928, 930 faience, I. 170, 318, 452, 485, 498-508, 510I.

48, 50, IV. 428


i.

12, 521-3,
III.

II.

188, 262, 288, 666, 731, 732,


IV.

Ikaros,

2, iv.

26

Iliad, see

Homer

Illyrian

Bronze Age (late), Minoan elements in ornament of, II. 198

Image, see Figure Inanna, see Ishtar

295 596 2 455, 887 472-5, 484, 496, 92 Jasper, 829


glass,
II.

399, 408, 409


23,
n.

92,

940
n. i, iv. 227, 454,

n. 2,

ivory,
IV.

I.

11.

473,

ill.

415

n. 2,

11.

INLAYS
Inlays (cont.)
shell,
I.

[74]

ISOPATA

Ante-room of Room of the Throne, 412, 413, 479, 303, 348, 372, 666, 732 903 House of the Chancel Screen, 236 395 on House of the Frescoes, 227, 897 395 on bronze, 111-33, 848 433 on threshold block Entrance Hall of E. 732 on Corridor, 266 489 on prohibition of of 412, 413, 303 373,
II.

Ironstone, pavements of, from Knossos {cont.)

IV.

stone, IV.

11.

alabaster, iv.
iii.

11.

n.

i,

iv.

ivory,

11.

n.

of,

steatite, iv.

ill.

stone,

i.

11.

iv.

234,

Isabella
III.

Castile,

bull-fights by,

236

228

Minoan, signary of Guild of, I. 483-5, III. 468 Innini, Sumerian Goddess, 11. 266 n. 3
Inlayers,

Isdubar, types of in
Ishtar,
I.

Minoan
266

art. III.
iii.

515
11.

488, 496,

Inscriptions, see Script


Insects,

on

M.M.

II vase

from Knossos,

i.

240

Intaglio, see Seal


Intarsia, see Inlaying

afSnity of with Minoan Goddess, 838 with Cypriote Dove Goddess, 406 Babylonian' type 198 connexion with cow and 555 406
IV. of,
I.

51, 276,

II.

n. 3,

457, 468

calf, iv.

cult of, IV.

Inventories,

633
Ionia,

on inscribed tablets, i. 280, 11. 533, and see Tablets influence of Assyria on early art of, iv.
:

at Byblos,

11.

838
468, 476
iv.

descent of into Hell,


of,
i.

in Sumeria,

ili.

557 Ionian Sea,

11.

169
i.

lonians, confederates of Lykians,


Ireland, type of halbert from,
Iris,
11.

664
11.

on Priest-King 786, 323 on ring from Mycenae, 786 on from House of Frescoes Knossos, 454, 464 Reticulata found 786
relief, 11.

associated with

Minoan

170 Goddess,
iv.

dress 197, 198 double uraeus 686 of from Kadesh, 420 temple of Assur, woman-head cups from,
staff of, iv.

428

n. i

effigy

in.

at

786

IV.

at

771 Babylon,

votive

clay

house

fronts

signet

11.

Cretica,

frescoes

the

at

11.

in Crete,

11.

Iron, possibly material of jackal's head rhyton

depicted on tomb of Men-kheper'ra-senb

lump of from Chamber Tomb Mavro 557 magnetic, in Neolithic votive deposit Phaestos, 37 used Neolithic amulets, 15 peroxide, perhaps used for purposes, 2 44 substituted bronze proto-Geometric
at

at

Thebes,
II.

11.

746

iv. 167 snake tubes from, iv. 144 perhaps represented by figure vessel from Mochlos, II. 259 and see Aphrodite Astarte Isis, connexion of with Ta-Urt, iv. 437, 464

from, II. 372 at Beth-shan, snake tubes from,


at Kition,

Isis Pelagia, cult of,

Spelio,

I. 299, 11. 251, 252, 243 connexion of with Minoan Goddess,

II.

at

i.

843 Cretan cult of surviving in Hagia Pelagia,


" 251, 252
Isis Pharia, see Isis Pelagia

ore,

as

i.

toilet

II.

n.

'Isles of the Sea', tributaries

for

in

from represented on Egyptian wall-paintings, 11. 166


II.

Age,
II.

IV.

376

Ismenion, tomb of at Thebes, pottery from, 136 n. 4

Ironstone, from Neolithic house at Knossos,

pavements
Ilia,
II.

10

of,

used in

M.M.

II

and
11.

M.M.

698, 699

Isodomic masonry depicted on signet from Knossos, II. 188 sealing from Zakro, 11. 188
at

from Knossos, Central Court, Queen's Megaron, iii. 358


S.

799
Isopata

vessel from Hal-Tarxien, Troy, 6th City, 11. 188

11.

188

Propylaeum,
of

11.

698
Pithos, in. 19, 23

Room

Knobbed

L.M. cemetery

at,

i.

298 n.

3, 11.

230, 551

; ;

ISOPATA
Isopata:

[75] at (cont.)

IVORY
Gulf of, II. 657 n. 3 Bronze Age in, 11. 428 connexions with Crete, i. 20, 21, 11. 169 with Spain, 11. 170 six- and eight-spoked chariot wheels from,
IV.
11.

connexion

L.M. cemetery

Issus,

of with Harbour
730, iv. 845
iii.

Town

of

Knossos, II. 551 swords from,

i.

signet-rings from,

140 n. 2
11.

Italy,

Royal
229,

Tomb
IV.

at,

structure of,

43, 65 n. 5,

771-5, 960

797 halberds from,


Ivory:

170, 172

compared with tombs at Minet-el-Beida and Ras Shamra, iv. 771-5


arrangements for libations in, iv. 775 Egyptian i8th Dynasty alabaster vases from, IV. 339
carinated bowl of lapis lacedaemonius

Minoan, source

tinting tusks
II.

of,

I.

119,

11.

756

of, in.

431
early deposit at Phaestos,

of,

from

742

on

fresco fragment

from Knossos, n. 42

from,

I.

87, 88,

11.

57, 58, in. 270,


11.

402
75

n. 3

represented borne by

Minoan

tributary

lapis lazuli necklace from,

pottery from,

L.M.

116,

11.

640, iv. 299

amphora,

11.

640, 786

n. 3, "iv. 300, 302,

307. 315 n. 2, 328, 347; flask, IV. 339 L.M. Ill, IV. 774 stirrup vase, iv.
;

29S> 312 sealings from,

iv.

562
i.

Tomb of the Double Axes,


IV. 43.

343, 441,

11.

279,

257
grave
cist in,

cut in shape of Double


in,

Axe,
279,

II.

278, 279, 285 shrine of Minoan Goddess

11.

III.

153
11.

amber ornaments from,

bronze arrow plates from,


plaques for inlay from, 11. pottery from, L.M. lib,

174 838 262


iv. iv.

on tomb of Rekhmara at Thebes, 11. 742 use of, E.M. I. 26 axe, from Palaikastro, I. 433 boat, from Zafer Papoura, n. 563 bracelets, segmented, from Knossos, in. 405, 408 box, from Tylissos, i. 482, n, 732 n. i from Enkomi, iv. 533 n. 5 from E. Treasury, Knossos, in. 409 from Tomb of the Tripod Hearth, iv. 302 column, from Mycenae, I. 344 from Spata, I. 342 comb, from Mycenae, iv. 1005 n. 2 from Palaikastro, iv. 1005, 1006 cone, from Hagia Triada, n. 199

Deposit

at

Knossos, in. 34, 207, 399, 401,


i.

299

428-35
draughtboard, from Knossos,
387, 388

amphora,
let

IV.

309, 320; ewer, iv. 341, 353

silver

two-handled pedestalled gob-

draughtsmen, from Knossos,

I.

302, 387, 388,

from,

IV.

364
bull's

477-9
figurine of acrobats,

head rh)rton from, I. 514, III. 195 n. I, IV. 236 Tomb of the Tripod Hearth at, bronze
;- steatite

from Ivory Deposit, n.

358, 650, in. 428, 436, 437, IV. 31 of Boy God, probably companion piece to

635-7, iv. 353 Mace-bearer's tomb at, mace from, i. 54 n. 3 L.M. Ilia alabastron from, iv. 356
I.

utensils from,

344

n. 8,

11.

Chryselephantine figurine of Goddess


in Boston
IV.

now

Museum, ill.

143, 443-52, 454-6,

471

Tomb,
766,

built, no. I (Isopata), iv. 775,


11.

Chalcedony bead-seal from,


501 incense burners from, gold signet-ring from,
IV.
iv.
11.

776 764 n.

3,

of children from of Minoan Goddess,


now
in
IV. 28,

from

S. Crete, iv.

467-73

Palaikastro, in.

446

Chryselephantine,

ion
776
n. 2, 789,

III.

68
no. Ia (Isopata), bronze javehns from, no. V, pottery from, in. 309,

Boston Museum, in. 438-42, 455, 38; as Goddess of Sports, now in Toronto Museum, iv. Pt. I Frontispiece,

Tomb
IV.

841

primitive Aegean,
Anatolian,
iv.

IV. 28, 31, 34,

38,472
iv.

427
23, 24, 29, 34, 781

Chamber Tomb
IV.

427

881

from Hierakonpolis, n.

IVORY
Ivory figurine, primitive (cont.) of 'Libyan' class, from Kalathiana,
11.

[76]

IVY

Ivory, reliefs (cont.)

80

from Naqada, 11. 32 arm of, from Knossos, in. 433 foot of, from Knossos, 11. 728 frieze, from Menidi, I. 343 from Mycenae, II. 591 n. 3 handles, to E.M. II cutters from Mochlos,

from Ras Shamra, from Sparta, n. 246 from Spata, n. 778, from Zafer Papoura,
rings,
I.

iv.

557 415 n.
2, iv.

in.
11.

533

778
125, iv.

113,

III.

139
district, in.

ring-bezel,

from Canea
I,
I.

462

I.

lOI

knife,

from Gebel-el-'Arak,
Knossos,

11.

27,

34,

III.

515, IV. 506

E.M. E.M.
448

seals,

E.M.
II,

n. 763
83, 94, 95 15, no. III, 117-25, 120, 165,
I,

Ill,

1.

from
I.

Temple
iv. iv.

Repository,

496

mirror, from Enkomi,


hilt

Temple Tomb,

1004 190 n.

4, 533,

804

from Mycenae, in. 61 from Zafer Papoura, in. 415 n. 2 of dagger from Tomb of the Tripod
iv.

of sword from MaUia, 273 from Kakovatos, 92 from Knossos, 472-5, 496, from Mycenae, 484 from Phylakopi, 473
11.

Hearth,

849, 850

inlays,

iv.

n. 2
iv.

I.

92

I.

11.

knots,
II.

sacral,

from Knossos,
i.

I.

430, 434,

284

from

Palaikastro,

433

pendant, in. 139 pommel of homed sword from Zafer Papoura,

M.M. 196, 197, 49, 172, 499, 523 M.M. 522 from Central Crete, 165 from Hagia Triada, no, iii, 120, 522 from Kalathiana, n. 80 from Knossos, 196, 197, n. 49, 21, 74, 172, 523 from Kumasa, 95 from the Mesara, 117, n. 217, 120, 362 742, 407, 487, 511 from Mochlos, 83, 94 from Platanos, 119, 120, n. 199, 448 from 499 Sphoungaras, 95
la,
I.

n. 24, 55, 80, 199, 201, 217, 362 n. n. I, 742, III. 120, IV. 407, 487, 511
II.

III.

21, IV. 74,

Ill, IV.

i. i.

125,

IV.

55,

i.

in.

IV.

i.

i.

24,

n.

I,

ni.

IV.

i.

I.

n.

I, IV.

I.

864 pyxis from Menidi,


IV.

Ivriz, Hittite
i.

boots portrayed

at, 11.
11.

728 n.
483

685

Ivy, sacral, religious character of,


in relation with
IV. Ill,

reliefs,
IV.

adoption of sphragistic motives on,


in.

whorl-shell ornament,

of 533 wing, 415 of 388, 533 of cow and 555 of of plumes, n. 778, of n. 388 of helmet, 869 of 473 of 533 of 246 of Sphinx, 778, 415 from Arslan Tash, 555 from Athens, n. 778 from Egypt, n. 23 from Knossos, n. 388, 778, from Mycenae, 869 from Nimrud, 555, 556
bird's
bull,
II.

112 canopied waz, n. 478-93

IV.

calf, iv.

geometrical type, 11. 489 on pottery of Pueblo and Zuni Indians,


in.

crest

415

IV.

112

griffin,

decorative use of (sacral ivy-leaf),


Illb,
II.

M.M.

iv.

478-93, 642,
la,
lb,
II.
II.

III.

510, IV. 241 n. 4


III.

lilies, II.

lion, IV.

L.M. L.M.
n.

466, 475, 484 488, 538, 658, 659,

ship,

II.

146. 154. 312. IV. 273, 274, 281, 288, 360,

II.

in.
iv.

764

L.M. L.M. L.M.


in. 415
half-leaf,

Ic, IV.

273, 274, 292, 358 n.

II, IV.

318-22, 749
iv.

Ilia, IV. 312

combined with Argonaut,


488

iv.

130
naturalistic, n. 486,

from Phylakopi, n. 473

iv.

two-stalked, iv. 764

IVY
Ivy, sacral, (cont.)
three-stalked, iv. 358 n. 4

[77]

JEWELLERY
relics

Jasper (cont.)

on bronze basin from Knossos, II. 642 on fresco from House of the Frescoes,
II.

seals

466, 478 on gypsum lamp from S.E. House,

III.

from E. Treasury, in. 399 and signets, M.M., I. 273, 673 from Arkhanes, in. 418 from Athens, iv. 583 from Crete, iv. 624; Central,
II.

iv.

581

East,

on 'Ring of Nestor', ill. 146, 154 on pottery from Aegina, iv. 273, 274 from Eski Samsoun (Amisos), iv. 764 from Kahun, 11. 273, 274, 488 from Kakovatos, 11. 484, 486, 487, 488,
IV.

764 from Knossos, in. 116, iv. 405, 492 from Kydonia, I v. 518, 576 from Mirabello, iv. 627 from Mycenae, in. 230, 466, iv. 474,

'

584

374

from Knossos, iv. 319-22, 360 from Mycenae, II. 487, 488, IV. 241

n. 4,

321

358

from from from from from from


n.

Palaikastro,

11. 486, iv. 274 Phylakopi, in. 312 Pontus, 11. 538 n. 2, 658, 659

from Naples, in. 474 from Rethymnos, in. 316 from Siteia, iv. 570 from Vapheio, n. 785, iv. 412 weight, in form of lion, from Tell-elAmarna, IV. 530 Javelins, bronze, from Chamber Tomb I A at

Pseira,

11.

484
iv.

Tell-el-Amarna,

749
274, 288,

Thebes,

11.

487,

iv.

4 from Vapheio, iv. 273, 274 from Volo, II. 659 n. i


Linear Script B,
11.

on Miniature fresco from Knossos, 841 on from Armoury Deposit,


82, IV.

Isopata, IV. 841

in.

31,

tablets

iv.

840

Jerome,
n. i,

St., cited, as to

previous cult of

Tham-

muz

(Adonis) and Ishtar (Venus) in birth-

sign, in
IV.

483, 484

758 on nodules from Hagia Triada,


n.
I

cave at Bethlehem, n. 39, in. 476 Jerusalem, revolt of Negro garrison of under

11.

Amenhotep
Jet,

III, n.

757

484

studs

of, II.

130

on tablets from Knossos, 11. 484. n. on jar from Asine, iv. 758 Ivy-flowers, on L.M. la cup from Pseira,
475

Jewellery, Early Helladic, boar's tusks used in,

11.

Minoan,
IV.

IV.

870

from Mochlos (E.M.

11),

I.

95-8,

125-423

J
Jackal-head rhytons borne by
taries
II.

M.M. la gold pendant with hornets, from Mallia, iv. 75, 76 from Chieftain's Grave at Zafer Papoura,
Minoan
at

tribu-

IV.

860
reliefs,

on tomb of User

Amon

Thebes,
I.

depicted on frescoes and painted

738; of Men-kheper'ra-senb, 11. 746 Jacob, tribe of, and Hyksos Kings, I. 420 Jadeite Neolithic implement from Knossos,
II.

525, 526, 547, II. 317, 427, 644, 682, 791, 817, 818, in. 50, 485, IV. 285, 518 funerary, n. 789, in. 144

13
i.

on chryselephantine
198
11.

figure

of

Minoan

Jahveh,

Goddess,
n. i
see

iv. 36,

37

Jardanos,

278

influence of

on L.M. ceramic ornament,


of,

Jars, see Pithoi

and

under Pottery

IV.

316

JasiU Kaia, Hittite rock carving of at Boghaz

influen(ied

by Sumerian flower types


cf. iv. 75),

Keui,

II.

275

Jasper chisel. Neolithic, from Knossos, 11. 13, 14 inlays, on lioness' head rhyton from Knossos,

and

IV.

124-6 (and

423

see Anklets, Beads, Bracelets, Crowns, Diadems, Ear-rings, Necklaces, Pendants,

IT.

829

Pins, Rings, Seals, Signet-rings

JEZEBEL
Jezebel, in. 61
Joly,

[78]

KAMARES
used by, n. 52
n. 2
at,
i.

Kaffirs, parrying-stick

Monsieur Rene, discovery of cupped


at Mallia, in.

table

Kahun, settlement of Minoan craftsmen

392 Jondet, Monsieur Gaston, discoveries of underwater remains of vast port at Pharos,
I.

papyri from, n. 199 M.M. polychrome


II,

266, 291.

pottery from,
II.

i.

18,

292-7

131, 266, 270, 290, 296,

200, 228, 488,

Jong,

Mr.

Piet de, plans, elevations,


II.

and recon-

structions by,

516, 699, III. 9, loi, 290 discoveries in Mesara, n. 36 n. 5 exploration of transit route, n. 62

L.M.

in. 250, IV. 108


lb, IV.

273
of,
at,

Kairatos stream, see under Knossos

Kakon Oros, headland


breccia quarries

Jordan river (Jardanus in


n.
I

W.

Crete),

11.

278

n. 280 n. 2, 552 I. 212, 370, 602,

iv.

Joseph, Bonaparte,
Jug, see

King of Spain,

bull fights

234 Kakovatos, identity of with Nestor's Pylos,

II.

under, in. 227 n. 3

Ewer
(Little

mountain, Minoan Southern road near, 11. 68 Juktas Mountain, n. 4, 61, 62, 239, 373, 439,
Juktaki
Juktas)
684, IV. 13

43, in. 14s n. 4. tholos tombs at, n. 43, 364, IV. 243, amber beads from, n. 174

462

arrow heads from, iv. 838 bone plates from, n. 197 faience from, i. 488 n. 3, 489
ivory disks from, iv. 242 n. 2

n.

City of Refuge on,


III. 6, IV.

i.

293, n. 66, 68, 372,


141, 151-62, n. 68,
III.

78 Peak sanctuary

pottery from,
of,
i.

L.M.

\a,

li.

484, 485,

251 n. 2, 38s, 439, 585, 596, 768 sepulchre of Cretan Zeus on, 11. 66, 8i,
838, ni. 468

424, 478, 486, 488, 489, 510 n. 4, ni. 146, IV. 272, 274, 279, 283, 286 pyxis from, n. 246, 247

146;

L.M.

\b, II.

stone ladles from,

I.

623, 624, n. 438

'Ring of Nestor' from, see under 'Ring


of Nestor'
agate cylinder seal with lion hunt from,
IV.

Minoan pilgrims' way up, ii. 66, 761, iv. 6 Goddess on L.M. signet-type. Central
iv.

607 Julius Caesar, bull sports introduced by, in.

Shrine, Knossos,
n. 2

574

Kalathiana,

Minoan road and

settlement near,

coins

229

of, II. 793 Juniper wood statue of Hermes on Kyllene, in. 524

Mount

11.79 tholos ossuary

at, n. 55, 79, 194 n. 2 gold bead from, n. 194 ivory image from, n. 80

Juno Sospita of Lanuvium, cult of, n. 52 Jus, Monsieur H., Neolithic collection of from
Sahara,
II.

ivory seal from, n. 55, 80 steatite beads from, n. 179 n. 10

222 n. 5

Kalergos, Alexios,

K
Kadesh, Battle of, n. 53, in. 87, 103, iv. 796 connexion of with Kef tiu on Egyptian monu-

Prince depicted on Tomb of Menkheper'ra-senb Thebes, 745. representation of Astarte with side-locks of
of,

ments,

II.

656

in, IV. 154 n. 2 Kalkani Cemetery, see Mycenae Kallimachos, on Cretan Zeus, i. 153 protest against a mortal God, i. 153, n. 278 Kalochoria, E.M. I, three-sided seal from, i. 68 Kalokairinos, Mr. Minos, excavations of at Knossos, IV. 621

11. 231 Kalinova, Macedonian snake cult

at

11.

420 Kadishtu, contrasted with Minoan women,


at,

Hathor

in.

Kalymna, coin-type of, n. 46 n. 3 Kalymnos, L.M. III6, goblet from, Kamares Cave, Sanctuary of, i. i
doves
in, iv.

iv.

370

ill.

41
i.

61

bead-seal from,
see

221,

11.

607, iv. 211,

Kadmeion,

Thebes

344

KAMARES
Kamares Cave
94
n. '3
(cont.)

[79]

KERNOS
Karo, Dr. G. (cont.) on grave stelae from Mycenae,
n- 3
iv.

pottery from,

E.M.

Ill,

i.

no, in,

iv.

253

M.M. I, I. 163, 189, IV. 105, 113 M.M. II, I. 238-9, 247 n. 2, 261,

264,
n. 2

practice of swinging

tomb ware,
Kames,

266, 594,
at,

II.

184
II pottery from,
11.

M.M.

507

Karpathos, earthquake at in a.d. 1856, at, iv. 26 n. 9 Karteios river, 11. 552 Karydi, mould from, 11. 336
Kaselles, see Floor cists

11.

315

see Pottery,
first

M.M.

King,
of,
I.

polychrome 17th Dynasty spear-like


lb,

Kasi, negro garrison of Jerusalem under

Amen11.

Wfeapon

Kampos, n.7
476

420, 712, 720, iv. 842, 843 lead figurine from tholos at, iii. 461
iv.

757 Kasos Island, earthquake


315 Kasos, King {Eponymus of 781
Kastri,

hotep

III,

II.

at in a.d.

1856,

Kanikars, practice of hair-offering among,


n. 5

Mount

Kasios), iv.

Kanli Kasteli peak,


68, 71 n. 3, 73,

fortified settlement on,

11.

74
11.

^ probable
74

pottery from,
site

74

72 n. 4 569 Kastrinos, traditional peasant dance of Candia


at, I.

E.M. ossuary

bead-seal from,

iv.

of

Homeric Lykastos,

11.

district, in.

75
11.

Nikephoros Phokas at 11. 79 Geometrical cemetery at, 11. 74 n. 5 Kantharos, metallic type imitated in M.M.
fortress of

Katalagari, dancers of, in. 75 Katharo plateau, Minoan road over,

63

363 on talismanic bead-seals, on coins of Naxos, 447


silver, iv.
iv.

pottery,

I.

191, iv. 363

Geometric vase from,

Kavusi, slab for games from, in. 391 cupped table from, in. 395
iv.

797

Keel-vaulted tombs, see Burials,

Minoan

iv.

446
frieze

Keftiu, envoys from, depicted

on tomb of Men-

Kapaneus, prototype of on Megaron Mycenae, iii. 87


Kapariana,

from
80

Minoan southern road

near,

11.

kheper'ra-senb, n. 166, 535, 648-51, 728, 747; of Rekhmara, n. 116, 166, 226, 534, 728, IV. 329, 653, 753; of Senmut, n. 166, 495. S34. 647. 648, 727. IV. 262, 266, 464,

Kara Euyuk, potsherd from, I. 559 Karakovilia, chamber tqmb at, of L.M. IIIc date,
fibulae from,
11.

pottery from,

138, 343 n. 5 L.M. Ill c with proto-

borne by, of M.M. Ill type, n. 651 connexion of with n. 656, 763
gifts Cilicia,
iv.

729

n. 3,

880

geometric,

11.

135, 137, 138, 343 n. 5, iv.

with Syria, 11. 656 Keftiu folk, probable identity of with Cretans,

376
Karidaki,

Minoan
41 n.

settlement

at, 11.

66 n. 2

mentioned in
748
in
I.

I.

16, 667,

II.

656-8, 734 i6th Dynasty documents, n.

prism
n. 5

Karnak,

11.

2, ill.
I.

103 10

n.
1

seal from,

Karnessopolis, an

69, 359, iv. 503 early name of Lyktos,

8th Dynasty documents, n. 657, 748 Keller, Dr., on four-rowed barley from Swiss

Karnessos, see Lyktos

Lake Dwellings, iv. 628 Kenamon, tomb of at Thebes, wall-paintings in,


n. 448
in.

Karo, Dr. G.,

iv. 2,

741, 742

on

inlaid dagger-blade

from Mycenae,
i.

118 n. 3

on faience objects from Mycenae,

430
n. 2,

on
.

n.

rhytons from Mycenae,

11.

420

gold work from, 11. 450 Kephala, hill of, see Knossos Kephisos river, n. 169 KeramopouUos, Prof. A. D., discoveries Thebes, in. 416 n. 3, iv. 739

at

III.

90 n. 2

Keraton
of,

altar set

up by Theseus
i.

in Delos, in. 74

great

work

IV. xi, xii,

on Mycenae Shaft Graves, 239 and passim

from Phylakopi,

Kernos,

E.M.

II prototype of,
in.

75

393

KEROS
in, II.

[80]

KNOSSOS
Kition [cont)
of Aphrodite Astarte
iv.
at,

Keros, marble image of musicians from grave

835 n.

I, III.

40
type,
ill.

sanctuary

snake

Key:
primitive
13, IV.

tubes from,

144; vessel in form of dove-

Minoan bronze, pin


212
in

12,

cot from, IV. 166

doorway of

later passage over


ill.

N.

Klein, Dr. Wilhelm, in. 49 n. i Klftara, cornelian bead-seal from, in. 130

Lustral basin at Knossos,

12

from Inner Hall of Temple Tomb,


IV. 953 Key-pattern, see

Meander
iv.

murder Thisbe, 'tomb of,

Kl5rtemnestra, iv. 26 n. 5 of, by Orestes on gold bead-seal from


iv.

see

515 under Mycenae


11.

Khafaje, alabaster votive tablet from,


5. 813 Khalandriani,

810

n.

Knife-handle, ivory, with antithetic group from

Chalandriane Khalitu, possible connexion of with Halizones,


see
II.

from Knossos, W. Temple Repository,


Temple Tomb,
iv.

Gebel-el-'Ar^,

27, 34,

iii.

515, iv. 506

169 n. 2
iii.

i. 496 1004 Knives, bronze, two-edged, from S. House, 11.

Khaly-wa, Hittite form of land of the Halys,


169 n. 2

629

Khandax, derivation of Candia from, 11. 231 Kharshout Chai, river, 11. 169 n. 2 Khasekhemui, tomb of, double spouted copper
ewers from,
i.

82,

11.

12 n. 4

from Gebel-el-'Arak, 506 obsidian. Neolithic, from Knossos, stone, predynastic, 26


flint,
11.

from Temple Tomb,

iv.

1004

27, 34, ni. 515,

IV.

11.

13, 14

11.

n. 5

Khatti, princes of, as tributaries on

Tomb

of

Men-kheper'ra-senb, at Thebes, 11. 535 Kheta, Hittite country, 11. 657 n. 3 Khet priests of Double Axes, 11. 28 Khyan, Hyksos King, 11. 60, 360, iv. 229 alabastron lid with name of, from Knossos, I. 18, 26, 297, 319, 380, 410, 41622, SS3,
II.

found in
II.

Knos, name

of,

I.

found in
656
656

Cilicia, iv.

408

inscriptions, near

Korykian Cave,
11.

in territory of Priest-Kings of Olba,

Knossians, destruction of Lykastos by,

11.

74 n.

220, 303, 357 n.

I,

360,

III. 9,

Knossos (A.

E.),

Minoan, &c.:

IV. 130 Kiev, amber from,

11.

174 n. 3

Kilt, see Dress King, Dr. L. W., on cult of Ishtar, iv. 406 n. 6 Kinnor, Semitic lyre, 11. 837, iv. 403 connexions of with Kinyras, m. 73 n.
I, IV.

Geographical position of, contrasted with hillsites of Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, &c., 11. 2
its

Tell (Kephala), largely formed by suc-

cessive settlements

from Neolithic times


11.

onwards,

i.

13, 32-6, 38, 204,

2, 31,

403
11.

59. 566, 690 levelled to

Upper
central

Neolithic for conarea of

Kinyras, Priest-king of Paphos, connexion of

struction

of

Minoan
end of

connexion 73 grave
of,

838, in. 73 n. i corslet sent to Agamemnon by, iv. 805


of,

with Aphrodite,

ill.

35, 104, 11. 5 importance of as being Northern


I.

Palace,

with Semitic
11.

lyre,

11.

837,

pass across dorsal ridge of Central Crete,

n. I, IV.
i.

403

838 Kirkup, flower cone mosaics from, iv. 125 Kish, clay model of primitive Chaldaean chariot
161, 162,

terminus

II.

2, 61, IV.

984, 985 of land transit across Crete, in

protohistoric route

from Delta to Aegean

primitive from,
inlays

from,

IV.

809

and beyond,
port of

I.

traces of 'Great

figurines from, iv.


II.

428

n. i

Komo

"i4 South Road' followed to on Libyan Sea, II. 60-91,

16-19,

262

Kithara, see Lyre


Kition, bilingual dedication to Apollo of
klae

150, 151, 226, 685, 759, IV. 6, 203, 596 paved section of Southern road uncovered

Amy-

and Resheph Mikal

at, III.

480

terminal relation to Transit Route explains

outside

Temple Tomb,

iv.

205, 206

KNOSSOS

[8i]

KNOSSOS
Gypsum
(cont.)

Knossos (A. E.), Geographical position of (cont.) existence here of unique deposits of Egyptian stone vessels from Late Predynastic times onwards,
I.

Knossos,

(excavated by Dr. Hogarth) removed


native marauder for wine-making,
11.

by
548

64, 67,

11.

16-

and note i seaport and harbour-town at mouth of


31, IV. 980-4, 985

Kairatos, E. of Candia,

I.

298, 299,

11.

outer
later
II.

229-39
shelter of port

against

Northern
I.

gales

formed by Island of Dia,


II.

298,

Minoan remains on Dia 298 subsidence of coast on harbour 232, 233 1.297,298) Eastern haven supplied by AmnisosDr.
(Standia),
I.

299,

238, 239

side,

(cf.

Marinatos's discoveries there,

iv. xi,

1002

further

and

n.

maritime facilities afforded by Minoan harbour of Niru Khani, 11. 251, 280, 281 Earthquakes at, 11. loi, 214, 286-9, 312-25, IV. 58; rough chronological table, 11.

towards end of M.M. shared by Phaestos, towards end of347 M.M. 347-64, 260, 632, 633 485, towardsendofL.M. 872,878,988,989 end of L.M. 495, 339, 355, 356, 942 in time of Nero, 289, 673 in June 1926, 2 in February 1930, 2
II,
11.

313. n. 3

Ill,

11.

ill.

IV.

la, IV.

at

II, iii.

iv.

a.d. 66,

11.

iv.

iv.

exceptional
Evidences (due to

iv.

liability

of district to, noted by


site

geologist, Raulin,

213 and n. 2 of decreased humidity of


11.

deforestation):
;

recession

of

corn, 629, 630 630, 716 425, 453, 458-62, 881 214, with Egypt, 226 Roads: Great South, above Western, 60 South-Eastern, 62 South-Western, 76, Juktas, 761 Kom6, 984 Mesara, 78 port of Niru Khani, 552 Phaestos, 78 to Trullos, 68 78 Palace ('Royal Road'), 514, 533. 572. 574. 576. 578 over Viaduct, 99 on bank of Kairatos, 553 North of bridge, 152 from Bridge Porch, 61 363. 759 Entrance, 56 to Harbour Town, 230 between Palace and Arsenal, 155 near Ariadne, 154 to S.W. 165 to W. Entrance, 165 State approach from North and West, 572-87 from Theatral Area 60 near House of High 203
IV.
I.

Trade
in

of, 11.

41 n.

4, 168, 280,

769 n.

oil,

IV.

in pottery,

11.

iv.

II.

56, 61, 192,

see

iv. 50, 54, 59,


11.

11.

77, 81,

to to to to to

II.

66,

IV.

11.

11.

11.

II.

64,

to Siteia, to Little

11.

11.

11.

98,

right

11.

11.

151,

to S.

11.

et seq.,

to

11.

152, 155, IV.


11.

153, 154,

Little

11.

Villa

11.

angle,

11.

11.

11.

to Little Palace, iv.


Priest, iv.

Minoan springs, 11. 463 retreat to hills of some plants depicted on Frescoes, &c.
(e.g. wild-roses), 11.

Water-supply,

463, 464; disappear-

ance of water-lily,
Fortification of,
I.

ib.

139, 141, 393, 398, il. 372, 553. 554. 613, HI. 6, iv. 50-9, 77, 79 Gypsum formation underlying part of old

quarries, ancient, openings slabs with bull-grappling

town

site

(Gypsades

Hill), 11.

547 seqq.
192

of, iv.

by Knossian master from 'Atreus' fagade, Mycenae, probably from this source, iv. 192, 193 pillars and door-jambs of Minoan House
reliefs

water 388 water channels, 119 springs, 705, 752, 3,15 tank. 243 146, 547, 576, 18 254-6, foot-washing basin of
shafts,
ill.
11. 11.

141-3, 225-30, 327, 333, 334, 363, 396, 400, II. 66, 119, 120, III. 492 conduits, 11. 461-3, iii. 252, 492, 494
1.

iii.

IV.

376

cisterns,

ill.

III.

wells,

II.

III.

171 n.

2,

IV.

Caravanserai:

elaborate arrangements for supply, wasteducts,

and drainage,

11.

11 6-1

[82]

KNOSSOS

KNOSSOS
Knossos Town,
Court,
early, Neolithic Strata {cont)
II.

Knossos, Water supply (cont.) evidences of advanced hydraulic knowledge: (a) terra-cotta sections of water

9-21, 129, 360, 560,


in, 11.

IV.

123,

pipes,

tapering
I.

to

secure,

shooting
253.
(b)

982, 983 Neolithic houses, fixed hearths

21

motion,

141-3,

111.

252,

Knossos Town, Middle Minoan

Minoan fountain or jet d'eau on painted fragment. House of the Frescoes hydraulic adaptation unknown elsewhere
till

under W. Court,
M.M.
House A, House B,
IV.

Houses,

M.M.

I,

148
i.

146, 172, 186-9,

^i-

366

\a houses beneath Koulouras:


IV. 66, 67,

over a millennium

later, 11.

253, 254,

79-84

460-2, III. 254 (with Coloured PI. XXII). (c) runnels down flights of steps with
parabolic curves to retard flow at turning-points,
III. III.

69-74, 79-84. 88, 89, 93, 94,

109, 223

239-44: (East Bastion),

243

(S.

Stepway Domestic
III.

Qr.,

House C, IV. 85 Middle Minoan III City as represented by 'Town Mosaic', i. 301-14; perhaps fortified,

M.M.

III6),

248-57:
ill.

down
{d)

steps of

Theatral Area,

M.M.

Ilia,

System

storied,

of settling basins,

243

Fig.

Mosaic houses, twoI. 303-7, and 226 their windows of 4 to 6 panes,


II.

370, 372;

with roof-room,
;

Knossos Town,

early

Primitive Settlement (from Neolithic times

onwards), favoured by natural opportunities offered on land and sea (hunting,


fishing,

with scarlet filling, I. 303-6, 11. 370, ill. 85-8 timbering and beam ends visible, ib.\ street fronts and tower houses, ib.
;

&c.),

11.

2 seqq.

shell-fish

an

important
ally built

article of food,

11.

10

and II. 370 Massive walling of M.M. Ill date on East bank of Kairatos, II. 513, 514

Original settlement at low level, 'Tell' gradu-

M.M.

Remote

33 seqq., 11. 2 seqq. antiquity of earliest Neolithic settleI.

up,

Ill House of the 'Fallen Blocks', 296-300, and of the 'Sacrificed Oxen',

11.

11.

283, 300-2, 305-10, 312, 355 n.

I,

418,

ment; chronological data supplied by


stratification,
I.

Of

natural growth

33, 35 not, as Troy, Tiryns, &c.,


11.

753,781,111. 189, 517 n. 2 Extension of Town at beginning of Middle

appendage to an acropolis,
Stratigraphy,
I.

2, 3

28-30, 33, 235, 240, 241, 287,

Minoan Age, 11. 366-73 Knossos Town, Late Minoan Its wide extension evpeia Kvcuaos,
66

11.

55911.

317, 318, 320-2, 346, 351, 374, 375, 410, 411,418, II. 6. 18, 105, 107, 120, 142-53,

Central Residential Quarter (with Palace),

161-5,

219,

288-311,

327-31, 334-6,

349-53. 366-70, 373-6, 380, 381, 395, 396, 402, 404, 414-19,433-7,514-27,545, 547. 553. 587. 592. 610-14, 619, 661-7,
672-4, 679, 688-92, 701, 714-16, 75961, 798-806, 810-12, 818, III. 1-25, 146 n. 3, 161-6, 248-51, 255, 262-8, 271-6, 280-1, 324, 326, 331, 332, 356-61, 366-9, 374-7. 399-401. 405, 482-94, IV. 3-5, 50-74, 77-9, 205-7, 260, 380-1, 620,
621, 630-3, 639, 872-3, 878-9, 902, 973,

560-3 Poorer outlying zone {irpodareiov), II. 562-3 Western extension of town with later Acropolis height, II. 546, 547 Southern extension of town with hill of Gypsades and Kairatos gorge about Temple Tomb (packed with large

mansions), 11. 547-51, iv. 204, 205 Eastern extension on both banks of Kairatos,

" 552-3
Plan of

1016
Neolithic Strata,
i.

13,

34

et seqq., 56, II. 4, 5,

showing extension of remains, 547: and see iv. 204 n. i, 205 Northern extension to Zafer Papoura Cemesite

facing

II.

7-21, 129, 146 n. 3, 366, 560, IV. 54, 982 by Stepped Portico, 11. 146 beneath Theatral Area, iv. 59

tery,

II.

550, 551

Harbour Town,

Upper

Neolithic houses under Central

11. 153, 167, 229-39, and Plan opp. p. 230, 453, IV. 7, 35, 36 remains from, 11. 87 n. 2, 201, 206,

KNOSSOS
Knossos Town, Late Minoan, Harbour
(cont.)

[83]

KNOSSOS

Town

Knossos Town, Late Minoan, Houses near

239, 235-8, 254-6, 566,

III.

138, IV. 129,

563, 564 Signs of timber shortage: symptom of de11.

193, 248, 422, 498 Rough estimate of population,

W. of Palace, 366, N.W. of Palace, 149, of Palace,


11.
I.

(cont.)

iv.

334
11.

431, 432

S.

I.

74,

11.

loi, iv.

204

forestation, II. 565 OriginaUty of design in houses, Late Minoan Houses Little Palace,
I.

Knossos, Palace regular planning

of, 11.

562, HI. 282, 283

11.

564, 565
11.

compared with Mycenae and Tiryns,

m.
20 n.
i,

351, 352
at,
I.
I. 4, 5 26, 103-7, 107-48, 165

329, 344,401, 425,

religious character of,

151, 243, 244, 262 n. 3, 323, 342, 358 n.


2,

408, 415, 447, 513-44, 551, 577, 627, n. I, 789, 814, 820, III. 247, 254, 316, 340, IV. 150, 215, 216, 328, 490, 534, 599,

direct
M.M.

E.M. HI palace

relation with Egypt, iv.

984

674

la epoch of oriental influence.


11.

Age

610, 611, 626, 827, 828

bays
M.M.

of Palaces begins,

268-9

and recesses of fa9ades compared

Royal Villa, 1.404,

324, 373, 393, 396,410, 413. 525 n. 2, 551, 586 n. I, 627, 674 n. i,
11.

with bastion walls of Sendjirli,ii.269,27o


lb palace at, i. 149, 11. 201, 367, 589, 666, 667; fortified character of, iv. 78
insulae in,
I,

HI. 64, 65, 321, 374, IV. 205, 206, 329,

353. 974 Caravanserai,

203
in,
I.

11.

70, loi, 105, 109-20, 124III.

rounded angles
II.

148

39. 343. 373. 565. 627, 684, 718,

44,

illustrates theocratic position of ruler,

House of the

211, 253, 287, IV. 6, 140 Frescoes, 11. 20 n.

i,

114, 116,

276 predominance

of,

in the Island, iv. 78


of, 11.

359. 361, 362, 366, 367, 378, 431-68, 477. 478, 5o. 57. 565. 755. "i- 44. 211,

cause of destruction

666
I.

M.M. n,

catastrophe at end of,

411, 552,

254. 347. 348. 363. 364. IV. 116, 260, 291


n.
I,

306
Priest, iv. 202-14,

553. 591-2. II- 219, 287 M.M. IHa restoration of palace after catas-

House of the High


n.
I,

291

trophe,

II.

43, 287, 300, 349,

III.

14, 162,

House

11. 299, 356, 375. 391-S. 404. 679 n. 2, IV. 205 S. House, II. 44 n. 4, 161, 165, 323 n. i, 373,

301, 996 of the Chancel Screen,

486

M.M.

III6
III,

'Great
13, IV.

Rebuilding',

11.

311,

374. 376. 378-87, 389, 390, 449 n. I, 570, 629, 633, III. 13, 280, IV. 87, 212 n. 4,

earthquake end 260, 632, 633 485, expansion oversea, 287


at
of,
IV.
11.

348,

873

11.

347-65,

ill.

727. 937. 993 S.E. House, I. 344, 345, 370, 371, 404, 4257. 429. 435. 509. " 324. 391. 480, 5i4n. 2,

L.M. \a only
in, II.

partial

break in continuity
in, II.

586 n. I, III. 244, 510, IV. 212 nn. 4, 291 n. i S.W. House, II. 672, III. 88 N.E. House, 11. 356, 414-30, 586 n.
261, 638
'

and

i, iv.

reconstruction of Palace 360, 366, 518, 874 564, 565, 626, 8io, continuous occupation from, of L.M. 291 earthquake end 872, 878, 988, 989
III.

625-7

IV.

to close

II, IV.

at

of, iv.

L.M.
390 630-2
11.

lb restoration of Palace, after earthIV..

S.E. of House, S.W. of S.W. Treasury,


S.
11.

N.W. House, 11. 415, 627 House N.W. of S. House,

iv.

138 et seqq.,

149, 150, 155, 156

'The Unexplored Mansion', 11. 542, 543, 545 Houses near S.W. Palace Angle, 11. 390
S.E. Palace Angle,
11.

369,

iii.

215, 269

new dynasty established. 308, 786, 883 introduction of Linear Script B, 308 centre of marine of ornament, 507 processional schemes decoration 881 720, growth of Sacerdotalism 882
III.

quake,

339, 873, 878, 879

IV.

ill.

style

11.

in

of,

II.

IV.

in, iv.

KNOSSOS

[84]

KNOSSOS

Knossos, Palace, LsM. lb (cont.) expansion of dominion, in. 307, 308, ' IV. 885, 887 evidences of renewed intensive influence of Knossos on Mainland and Aegean

Knossos, Palace, Corridors {cont.) South-North, n. 165, 328, 353, 685, 690,
758-95, IV. 874 East-West, i. 327, 346, 349, 355, 356, 360, 367, 368, 384, in. 234, 262-72, 318, 319, 412, IV. 878

Egyptian influence redecoration of L.M. 353 bureaucratic and dynasty, 785, 786 Egypt,
II affluence of,
iv.

side, see

under Pottery
on, iv. 880
Palace, iv. 291

Other corridors, I. 203, 11. 349, 662, 663, 668, 669, 676 n. I, 816, in. 65, 165 Courts
of
Central,
I. 287, 393, 422, 423, 11. 5, 59, 332, 366, 560, 664, 679, 685, 761, 795-826,

military

character

iv.

relations vyith

iv.

986, 987

earthquake
IV.

852, 853 oriental influence on, iv. 398


iv.

Greece,

in. 2, 4, 5, 15-17, 33, 34, 164, 185 n. I, 327. 332 n. 4, 489, 490, IV. 7, 13, 18, in. 495,
at,

and

fire at

end

of,

Court of the

20, 123, 786, 879 n. I, 933, 936, 982, 983 Distaffs, i. 334, 355, in. 297,

L.M. Ilia

339. 355. 356, 942-4 continuity of culture

iv.

388 Court of the Stone Spout,

i.

206, 351, 362-5,

737 removal of government from,


IV.

356, 373, 944, 946 {and see under Pottery) general absence of inscribed tablets in,
iv.

367. 379. 380, 386, 394, 415, 431, 434. in. 209, 210, 233, 234, 266, 268,492, 494,
IV. 20,

85
II.

L.M.

with Sub-Minoan proto-Geometric see under Pottery.


Ic
:

945 and Cretan


11.

West,

I.

29, 34, 191, 207-9, 522,


III.

59 n.

I,

366, 609-22,

350

n. 2, 365, 366, IV.

Sub-Minoan

dereliction

of

site,

345,

N.W.
II.

49, 61, 222, 223 Proto-palatial, iv. 50, 54

346, 627 E. Bastion, I. 360, 365,


44, 262, 264

II.

119 n.
379,

2, in.

233-

i. 204-6, 317, 327, 355, 385, 59 n. I, IV. Ill, 873 Drainage System, I. 141-3, 225-30, 287,

Great Cutting,

Bath-rooms,

I.

579-80,

11.

III.

245, 384

Causeway from Theatral Area towards North

327. 333-5. 363. 378-80, 386,400, n. 119, 120, 124, 126, 161, 299, 366, 376, 415, 543, 576,
III. 5,

Pillar Crypt, in. 161

241, 246-52, 286, 374,

Porch, n. 672 Corridors


in

W.

Corridor of the Procession,


735. 736, 751. 758.
Ill-

i.

215, n. 161,

165, 333. 350. 354. 679. 682-5,


2,

734
IV.

n. i,

roof drainage, 333 drain heads, 378, 379 228, 229, 333, 334,
i.

399.405.

IV-

65, 93, 211, 365

I.

141,

latrines,

i.

336, n.

485,
I.

285,

385, ni. 387, 388

873 Corridor of the Painted Pithos,


383. 387 Corridor of the Draughtboard,
in. 252

Entrances:
333, in.

N. Entrance Passage,

i.

387, 388,

Corridor of the Labyrinth Fresco, in. 263, 328 Corridor of the Sword Tablets, II. 331, iv.

I. 141, 206, 364, 385405, n. 348, 356, 452, in. I, 158-91, 244, IV. 3, 7, 8, 10-16, 228, 537, 568, 698, 827, 874 N.E. Entrance, i. 212, 386, 387, 391-8, n.

716, 782

N.W. Entrance and


13. 14. 15. 223,

Porch,

I.

211, 215-18,
III, 3, 7,

264
Corridor of the Stone Basin, in. 7

405, 422-3, n. 365, 588-608,

II,

Long

Corridor, n. 624, 716, 718, in. 412,


630, 631
I.

W.

875 Entrance and Porch,


II.

1.

203, 206, 214-15,

IV. 76,

Corridor of the Bays,

318, 320, 323, 325,

Dog's Leg,

351, 384, ni. 286, 316, 48s, 488 I. 330, III. 286, 353

244, 360, 361, 396, IV. 3, 6, 56-60, 873, 879, 893, 894 S.W. Entrance and Porch, n. 161, 349, 684

424,

660-85,

III-

I. 2,

n. I, 696, 759, IV. 3,

225

KNOSSOS
Knossos, Palace, Entrances
S.E. Entrance,
I.

[8s]
(cont.)

KNOSSOS
Pillar

Knossos, Palace,
III.

Crypts
I.

(cont.)

329, 355 S. Entrance and Porch, 1. 104, 127, 131, 164II. 59 n. I, 289, 363, 758252, IV. 6, 215 E. Postern, i. 360, 365, iii. 233-44

religious significance of,

4,

II.

322, 332,

283

5,

206, 209, 215,


III.

60,

below columnar Halls, i. 442, 526, 11. 817, 818, 820 of Palace: Monolith Pillars, I. 145, 146,

Gates:

Water
Halls:

gate,
i.

I.

206,

III.

328

Sea gate,

141, 206, 396, 398, 404, IV. 8

Great E. Hall,
524, 546,
II.

248, 318, 322-3, 360-89, 161 n. I, 333 n. I, 356, 680,


I.

734 Northern, 414, 415, Eastern, 809 South-Eastern, South-Western,


11. 11.
I.

587, 588, IV. 74, 86,

in. 161

196,

11.

666

n. 2

iv. 3

of Royal Villa,
of S. House, of
II.

11.

782, 785,

III.

30, 189, 410, 481, 525, IV.

324, 406, 408, iv. 974 386, IV. 212 n. 4 324, 514 n. 2, iv. 212 n. 4

7, 10, 169, 285, 365, 599, 6i2, 874,

928

of S.E. House,

11.

N.E. Hall,
IV.

I.

288, 352, 362, 363, 386-91,


Hall,
11.

397
603, 604,
III.

N.W. Sanctuary

81-

House N.W. of S. House, 11. 390 of House of the Chancel Screen, 11. 393 of Temple Tomb, iv. 212 n. 3
Porticoes and Propylaea:

106, IV. 299, 315 n. 2, 325, 342, 359, 360 Hall of the Double Axes, I. 328-30, 333,

336, 337. 343. 346, 351. 364. 384. 394. "

Stepped Portico, 11. 2, 61, 93, 141-66, 365, 632, 684 n. r, 685, 758, 792, III. 168, 322,
IV.

109 n- 3. 349. "I- 234. 254. 255. 283, 2904, 318-48, 351, 352, 372, 383, IV. 888,
889, 935; restored. Coloured PI.
III.

849, 873
I.

N.E. Portico,
538
E. Portico,
III.

386,

11.

143,

iii.

272, iv.

XXIV,
S.

opp. p. 346
I.

272-4,
i.

IV. 8,
Ji.

235
i,

Hall of Distaffs,

328, 329
i.

Propylaeum,

632,

31 n.
III.

162, 332,

Hall of Colonnades,
355. 384.

327, 328, 335, 344,

"
IV.

674

n- I. "I- 317, IV.


Pillars,
I.

597

353, 590, 686-718, 735, IV. 3, 6, 225, 873, 896

4, 280, 516,

Hall of the Eleven


400, 401,

393, 396, 398,

Quarters and Areas:

Tri-Columnar

442, 526, 11. 350, 712, 716, 718, 816-18, III. 2, 485, IV.
i.

13 Hall,

N.W.

Insula,

11.
I.

605, in. 1-28, 37-8

N.E. Insula,
393-4,
III.

288, 352, 362-3, 386-91,

633. 728 et seq. Northern Pillar Hall, in. 164, iv. 8

N. Quarter,
S.E. Angle,

i.

234 385-404
207, 573-7,
III.
11.

i,

289, 291-6,

Early Keep,

I.

127, 136-9, 141, 142, 148, 203,

393. 423. 450. " 145. - 615 Light-wells and areas, I. 328, 330, 11. 107, 290, 327, 517, 775, III. 330, 376, IV. 3, 922 Lustral Basins, Northern, 11. 303, 320, 331, 348, 349, III. 8, 9, 12

124 S.W. Angle and Basement,


326-46, 365,

I.

554-6,

iv.

256,

291, 299, 344, 355, 360, 366, 593,, 594,

734

N.W. N.W.

Angle,

iv.

200

North-Eastern,

iv.
i.

229
217, 218, 405-10,

305, 307, 319, 339 E. Central Enclave, I. 206

Border,

iv.

North-Western,

E. Quarter,

iv.
I.

369, 889
4, 139,

418, 422, 423, II. 697 n. 2, IV. 13 South-Eastern, I. 575, 11. 330, 331 of Throne Room, I. 422, iv. 908, 92834.

W.

Quarter,
II.

318, 394, 422-30,


III.

445-8,

363,

666,

313, 314, IV.

937
11.

of Little Palace, of S. House,


II.

520
11.

of

House

331, 378, 379 of the Chancel Screen,

213. 35 S. Front, 11. 348 Area of Daemon Seals, iv. 451, 452, 598 Domestic Quarter, i. 204, 205, 226-7, 31618, 322-3, 325-67. 384. 385. 393. 485. " 59 n. 1, 160, 331, 332, 410, 619, 650, 765, 778, III. 31, 34, 44, 62, 282-98, 301-4,

393

Pillar Crypts:

windovsrless

and

lamp-lit,

11.

323

KNOSSOS
Knossos, Palace, Quarters and Areas
313.
353.
(cont.)

[86]

KNOSSOS

383. 399. 401-3. 405, 481, 492, 517, IV. I, 6, 343, 441, 681,

374.

381,

Knossos, Palace (cont.) Shrines and Sanctuaries Shrine of the Double Axes,
n. 3, 145, 283, 292,

i.

576,

11.

109

853. 854. 873. 877. 882, 889, 956


Initiatory Area,
I.

326-46, 705,
11.

IV. 161,

217, 405-13, 422, 575, 283,


IV. 13,

11.

303, 320,

III. 8,

229, 423, 648,

179, 406, 429, 699 Central Shrine, i. 425, 463,

48, 51,

iii.

935

463,
i.

IV. 24, 175,

780
804,
806,
80.8,
IV.

Loomweight Area,

248-70, 301, 316, 317,


II.

Small columnar shrine in Central Court,


n. 332, 336,

327. 351. 360, 368-70, 201, 622


Spiral Fresco Area,
I.

493,

IV. II, III,

761,

212, 369, 370, 411, iv.

23s Theatral Area,


578-88, 617,

I.

III.

207, 398, 401, II. 119 n. 2, 161, 246, 247, 249, 250,
iii.

596 Shrine in Little Palace, 11. 342 Shrine in connexion with Room of the Throne, IV. 910, 920, 935 et seq. Sanctuary quarter near Central Court, 11.
808, 809
in spiral Fresco Area,
in
i.

395. IV. 18, 50, 53, 54

Threshing Floor Area,

37, 38, 59

212

Workmen's Quarter,
Queen's Megaron,
3.
i.

i.

365, 366, 387

N.W.

insula,

iii. 2,

4, 30, 42, 44,

210, 211, 319, 327, 330-

46, 106

337. 346, 355. 543. 544. 55. " 332, 507. "I- 44. 70, 71. 208, 281, 293, 327,

and see E.

Hall,

N.E. Sanctuary Hall,

347. 354-96, IV. 6, 242, 243 n. 888, 893

i,

874,

N.W. Sanctuary Hall Snake-Room in house near S.W. Treasury


House by west wall of
139. 143, 158-61, 1014

Palace, IV. 138,

Rooms
Pillar

Rooms,
East,
II.

I.

139, 145, 146, 218, 425,

Staircases

463, 464

normal height and tread of


3, 4,

steps,

11.

760

350 South- West, IV. Pillar Ciypts above

262:'

and

see

4 Grand, of Domestic Quarter,

n.

I.

325-6, 328,

Room of the Archives, ill. 316, 474, iv.


570, 580, 596, 704 Room of the Column Bases,
11.

534,

337-42, 346, 351, 394, 408, II. 328, 348, III. 284, 286, 287, 299-301, 319, 321, 482,
485, 488 n.
2, IV. 6,

341, 786
IV.

352
iii.

Service,

Room Room Room Room Room

of so-called Ka<f>eveiov, of the

11.

Knobbed

Pithos,

308, 332 20, 23,

East,

II.

335, 355, in. 298 811, III. 275, 276, 279, 280,
I.

261,

291, 878 Central,


11.

25-8, 360 of the Plaster Couch,

802, 812, 815

i.

333-5, 355
iii.

of the Stirrup Vases, iv. 736 of the Stone Bench, i. 335, 336,
i.

II. 290, 326, 328, III. 413 East of Theatral Area, in. 248-51 Throne Room System, iv. 903, 922

South-East,

297, 298, 404, IV. 925 Room of the Stone Drain-heads,

204
11.

Room of the Stone. Drum, iv. Room of the Stone Pier, i. 366,
n.
I, III.

925
367,

357

268, 269

South-North Corridor, 11. 760 below S. Porch, i. 104 from upper East-West Cot'ridor, i. 346, in Domestic Quarter, in. 245, 246, 263 'Throne Room' System, i. 4, 5, 139, 207, 217,
to

Room of the Stone Vases, 11. 525 Room of the Wooden Posts, i. 360,

405, 410, 422, 424, 425, 485,


iii.

II.

116, 224,

271

School-Room, I. 365 369, III. 315 Sculptor's workshop, i. 366, iii. 269, iv. 594, 727, 896, 897, 900 Vat Room i. 165-72, 175, 177, 186, 199,
424, 463, 479, 487, 490,
II.

332, 353. 356, 395 n- i. 502, 676, 679, 716, 785, 812, ni. 4, 15, 280, 338, IV. 48,
92, 277, 309, 414, 749, 877, 883, 888, 893,

903-8, 920-7, 934-8 Treasuries and Stores:


E. Treasury in Domestic Quarter,
III.
11. 765, 297, 397-435, 437, IV. 20, 31, 482

666, IV. 85, 88,

93,98

KNOSSOS

[87]

KNOSSOS
Palace,

Knossos, Palace, Treasuries and Stores (cont.) Treasury of Tri-Columnar Hall, 11. 712,
809, 820-6,
III.

Knossos,

Treasuries

and

Stores,

'Lair' (so-called)

4, IV. 633 Store-room in Domestic


iii.

W. Magazines,
650

Magazines

(cont.)

I. 117-21, 172, 449-62, 618-22, 630-3, 635, 639, 640, 647, 648,

Quarter,

i.

335, 337,
11.

397, 399-412

Central Treasury,
IV.

420, 537, 655, 830,


i.

727, 777 Treasury of Lustral Area,

410

Treasure House to N.W.,

427, 471, 473, 570, 589, 616-22, 637-48, 779, IV. 50,

11.

by Royal Road, 577 of N.E. House, 417 'Kouloutas', purpose of W. Court, 207, 318,
11. 11.
I.

of, iv. 63, 65,


II.

66
6,

224 n.

580,

609, 610,

III.

350
IV.

n. 2, 365, 366, IV. 61.

Temple
II.

76, 99, 130, 136, 300, 339 n. 5, 343, 727 Repositories, i. 452, 454, 463-85,

179

n. 9, 188, 288, 309, 360, 364, 396,

421. 453. 469. 476, 502, 540, 615 n. 2, 633. 699, 7S4. 831, 832, III. 4, 128, 218,

South-East, 106 2 of Theatral Area, 580, 54.66 of Old N.W. Court, 63


n.
11.

63, 64, 102, 104, 1x8, 119, 126, 128

iii.

247,

iv. 53,

iv.

277,431, 440,465, 503, 503, IV. 26 n. 3, 32, 81, 94, no, 118 n. I, 199, 507, 552, 563,
567. 570. 591. 660, 718, 952, 1013, 1014 Magazines, anticipated by Neolithic store-

Cists

and Kaselles under S. Propylaeum,


702, 712

11.

690, 699, 701,

West,

I.

236, 448-64,

III.

33, 162, IV. 630,

"

I-HI, 664 V, 230 VI, 356 Vni, 669, 671 vni-x, 648 X, 356, 626 xni, 599, 604, 209, 224 XIV, 356 XV, 438, 706 XVIII, 358, 280, 264, 265 663, 664 of Knobbed 206, 231 362, 363 of Medallion 211, 317, 318, 320, 321, 323, 374, 485 Royal Pottery 231-47, 391, 552-90, 277 Royal Magazines, 323, 382-4, 286, 231 Magazine of Lily Vases, 317, 331, 822 245, 246, 385 Magazine of Arsenal, 50
II.

rooms,

II.

18

n. I

632 North-West,
in

11.

616
11.

III.

of Central Court,

808,

iii.

4
211
11.

II.

House of High

Priest, iv.
I.

IV.

Hieroglyphic Deposit,

271-86,

268,

IV.

II.

IV.

453. IV. 115, 400, 474, 488, 571, 627 Viaduct, II. 61, 96, 102, 141, 148

II.

III.

33, 61, 62,

Walls,

I.

127-31,

II.

59 n.

I,

290, 613, 614,

IV.

III.

210

n. 2, 234, 235, 263, IV.

50-9, 77,

II.

78

and
in

see

Mason's Marks
11.

III.

650,.

Modern

reconstitution in,

21-3, in. 289


11.

II.

III.

IV.

Tri-Columnar Hall,
11. 11.

350

Proto-palatial,

11.

in S.E. Angle,

328, 330

Pithoi,

I.

et seqq.,

in Theatral Area,

581

in
in

W. Wing,

11.

350

Pithoi,

I.

III.

in Hall of the

Throne Room, iv. 48, 908 Double Axes, in. 318at, 11.

Stores,
n. I,
I.

I.

III.

48 Knossos, Greek settlement


190 leaden

349, 432, in.

ill.

IV.

I.

11.

sling bullets from pit near Shrine of the Double Axes attributed to

n. 4,

III.

155, 578, IV. 173, 615, 617, 668, 669, 789, 836,

11.

n. 2,

Achaean invaders, 11. 344-6 Geometric period, town at, i. 404,

11.

125 n.

2,

North-East,
91, 568-71,

840

i.

288, 352, 362, 363, 386288, 419,


IV.
III.

coin-types 'House of

154,

III.

171 n. 2
of,
I.

359,

ill.

330
of Palace
at,
11.
I.

IjLhea' as

name

635
6-7,

II.

277

n. I, IV.

Greek, temple near S. Propylaeum,


346, 712 of Apollo Delphinios,
11.

264, South-East,
East,
III.

638

634, 664

844

II.

519, 554

of Rhea,

i.

344,

iv.

18

KNOSSOS
Knossos
(cont.)

[88]

KOSTER
iv.

Graeco-Roman

city at,

ii.

280

n. 2, 349, 432,

Knots, sacral (cont.) associated with stag,


faience,

578

546. 547. 55. IV- 18 Kairatos stream, 11. 3, 62, 66 n. 2, 229, 280
n. 2, 337, 412, 553, 684, HI.

274

houses on banks of, 11. 551-4 Villa Ariadne, 11. 546, iii. 254 Knossos, burials: Cemetery, on Hellenika slope, 11. 547 connected with Harbour Town, 11. 235, 551

from 4th Shaft Grave at Mycenae, I- 47 n- 3, 440, 483, II- 284 ivory, from S.E. House at Knossos, i. 430, 434. II- 284 from Palaikastro, i. 433

textile,

I.

434
iv.
i.

worn by Goddess,
votaries,

and see Isopata, Mavro Papoura


" 554
Shaft, IV. 858
11.
:

Spelio,

Zafer

57 433 on fresco from Knossos, 433 from Niru Khani, 284


i,

11.

Graves, Pit (with pithos),

'Tomb of the Cow',


Zafer Papoura

and

see

Pit-caves,

563, iv. 858 (Zafer Papoura)


11.

Sarcophagi,

499,
11.

549:

and
;

see

Zafer

Papoura Tombs, Chamber,

and signet-rings, iv. 550, 577 from Arkhanes, ill. 220 from Crete, iv. 583 from Mycenae, IV. 403, 610 from Vapheio, III. 141 on sealing from Knossos, iv. 578 Knox, Father Ronald, on omission of prayer
seals

on

370, 547

near

Temple

against earthquakes in English litany, 11. 322

Tomb, IV. 849, 858, 962 at Mavro Spelio, 11. 337,


III.

Kodjadermen (Thrace), bird-shaped vase from,


555, 556, 557,
I. 117, IV. 80 n. 7 Kokalos, Sicilian King,

274
see Isopata,

11.

626,

iv.

960

Keel-vaulted, 'Royal Tomb', Isopata,


smaller version, Isopata, iv. 775-6
II.

and

Zafer Papoura

Kolonaki, see Thebes


iv.

Komo, Minoan

771-6 compared with those of Minet-elBeida and Ras-Shamra, iv. 771-6

port at, arrival point from Egypt and Southern terminus of Great South Road, 11. 81, 88, 742 communication of with Hagia Triada, 11. 90

Rock, 370, 547, 549, 274: Isopata Temple, 80, 140, 204, 212
III.

and

see

iv.

n. 3, 260,

281, 290, 291 n.

I,

299, 305 n.

2,

306, 311,

339. 353, 355, 365, 366, 393. 464. 858, 950. 956. 961, 964-83, 989-ioi. 1002.

primitive tholos (doubtful), 88 migration of inhabitants 280 Geometrical vases from, 59


at
11.

with Knossos, 11. 81, 192, 742, iv. 984 with Phaestos, 11. 90 'Custom-House' building at, 11. 166, iv. 648 pottery from, 11. 88, 166, iv. 648
of, 11.
11.

ion, 1014-17 Burials, Post Minoan, 11. 154, 433 later Geometrical (near Temple Tomb),
1004, 1007,

pottery from, L.M.

11. 82 Korakou, apsidal type of house at,

Kophino (Coffer Mountain),

I.

24

n. 2

Ic, 11.

473

n. 2, 499, IV.

IV. 1018 Knots, sacral: ritual use of, I. 424, 430-5 associated with bull-sports,

293, 368, 369 Kordofan, basket churns of pithoid shape from, 220,
IV. 645, 646 Kore, rock dedication to

I.

431,

ill.

at

Hagios Thomas,
iii.

11.

577 gaming boards, with n'3 with palm-tree, 431


i.

226 with double axe, I. 433, ill. 141 with columns, IV. 610 with Minoan Goddess, i. 432,
I.

76
Korte, Dr., on Vapheio cup B,
183 n.
i

Korykian Cave,
iv.

I.

6
iv.

403,

crocus culture in connexion with,


inscription near,
11.

726

656
i
11.

483, 485,

11.

47

Kos, coin-type
n.
I,

of, iii.

100 n.

Koster, Professor August, on early ships,

241

246

n. I

KOUKLIA
Kouklia, stirrup vase from, 11. 136 Kouphonisi, crushed purple shells on,
iv.

[89]

LABYRINTH
see

Kuynnzuk,
iii

Nimrud

pottery from, M.M., iii button from, E.M.


iv.

n-S

steatite

n. 5 Ill, I. 113

Kyanos, Egyptian source of, iv. 875 n. i M.M. Ill use of, I. 472, 473, 475 n. i, 534 use of for crystal 'back-work', I. 472, 475,
III.

Kouretes,
IV.

iii.

466,

iv.

220

109 use of in fresco-painting,

I.

534,

ill.

250,

Kouroniotes, Professor, discoveries at Eleusis,

IV.

744
at, 11.

Kourtes, pottery from tombs

137

use of Knossos, Krasi, tholos 39 M.M. la jug from,


at
at, 11.

Kouskouras,

11.

93, 103, 124,


11.

294

699, iv. 58
n. 3

4 iv. 676

n.

Tiryns, on
63

11. 595, 777, ill. 351, iv. 227, 228, 897 on alabaster frieze in Men's Megaron at

975 87s use of as inlay,

n. 3,

11.

crystal inlays

595, in. 351, iv. 227, 228 from Lustral Basin,

I.

472

Kraters, see under Pottery

Kritsa valley,

Minoan road through,


11.

11.

from Room of the Throne, in. 109 on gaming board from Knossos, I. 473, 475 in painting on rock ceiling of Temple Tomb

Krotos

village,

83 n. 3

Kuban, alabaster figurine from, I. 48, 49 Kubbah, circular tomb at, 11. 39 Kugler, Professor, on date of accession of Hammurabi,
III.

at Knossos, iv. 975 Kybele, connexion of with Minoan Goddess, in.


IV. 170 n. 2, 219 with Rhea, in. 472 with Syrian Goddess, iv. 479 cymbals of associated with Minoan Goddess,

473,

IV. 54,

424, 425

Kumanudes,Mr.,onsilverrhytonfromMycenae,
89 n.
I

Kumasa
E.M.
Ill, tholos ossuaries at,
I.

21, 75,

11.

36,

39, 81, 83 n. 3
lintels of,
11.

219 Metragyrts mendicant mother of 473 and Rhea


IV.

priests of, iv.

220

Attis, in.

see

41,

42
ill.

n. i,

43
iv.

gold toad from,

412,
11.
;

76
I.

female figurine from,

E.M.
117

askoi from, iv.

33 80 bird-shaped,
99, 100,
II.

Kydonia, bead-seals from, in. 465 n. 5, iv. 466, 467, 518, 576, 610 Kylix, base of from well below M.M. Ilia house at Knossos, in. 258
Kyllene, Mount,

wooden

statue of

Hermes

on,

silver daggers

from,

I.

169

III.

524

birds-head seals from,

snake cult

at,

I. 95, iv. 486 vessels associated with, iv.

Kymation pattern, perhaps connected with Minoan adder mark, iv. 192
Kypselos, chest
of,
i.

142 n.

I,

147, 158 n. 2, 163

311

steatite pyxis vsrith shell inlay

from,

iv.

Kythera, see Cerigo

Kupni,

identified
II.

by W.
n. 2

Max

Miiller with

ships
IV.

Byblos,
of,
11.

657

mentioned in annals of Thothmes


657
n. 2

III,

Kurds, Armenoid physiognomy of, iv. 407 n. i Kurion, tomb 28 at, L.M. lllb goblets from,
370. 371 scarab of Rameses II's reign from,
iv.

from Hieroglyphic Deposit at Knossos, I. 280 Labranda, worship of Zeus at, in. 479, iv. 46:
'Labels', clay,

and see Zeus Labraundos Labraundos, name of one of the Kouretes,


479
Labrys,
see

iv.

370. 371 pair of L.M. la bronze hydrias from, 652, IV. 440, 456

Axe, double
tradition, in. 283
i.

11.

504,

Labyrinth, association of with Palace of Minos

Kurisches HafF, exportation of amber from to Aegean, 11. 174 Kushites, see Kasi

Knossian coin-type, 59 Gortyna, a limestone quarry, 533 derivation of from 283


as
at
i.

post-Minoan

labrys, in.

LABYRINTH

[90]

LAPIS LACEDAEMONIUS
bronze, from

imitated in Delian dance, pattern:


religious associations of,

Labyrinth

(cont.)

Lamps
iii.

74 47

Tomb

of the Tripod Hearth,

11.

I.

4, 6, iv.

636
clay,

Egyptian derivation

of,

i.

103, 121, 123,

from Phaestos,

from Vat

Room Deposit,
I.

Knossos,
at

1.

168

219
Argos,
II.

use
II.

291, 358,
of,

II.

202,

III.

283, IV. 505 n. 2

gypsum, from Heraeon tomb

on 4th Dynasty pottery, I. 122 on 6th Dynasty seals, I. 122 Minoan, on faience ornament from Tiryns,
202 n. 3
III.
I.

41 n. 4 from Knossos, basement off Central Court,


IV.

936

on fresco from Knossos, 121, 345 356-9, 283, 328 on gold from Hagia Triada, n-3 on E.M. Ill 103, 121, 2 5S on from Asine, 202 3
plate
seals,
i.

N.W.
n. i,

angle,

11.
I.

599
344, 345, 429,
II.

S.E. House,
324, 480,
III.

323,

510

I.

359
122,

Royal
steatite,

limestone, from

11. 404 Harbour Town, 11. 238 from Knossos, N.E. Magazines,

Villa,

i.

n.

390 359

sealings

11.

n.

Didymaeon Labyrinthine dwellings, maze


on
ceiling of

at Miletus,

I.

basement off Central Court, iv. 936 S.W. corner of Store Room in Domestic
Quarter,
ill.

patterns plans of,

399
11.

1-359
'Lace'

Caravanserai,

123
of

on M.M. Ila pottery from Knossos and Zakro, 11. 218 Lacy, Major Wilfred de, specimen of Cretan
pattern

House of the Fallen Blocks, 11. 298 stone, from Knossos, from Inner Sanctuary

Room of the

engineer of New Candia harbour,


of the Fallen Blocks,
11.

adder obtained by,

iv.

183 n.

Throne, iv. 920 basement near Stepped Portico,


near Central Court,
11.

11.

633

ill.

289

521, 522

Ladders, use of as access to basement in House

N.W.

insula,

iii.

22, 26, 27

299

Ladle, limestone,
Juktas,
I.

M.M.

I,

from sanctuary of

from
II.

159, 623, II. 438 House of the Frescoes at Knossos,

House of the Fallen Blocks, 11. 298 House near S.E. angle, iii. 269 from N.W. insula, ill. 26 Langdon, Prof., on excavations at Kish, iv. 809

from Vapheio Tomb (with alabastron), stone,939 Arkhanes, 623, 64, 438, from 687 inscription on, Linear Script B, 939
silver,
IV.
I.

433, 438

n.

Lanuvium, image of Juno Sospita


Laodameia,
i.

at, 11.

52

11.

iv.

in

IV.

Lagash,

11.

256 n. i copper dagger with iron hilt from, 11. 276 relief showing lyre from, 11. 837, ill. 261 stela of the Vultures at, iv. 812 stone heifer's head from, 11. 262 Lahun, L.M. pottery from, 11. 510, iv. 265, 274 Lake-dwellings, Swiss, barley from, iv. 628 Lamb, Miss Winifred, on restoration of adder mark ornament, IV. 180, 181 Lambert, Mr. E. J., work on Shield Fresco from
11.

alabaster vessel from,

264, 269

441 Laodicea, see Latakieh Laos, Etruscan sea outlet of Sybaris, 11. 168 Lapidary's workshop, see under Knossos Lapidaries, Egyptian, possibly working Knossos, II. 57

at

Minoan, influence of on sculptured stelae from Shaft Graves at Mycenae, iv. 253

Lapis lacedaemonius (Spartan basalt), Minoan use of, I. 88, 445, III. 270, IV. 467
derived from stone of
III.

Mount

Taygetos,
iii.

270
269,

lapidary's store of at Knossos,


IV.

467, 898 used in buildings at Knossos,

ill.

269

Domestic Quarter, iii. 302 n. 2 Lamberti, copper swords from cemeteries


273 n. 3

n. 2,
at, 11.
I.

410 bowl of from Royal


87, 88,
II.

Tomb

at Isopata,

57, 58,

III.

270, 402 n. 3

LAPIS LACEDAEMONIUS
Lapis lacedaemonius (Spartan basalt)
seals of,
III.

[91]
[cont.)

LEON
Leaf ornament on
Malta,
II.

altar

from Hagiar Kim,

270, 316, IV. 443, 467, 560,

188

589
vase of from Harbour

Town,

11.

Lapis lazuli, rarity of under ist Empire, iv. 424 bead, shield shaped, from Knossos, ill. 315 cylinder seal from near Athens, iv. 409 (gold-mounted) showing Sargonid tradition, from Knossos, iv. 423 fragments of from niche in Room of the Throne, iv. 934 necklace from Royal Tomb at Isopata, 11. 75 ring stone from S. House, 11. 373 tessera from S. House, 11. 374 Lapps, sacred troll-drums of, ill. 315

338 Babylonian

on Minoan ivory combs, IV. 1005, 1006 on kilts of Minoan tributaries depicted on tomb of Rekhmara, 11. 744
in

Minoan metal work,


300, 328

11.

622, 637, 640,

IV. 75,

on bull's head rhytons, iv. 315 on lamp from Heraeon Tomb, 11. 41
as inlays n.

4
I.

onpottery,M.M.n,
268-70,
II.

256,260, 261,263,

213, 642, IV. 126


lb, IV.

and
Leaf

L.M. L.M. L.M.

284
640, IV. 284, 300, 328

II,

II.

Ill, IV.

300
A,
iv.

see Ivy, sacral

Lares,

Roman

capellae of,

ii.

131 n.
of, ill.

sign, in Linear Script

683, 685

Larissa, bull sports

on coins

229

in Linear Script B,
IV.

11.

284 and Fig. 290,


11.

Larnax, ^ee.Sarcophagus, under Burials, Minoan


Lasea,
Lasithi
11.

713; influenced by sacral form,

483,

85
11.

Mountains (Western Dikte),


over,
11.

4, 6i

484 Leaping dances, in N. Crete, in. 77


i,

Minoan road
719-20,
571
III.

63, 68, 78, 99


I.

engraved dagger blade from,


Ill, IV. 848

195 n.
685,

material of Minoan helmets, work, imitated


imitated in stone,
229, 233, 637 and see Plait-work
I.

Leather, African flasks of,

iv.

91 n. 2
iv.

867
11.

in pottery, iv.

647
348, iv.

Chalcedony bead-seal from,


Lasithiotis, Georgios,
11.

i.

iv.

412, 419,

no

n. i,

446 n.

Lassoing, portrayed on bead-seal from Crete,


III.

Lebanon, bronze figurine of Resheph from, in.


478 Lebena,
II.

no
ill.

Latakieh, bronze figurine from,

478 n. 6

Latium, hut urns from, 11. 130, 131 Latrines at Knossos, I. 228, 229, 333, 334, 336, II. 385, III. 387, 388 Laudanum, extraction of from Cretan gumcistus,
II.

shrine of Asklepios roads n. 84


at,

39 n.

5,

85
at,

n. 39, 84

Ledge-handles, see Handles

466

Lefebvre de Noailles, Commandant, on beadseals from Thisbe treasure, iv. 817 n. 2

Lavinium, sanctuary of Penates at, 11. 131 n. i Lead, axes, votive, from Mochlos, I. loi figurine of Snake Goddess, from Little Palace at Knossos, 11. 323, 540 of pugilist from tholos at Kampos, in.
461 n.
sling bullets

Leg amulets,

i.

18, 19, 125

from JCnossos, n. 344 used Knossos, 630 456, 457. weights, disk shaped, from Kjiossos,
as lining to floor cists at
IV.

i.

I. 278 Linear Script A, n. 249 Legrain, Prof. L., on Babylonian cylinder from Candia, 11. 266 nn. 2, 3, 4 Legs, clay votive, from Juktas, i. 158 painted reliefs of from E. Hall at Knossos,

sign, hieroglyphic,

451,

HI. 507, 508

Leiden Museum, bronze statuette found near


653
Phaestos
in, in.

iv.

461

from Mavro

Spelio,

11.

556

bronze-cased, iv. 655 Leaf, Dr. Walter, on Homeric description of Hector's spear, iv. 843 n. 2

Lenda, see Lebena Lens, Minoan use of, in. iii crystal, from Mavro Spelio, in.
Lentoid, see Seals

in

n. 2

on

silver

mines of Troad,

11.

169 n. 2

Leon, Cape,

11.

84

LEOPARD

[92]

LILIES
(cont.)

Leopard, on inlaid dagger blade from Mycenae,

Libya, connexions of

butt of

III.

114

schist axe from Mallia, 11. 274 Lethaby, Prof. W. R., on sculptures from Atreus Tomb at Mycenae, iii. 193 n. 3, 201 n. I Leuke, see Kouphonisi 'Lianokladhi goblets', I. 60

with with with negroid

Libations, dual, in Egypt and Crete,

importance of in Minoan worship, 348 modern ceremony of Ibrahimovci, 455 performed by Minoan 452, 453, 467 over on plaque from Mycenae, over 455 on plaque from Mycenae, 455 over 453 in honour of Boy-God, 467 openings for in tombs Isopata and Ras Shamra, 772 Egyptian, 75, 464
iii.

v.

82, 83

proto-Semitic element

Egypt, II. 23 Greece, 11. 37 n. 2 Malta, 11. 190, 191 element in, in predynastic times, 11. 46 (tridacna inlay showing negroid type from Mesara, ib. Fig. 21 a, b) primitive figurines from, 11. 32, iv. 219
in, iv.

506

at

iv.

Libyan bee-hive tombs, survival of the African mapalia, 11. 37-9

genii, iv.

altar,

glass

IV.

cairn,

glass

IV.

plants, iv.

bow

resemblance of these to primitive Cretan tholoi of Mesara, &c., 11. 38, 39 plumes, II. 34
side-locks, relation to

Minoan

fashion,

11.

33,

34

compared with proto-Egyptian and

iv.

early

Minoan
Neith

type,

11.

50, 51, IV. 172, 173

at

iv.

8-shaped
II-

and

see

shield (predynastic

rock-carving

tables,

I.

iv.

Cyrenaic,

11.

48

and proto-Egyptian), II. 50, 53 compared with Minoan andMycenaean,


S3 {Tehenu) fabric of glass-ware, 23, 54 greyhound names taken over by Egyptians,
11. II. 24 n. 2 Libyan Sea, I.

from Arvi, I. 497 n. i from Knossos, Temple Repositories, I. 497; S.E. House, I. 427; House of the
Frescoes,
IV.
11.

5o> 53,

433, 438, 440;

Temple Tomb,

464

from Palaikastro, i. 497 n. i, 630, 631, 636 from Petsofa, i. 636, 11. 440, iv. 657 from Phaestos, i. 219, 252, 11. 195, 217,
III.

Sheath,
of
see

17,

11.

82-90
11.

Tribes, referred to as 'Nine Bows',


Alabastron
steatite

see

under Dress

49

Lid of alabastron with name of King Khyan,

392, IV. 91
I.

from Psychro Cave,


30,
II.

75, 159, 497,

625-

from Mochlos with

figure of dog,

48, 438, 839, IV. 157 from Tartari, i. 630, 631

see

Pyxis

Light-areas, see Light-wells

and
vessels,

see Snake-tables

Lighting,
iv.

from Knossos,

656

11. 653 double spouted, I. 19 on talismanic gems, iv. 446 Egyptian sign for, 11. 55 Minoan sign, I. 280 Library at Ras-Shamra, tablets from, iv. 782 Libya (Early Nilotic) marked influence on Early Minoan culture of S. Crete, connected with immigration from Delta at time of Mena's Conquest, 11. 22 seqq., 45-8 connexion of with Minoan Crete, I. 312, 11.

from Petsofa, iv. 657 from Phaestos, I v. 91 on hydria from Kurion,

Minoan system of, m. 341 and see Windows Lightning, Anatolian Gods of, iv. 23 connexion of with Minoan Goddess,
:

IV. 23 Light-wells in

Minoan

houses,

11.

518
ill.

a protection against wind,

293
lii.

377 paving 107, 290, 327, in. 330 M.M. oval house Chamaezi, 47 and under Knossos
of,
11.

facing of walls of with ashlar,

in

at

i.i

see

Ligortino,

L.M.
II.

III6, painted clay sarcophagus

787, III. 116, 138, 463, IV. 338 Liguria, early pottery from, i. 29, 59
Lilies,

from,

associated with

Minoan Goddess,

11.

45, 756, IV. 34, 172, 464, 986

473. 776

LILIES
Lilies (cont.)

[93]

LIMESTONE
iv.

ornamental motive, L.M. combined with adder mark, 290 473, ogival canopy, 281, 282 319 from Temple Repository, Knossos, 341, 342 Lily crown, on painted of King, 500, 1013 on 499, from Hagia Triada, 604, 605 473, 644, 775-9, 323, 400 in Linear Script B, from Knossos, early passage, 680 688, 713 name groups, N.W. 130 713 throne of Usertesen Tanis, 477 S.E. House, 426, 537, 604, 391
as
lb,
11.

Lilies {cont.)

IV.

iv.

faience,
I.

shield, IV.

IV.

relief
IV.

Priest-

1.5,

frescoes,

I.

II.

11.

n.

sign,

IV.

insula,

ill.

in

iv.

I.

II.

I at

11.

n.

House

of the Frescoes,

11.

455 (Fig.

266 c) from Amnisos,


Plates

iv, xi,

1002, and Suppl.

Lime-tree bark, used for documents, in Chronicle of Diktys Cretensis, iv. 673 Lime, deposit of, on floor of Queen's Megaron,

LXVII

a, b

from Thebes, Kadmeion, 11. 749 from Thera, 11. 473 on ivory plaque from Phylakopi, 11. 473 in metalwork, on border of bronze bowl,
473. 644 gold, from

11.

derived from limestone quarry Hagia 532, pure lime 533 of Minoan 528-32 M.M. Ill from House of the
at
Irini,
I.

III.

356

plaster

frescoes,

I.

slaked, in

jar

tomb

at

Dimini,

I.

97, 499
i.

Sacrificed

Oxen,

11.

301

on E.M. II pins from Mochlos, from tomb at Volo, i. 97, 499


pendants,
inlaid,
III.

97

Limestone,
times,
altar,

abstracted
II.

from Palace in
Priest, iv.
iv.

later

11. 644 on dagger blade from Mycenae,

11.

473,

130

on socket of spear-like weapon of King Kames, iv. 842, 843 repousse, on hilt of dagger from Mycenae,
III.

130 on gold plate from 3rd Shaft Grave,


II,
I.

Mycenae, 11. 777 on pottery, M.M. II. 204 n. 4

from House of High 209 miniature, from N.W. angle, 200, 202 amphora, from sculptor's workshop, 900 block with name of Senusert from cemetery Harageh, 213 bowl from Caravanserai, 123 box, from House, 373 building, model from Hal Tarxien, 187 candlestick, from N.W. of Caravanserai,
iv.

349, 350

II

at

11.

11.

inlaid,

S.

11.

of,

11.

11.

256, 261, 264, 269,

127

M.M. Ill, I.
II.

558, 578, 579, 584, 604, 610,

469, 475
la,
II.

L.M. L.M.
L.M. L.M.

473, 777

lb, II. 749, IV. 271, 284, 290, 341,

from Palace, 814 carved, Orchomenos, 202, 205, 242, 874 371, column bases from Knossos, 394, 422,
capital Little
11.

from Nauplia,

11.

128

ceiling,

at

I.

11.

III.

IV.

i.

11.

342. 360
Ic, IV.

689, 738 n.

I, III.

361, IV. 13
11.

293, 368

II, II.

334

n. 6, IV. 284, 325, 353,

on

358, 362, 366 from Hala Sultan Tekke,


seals

iv.

368 n.

and

signets, in. 68, iv. 319,


I.

526

Madonna, pancratium,
II.

axe-plant derivatives of,


11.

584, 610, iv. 292


i

469, 473, 680 n.

73 cup from Vat Room Deposit, 170 cupped block from Hierakonpolis, 980 Double axe stands, 139 212 drum, Room of the Stone Drum, 925 ewer, from near S.W. Lustral Area, 229 figurine of Minoan Goddess from Knossos,
I.

from

Visala,

iv.

11.

n. i, iv.

in

iv.

iv.

waz, 644, 777, 781, Papyrus and with barred stamens,


see

11.

456

II.

32, IV. 35, 193


of,

IV.

319, 341, 342, 360: 362, 366-8

iv.

origin

of in

inflorescent

date-palm

andtriglyph, 223, 225 695, horns of consecration, from


friezes, rosette
IV.

hand

from E.

slope.

III.
11.

518
162, 163, 590,

S. Portico,

11.

160

motive,

iv.

366, 367

Temple Tomb,

iv.

965

LIMESTONE
Limestone
(cont.)

[94]

LIONS
first

on, from Enkomi, and proto-Egyptian connexions, 759 from House of the Frescoes, 406 and 409, 525, 486, and 526 433. 438 lamps, 238, 298, 521, 633, compositions 584, 585 and Lion's Gate under Mycenae 269, 920 from Mesara, with Minoan Goddess, 2 44 paving, 800, 798, 413, 334, 831, 399 447, 505 pithos from Long Corridor, 232 461, 526, 596, 607, 414, 514, 914 355 from with Minoan Genii, 517 442, 443, 461 contorted, combined with arrow sign on from S.W, 257, 258 rhyton, from near Candia, 231 from Armoury 617 from Delphi, on dagger blade of Queen 833 Minoan from Erech, Aah-hotep 264 649 Gate, under Mycenae from Knossos, Central Sanctuary, 780 guardians of dead, Treasury of Tri-Columnar 154 of sacred 822, 827 431 hunting Harbour Town, aspect of among 238 from Mycenae, Minoans, 195 575, 576 woman's, Service Quarter of Throne and dagger-blade) model on Room system, modern, by African native warriors 925, 926 pavement game E. Light area of Tanganyika Territory, 122
inscription
iv.
11.

Lions,

appearance on seals due to Libyan


55,
III.

ladle, votive,

11.

120, IV.

Figs.

(inscribed)

II.

III.

22, 26, 27,

'antithetic'
see

of, iv.

IV.

palettes,

11.

n.

associated

1.

108, 159,

II.

164,

III.

23,

n. I,

II.

III.

126, 127,

iv.

IV.

24, 169, 170,

plinths,

II.

III. 4,

relief, Hellenistic,

Little Palace,

11.

associated

iv.

n.

angle, iv.

seal-

11.

n. 3

ings,

deposit, iv.

11.

at full

gallop,

11.

(of

design),

II.

iv.

see

Hall,

11.

11.

55,

iii.

pillar, i.

I.

of,

military

III.

n.

iv.

(similar pictorial

seat,

in

cylinder-seal

iv.

in

slab for

in

ill.

Queen's Megaron, iii. 390; fromjCentral Court at Mallia, iii. 392, 394 sling-stones, from Mycenae, 11. 345 used in construction at Knossos, I. 209, 427,
II. 119, 349, 372, 376, 403, 405, 417. 545. 547. 548, 716, 811, III. 9 n. 3, 13 n. 3, 14, 23, 236, 241, 244, 24s, 246, 276, 280, 323. 492. 494. IV. 236, 878, 879, 995 vessels, from Hierakonpolis, 11. 49 n. 2

on dagger-blade of Queen Aah-hotep,


649,111. 112, 361,1V. 527

11.

from 4th

Shaft Grave, Mycenae, in.


754, iv. 574-6

453, 462,

maned, portrayed
seals

95. 12. IV. 575 on seals and sealings,

11.

cub on Minoan and sealings, IV. 559 rampant, on Cypro-Minoan cylinder from
as suckling

from Knossos,
123, 199 n.
I,

I.

412, 413,

II.

15, 303, iv.

seizing quarry on Minoan gems

Astrakous,

iv.

425

type taken

630, 631, 636, 637

over from those showing native hounds,

from Mycenae, I. 412, 413, IV. 234 from Phaestos, 11. 46 from Pyrgos, 11. 75 weights, disk-shaped, from Knossos, iv. 653 Linen garments represented on i2th-Dynasty

on dagger-blade,
II
result

IV.

524-6

seal-stones, &c., from

M.M.
on

of

personal

acquaintance
art,

seizing
531

Mainland

side, in. 118-23, iv.

bull, in

Chaldaean

526 seqq. iv. 528

monument, il. 178 n. 2 remains of on sword from Zafer Papoura,

in Cypriote art, iv. 535, 536, 539 in Greek art, iv. 534-7 in

IV. 866 Linnaeus, on identity of Dittany and Fraxinella,


II.

Minoan

art, ill. 123, iv. 527, 528,

70

n.

4
11.

in Phoenician art, iv. 534-6

Lintel, 'humped', of tholos at Christos,


at

11.

43, 82

deer, in Chaldaean art, iv. 528


in

Kumasa,

36, 41, 43
11.

Greek

art, iv.

539
527, 528,

Lion's Gate at Mycenae,

41, 42
at

in

Minoan

art, ill. 123, IV.

doorway of grave enclosure

Myndos,

"43

531. 539 goats, IV. 527, 538, 865

LIONS

[95]

LOTUS
from Knossos,
IV.
11.

horned sheep, m. 547 wounded, Assyrian


seizing
seated,

Lions

(cont.)

Lioness, head rhytons (cont.)


527, 585 547, 548

iv.

822, 827, 832, 833,

124, iv.

in

art, iv. art, iv.

727 Liparite, imported into Crete from Aeolian

in
in

Greek (Oriental)

548
11.

274 gold, miniature, from Knossos, 412, 76 of sword on rock carving Boghaz Keui, 275 shaped 55, 80 on bronze hydria from Cyprus, 652 on dagger-blade of Queen Aah-hotep,
ill.

544-8, 551 butt of ceremonial axe from Ecbatana,


art, iv.

Minoan

iv.

hilt
II

at

seals

as, 11.

11.

M.M. use 221 23, 271, cut by saws, 671 carinated bowls 23, 86, 87, 221 of Dolium perdix carved from Hagia Triada, no 833, ewer from Lustral Area Knossos, 412, 6 56 imitated pottery, M.M. 178, 179
I

Islands,

I.

23, 494,
of,
I.

11.

169, 671, iv. 895


II.

11.

of,

I.

11.

56,

shell

in,

I.

87,

11.

56,

iv.

of,

at

I.

II.

n.

in

I, I.

11.

M.M.

II,

I.

239,

II.

57

649,

III.

112, 361,1V. 527


ill.

Lissos, upheaval of coast-line near,

from Mycenae,

95, 120, 123, iv. 527,


ill.

11. 87 n. 3 Lithinos, cape, possible reference to in Odyssey,

575 on fresco from Knossos, 332, 413, on handle of from Gebel-el-'Arak


11.

II-

39.

84-8

iv.

Lithuania, snake cult in,

flint knife,

iv. 150 Livonians, snake cult among, iv. 150 n. 2 Lizard on ivory comb from Palaikastro, iv. 1006

(first

appearance of

'antithetic' type),

11.

sword from Chiefgrave Zafer Papoura, 865 on plaques from 5th Shaft Grave Mycenae, 253 on and Cypriote, 408
tain's
at
iv.

27, 34, III. 515, IV. 506 on hilt plate of cruciform

Lo, a cross in the Cypriote syllabary, Lock, see Door-fastenings, Key


Loggia, see Portico
Loin-cloths, see Dress

i.

516

at

London
British

IV.

Museum, bronze male

figurine in,

ill.

seals

sealings,

iv.

450
catalogue of sculptures in,
iii.

Cypro-Minoan, iv. 425 Minoan, I. 120, 123, 274,


523. 524. 754.
Ill-

11.

495 n.

2,

sculptures ffom

Mycenae

in, see

193 under

120, 123-7, 154. IV- 169,

170, 461, 461, 462, 486, 522, 525-7, 531,

Mycenae Minoan

seals in, iv. 449,


in, iv.

Sargon, 274 on above 5th Shaft Grave


,

544-7, 550, 55 1 559, 574-6, 582-5, 596, 607 on sheaths of Assyrian swords on relief of
11.

vase from IChafaje

815 810 n.

University College
in, II.

Museum,
i

alabaster vases

179 n.

2,

223 n.

stela

at

Mycenae,

Petrie Collection in,

11.

210

252 Lion's head rhyton, gold, from 4th Shaft Grave


IV.

Long Barrows

of Uley and Wayland's Smithy,


11.

apsidal recesses in,

181

at

Mycenae, 11. 420, 537, iii. 4 on M.M. Illb sealing, 11. 419, 537 sign, in Hieroglyphic script, 11. 438 n.
126
in Linear Script A,

4,

Loom-sign, in Linear Script A, i. 253, iv. 678, 680 Loom-weights, M.M. II, from Knossos, i. 253,
IV.

III.

71

438 n.

4, iv.
I.

678
673,
I.

Lion's masks, on talismanic bead-seals,


674, IV. 446 Lioness, associated with

Loop handles, see Handles Looped band design, L.M.

Minoan Goddess,
I.

505
crest, of votary of

head rhytons,

Snake Goddess,
199
11.

504, 505

I use of, iv. 339 n. 5 Lotus ornament, Egyptian use of, I. 18, 11. 207 Minoan use of, on M.M. II pottery, I. 258, II. 204 on L.M. I relief, iv. 874; ceiling patterns,
II.

III. 4,

from Delphi,

832, 833, iv. 727

205 use of on L.M. 116 pottery,

iv.

308

LOTUS

[96]

MACKENZIE
(cont.)

buds, on stone
Knossos,
III.

Lotus

(cont).

lamp from N.W. Insula

at

26 bead from Robbers' Cache, iv. 963 cups, see Blossom-bowls Loving-cups, see Goblets Lozenges, incurved, on dress of figure in Procession Fresco,
11.

impersonation of kinnor by Paphos, 73 403 on from Lagash, 837 Semitic, 837, 403 dress 403
III.

Lyre

Kinyras

of

n. i, iv.

relief

11.

11.

IV.

players,

of, iv.

Bedbuin, painting on tomb


II.

at

Beni Hasan,

732
crystal

837

on

faience

and

inlays

from
iv.

Knossos, II. 732 Lucian, on hair-offerings to Syrian Goddess,

on fresco from Thebes, 11. 836 in terra-cotta group of dancers from

478
Lugal-zaggisi,

on
Lyre

Palaikastro,

iii. 73, 439 n. 2 Hagia Triada sarcophagus,

I.

440,

11.

King

of

Umma, Lagash captured


11.

721
sign, as

by,

II.

264 264
vrall

M.M.

II hieroglyph,

extent of dominions of,

in Linear Script

A,

i.

I. 276, 281 641, iv. 682

Lunghi, Pietro,

paintings by, in Palazzo


ill.

Grassi, Venice,

56
11.

Luschan, Dr. Felix von, on composite bow, 49 n. 4 on Jewish physiognomy, iv. 407 n. Lustral areas, gypsum paving of, 11. 523
i

M
Ma,
Asiatic Goddess,
I. 656 Maat, Egyptian Goddess, 11. 764 Macan, Dr. R. W., on connexion between Greece and Libya, 11. 37 n. 2 Macedonia, coins of, iv. 557, 564 n. 3

lighting of,

II.

523
II.

basins, terrestrial relation of,

322

mother of Attis, on coins of Comana, ill. 100 on relief from Marash, iv. 41 symbols of, on Phaestos disk,

iii.

473

Lutra,

77 Lycaonia, two-pronged spearhead from, I. loi Lydgate, John, English version of Chronicle of Diktys Cretensis by, IV. 673

L.M. la

pottery from,

11.

conquest of Gortyna by, 74 destruction of by Knossians, probable of Kanli


li.

Lykastos,

i.

10

n. 5

11.

74 n.
11.

site

at

Kasteli,

74
I.

Lykia, connexions of with Phaestos disk,


658, 663

657,
i.

Lykians, sea-raids of in Egyptian records,


663, 664 Lyktos (Lyttos),

pottery from, 38 2 Maces, Early Egyptian stone, 26 Neolithic, from Knossos, IS from Mace-bearer's tomb 357 of King Musilim, 529
I.

n.

11.

I.

14, 15, 53, 54,

II.

breccia,
IV.

at Isopata,

iv.

Mackenzie, Dr. Duncan, tribute


i.

to, iv.

i,

ii

571 un-Greek signs on 259 temple of Britomartis 843 261 Lyre, Asiatic origin 837, Chaldaean, from Tello, 261 Cretan modern, accompaniment to chaindances, 77 Minoan, Chaldaean derivation 261,
iv.

625 cornelian bead-seal from, i. 685,


10, 11,

discoveries at S. Portico of Knossos,

11.

146 n.
n. S

3,

149 n.

inscriptions

at, ill.

discoveries in

tombs of Mesara,

II.

36
i,

n.

at, 11.

exploration of

Minoan

roads,

11.

62 n.
680,

of, 11.

ill.

91 n.

ill.

work on
302 n. 2

fresco fragments,

11.

iii.

as

II.

of. III.

on drains on figure
257 n. 2

at Phylakopi, 11.

vessel

299 n. 4 from Bethshemesh,

11.

IV.

403 n. I Egyptian influence on, iv. 403 n. i late Mycenaean, from Menidi, 11. 835 n. 3
eight-stringed,

on fixed hearths, 11. 20 n. 6 on Mycenaean type of megaron,


n- 3

iii.

350

on

seals

and seahngs,

11.

835

on metope

style of decoration,

11.

130

MACKENZIE
Mackenzie, Dr. Duncan
{cont.)

[97]

MANATT
connexion with Cilicia, IV. 408 elements in, in. 7
illustrates theocratic position of ruler, ill.

Mallia, Palace at (cont.)

on Minoan pottery, I. 35 n. i, 36 nn. i and 3, 62,11. 18 n. i, 119 n. i, 135 nn. 2 and


179 n. 5, 214 n. I, 309 n. I, 418 n. 63 n. I, 86 nn. 2 and 3, 267 n. 5 Magaza, Neolithic station at, i. 32, 11. 18
3,

3, IV.

fortified

276

bone implements from,


in early

II.

13

recessed window in,


Tiryns,
iii.

pillar crypts in,

I.

436,
11.

II.

322, 567

377

Magi

Christian

art,

Minoan com-

resemblance of central court to that of


351
II.

parisons, in. 474, 475

Magnetite pendant from Avg6, in. 411 Maidenhair fern on L.M. I pottery from Knossos, II. 475 Mainland, see Greece Maiuri, Prof., discoveries at lalysos, IV. i63,
289 Majewski, Dr. K. W., on date of 'Ring of Minos', IV. 949 n. 3 Majorca, bronze bulls' heads from, I. 22 Makers' marks, on inlays from Knossos, I. 124,
134. 485. 488, 496,
III.

altar-base in loggia of,

270

ceremonial weapons of Priest-king from,


II.

270-4, 794, IV. 416, 417, 845 gold pin and 'hornet' pendant from,
la, IV. 75, 115, 125

M.M.
seals

from,

II.

50, IV. 172, 522

pavement games from, m. 391 > 392, 394, IV. 24


slab for

tablets, inscribed,

from,

11.

266, 269, iv.

408

from Mycenae,!. 483, 484,485, 111.408 seal on medallion pithos, i. 565 Maket, tomb of at Kahun, painted clay alabastron from, II. 488
Makryteichos, village of, 11. 551, 560 Malachite, introduction of into Crete,
shell
lustral
iv.

submarine remains

676, 688, 867 quarries near, 11. 233


11.

at, 11. 87 n. 2 terminus of transit route from E. Crete,

tombs on shore town Minoan,


of,

169, 253

at, 11.
11,

234
11.

933 model of tridacna from basin of Room of the Throne, 933 stud of from Middle Neolithic stratum, 933 pounded, used pigment in Shield Fresco
(Chrysocolla),
I.

IV.

Mallos, in Cilicia,

233 connexion of with Keftiu,

656, 657, IV. 408

Malnus, see Mallos Malta, connexion of with Minoan Crete,


342, 492,
II.

I.

263,

54, 55, IV. as

180, 182, 190,

III.

322

305, iv. 933 use of for personal adornment,


at
iii.

Tiryns,

11.

44

in predynastic Egypt,

iv.

933

Malalas, John, cited, iv. 673 n. 2, 781 Malatia, Sumerian war chariots on reliefs from,
IV.

814
peasant

with Libya, 11. 190 with Spain, 11. 180 earthquake at in a.d. 1856, 11. 315 horned ornament from, I. 263 Megalithic monuments in, 11. 180, 181,

III.

322
pillar

Maleviziotikos, traditional

dance

of

spiral ornament in, related to M.M. II polychrome


pattern,
I.

worship

in, 11.

180

Malevizi district, ill. 75 Malla, coin types of, iv. 536 and see Malles Malles, Minoan road to, 11. 63 n. 5
:

steatopygous Neolithic
706, 853

22,

11.

180

Mallet sign, on
district, 11.

steatite bead-seal

from Candia
11.

Gulf Palace

835 n. 5 Mallia, church of Hagia Pelagia near, Chrysolakkos site at, 11. 674 n. 2
of,
II.

i. 45 Malten, Dr. Ludolf, on Minoan character of Greek Elysion, in. 155 n. 2 'Man' sign, in Linear Script B, iv. 618, 668, 700,

figures from,

251

169
167, 267-85, 656, 667, iv. 75 n.

at, 11.

2,78
Anatolian features in, break in history of in
11.

269
lb, iv.

crouched type of, IV. 706 to countermark lion seal, iv. 618 'Manacles' sign in Linear Script A, iv. 682 on Phaestos Disk, I. 653 Manatt, Dr. J. Irving, on silver rhyton from

used

L.M.

885

Mycenae,

in.

94 n.

MANN
Mann, Mr. Ludovic McL., on
I.

[98]

MASON'S MARKS

faience beads,

493

n. 6

Marinatos, Dr. Sp. N. (cont) on inlays of dagger-blade from Vapheio,


III.

Mannus,
Mapalia,

see

Mallos
for beeII.

127 n. 2

Roman form of Libyan name


39
illustrating

hive huts,

on E.M. breccia owl vase, iv. 487 n. 4 on fragments of stucco relief from N.E.
angle at Knossos,
iv.

Marash, rehefs

Syro-Hittite dove

538

cult from, IV.

410
at, 11.

Marathokephali, tholos ossuary

80

and see Arkalokhorio Marine style of ornament, connexion of with


Cretan fishers' craft, 11. 497 n. 6 on bronze hydria from Kurion,
652, IV. 527 on frescoes from
II.

Marble

(also includes marble-like material):

E.M.

II use of,

I.

90

11.

507,

dado slabs of highly polished mottled marble, from earlier Propylaeum at Knossos, ii. 698, 699, IV. 896 figurines, early Cycladic, I. 20, 115, II. 44 n. 2,
83s,
II.

House of the
la,
11.

Frescoes,

466, 500-12, IV. 306

on pottery,
IV.

M.M.

507,

iii.

363, 364,

III.

340 imported into Crete,


11.

108, III, 115

I.

20, iii, 115,

835, 340 from Keros, 835, 340 from Thera, 835 tattooing on, 44 2; on Goddess's cheek (Sub-Minoan), Minoan, of Goddess, 757 Fitzwilliam in
iii.
11.

193 of musicians,

M.M. lb, IV. Ill, 114 M.M. Ha, IV. 109, no, iii, 113, M.M. 116, 1. 263, II. 500, 507, IV.
115, 116, 117

117
Ill,

iii.

11.

M.M.
L.M. L.M.

III,

I.

607-9,

IV. 102,

115

11.

n.

iv.

511, 512 lb, II. loi, 284 n. 4, 426, 437, 454, 488,492, 500, 507, 5io,iv.2i4,239, 260,
la,
II.

Museum, iv. 32 fragment of vessel from Caravanserai, 128


imitated in frescoes,
i.

276, 279, 281, 286, 314, 315, 420, 884, 962


11.

356, 531,
i.

11.

354, iv.

in pottery, M.M.
inlay,
tories,
I.

893-6, 908

on on

L.M. L.M. L.M.


seals

Ic, IV.

294
316-18, 320

II, IV. 303, 305,

Ill, IV. Ill,


IV.

303
I.

Late Revival,

295, 296 272, 695-7, "

II,

238, 239

and

sealings,

cross-shaped, from
517, IV. 94 Neolithic,

Temple Reposi11.

453. "I- 138

mace-head.
IS

from Knossos,

influence

silver

rhyton from Mycenae, in. 90 of on stela above 5th Shaft

mouthpiece of flask from Abydos, 11. 222 omphalos at Delphi, network on, 11. 840 palettes from Paros, 11. 44 n. 2 pedestalled dish from Mochlos, I. 93 rhytons from Crete, iii. 199 cylinder seal from Cairo, iv. 506 used in M.M. construction, i. 211 vessel in Cairo Museum, 11. 223 n. i

Grave at Mycenae, iv. 250 and see Crabs, Dolphins, Fish, Flyingfish, Octopus, Rocks, Sea-weed, Shells Markides, Mr., on hydrias from Kurion, 11. 504 n. I, 654 n. I Maroni (Cyprus), engraved gold ring from, iv.

759 L.M.
526

Ic goblet from, iv. 368 Marriage, possibly subject of Jewel Fresco,

i.

Marduk, iv. 427 winged dragon of, on cylinder from Initiatory

dance, modern,
Marseilles

at Anoia, in.

423 Mareotis, Lake, 11. 23

Area,

iv.

Museum, L.M.

16

76 ewer

in, 11. loi,

507, IV. 274, 277


de,

Margne, Monsieur Pierre


Mallia, iv. 75 n. 2 Marguerites, see Rosettes

discoveries

at

Mason's marks
at

Marinatos, Dr. Sp. N., discoveries at Amnisos,


IV. xi,

453 n.

4,

1002

E. Bastion, E. Corridor, E.

Knossos,

11.

146

in.

244

in. 272

Stairs, in.

276

MASON'S MARKS
Mason's marks

[99]

MEGARON
11.

N. Entrance Bastion, 394, in. 244 N. Lustral Basin, 13 N.W. Entrance, 218 Front, 209, 290 Portico, 145 146 S.E. Angle, 327 W. Porch, 664 W. Section, Rooms, Light-well, Hall of Double 425
I.

at

Knossos
in.

(cont.)

Mauls, limestone, Neolithic, from Knossos,


13

n. 3

Mavro

Spelio, cemetery of,

i.

S.

i.

11.

11. 555, 556, in. 274 balances from, n. 556, IV. 661 crystal lens from, in. iii n. 2

S.

II.

n. i,

figurine of

Minoan Mother Goddess

11.

from,

II.

n.

Pillar

I.

AJxes, in.

346

Queen's Megaron,
I.

i.

204, 347, in. 369,


n. i
i

III. 469, 470 cup from, iv. 353 scarab from, n. 480 gold signet-ring from, with inscription of Linear Class A, n. 557, iv. 510
II.

337, 556,
II

L.M.

374 Magazines, 449, 463, n. 663, 664 Royal Box of Theatral Area, n. 582 well under M.M. Ilia house, in. 256 Ramp Passage, in. 7 S.E. House, 427, 436, 244 Temple Tomb, 971, 973, 995
n. 3
I.

n.

from, n. 557 iv. 246 stone vases from, n. 556 sacred spring at, 11. 555, in. 138
seals
stela

from,

III.

Mavrokolybo, spring, Minoan conduit, heads towards Palace of Knossos, n. 463, 547,
III.

iv.

252
II.

at Mallia,

323 at Phaestos, n. 146 at Seraia, n. 63 n. i


11.

Mayr, Dr. Albert, on Maltese Megalithic monuments,


181 n.
I,

182 n.

M.M.

Ill, superficial character of signs,


I.

m.

244 374

Maze, see Labyrinth Meander, see Labyrinth


Measures, liquid, signs for in Linear Script B,
IV. 722 Mecklenburg, hut-urns from, n. 132 n. 3 Medallion ornament, M.M. II, I. 261, 268 M.M. IIIfr-L.M. la, IV. 634, 636

Table of incised
branch,
door,
I.

135:
i,

204, n. 582 n.

in. 7 n. 3,

cross, n. 327, 663


II. 664 n. i double axe, i. 4, 134, 209, 218, 347, 394,

425. 427. 436, 449. 463. " 14s n146, 249, 323, 582 n. I, 613, 664 n.
818, in. 13 n. 3, 14, 244, 346, 369, 971. 973
fork, n.

i> I,

from

on pottery from Visala, n. 71 diadem, from 5th Shaft Grave,


II.

My-

IV.

217 Medinet Habu, Pylon


cenae,

of, i.

664, 665,

11.

35 n. 3,

290
i

346, in. 95

serpent, n. 146 n.

Medrasen, tomb
Megalithic
i

of,

n. 39
in Africa, n. 181

squares, in. 276


star, XI.

monuments
i.

290, 664 n.

in Britain, n. 181
in Malta,
4,

trident,

i. 304, 394, 401, n. 290, 323, 343, in. 244, IV. 995

22, 188, 492 n. 4, 263, n. 180-

window, II. 664 n. i Maspero, Monsieur, on Marseilles ewer, n. 510,


IV.

190 in Minorca,
in

I.

342
II.

274

Western Mediterranean, n. 181 Megalokastron, Romaic name for Candia,


231, ni. 75 n. 2 Megalo Vrysi, Minoan Southern
seal

Road 88 Matala, harbour of Gortyna, n. 76 Greek and Roman tombs with horseman from, n. 87 Megara, 830 Megaron, 2 n. 280 Mation: 24 Corinth, 24 2 Graeco-Roman chamber tombs n. 552 Mycenae, under Mycenae from Knossos, from Matrix, Orchomenos, 24 2 n. 767, 768, 395, 398 Tiryns, under Tiryns from 724 479, 514,
39, 85, 87, near,
iv. site of,

Mastiif,

on bead-seal from Isopata, li. 766 on sealing from Knossos, n. 765

near, n.

n.

n.

apsidal,
I.

i.

near,

at at at

n.

clay,

ofHcial signet,

see

IV.

i.

n.

stone,

Siteia,

I.

il.

from Karydi, n. 336

at

see

and

see

Hearths, fixed

MEGIDDO
Megiddo, battle of, iv. 796 Meir, Tomb-chapel of Ukh-hotep at, 11. 744 Melikreta, offering to dead at Styx, iv. 157

[lOO]

MESOPOTAMIA
nth
Dynasty,
11.

Menthotep, Egyptian King of

perhaps in Diktaean Cave,

iv.

157
i.

176 n. 4 Mercenaries, negro, probably employed Knossians in mainland Greece, iv. 887

by

Melos, connexion of with Minoan Crete,

20,

wooden models of from tomb


" 756. 757 Merckhn, Dr. F. von,
n. 2

at

Siut,

172, 247, 274, 466, 557, 558, 560, 561, IV.

obsidian exported from,i. 6 pottery from, 508 80 8 466, bird 466


11.

on Greek
11.

chariot, iv. 821

14, 20, 34,

11.

56n.

185,

legendary
n-4
III.

Meriones, son of Minos,

620
11.

tomb

of,

near Knossos,
stela of,
11.

230
3,

askoi,

I.

IV.

n.

vase,

I.

Mer-Neith, King of Egypt,


314 n. 6
of,

50 n.
11.

revival of seal-engraving 560 from, 444, 445 walled strongholds


IV.

imported to Mycenae, i. 557, iv. 81 vyith naturalistic ornament, i. 598 two-storied pots, 11. 430 stone pyxis from, i. 112, 11. 40 n. 4 Linear Script A used in, i. 637, iv. 715 Linear Script A name groups in, iv. 715
in,

Meroe, Queens
IV.

portrayed with beards,


I

35,

23 Mery-ra, see Pepy

Mesara bay of,

II.

84 n.

8th century B.C.,

plain of,

II.

seals

iv.

n."3

communications with Knossos,


80
11.

breccia quarries

2, 4, 61,

81
i.

in,

602

11.

61, 78,

and

in, ill.

see

Phylakopi

Meltem, N. and N.W. wind of Crete,

84

n.5 Memphis,
steatite

evidences of Libyan settlement tholos


ossuaries in,
i.

with Trypeti,

11.

83

in, 11.
11.

53

i,

107,

36, 37

11.

29 plaque from,

i.

122

n- 3. 39. 45. 52 date of, II. 41

Men
Men,

sign, see

Draughtboard

traditional head-gear of, iv. 197 Askaenos, sanctuary of near Pisidian


tioch, n. 2
I.

An935

4, 5, 217, 422,

n. 276, 277,
i.

IV.

connexion with Cyclades, II. 193 with Libya, 11. 45, 53, iv. 525; with Mycenae, 11. 66, iv. 237 n. i bull-shaped rhytons from, 11. 260,
III.

205

Mena, conquest of Delta


26, 45, 56, 60, 756,

by,

III.

25, 26, 11. 23, loi, IV. 464, 526,


II. 11.

cupped blocks from,


31, 32, 193

iv.

982

figurines of predynastic type from,

date of accession 29 stone mace 26 marriage of with Hetep, Menelaos, 86-9, 155 Harbour 37
of,
i.

982

70,

n.

4
362

ivory seals from,


n. I, 742,
III.

i.

117,

11.

24, 217,
n. 2

of,

11.

120, IV. 511


11.

Saite

11.

56

11.

ill.

iv.
11.

limestone palettes from,

44

cupped blocks from,


pottery from,
I.

iv.

982

of, 11.

56

Menhirs, as stelae above cenotaph


245 Menidi, tholos tomb

at

Dendra,

and
at, glass

plaque from,

iii. 446 Hagios Onuphrios, Kalathiana, Kumasa, Marathokephali, Patena,

stalagmite pendant from,

see Christos,

595 n- 2> 596 n. i ivory frieze from,

pyxis from,

I.

343 685

I.

Platanos, Port!, Pyrgos, Siva Meskinia, church of St. Phanourios

at, 11.

251

lyre from, 11. 835 n. 3 Men-kheper'ra-senb, tomb of at Thebes, 11. 207,

535. 648. 649. 651, 728, 738, 745. 747. iv.

of inlaying 732 origin of wheeled vehicles and Babylon, Chaldaea,


art
in, 11.

Mesopotamia,

11.

26

in, iv.

see

807 Erech, Kish,

269

Sumeria,

Ur

MESSENE
Messene, Megalopolis gate of, i. io6 Metal-work, Minoan wealth of, ii. 635, 640 depicted on Egyptian wall-paintings,
166

[lOl]

MINORCA
Chamber Tomb
seals
at {cont.)

Milato,

from,

iv.

46 n. 4
Genii, IV. 466

11.

Milchhofer, Prof., on
Miletos,
I.

Minoan

M.M. 191-5 M.M. 553 L.M. 18 imitating pottery forms, 425 imitated in 498, 500,
I, I.

inventoried on Linear Script B Tablet from Knossos, 11. 633 E.M., I. 20


Ill, rarity of,

Boegia 46, 47 connexion with Crete, labyrinth on of


at, iv.

10, IV.

46

iv.

46

ceiling

Didymaeon

at,

i.

I.

1,1.

iv.

11.

faience,

I.

780

in pottery

Neolithic,

11.

12
II.

E.M. E.M.

I, I.

59,

10 n. 6
II.

II,

I.

79, 80,

635, IV. 98
2, 259, IV. 124,

359 Milk, offered to dead at Styx, iv. 157 diet of household snakes, iv. 153 seqq. Milk-stones (galopetras), Cretan, I. 673, iv. 446 Millet, carbonized grains of, from N. of Loom Weight Area at Knossos, iv. 622 beer made from, by Paeonians, iv. 625 storage of, at Knossos, iv. 622 represented by Cereal sign in Linear Script
B, IV. 625
at

M.M. M.M.
298

I, I.

170, 191-3
I.

II,

242-5, 249 n.

M.M.
L.M. L.M. L.M.
see

Ill,
lb,

I.

II.

553, 567 507, IV. 276, 284, 363

Egyptian 'sont'-bush,
at, IV.

Mimosa, on wall-painting of tomb Hasan, 11. in


11.

Beni

in

n.

II, II. 55 n. 2, 640, IV.

299-302, 359

Minas, number of equal to ingot, Minassos in Pisidia, I. 6


Minet-el-Beida, evidence of

iv.

662
settlement

and

Ilia, IV. 335 Bronze, Copper, Gold, Lead, Silver,

Minoan

Tin
Metapontion, four-rowed barley on coins 628
of, iv.

557, 770, 776-8 station in Cypro-Minoan faience trade, iv.

tomb

771

at,

L.M.

II elements in structure

and

Metope

style in

L.M.

lllb, pottery,

II.

130, 138,

contents of,

iv.

557, 771, 775, 776-8


IV.

IV. 244, 295, 351 Metragyrts, mendicant priests of Rhea-Kybele,

Miniature frescoes, see Frescoes Miniature painting on crystal, in. 107-33,

IV.

220
quarries
at, I.

Mex, limestone
Meyer, Dr.

295

system for Egyptian history adopted in this work, I.


E., his chronological

930 Minoa, I. 2 Minoan, use of term,

I.

i, 2,

13

I. 58 Michelangelo, signet-ring of, in. 145 Midea, tholos at, gold bowl from, 11. 505 silver cups from, 11. 505 Mikal, assimilation of to Archangel Michael, in.

I, II. 29 n. 4 on the Phaestos Disk, I. 666 Miamu, cave of, carinated bowl from,

30, 31, 300 n.

unity Dynasty, 316


culture,
I.

classical,

i.

12
I.

of,

13, 315, 316,

II.

91

names
278

of,

on

M.M.

II seals,

i.

271, 272,
i.

portraits of,

on

M.M.

II sealings,

271,

272
last representative of:

human remains from


attributed to, iv.

480 Mikon, painting on walls of Theseion


Milato, reputed

pit
illustrating

in

Temple Tomb

legend of 'Ring of Minos', vi. 957 Mother City of Miletos, iv. 46 Chamber Tomb at, bronze axe hammer
from,
IV.

I 008- I

script, see Script


i
:

46 n. 4
11.

Minoans, average height of, 11. 118 n. Crete, Knossos Minoe, fountain in Delos, in. 74

atid see

pottery from, iv. 164, 370

Minoid nymphs,
iv.

i.

2, in.

74

sarcophagus from,

499,

46

n. 4,

47

Minorca, Megalithic columns from, i. 342 connexion with L.M. Crete, i. 494

MINOS
9 bureaucratic 694 Achaean use of name, 10 'adoption of, 10 Athenian calumny divine aspect Dorian use of name, 154 10 Dynastic use of name, 12 Laws 2 connexions of name, mythical date 10 genealogy of with L.M. lb 888 of Minoan Goddess, 960
as

[102]

MONSTERS
caste at

Minos,

I. I,

Mnoia, Helot
III.

Knossos

in classical times,

organizer, iv.
I.

259

Mnos,

i.

of,
3,

I.

of,

i.

I.

i.

3, 9,

of,

I.

linguistic

I.

of,

I.

of,

I.

10, 11 n.

40 tholos E.M. houses 624 breccia vases from, 572,


II.

Cilician name, IV. 408 Mobius, Dr. H., iv. 169 n. 2 Mobius, Prof. Martin, on saffron, iv. 718 n. 2 Mocatta, Major V. E., ii. 264 n. i Mochlos, cist-tombs at, E.M. II, i. 72 house-tombs at, E.M. Ill, i. 72, 88, 102, 107,

ossuaries at,
at, i.

II, I.

72

70,

11.

possible identity
king, IV.

Priest-

bronze basins from,


cup from,
I.

I.

iv.

234 n. 4
177

11.
II.

624
480,
III.
11.

relation
Sicilian

to

iv.

connexion
I. i, 11.

of, 11. 626, IV. 959,

960

subject of ring of, iv. 957-9

of Minoan type with symbols on 316 Egyptian prototypes 54 legend 316, 17


association
star
seals, iii.

Minotaur,

28

shield

and

of,

I.

69,

11.

as Knossian coin-type,

of,

i.

190,

iii.

iv.

-on

E.M.

steatite
I.

I. 359 whorl from Hagios Onu-

bull-shaped from, 260, m. 205 chalcedony pendant from, 407 double from, iS>29 faience beads and bowl from, 85 vase from, 115, 258 gold-work from, 20, 95-8, 125, 423 horns of consecration from, 57 ivory from, 83 pottery from, 584, 623, 75, 76, 345 n.
rhjrton
IV.
I.

345,

axes, votive,

56, 57, loi,

11.

I.

figure

I.

11.

I.

iv.

I.

seal

I.

I.

17,

i,

-on

phrios,

69
seals, 11. 763, ill. 316, iv. 387,

Minoan

signet-ring, gold, from,

IV.

271

young, 594 Minyan Greece, trade-route from Asia Minor, ware, under Pottery
387, culture, in
IV.
11.

498, 589. on Greek 594

seals, IV.

18

21,

40
168, 169

cylinder from, 83 from, 362 93, vase from, 75 stone vases from, 66, 88-93
silver
I.

11.

249, iv. 952


n. i

steatite lid

I.

11.

11.

I.

11.

see

bead-seals from,

Minoan road

Mirabello, breccia quarries in,


to, 11.
11.

i.

602
117, iv. 445,

63 n.

5,

253

203 n.

i, ill.

Moggridge, Mr. M., on Maraviglie of Col di Tenda, 11. 170 n. 4 Money-Coutts, Miss M., iv. 347 n. 2 Monkeys, on goldsmith's work from tomb of Kenamon at Thebes, II. 450

491,492,493,576,627 Mirror, bronze, from Zafer Papoura, iv. 860 handles, ivory, from Enkomi, iv. 190 n. 3, 533, 804 from Mycenae, iii. 61 from Zafer Papoura, III. 415 n. 2
Mississippi valley, two-storied pots from,
11.

onE.M.
486
at

seals,

i.

94, 119, 123,

11.

448,

iv.

blue, on fresco from House of the Frescoes

Green, West African,447, introduction of Egypt and Crete, 448, 467 Soudanese, importation of to Crete,
11.

Knossos,

11.

361,

450,

iii.

115

into

11.

756

428
Mistletoe,
Virgil,

compared with Golden Bough by


II.

483 n. 3 Mithra, traditional head-gear of, IV. 197 Mitra shell, see Shell Mitsotakis, Monsieur, collection of at Candia,

487 n. 4 Mnaidra, Megalithic monument


IV.

at, 11.

181

on Helladic 559 Anatolian 559, 560 double-bodied Minoan, 585 on pottery from Melos, 703-5 on from Melos, 708
antlered,
vases,
i.

763 in Minoan religious iconography, Monsters in Minoan art, iv. 432


11.
i.

companions of Thoth,

11.

763

parallels,

iv.

i.

seals

i.

MONSTERS

[103]

MYCENAE
of

on 702-12 on 'Ring of Nestor', and Genii, Goblins


sealings,
i.

Monsters

(cont.)

Moustache-cup, connexion
worship,
II.

with
57

Hathor

Hi. 155

see

57 fragment of from Knossos, occurrence of Egypt, 57


in
11.

II.

Montelius, Prof., on hut-urn from Hammar, 11. 132 n. 4 Montemerano, halberd blade from, 11. 172
n.
I

Moynihan, Lord, on III. 448 n. 2


Msila,

effect of

Minoan metal

belt,

Senam of, 11. 38 Mugem, flint-tipped arrows

Montgomery, Mr., discovery of

statuette

at

Adana, 11. 220 n. 4 Montigny, Monsieur de, ring-stone in collection


of, IV.

Moon on

548 n. 2 gold signet-ring from Tiryns,

iv.

from, 11. 49 n. 6 Muliana, tomb of cymbal-player at, IV. 220 cymbals from, in. 472 pottery from, iv. 372 tomb at, gold mask from, i. 99 pottery from, proto-geometrical, IV. 374, 375,

461
crescent, sign in Linear Script B, iv. 685
see
le

376
Miiller,

Morea,

Peloponnese
Jeune, print of Theatre Franfais by,

Moreau
III.

Dr. Kurt, on silver rhyton from Mycenae, III. 94 n. 2, 96 n. i, 98 n. 2 on stela from 5th Shaft Grave, iv. 252
^

56 Morlacchi, peasants of Ragusa, 11. 321 n. i Mosaics, flower-cone, from Erech, iv. 124 from Kirkup, iv. 125 from Ur, iv. 124 standard, from Ur, iv. 810 Town, from Knossos, I. 249, 301-14, 355,

n. 6

on

steatite

cup from Hagia Triada,

11.

742 n. 3

W. Max, on Keftiu, i. 177 nn. 2 and 3, 178, 657 n. 3, 746, 748 n. i Murex, see Shell Murray, Dr. A. S., on biblical analogies of
Miiller, Prof.

488,

II. 188, 370, 372, 607, 754, 87, 162, 342, IV. 210

III. 7,

85,

window

scenes,

11.

602 n. 3

Mosaiko, see Pavements Moses, legend of, I. 289

on sculptures from Atreus tomb at Mycenae, in. 193 Murray, Prof. Margaret A., on symbol of Neith,

Moslems
Mosso,

of Tashkend, belief as to origin of


11.

earthquakes,
131 n. 3
analysis of

324
i.

on Egyptian
n.
I

I.

584 n.

I, II.

49 n.
vases,

11.

256 n.

i, iv.

985

Prof., discoveries at Phaestos,

37,

11.

M.M.

I daggers,

I.

195

probably depicted on Procession Fresco,


741, 742

Musicians, dress

of, IV.

403

11.

Mother Goddess, see Goddess Mother of pearl, see Shell


Motya, coin-types of, in. 765 n. 3 Mould, see Matrix Moulding, architectonic, of gypsum table from House B below Kouloura off W. Court earliest known example (M.M. Id), iv. 74 of the triglyph and rosette friezes of Minoan borders, ii. 594-8 Mouliana, see Muliana Mountain God, Egyptian cuk of, 11. 28 n. 5

Musilim, King, mace-head of, iv. 529 Mut-netem, Egyptian Goddess, in. 419 n. 3 'Mycenaean' culture, term as generally used a misnomer, i. i, iv. 283, 294

Mycenae

with Egypt, with Minoan Crete,


I.

connexion

of,

with Anatolia, n. 21
18, III.
i.

305
24, n. 201, 202, 217,

287, 452, 591, 596, 697, IV. 222, 229, 248, 283, 887
cult of

Minoan, throne of Goddess on


sanctuaries,
at, IV.

Chaldaean,

I.

16

Double Axe

at, iv.

351

I.

151-63

position of, n. 2

sealings

from Central
settlement

Minoan roads

to, 11. 91,

168

Shrine, iv. 596. Mount Kasios, tradition of

Minoan

bridge on, n. 98 n. 2, 99, 168 n. 3 Linear script, L.M. II, type, found at, in

781

L.M. Ilia connexion,

iv.

373

MYCENAE
Mycenae
(cont.)
i.

[104]

MYCENAE

Lions' Gate,

308, 343,

iii.

199, 515, iv. 612,

Mycenae, Tholos tombs (cont.) synchronism of contents with those of


Shaft Graves,
iv.

613 n.

236, 243

humped

lintel of, 11. 41,

42

'Tomb of Agamemnon', sculptured plaques


from.
III.

double axe stand from, 213 painted stucco head from, 549, 519 limestone from tomb near, 345 painted stucco from, 632,
iv.
I.

11. 607, iv. 210 scheme of, on L.M. li-L.M. II seals and sealings, iv. 585, 613 debris from vicinity of, iv. 63 n. i Acropolis, amphora from, iv. 276

incurved altar on,

2
11.

'Tomb of Aigisthos', L.M. lb and


latest), II.

43 n. 2 pottery from (the


iv.

'Tomb

487, IV. 244, 293 of Atreus', i. 343, 11. 41, 43, 67, 10, 222, 223 date of, IV. 237, 613 n. i excavations of British School

ill.

sling bullets

11.

at, iv.

352
fafade of,

tablet

i.

11.

50,

Minoan type

of, 11. 163,

III.

136,314
date of,
11.

with Palace of Knossos, redecoration Knossian L.M. 945 plan 679 column-bases 213 from, with
relation
of, in

Palace

at,

600

164, 671, 697, III. 38 bull reliefs of


iv.

(M.M.

Ill),

iii.

style at

236 end of

180, 192-202, 517, IV. 10, 228; of sian Gypsum and school, ib.
rosette

Knos11. 11.

II, IV.
I.

and triglyph

frieze of,

of,

24,

II.

590, 591, 697, IV. 223; technique of,

in, I.

671,
I.

III.

200
of, 11. 671, ill.
iv.

frescoes

bull sports,
I.

445
11.

dromos
breccia

201

with ladies

at

window,

444, 445,

gold plates from,


bull's

87s N.W. Propylon 692 limestone and triglyph from, 222, 223 591, 695, Megara 21, 23, 24, 551,
of, 11.

377. 409. 1"- 60, IV.

242 head rhyton from,


of,

half-rosette

frieze

(M.M. Ill), III. 195 n. I, IV. 234 L.M. 111b pottery from dromos
IV.

II.

IV.

244
intrusive fragment of

of, I. 11. ill. 343, 350, 351. 495. IV. 181 n. I Men's, frescoes from, 11. 594, 599, 730, 750, III. 36, 82, 84-8, 208, IV. 227, 799,

L.M.

Ill vase

from under threshold, IV. 352 and Fig. 294


pithoi of green Cretan steatite from,

imitating Knossian 'Medallion' pithoi,


IV.

829
hearth
n.
I

of,

i.

390,

iii.

350, iv. 180, 181

231 (Fig. 178), 637 limestone pot from, with holes for

inlay
of, iv.

(M.M.

Ill), iv.

234
11.

movable hearths from,


--

895 fragment of corslet from,


iv.

pavement

stone vessels from,


IV. IV.

41, 697 n. 2^

803 179, 180

234
of Klytemnestra',
I.

'Tomb

344,

11.

36, 41,

iv. 553 295 Ramp House, fresco fragments from, 11. 432 n. I, III. 36, 207, IV. 20 Private house, fresco fragment from, iv. 441,

Throne in, Cyclopean House, cow and


of the

Room

679 calf from,


11.

671, IV. 222

warrior vase from,

iv.

date of, IV. 237 part of capital from fafade of (since


lost), its spiral

and plait-work decoration

as described characteristically
IV.

M.M. Ill,
of, iv.

229, 846, 847; disappearance


rosette

442
Well, clay sealing from, I. 222 Lower Town, bead-seal from,
signet-ring from,
i.

229 and n. 2

and triglyph

frieze on, IV.

iv.

461
11.

223

431, 687,

832

ivory mirror handle from pit

in

Tholos tombs:
relation of, with those of Mesara, iv. 237

dromos

of, ill.

61

gold plates from,


steatite

iv. 242 medallion pithoi from, their

MYCENAE
nestra (cont.)

[los]

MYCENAE

Mycenae, Tholos Tombs, 'Tomb of Klytemplait-work an


232, 636, 637
sos, IV. 636,
;

M.M.

Ill feature, iv. 231,

Mycenae, Shaft Graves, Fourth (cont.) copper ingot from, II. 624 faience disks of gaming board from,

i.

degradation of such plaitlater clay pithoi at

work bands on

Knos-

637

430. 452, 481-6, II. 47 n. 3 knots from, i. 430, 431, 483 gold comb from, iv. 1005 n. 2

series of stone vessels from,


III,
II.

M.M.

cups from,

i.

223, 469, 498,

11.

188, iv. 183

41, 697 n. 2, IV. 232, 233 fragment of rosette and triglyph band from,
in Hellenistic

n. 4. 363. 391. 958

ewer from,

I.

11.

633

gymnasium,

11.

591 n. 3,

plates from,

11.

195, iv. 242

IV. 223 n. 2 Shaft Graves, I. 24, 27, iv. 839 n. i date of, IV. 222, 241, 244 Minoan character of relics from,

pins from, iv. 579

I.

720,

721

synchronism of contents with those of tholos tombs, IV. 222, 236 First, L.M. la, L.M. lb and L.M. Icpotterj'
from, II. 488, IV. 239, 292, 294 Second, metal cup from, I. 243, 244 rhyton with linked circle ornament from, II. 331, IV. 265 Third, amber beads from, 11. 174 crystal pommel from, ill. 108 faience vessel from, II. 741, IV. 690 gold beads from, I. 676 butterflies from, III. 151 chrysalises from, iii. 151 comb from, iv. 1005 n. 2 cross from, I. 516 cup, repousse, from, 11. 504 ewer from, iv. 127 foil fig leaves from, 11. 615 plates from, i. 706, 11. 767, 777, 788 scales from, 11. 788, iv. 661 shrines from, i. 223, li. 187, 607,
615, 806,
seals
III.

obsidian arrow-heads from, ostrich-egg rhyton from, 595. " 224 pottery from, 498, 499 beaker from, 245
I.

lion's

head rhyton from,

11.

420, 827

iv.

838

I.

237, 594,

silver

I.

ewer from,
668, 698, 699,

11.

633, iv. 127


I.

rhytons from,
II.

302, 308, 312, 314,


2,

178 n.

344, 530, 536,

640 n.
162, IV.

I,

753

n. I, III. 31, 82,

89-101,

301,868,955
iv.

and lead vessel from,


signet-rings from,
I.

578 n. 5
ill.

672, 692, 693,

amber beads from, 174 bronze dagger from, 361 swords from, 831, 846-8 wooden with repousse from, 253 gold diadem from, 217
11.
11.

95. 50. 514. IV. 579 Fifth, alabaster vase from, iv. 391

iv.

caskets,

gold

plates,

iv.

11.

goblets from, IV. 122, 183 n. 4, 276,

363
plates from,
11.

195, 201, 217, 428,


la,

62, IV
iii.

408
462, 514, 546,

from,

125., iv.

Repositories Knossos, 485 vases from, 309, 391 amber beads from, 174 bronze dagger-blade, from,
at
i.

550. 558, 574 Fourth, circular built altar over, iv. 144 relation between contents and Temple
alabaster

ill.

iv.

11.

inlaid,

I.

681, 714-17. 720,


III.

361, 452. 473. 730. 95, 112, 113, 118-24, 130, IV. 527,
11.

M.M. IIIi-L.M. 361 428, 486, 491, 647 bowl from, 641 642 ewer from, 647 250, 252, 253, 831, 849 date alone 240 bronze dagger from, 848 halberd from, 172 494, pottery from, M.M. Illb-L.M. 486, 491 248
n. 5, silver
11.

767, IV. 317 pottery from,

11.

n. i,

11.

stelae of, iv.

Sixth, early

of:

in situ, iv.

iv.

i.

11.

la,

11.

stela of, IV.

575 531.ewers from, 632 sword-blades from,


11.

bronze swords from,


iv.

11.

273 n.

2, 482, IV.

301

241, 846, 848, 849 gold work from, i. 97, 452, 469, 472,

iv.

253

MYCENAE
Mycenae, Shaft Graves
pottery from,
I.

[io6]
(cont.)

NATURALISM

559 imported Melian,

I.

557, IV. 81
i.

Grave

Circle, fresco fragments from,


II-

444.

445. 377. 409. 602, IV. 348, 875 gold goblet from, iv. 365
stelae

from,

11.

199, 201,

ill.

199, IV.
n.

Mycenae, signet-ring (cont.) with Gilgamesh and lions, in. 466, iv. 584 with priest and griffin, n. 785 n. i with Minoan Goddess, in. 463, iv. 610 steatite plait of hair from, 11. 422, iv. 482 stone vessels from, n. 44 n. 4, iv. 984 n. 5 Myndos, grave enclosure at, Sub-Minoan

248,250,252,253, 831, 849 Tomb of the Genii, date of, iv. 887

pottery from, n. 43

Tomb

glass plaques from, iv. 453, 454 South of Grave Circle, gold signetII.

Myra, Lykian rock tombs Myres, Prof. J. L., n. 63

at,

i.

657, 658, 663


i

discoveries at Petsofa,

i.

151-3, n. 35 n.

ring from,

340, 786,

III.

314, 463,

IV.

512

on Minoan dress, II. 33 n. 4 -on date of bronze hydrias from Cyprus,


II-

Chamber Tombs
bundles of arrow-plates from,
n.
I
ill.

IV.

837, 839
151,

654 on fafade of Atreus tomb

at

Mycenae,

in.

202
149,

gold chrysalis bead from,

Myrrha, rnother of Adonis, compared with


Rhea, in. 473
Myrtle, on fresco fragments from House of the
Frescoes at Knossos,
Mjrths, origin of,
I.

788
ivory

n. 2

combs from,
11.

iv.

1005 n. 2

pottery from,

224, 497, iv. 284, 298 n.

11.

457, 620

2,316,321
seals from, iv. 420, 572,

707, 709

582

signet-ring from, in. 137


stela

from, iv. 244, 245 Kalkani cemetery, Tomb 516; contents


IV.

N
of,

887
glass

beads from,

IV.

887 n. 2

bead-seals from, iv. 170, 175 n. 5 Pit graves, Danai as builders of, iv. 237

Nabus, name on Babylonian cylinder from Candia, III. 266 Nachtigall, Dr., on ostrich-egg vessel from Soudan, n. 223- n. 2
Nahr-el-Kebir, Syrian trade-route by, Names, evidence from, n. 5
in Linear Script B, iv.
IV.

771

Third Kilometer cemetery, faience


of cruciform svsford from,
iv.

hilt-plate

852

709-17
iv.

bone

from, in. 39 figurine of Resheph from, in. 477 gold 'skilling' from, iv. 665 ivory column from, i. 344
flute

'stammer', in Linear Script B,


of, in.

752

jasper ring
II.

Naples, gesture language

58
parallel)

stone, 6th cent. A.D., from, in.

frieze from,
relief

11.

591 n. 3

from,

iv.

869
11.

pottery from,
seals

I.

23,

218, 749, iv. 368, 739,


iv.

with and 586, 587 with Minoan Goddess, 402, 610


lion
stag, iv.

741 from, vsrith bull-sports, in. 230, with wounded calf, IV. 544 with lion and bull, iv. 501
iv.

474

primitive from, 45, 190 painted pans from, n. 26, 190 stone from, 66,
figurines
i.

474 (adoration of Magi: Minoan Naqada, n. 26, 35


23, 32,

63, 83, 84,

vessels

i.

17,

82, 92,

11.

30

with talismanic, Cretan type

Narmer, see Mena Nasamones, Libyan tribe of, I. 126 Natron, found in Libyan oases, n. 54 Naturalism, Minoan, in inverse ratio to Egyptian

sacrifice of bull, iv.


I.

41 n.

671

I.

influences, n. 361
in treatment of trees, n.
II,

of, IV.

549
161, 162,
III.

signet-ring with

mourning scene,
38. 278,

with

432. 494.

II-

140, 142

E.M. E.M. M.M.

620

93, 94, 97 Ill, I. 103, 117-21


I, I.

I.

173, 175, 181, 182-6, IV. 100, 109,

cattle, iv.

565

174-6

NATURALISM
Naturalism
(cont.)
I.

[107]

NEWBERRY
[cont.)
II.

MM. guard, on model boat from Beni Hasan, 263-70, 272-s M.M. 316, 319, 426, 260, 488, 757 heads, on jewel depicted on M.M. painted 491, 601 L.M. 102, 260, 446-512, 319, 312 mercenaries, employed in Egypt, 46, 756, 281, 880 and Animals, Flowers, Leaves, Marine 757
II,

Negro

III,

I.

27,

IV.

n-

II,

I, I.

28,

II.

IV.

relief,

I.

ir.

see

style,

&c.

printing
in

Nature moulding in
in

M.M.
279

I pottery, iv.

109

in Crete,

11.

756, 757,
11.

iv.

887
n.

M.M.
lb, iv.

Ilfl, ill.

361-3

-on

by Ibrahim Pasha,
fresco

757

fragment

from

4 House
11.

of

L.M.
i.

Frescoes (Captain of the Blacks),

755
ill.

Naukratis,
sealings

292
of, trade-routes to, 11. 99, 168,

(Coloured
211
vicinity of,
11.

PI.

XIII)

from 202 L.M. tombs candlesticks from, Museum, 368 739


at,

Nauplia, gulf

Neith, Goddess, connexion of with Athena,

n. 3
li.

3H
128

iv.

n. 2,

with Ausean Goddess, with Hathor, 51

II.

51, 191

il.

Nans, primitive monuments in Balearic Islands,


II.

181,

III.

322
of, II.

Navarino, Harbour

43

attributes

with Minoan Goddess, 11. 48, 191 with Wazet, 11. 51, iv. 172
of,

Navetas, see Naus Navigation, see Ships

bow,

arrows,
II.

I.

584,
II.

11. 49, IV. 171 48, IV. 172

emery from,
n.

Naxos, coin-types
I.

of, iv.

447
of,
i.

14
718,
11.

shrine
649

shield,
II.

50,

III.

314

cult of,

23, 29

Neb-Khepesh-Ra, dagger-hilt
4
Necklaces,
as

of, on tablet of Aha, 11. 50 n. 3 symbol of, as tattoo-mark, 11. 51 Nekhebet, goddess of childbirth, iv. 433

sign of Minoan rank, 862 Neolithic 222 gold, from Chieftain's Grave Zafer 755 Crete, Papoura, 861, 862 32-55, 563, Isopata, from Royal Tomb 566 in Egypt, 181 222 75 on chryselephantine Greece, 20 37 on Jewel from Knossos, Nero, reputed discovery of 525, 526 on fresco of Captain of the Blacks, 755 Knossos by, 673 Nestor, cup 82 of warriors from Knossos, 223, 391, 958 motive, in L.M. lb ornament, 427, 493, 'tomb of, 243
iv.

M.M.,

iv.

285

Nemean

lion,

legend

of, ill.

122

age, in

Africa,

11.

n.

5,

750,
i,

at

11.

iv.

in

i.

13,

11.

4,

30 n.

lapis lazuli,

at

11.

11.

n. 3,

statue,

I v.

-in

11.

relief

I.

tablets in

Minoan

11.

script at

iv.

ill.

of,

I.

iv.

11.

510,
-in
in

IV.

285-8
Ic, IV.

IV.

L.M. L.M.

288, 289

II, IV.
11.

32
493,
iv.

and
I.

in frescoes,
see Beads,

285

coverings of sacred
Network
IV-

'Ring of, see Signets Nestos river, lions near, ill. 122 n. i Net, use of in boar hunting, iv. 574

bulls,

ill.

205, 206
i.

Pendants

pattern, convention for sea,

314,

Needles, bone, Middle Neolithic, from Knossos,

42
i.

Nefer sign in Egyptian ornament, 207 -on

200,

11.

199,

M.M.

seals,
11.

i.

200
736, iv. 266

Neferirkere, King,

28 n. 5

Nefem-ra, Princess,

11.

-for rocks, 314 -on ivory comb from Palaikastro, 1006 on fresco fragments from Knossos, 734 pithos from House, 381 n. on -on 'Ring of Nestor', 955

955

i.

iv.

11.

n.

S.

11.

iv.

Negro
f

figures,

on
see

III.

94,

and

Town Town

Mosaic,

i.

302, 310,

Mosaic

on M.M. II sealings, I. 273 Newberry, Prof. Percy E., drawings of wall-

NEWBERRY
Newberry, Prof. Percy E. (cont.) paintings in tomb of Rekhmara,
739 n. 3 on cult of
n.
I ii.

[io8]

NUMERALS
at, iii.

53 n.

i,

Nimrud, ivory cow from, iv. 555 lion reliefs from Palace of Kuyunzik
61, IV. 547, 548 Nine Bows, collective

Double Axe, 11. 28 n 5 on cylinders in Egyptian graves,

name

for

Libyan
at, iv.

tribes,

11.

210
i
11.

11.49

Nineveh, frieze of Assur-nazir-pal

432
11.

on Ta Tehenu (Olive land), 11. 23 n. on identity of Narmer and Mena,


56 n.
35 n.
I

Ningirsu, dagger of priest of, from Lagash,

276 Nippur, primitive figurines from,

i.

51, iv. 428

on male
3

attire

of

Queen Hatshepsut,

11.

on shield of Neith, 11. 50 New Mexico, two-storied pots from, 11. 428 Newton, Prof. Alfred, on doves, iv. 411 n. 2 Newton, Mr. F. G., restorations by, 11. 674, 814
excavations in Egypt,
11.

stalagmite vases from, votive from,


tablets

n.

11.

264 n.

11.

27
at, 11.

Niru Khani, Minoan port

233, 267-85,

552 connexion with Knossos, 11. 280, 552 break in history of, in L.M. lb, 11. 348,
786, 885

iv.

158 n. 3

New

York, Metropolitan
Collection in,
11.

Museum, Cesnola
i

submerged quarries near,

505

n.

Nezero, figurine of Resheph from, iii. 477 Nida, plain of, 11. 232, 464 n. 2 Nidhoggr, dragon at foot of Yggdrasil 11. 483,

column-bases
Priests'

at, 11.

House

at, I.

11. 87 n. 2, 233 87 n. 2 59, 437, 11. 281-5, 567,

683
stores of double axes in,
sacral
I.

437,

11. 11.

281

m.

15s

Niello, used in

Minoan inlaying,

11.

649,

ill.

113,

118, 127, 131

knot painted on wall of, lamps from, I. 437 pottery from, i. 437, 11. 284 n.
511, IV. 676 n. 3

284

4, 478,

Nienhagen, Early Bronze Age cemetery at, clay cup of Vapheio type from, 11. 175, iii. 178
n.
I
11.

sacral horns from,

11.

281
I.

stores of tripod altars in,

437,

11.

283,

Niger, Neolithic settlements near,

222, 756

Nikephoros
Kasteli,

Phokas,
11.

fortress

of

on

Kanli

Warehouse
House

334, IV. 179


at,

for cult objects, see Priests'

74, 79
art,
i.

Nile scenes in

Minoan

18, iii. 1 13-17, iv.

Noack, Dr. Ferdinand, on Chronicle of Diktys


Cretensis, iv. 673 n. 2 on oval house at Chamaezi,
i.

175 n. 5, 337, 55o> 615


Valley, dolmens in,
ii.

181

147

earthquake in, in 185 1, 11. 31 port at Canopic mouth of, I. 17, 292-7, II. 26
Nilsson, Prof. Martin P.,
11. 42 n. 3 on Cypro-Minoan krater, iv. 659 on Diktaean table, iv. 157 n. 2 on Egyptian influence on Crete,

Nome

signs of Delta,

11.

242

Normanton, Wilts., dagger-hilt from, iii. 119 n. 2 Notched plume, see Adder mark
Notios, see

Wind
in Crete,
i.

n.

-nth

names

6 n. 4
iv.

IV.

173

see Negroes Nudity of votaries of Minoan Goddess,

Nubia, mercenaries from,

954,

n.

helmets,
on snake
160 n. 4

on Minoan building,
iii.

iv. 613 n. i 98 n. i, iv. 871 n. heroic cycle, iv. 463 n. i religion, ill. 457, iv. 220 n. 2
i

955 Numeration, Minoan decimal system of,


i

iv.

662

691, 837 percentages in, iv. 691-3

sculpture, iv. 613 n.


cult, iv. 144,

153 n.

2,

157 n.

2,

Linear Script A, Linear Script B, on bone and


fish

Numerals, hieroglyphic,
i.

i.

279
iv.

617-21,

660, 680

iv.

625, 680, 725 bracelet segments from

frames, iv. 171, 175 n. 5

Knossos,

III.

408

NUMERALS

[109]
Officer,
iv.

OLIVE-TREES
fragment of miniature fresco of, from insula at Knossos, iii. 83 on steatite cup from Hagia Triada, 11. 47,

on from Knossos, on Vase Tablets, 732 on Minoan weights, 653


faience disks
iv.

Numerals

(cont.)

941

N.W.

iv.

Nuraghi of Sardinia,

11.

181

IV. 400 on M.M. II seal, 1. 8, 278 Ogival canopy motive, metallic origin

779. 790. 792, HI. 83,

Official title

of, iv.

320

o
Oases, Libyan, natron found in,
11.

L.M.
54
629 629
419

16,

II.

489-93, 510,

III.

177, IV.

281, 285, 419

God

of, II. 191

L.M. II, IV. 318-22 on Mainland, 11. 492,

III.

177, iv. 321,

on L.M. ceramic ornament, on rhyton from Eski Samsoun,


lb

Oats, possible

Minoan brewing

of, iv. iv. iv.

relation of to sacral ivy motive,

11.

491

767

Obelisk, see Baetyl

combined with triple C's, iv. 321 combined with double axes and papyrus, IV. n. 6,
Oil,
in,
I.

319 from Melos, Minoan trade 56 232, 283, 291, 462, 671 247 from of of Knossos, 14 425, 453, 458, 459, used Egypt, 55 622, 630-2, 647, 648 462, in Alabastron 55 from chamber tombs Byblos, Pithos Ointment Alabastron 655, 825 arrow-heads, from 4th Shaft Grave, Mycenae, Olbe 656 Old Paphos, Enkomi 838 cores and from Knossos, Old Kakovatos 172 barber's and from Knossos, 'Old Race' Egypt, 17
11.
i.

Obsidian from Aeolian Islands,

56

14, 20, 21, 55, 66,

11.

11.

88,

clear,

Isle

Yali,

11.

storage
IV.

at

I.

in

I.

Italy,

I.

flask, see

alabastra of,
II.

at

jar, see

jar, see

in Cilicia, Priest-kings of,


see

I.

6, 11.

IV.

flakes of,

1.

170,

Pylos, see
in

flakes

knives,

i.

I.

rhyton, from Tylissos,


Octopus, popular

54. 68, 170, 172, II. 13, 14, IV. 655 points, from Magasa, I. 34
11.

Olive-land,

Ta Tehenu,

il.

54
11.

Olives, introduction of into Crete,

23, 54, iv.

56 n. 6

article of diet in

Minoan Crete,

IV.
-

631

and

716

carbctoized,
see Oil

from Knossos,

11.

123 n. 2, 135

as ornamental motive

Olive sprays, in gold, on jewels from Mochlos,

M.M. II, I. 247 n. 2, 272, II. 453, 507 n. 2 M.M. III. I. 609, IV. 224, 445, nn. 5 and 6,
446, 491. 502, 541, 930

1.97

on

frescoes,

11.

from Knossos,
167-72
651

474, 475 I. 426, 537, 538,


iii.

ill.

L.M. L.M. L.M.

la, IV.

457
122, 373, 505, 619, IV. 305-4,

lb, IV. 276, 277, 281, II,


I.

from Tell-el-Amarna, on
pottery,

168
ill.

M.M.
II.

116,

I.

263,

168
iv.
I.

353. 360, 369, 372, 650, 651

L.M.

III,

II.

336, 343,

III.

22, IV. 310-14,

422, 474, 475, 619, Olive-spray sign, hieroglyphic script A,


IV.

L.M.

la,

265
281,

352. 369. 370. 372. 734, 735 Sub-'Minoan, 11. 343 Odysseus, painting of in Hades by Polygnotos,
III.

680, 717
iv.

Linear Script B, iv. 716, 717 combined with overseer sign,


Olive-trees,
III.

716
11.

156

on frescoes from Knossos,


iii.

620,

Odyssey, see
416,
IV.

Homer
iii.

Oedipus, story of on bead-seals from Thisbe,


514, 550, 816, 817

on gold cups from Vapheio, in sculpture from fagade of

32, 67, 167-72, 190, XV. 16

177, iv. 16

Atreus

Tomb

Oenochoe,
Oesterley,

Ewer Dr., on Biblical examples


see

of sacred

on

at

Mycenae,

ill.

196, iv. 16

signets of hieroglyphic class, IV. 346, 717,

dances and ecstatic possession,

ill.

69 n. 6

718

OLIVE-TREES

[no]
Orvieto, reputed provenance of
ill.

OXEN
Minoan seal,
5
iv.

on from Mycenae, on Hagia Triada sarcophagus,


silver rh)rton

Olive-trees (cont.)

iv.

99 43

466
Os, terminations
Carian,
Osiris, a
I.

in,

Minoan,
i

I.

Olous, see Elunda

6 n.

Olshausen, Prof. Otto, on amber beads from

shepherd God,

11.

27
11.

Knossos,

II.

174 n. 3
iv.

Ossuaries, see Burials,

Minoan

on

resin

from Isopata,

loii n. 3

Ostrich eggs, from Neolithic sites in Sahara,

Olympia, apsidal type of house at, I. 24 n. 2 votive bronze chariots of Geometrical period
from,
IV.

222 n. 5 imported into Crete,


vessels

11.

756

797
silver

made from
11.

Olympus, Mount (Mysian), remains of

in Africa, Neolithic,

workings near, iv. 169 n. 2 Omani, brachy cephalic type with Armenoid
profile

modern,
II.

222

11.

223

among,

iv.

407

n.

magical beliefs associated with, 11. 223 influence of on prehistoric Egyptian pottery,
vases, 11. 223 n. i adapted as Minoan rhytons, 11. 265 Ostrich-egg rhytons, from Mycenae, i. 237, 594, 224. IV. 265 595.

Omphalian Plain, see Pedeada Omphalos at Delphi, with reticulated

cover,

II.

on Egyptian stone
"

223

on fresco fragment from Knossos, tomb of Dionysos, 838


11.

840

11.

840

of Cretan Zeus,

11.

838

imitated in pottery:

compared with stalagmitic bosses, 11. 838 Onyx, lentoid seals of, from Argos, I. 434, 11.
619 n.

from Vapheio,

594, S9S, Ostrich plumes of Goddess

M.M. M.M.

II,

I.

237, 238, 285, n. 223


II.

Ill,

I.

303, IV. 269

Maat on signet-ring

iii. 124, iv. 453, 547 Tyskiewicz gem (bull and tank), iii. 185

Ophiothrix, see Brittle-star

from Phaestos, II. 764 worn by Libyans, 11. 49 Oven, Roman, from House of the Frescoes

at

Oppermann, Dr. Hans, on Syrian connexions of Kybele and Attis, iv. 479 n. 3

Ops

Regina, Nature Goddess,

11.

191 n. 4
style,
i.

Oran, South, tholos circles in, 11. 38 Orange, use of in M.M. I polychrome
Ill n. 4

Knossos, II. 433 resemblance of Libyan beehive hut to, Overseer sign in Linear Script B, iv. 700 combined with olive sign, IV. 716 in personal names, iv. 701

11.

39

tholos tomb
I.

Orchomenos, apsidal type of house Minoan civilization of, I. 24


at,

at, I.

24 n. 2
of,

carved limestone ceiling

202,

II. 205, III. 371, IV. 242, 874 fresco fragment with rosette and tri-

Ovid cited, 11. 131 n. i, iv. 476 Owl, E.M. breccia cup shaped as, iv. 487 ivory seal from Mesara of similar form, IV. 487 (Figs. 410 and 410 bis) on sealings from Temple Repository, i. 695 Oxen, remains of, from Neolithic houses at
Knossos,
II.

L.M. Ill

glyph frieze from, III. 208

11.

592, 594, 599 n. 3,

stirrup vase with Linear inscrip-

tion from. III. 426, IV. 672, 681, 739 Oreo, Grotta dell', fresco at, iv. 188 Oreo Feglino, rock sculptures at, 11. 170 n. 4 Orestes, legend of, on bead-seals from Thisbe,
IV.

draught animals in Chaldaea, 810 in Crete, 831 156, 224, from Knossos, 153, on M.M. II Tovra Mosaic, 302, 310 sign hieroglyphic 219, 281
as
IV.
i.

10

11.

iv.

figurines of,

i.

iv. 3

i.

in

script,

I.

515. 550

in Linear Script B, iv. 685, 713 in Linear Script B coupled with saffron

Ormerod, Mr. H. A., discoveries at Chukur Kend, I. 50 n. 2 Orrescii, coins of, iv. 564 n. 3 Orsi, Dr. excavation of chamber tomb at Milatos by, IV. 46 n. 4
,

couchant, on L.M. 565-7.572,595 horns votive and Cattle


of,

sign in name-groups, IV. 713


seals

and

sealings, iv.

clay,

I.

153, 158 n.

see Bulls,

OX-HEADS

[III]

PALETTES
11.

Ox-heads, from House of the Sacrificed Oxen, ii. 302 on fresco fragment from Knossos, 11. 157 weight, from Diktaean Cave, iv. 655
sign, in Hittite hieroglyphic script, IV.

713
11.

n-4
on bead-seal from Candia
83s n. 5
district,

Ox-wagon, painted
Palaikastro,
I.

terra-cotta,
11.

M.M.

la,

from

M.M. ni-L.M. town 560, 567 evidence of destruction L.M. 348, 308 House B 567, 353 Minoan sanctuary 2 251 M.M. 149 Linear Script A used 676 489 bronze instrument, perhaps from,
I of, 11.

Palaikastro, Port of E. Crete,

253, 508

561,

at in

I, II.

III.

'

at, 11.

568,

III.

n.

at, 11.
I.

n.

I ossuaries at,

at, iv.

n. 3,

stilus,

ill.

224,

156, iv. 808

13 n.

I
11.

Oxford, Ashmolean
alabaster

Museum:

cup from El Kab in, 11. 57 four-sided bead-seal, with Cretan hieroglyphic inscriptions, presented by Mr. Greville Chester to, iv. 667 n. i lion's head rhyton of alabaster (restored) from Central Treasury, Knossos, 11. 830-1 painted amphora from N.W. Border, Knossos, presented to Excavator by Cretan Government, IV. 305 n. 3 from Little Palace, iv. 328 n. i flask (Late Geometrical) from Milatos, iv.

cupped blocks from, ivory axe from, 433


I.

ewer from,

632 n. 3 IV. 980 n.


1005, 1006
ill.

combs from,

iv.

figurines of boys from,

446
80
II.

M.M.
M.M. M.M.

knot from, I. 433 pottery from, E.M. II, I. 77, E.M. Ill, I. 107, 112
I, I.

iv.

29, 180, 185, 224,

364, IV.
119, 134

100, 405, 807, 808


II,
I.

242,

II.

219 n.

I, IV.

164. predynastic ivories from Hierakonpolis

in, 11.

23-5
relief of bull-sports

from Smyrna,

ill.

229

L.M. L.M. from, 450, 500 bowl from, 633


seals
iv.

597, 60s la, II. 476, 486, 537, iv. 364 lb, II. 489, 510, IV. 284, 651 n.
11.

m,

I.

steatite

n.

signet-ring,

465 steatite cylinder fromHagiaParaskevi, Cyprus,


ill.

cup from,

I.

631,
11.

II.

438

IV.

763

double-axe stand from, IV 212


libation table from,
I.

cylinder from,

503

tin flask

from Abydos,

11.

179

630, 631, 636


n.

Oyster, thorny, see Shell

427 4 Linear Script A from, inscribed 489 terra-cotta figure from, 13


i.

574 stone base for double axe from,


tablets
II.

vessel from, iv.

in

n. 3

11.

n.

burial from, M.M. IH, 608, 609, 610, 252 185, 364, 424, 500, 507, 627, clay larnakes from, 126, 586, 185
jars
II.
I.

Pachyammos, cemetery

at, jar

burials in,
126,

I.

585

IV.

group of lyre player and dancers from, II. 84in. 3,111. 72, 73, 439 n. 2 model of ship from, 11. 240
Palanquin, use of in
578, 772> 773
II.

I.

11.

Minoan

Crete,

11.

157, 577,
I.

Paeonians, brewing of beer from millet by,

iv.

215, 396, 398, 594, 883 M.M. n, 206-9, 214, 215 Rome bays and projections in outer walls date of dove 269 and Knossos, Mallia, Mycenae, Phaestos, L.M. pottery exported bowl from, Tiryns 418
IV.
I.

625 Painted stucco, see Frescoes Palaces, Age of in Crete, 11. 267, 667 M.M. la, I. 26, 127-48, 11. 268

miniature from Knossos, 220, 224, 157, 158 on fresco from Knossos, 158, 721, 770-3,
terra-cotta,
11.

Palatine, see

of, 11.

Palestine,

cult in, iv. 411


to, iv.

see

881

Palace sign, Egyptian,

i.

358, 359,

11.

55

terra-cotta doves from,

silver

iv.

iv.

391 n. 6
11.

Minoan,

i.

358, 359

Palettes, marble,

from Paros,

44

n.

PALETTES

[113]

PARTRIDGE

predynastic Egyptian, 46,49 stone, from Cyclades, 44


slate,
11.

Palettes {cont.)

ii.

27,

44

n. 2,

Papyrus early Egyptian boats of, 11. 26 emblem of Wazet, goddess of Delta,

11.

776
593

n. 2

from Mesara,
Palici,

11.

44
11.

wand of Egypt, 11. 466 use of for Minoan documents, ill. 424,
sacred

sulphurous ebullitions at, Palladium, Minoan anticipations

461
11.

50,
ill.

IV.

as religious symbol,

11.

of,

sign,

Egyptian {waz),

I.

473 19, 200-2, 274, 509,

314

Palm leaf, on M.M.


IV.

II polychrome ware, iv. 136 perhaps related to Egyptian tree sign,

704, 705. " 207, 484 M;M. II, I. 18, 289, 291 origin of sacral ivy motive,

136

motive in Egyptian
\l\b faience, iv. 1013, 1014
I.

in

M.M.

ill. 423 280 in Linear Script B, iv. 685, 686 Palm-trees, on gold cup from Vapheio, ill. 177,

used for writing in Crete,


sign,
^

638,

M.M.

II hieroglyphic,

i.

484, iv. 274 478-93 on bowl from Sakkara, 11. 750 on tomb of Rekhmara, 11. 744 on scarabs of i2th-i8th Dynasties, 11.
11.

art, 11. 199,

on plaques from 5th Shaft Grave, Mycenae,

IV.

16

on Minoan

in Minoan Nilotic scenes,


frescoes,
11.

744> 745

iii. 1

14-17

361, 446, 447, 448,

"I- 371. 372, IV. 891,

910

on pottery, M.M.
I, IV.

IV.

253

II,

I.

253, 263, 224, 303


II.

III.

177 n.

272
III,
lb,
I.

345 ceilings, iv. 242 gold plates, iv. 242


jewellery,
11.

bronze cup,

i.

M.M.
L.M. L.M. L.M.
seals

I.

594,

II.

644

254, 459,

478, IV. 271, 272,

lamp,

I.

345, 429
11.

281, 369
Ic, IV.

272, 293, 369

L.M. la,

pottery,

478, iv. 281


II.

on and 253, 568,582,585,595 Egyptian equations


sealings,
I.

II, IV.

324

L.M.

477,

III.

115

16, II. 749, IV.

360

274, 431, IV.

L-M- II, II. 373, 410, 539, 540, III. 385, IV. 308, 319, 323, 337, 353, 369

three,

of, 11. 497,

498

L-M.
308

Ill, IV. 369, 371, 375,

on on

frescoes,

M.M.

inflorescent,

494 II-L.M. Illa pottery, 11. 493-9 on M.M. 116 and M.M. Ilia

11.

combined with
ogival canopy, IV.

747 double axe and 319; octopus and triple


550

C,

IV.

pottery, iv. 367 on L.M. 16 and


_

L.M.

Ic pottery, iv. 366,

seals, III. 116, IV. 491,

on Syro-Phoenician

cylinders, iv. 555

367 Panamara, hair-offering in Temple of Zeus


IV. 478 Panamoros, name of one of the Kouretes,
i.

Paradise, Rivers of,


at,

ill. 147 Parchment, coloured, probable Minoan use of

for
6,

window

panes,
i.

ill.

342

Parian Chronicle,

9, 11,

12

IV.

479

Paribeni, Dr. R., discoveries at Hagia Triada,


near,
11.

Panasos,

Minoan S.W. road


lily,

76, 77

Pancratium

see Lilies

Pandoros, story of, IV. 834 Panelled decoration, on Anatolian vases, on M.M. II pottery, i. 260 -on medallion pithoi, i. 564

I.

560

650 n. I, 742 n. 3, 792 n. i, 836 n. i, 44 n. I Paris, Comtesse de, in Spanish bull-fight, iii. 228 Paros, house at, i. 148 marble palettes from, 11. 44 n. 2 Parrying stick, used by Minoans, II. 52
II.

36,

IV.

on

seals,

i.

564
of, 11. 837, IV.

by
403
Parthpnon,
i.

Kaffirs,

11.

sanctuary 161 Old, Enkomi


of, i.

Paphos, Kinyras
see

in Sumatra,
see

11.

52 n. 2 52 n. 2

Athens
.

Partridge frieze from Knossos, 11

no

114, 116, 449

Papouda,

M.M.

II agate prism-seal from,

477

n. I, 452,457, 460, 728, 730,

III.

211, IV. 6

PARTRIDGE

[113]

PELOPONNESE

Cretan, habits regarded


114
Pashley, Robert,

Partridge (cont.)

of, 11.

112
11.

as table delicacy in the Levant,

Pavements, plaster (cont.) in basements by Central Court, ill. 22 in houses under Kouloura off W. Court,

on tomb of Zeus,

i.

154

70 of shrines strewn with


IV. 66,

sea-shells
I,

i.

519

Pasiphae,

I.

3, 11

schist,

M.M.

Ill

and L.M.

in. 360 n. 2
at

Pastoral scenes

on L.M. sealings, iv. 607, 615: and see Bulls, Calves, Cattle, Cows, Goats, Oxen, Pigs, Sheep Patena, ossuary at, E.M. la pyxis from, iv. 90 Patroni, Dr., on halberd from Gambara, 11.

stucco, imitating marble in

Megaron

My-

172 n. 2 Patso, bronze figurine of Resheph from cave of

above pavement of Central Court Knossos, 800 of light-area in S.E. angle, 327
early
II. 11.

cenae, IV. 895 in later Palace at Tiryns, iv. 895 taraiza, 11. 107, 523

at

Hermes
Pavements
cement,
earlier
III.

at, iii.
iii.

477
524, IV. 480

Pausanias cited,

see tarazza,

below
11.

deposits on, chronological value of,

358

and

later,

of Central Court at Knossos,

5
iii.

Upper Long Corridor near Propylaeum, 716 Propylaeum, 688, 689, 696, 225 Upper Rooms of Caravanserai, 107 Roman, over Theatral Area, 18
S.
II.

of Hall of Double Axes, in. 330 leading to S. Propylaeum, 11. 686

S.

11.

iv.

11.

iv.

gypsum, of Queen's Megaron,


367
in

356, 366,

Pavement games,

of basement N.W. Insula, 18 of ante-room of Room of the Throne, 903 of Corridor of the Procession, 683 'kalderim', of the 397 of Queen's Megaron, 359 of Room of the ICnobbed Pithos, 360 of Corridor of the Procession, 683
ill.
11.

slabs for, at Kavusi, in. 395 at Knossos, in. 390

at Mallia, in. 392, 394, iv.

24

iv.

Paximadi, island

of,

n. 88, 239

n.

Peacock plumes, worn by Priest-king, n. 777, 778, IV. 400

'Lair', ill.
iii.

by Minoan sphinxes, n. 777, 778


Peas, used as food in

L.M.

period, iv. 621

ill.

Pebbles, with chalky inlay, used as Neolithic

11.

n.

limestone, of inner court of


IV.

Temple Tomb,
III.

999

in Magazine of Medallion n. 336 320 in Domestic Quarter, 319, 346 Pectunculus, Shells in Queen's Megaron, 356, 359 Pedeada, n. 315 in basement of Room of the Knobbed Minoan roads n. 78 modern road n. 547 Pithos, 360 N.W. from, 674, 445 360 in S.E. Pedestal, gypsum pyramidal, from private chapel 574 ante-room of Room of the Throne, of House of the High Knossos, 211 903 in Palace, compared with Double Axe stands, 517 in House of the Chancel Screen, 211 2 rape of Helen by, 188 395 pre-Hellenic harbour of Pharos, 296, in Hagia Pelagia and Pelagia
Pithoi,
i.
I.

'mosaiko',

M.M.

116 date of.

360

on Neolithic on of
floor
see

amulet

at

as basis for cult objects at

Knossos, n. 15 Knossos,
floors, 11. 18

i.

517

late

Shrine of the Double Axes,

'

iii.

63,

to,

62, 63,

III.

to,

in

Portico,
I.

ill.

seals

I.

iv.

insula,

in

iv.

Priest at

IV.

Little

11.

iv.

iii.

n-

Peirithoos,

iv.

n. I

i.

Pelagia, see

Isis

297

in

pebble, Neolithic in houses at Knossos,


late

11.

18

Shrine of Double Axes,


11.

11.

336

plaster, in Neolithic houses,

18

tholos tombs

Peloponnese, n. 99, 168 devastation of by negro troops under Ibrahim Pasha, II. 757 n. 4

in,

n. 40,

iv.

243, 244

PELOPONNESE

[114]

PHAESTOS
at, i. 3

from, swinging
seals
III.

Peloponnese

(cont.)
iii.

Pessinus, cult of Attis


Petrie,

218, iv. 573

Sir

W.

Flinders, views
i.

on Egyptian

26 n. 9 Penates, sanctuary of at Lavinium, 11. 131 n. i Pendant, heart-shaped, from Knossos, amethyst,
in, IV.

chronology,

31

on black-topped Egyptian pottery, I. 79 on late pre-dynastic stone vessels from


Tarkhan,
I.

410, 411

gold, ibid.; cornelian, 410.

65
in

from Gournia, ill. 411. magnetite from Avgo, E. Crete, ill. 411. chalcedony, dove-shaped, from Mochlos, iv.
crystal

on cylinders
210 n.
II.

Egyptian

graves,

11.

407
faience, floral type,
I.

from Temple Repository,


v/hh duck hunt,
iv.

on Minoan pottery from Kahun, I. 266, 488 n. 4 on use of circle in Egyptian ornament, iv.

498, 499 gold, from Aegina,

92 n. 2
Petrie Collection, see lege

London, University Col-

17s n. 5

Museum
I.

from Knossos, duck-shaped, iii. 412 from Kumasa, toad-shaped, ill. 412 from Mallia (M.M. la), with bees or

Petsofa, rock Sanctuary, bowls covered with

votive

small vases from,


197, 276, 680,

180
I.

terra-cotta female figurines from,


II.

hornets, iv. 75, 115 stalagmite, from Mesara,

33, 237 n.

I, III.

439, 450,

ill.

446

waz-lily, 11. 644 Pendlebury, Mr. and Mrs. John, IV. 66 n. 2, 86 n. I, 963 Penistache, see Sheath Pentozales, traditional dance in W. Crete, iii.

IV.

162
I.

later shrine at,

158
I.

objects from,
table from,
steatite libation
I.

15 1-3
11.

636,

440
iv.
11. 2,

bowl, inscribed, from,


I. i,

Phaestos, Palace of,

10, 13, 26, 27,

657 87

75 Egyptian vase with cartouche Perdix, see Talos


I,

M.M.
of,
i.

Pepy

93

II plan of, I. 144, 206 destruction of at end of M.M. II,

I.

552,

Perfume

pots, see Alabastra

553,11. 287, 319, 347,* 348 in L.M. 16, III. 308, IV. 786, 885
survival of
at, II.

Periphetes, death of, represented

on sardonyx

M.M.

Ill architectural

work

bead-seal from 3rd Shaft Grave, Mycenae,


iv.'5i4,

348

550
i.

possible rival of Knossos in proto-palatial

'Pemier, Prof., discoveries at Phaestos,


n. I,

206

406 n.

2, 648, II. 130, IV. 184,

185

age, IV. 78 earthquakes

at, II.

on snake sanctuary at Prinia, iv. 160 n. 4 Peronne Museum, gold signet-ring in, iv. 585 Perrey, Monsieur Alexis, on earthquakes in
313 n. 2 Perrot, Monsieur, on sculptures of Atreus
11.

Linear Script

A used

319, 347 at, i. 280, 647, 648,


28;

Crete,

Tomb

Mycenae, iii. 193 Persephone, comparison of with Minoan Godat

IV. 676 road connexion of, with Knossos, with Komo, 11. 90, 91 central Court, ill. 351, 373-7 column-bases at, I. 211, 11. 688
iii. 7 hut floor near, 11. 131 n. 3 koulouras at, I. 207, 450, li. 580, 66

11.

fa9ade of,

467 Persson, Prof. Axel W., discoveries at Asine, II. 202 n. 3, IV. 755, 758 n. 2 discoveries at Dendra, iv. 245 discoveries at Midea, 11. 505 sees an inscription in Cypriote characters in graffiti of Asine jar, iv. 755, 757 and nn.
III.

dess,

iv. 65,

lattice

work on

walls of,

i.

373, 374, 376,

377
I. 406 n. 2 magazines in, i. 144 mason's marks on, I. 133, 11. 146 n.

lustral basins in,

Pescia,

and 2 G. M. da, engraver of signet-ring of


iii.

shrine in,

11.

195, 217, in. 392


i.

Michelangelo,

145

'theatral area',

207,

11.

578, 580,

iii.

395

PHAESTOS
Phaestos, Palace of (cont.)

[IIS]

PIGS
at (Jondet's

Pharos Island, pre-Hellenic harbour


discoveries),
i.

W. W.

Court,

I. I.

207-9
214, 215, 424

18,

292-7
i.

Porch,

Pheasant on Minoan frescoes,


III.

539-41,

11.

354,

objects from:

114

double 787 of tripod cauldron,


axe,
11.

bead-seal, iv. 434 bronze dagger, 1. 195


figurine

Phigalia, bead-seal from, iv.

466
with,
I.

Philip

V of Spain,

in. 228

votary,

ill.

461

11. 131 n. 3 Disk, see Phaestos Disk, below


I.

on Pylon of Medinet Habu, in. 95 trespass offerings 153


of,
i.

Philistines,

Minoan connexion

666

Phlius, Neolithic remains at,

11.

4 n.

i
I.

faience plaques,
IV.

488 n.

2, 11.

731 n. 4,

Phoenicians,

Minoan connexion

with,

493,

11.

941
iii.

fresco panels,

185
11.

ships
ill.

657 "-2
of Keftiu mentioned in port of, in

gold signet-ring,
hut-urn,
11.

764,

70

annals of

Thothmes IV,
i

11.

657

130, 133 Neolithic deposit, I. 34, 37, 521, 11. 12, 742 pottery, I. 180, 258, 259, 260, 267, 415, 11. 157, 204, 424, 494,
III.

Phoenikes,

I.

9, 11 n.

Phoenix,

I.

9
at, 11.

Phrourion, see Guard-station

403, IV. 117, 336,

364, 637, 639 ritual conch-shell,


shell inlays,
11.

i.

221

46

steatite libation vessel, iv. 91

stone bowl,
jars, seat,
I.

i.

611

plan of houses 562, 564 drains 299 4 156, in. 78 Mycenaean well in. 256, 257 frescoes from, female figure with
at, 11. at, 11.

Phylakopi, Melos, early settlement


n.

564

fortifications at,

i.

6, iv.

Late'

at,

em766,

231-6 II. 606

broidered dress,
III.

I.

547,

il.

307 n.
II.

i,

40
I.

terra-cotta female figurine, iv.

inscribed 280, 647, 648 Zeus Velchanos worshipped 843 ^ on coins 843
tablet,
I.

model of swing, table of


of, 11.
i.

no

flyiiig-fish,

522, 536, 542-4,

453, in.

iv.
I.

24
219, IV. 158 n. 2
at, 11.

offerings,

ivory plaque from, n. 473 pottery from, 20, 247, 267,


I.

128, 378

704, n. 179,

III.

115 n. 3
I. i.

alabastra, in. 312, iv. 290, 341

Phaestos Disk,

27, 256 n. 3, 613, 615, 618,

bath pans,
bird vases,
kernoi,
lily

598, in. 115, 385, iv. 330 557, 558, 560, 561
6, in.

647-68, II. 50, III. 100 Anatolian connexions of (Lykian fa9ade,

fruit-stands, in. 276

symbols of Ma, Hittite


clubs on.
III.

tiara),

I.

654-8
95

100
iii.

I.

75 n.
I.

393

vases,

558
loio
of, iv.

heads with feather-crests on,

Physiognomy, Minoan, proto-Armenoid type


of, IV. 744, 986,

horn-bow

as pictographic sign on, iv. 173,

83s ideographic elements on, 663

'Mediterranean' type
I.

986
21

659, 660, 662,

n. 615 Pianosa, Neolithic pottery from,


Phytalos,
of,

tomb

I.

557 phonographic elements on, I. 659 pottery found with, I. 648, 649 subject of, I. 662, 663, 665, 666 tablet of Linear Script A found with,
647, 648 Phalasarna, I. 298,
11. 87 Pharaoh, divine titles of, i. 3 dynastic use of name, i. 3

M.M.

Ill parallels with,

I.

Minoan,
Pieper,
i.

Pictographs of American Indians, in. 58


see Script
I.

Pidasa, confederates of Lykians,

663, 666

Dr.,

on cylinders and scarabs from

Pigs,

Egypt, II. 210 n. I bones of, from Neolithic houses at Knossos,


II.

M.M. from Petsofa, importance of in Minoan Crete,


I figures of,

10

i.

153

iv.

572

PIGS

[ii6]
Pillar-trinities {cont.)

PLAIT- WORK
with Tanit,
11.

on Minoan bead-seals,
and

Pigs (cont.)
see

IV.

572
i.

Boar,

Sow
II hieroglyphic,

Pig sign,

M.M.

281

Liby-Phoenician, Malta, 191


in

11.

191
11.

191

skin, imitated in

Pig's

Trojan askoi, iv. 81 head sign in Linear. Script B, iv. 722 in name-groups, iv. 71
^

Pinara, reliefs from,

i.

657
I.

Pinax, votive, from Mycenae,


136, 314

632,

II.

50,

iii.

Pilasters in walls of Palace at Knossos,

11.

187

Pindus Mountains,
Pine-trees,

11.

168

Pillars, see

Columns
monuments,
322, 514, iv.
11.

on

silver rhjrton

from Mycenae,

in.

Minoan,

baetylic, in Megalithic

840,

ill.

322 458, 610


ill.

wood, use of in reconstitution of


288
Pins, gold,

99

Palace, in.

on Syro-Hittite

cylinders, iv.
11.

458

possibly bi-sexual,
cult of, Maltese,
11.

840

182, 189

Minoan,

11.

182, 189, 323, 324, 820, iv.

with Minoan Earthquakes, 324 with double axe, 348


11.

20, 348 associated

Goddess

of

from Mallia, iv. 75, 125 from Mochlos, I. 95-7 in form of antlers of fallow deer, from Mycenae, 4th Shaft Grave, iv. 579 on Cambridge statuette, iv. 32 Piperis, Minyan ware from, i. 194
Pipes, terra-cotta, for drainage at Knossos,
141,
i.

at Old Salamis,

iv.

11.

820

m.
see

252, 253

at

sacred, on L.M.
cenae,
I.

323 323 at Mycenae, iv. 348


at Mallia,
11.

Knossos,

11.

musical,
440

and

Snake tubes on Hagia Triada sarcophagus,


11.

i.

pottery, iv. 348, 352, 370

on talismanic bead-seals, iv. 446 guarded by lions, on signet from My431


natural, stalagmitic (in
II.

and

on Procession Fresco,
see Flute

622
610

Cave of Eileithyia),
of,

839
in Dictaean

Cave (Psychro), form

omphalos,

11.

838, 839
I.

construction of for peculium of dead, loii Tiryns, 144 Minoan graves, Minoan Knossos, M.M. 236: and
iv.

Pits, circular walled,

purpose
iv.

of, 11. 609,

sacrificial, at

Pit-caves, see Burials,


see Burials,

storage,

II, at

I.

see

'of the House',


I.

222, 441

and double axe 218 Knossos, under Knossos Mallia, 436, 322 Zakro, 567
cult,
I.

Pillar-crypts,

441

at at

see

I.

11.

at

II.

Pillar-shrines, of

Minoan Mother Goddess,


i.

11.

green

Koulouras Pithoi, used for storing oil, I. 458, 462, IV. 622, 630 limestone, fragment of, from Corridor of the Magazines, iv. 232
pottery, see under Pottery
steatite

from 'Clytemnestra Tomb'


231,

at

miniature,39 Knossos, from 635


on

767,

IV.

Mycenae,
220-3

iv.

637;

their

Cretan

material, iv. 232;

and

M.M.

Ill plaitwork

triple division of,

I.

ornament,
stone,

iv.

229, 636, 637


11. 697 n. 2 54 n. 4

L.M.

Ill

Mycenaean

pottery, iv. 349,


11.

on frescoes from Knossos, 445-7, 599 stream, 90 from Mycenae, 90, 91 599 on from Knossos, Plait-work, on from Mochlos, 94 523, 767, 804 on from Mainland, 550 on rapier from Mycenae, 846, 847 Hal-Tarxien, Malta, 183, 189 on gold armlet from Troy, 97 on stone associated with Baal-Haman, (M.M. 412, 419,
i.

35

on E.M. Ill
Pitsidari

from Knossos,
seal, 11.
11.

11.

Pitsidia, village of,

11.

85,

sealings

11.

seal

I.

seals

iv.

iv.

at

11.

i.

Pillar-trinities,
II.

vessels

Ilia),

r.

191

II.

348, IV. 229, 233, 637

PLAIT-WORK

[H7]

PORPHYRY
seals
II.

on

Plait-work (cont.)

gypsum

capital

Klytemnestra Tomb,

Platanos {cont.)

from, Babylonian cylinder,


265, IV. 54
I.

I.

15, 186,

229; importance for M.M. Illfl dating, ib.; its disappearance, ib. taken over from stone-work on to Minoan
IV.

ivory,

118-20,

11.

199, 448 n.

i, iv.

499,

627
scarab,
steatite,
I.

pottery, iv. 636, 644, 647, 846 Plants in ceramic ornament. Middle Neolithic,
I.

199, iv.

439

42

263 (Fig. 194 e, g) 116, I. 254, 264 (lily, crocus) Ill, I. 594 and Fig. 436 c, opp. (palm-trees), 596 and Coloured PI. VII,.
lla,
I.

M.M. M.M. M.M. M.M.

lb, IV. 93, 94,

100

signet from, 139 stone bowl from,


ill.

11.

179 n. 10, 240


11. 11.

193

Platyperama stream,
11.74

68
at source of,

Minoan main Southern road

603-9 260
lilies,

(lilies,

vetches, tulips),

11.

469, iv.

L.M.

I,

II.

469-76

(grasses, crocus,

Minoan settlement near, 11. 231 Plectrum on painting at Beni Hasan, 11. 837 Pliny the Elder cited, iv. 130 n. 2 Plot or garden sign in Linear Script B, iv. 720

star-anemone, vetches, labiates, bulb

flowers, olive-sprays), iv.

639-42

L.M. L.M.

II, II. 786, IV. 332, 353 I-III in hybridized or composite

on talismanic bead-seals,
:

Ploughs on rock-carvings of Col di Tenda, 170 n. 4


iv.

11.

448

forms with elements taken from sacred papyrus, &c., 11. 475-80, iv. 322-9 on faience from Knossos, 11. 188

on

frescoes,
II-

i.

426, 537, 538, 539-41,

Plumes (Libyan) worn by bowmen on predynastic palette, 11. 49, 51 by tumblers on gem, IV. 502-3 and see Helmets, crested, and Peacock Plutarch, on discovery of prehistoric writing at
;

328, 354. 391. 456, 458. 459. 473, 680 n. I, 749, III. 114, 130, 167-72, 363. 371. IV- 1002

604, 60s,

on Theseus,
Po, valley of,

Haliartos, iv. 672


I.

11.

170, 171

on gold cup from Mycenae, 11. 188 on seal stones from Sphungaras,

Podium
I.

of

Roman
on

amphitheatre,

Polo, Marco,
II.

silver

ill. 224 mines near Trebizond,

and

673
see

169 n. 2 156
iv.

Crocus, Dittany, Flowers, Grass, Hybrid Types, Iris, Leaves, Lilies, Myrtle,
Naturalism, Olive, Reeds, Roses, Trees,

Polygnotos, picture of Odysseus in Hades by,


III.

Theseus and Peirithoos by,


Pomegranate buds, bone inlays
i.

188 n.

Violets, &c.

Polyrrhenia, talismanic bead-seals from, iv. 445


ill.

Temple Repositories, 496 188, 262, 731, 170, 552, 940, Pontus, connexion of with Minoan Crete, 941 658, 764, 766 454, 455 gold embossed, head rhytons from, 201, 767, 777, 788, 538 polychrome vases from, 658, 659 242, 317 imitation marble, 702^ Poppy capsules held by Minoan Goddess on bead-seal from Thisbe, 458 533, 555 and Inlays Porches and of Egyptian rock tombs,
faience,
I.

Plaques, crystal,

109, 409, iv. 928, 930


iv.

of,

from

W.
11.

11.

glass, IV.

IV.

11.

195,

bull's

11.

n.

IV.

11.

11.

ivory, IV.
see

ill.

porticoes,

Plaster, use of in building,

11. 353, ill. 22, IV. 66, 70: and-see Stucco Plataea (Cyrenaic), identity of with Seal Island,

III.

201
II palaces,
see
I. 214, 215 under Knossos

M.M.
and

dagger from, pottery from,

II- 37. 89. 90 Platanos, tholos ossuaries^t,


11.
i.

11.

36, 81

Porphyry, M.M. II use of, I. 211 bowl, Early Dynastic, from Knossos,

i.

65,

273 n. 186

II.

30, 56, IV. 985 n.


II,

I
i.

E.M.

from Isopata,

87,

11.

58

PORPHYRY

[ii8]

POTTERY
miniature vessels of,
Transitional
11.

Porphyry

(cont.)

Pottery, Neolithic {cont.)

prehistoric vases of,

from Naqada and Hiera-

12 {andcf. Fig. 5,^)


i.

konpoUs, II. 30 Port, see Harbour, and Harbour Town under Knossos Porti, ossuary at, rhjrton with bull-sports from,
III.

Upper Neolithic (including in33


11.

cipient stage of Early Minoan),

Wares: Neolithic
black and

brown burnished,
i.

i.

63,

3 E.M. II stone vespel from,

205 resin from,

9 n.
11.

174 n.

incised
I.

and punctuated,
II.

36, 41, 42,

93 Portraits, on M.M. II sealings, i. 271, 272, 276, II. 268, IV. 400, 474: physiognomy generalized

176,

10, 13, 15
11.

with white and red inlays,


IV.

10,

90
i.

rippled,
11.

36-8,
9, 10

11.

9 n.

Portugal, trapezoid flints from,

Poseidon, hair-offerings to, IV. Poterium spinosum, used as stopper for water
pots,
II.

49 n. 7 477

washed, n.

survival of tradition of punctuated and


inlaid Neolithic patterns,
IV. 82,
I.

176, 177,

113 n.

87-9
Ii.

Shapes:

Pottery: Minoan (with Neolithic) Chronologically Classified and Selectively

Catalogued by A. E.
Neolithic:
successive 'Lower', 'Middle' and 'Upper'

carinated, pedestalled,
chalices (Late

basin, bowls, ear-handled,


11.

12

10

I.

58

(with Sub-Neolithic) phases, 1. 15 seqq incised decoration characteristic of 'Middle'


phase,
I.

and Sub-Neolithic), with cordon or band round middle, 11. 12 (Figs. 3 m, and 4); compared with
II.

proto-dynastic Egyptian copper type,

36, 41

inlaid with white

12 n. 4 (inset)
II.

chalky material and ferruginous red,


ibid.

cups, n. 10
ladles,

9
11.

rippled ware
brilliant

i.

37 (Fig. 5)
of

pans, upright-walled,
Neolithic

polish

'Middle'

spindle-whorls,
trays,
I.

11.

13

sherds, 11. 9 bridge-spout appears in 'Upper' Neolithic,


1-37. 39. Fig- 6, a growing use of potter's oven in 'Upper'

37
11.

ear-handled,

12

beak-spouted,
Localities:

11.

9 n.
10

bridge-spouted,

11.

Neolithic (including Sub -Neolithic),


I.

56,

II.

9,

10

beginnings of lustreless glaze slip painted


decoration in 'Upper' Neolithic,
clay figurines, birds
i.

38
45,

and animals,

i.

46 abundance of clay squatting or female 'idols', I. 46-52 (Figs.


parallelism

sitting
12, 13)

of these clay figurines with


I.

Cycladic marble types,

47 seqq.

their parallelism with those of Oriental

from Knossos, i. 36-41, 623, 11. 9-12 from Neolithic houses, 11. 17 from beneath Central Court, 11. 8 from beneath remains of original fafade (a few M.M. I), 11. 613 from Magaza, E. Crete, i. 34 from Mochlos, i. 57 from Mainland, 11. 4 from South Russia, 11. 4 from Thessaly, 11. 4

Mother Goddess, i. 49-52. range of stone maces from Neolithic Strata,


I. 54, and cf. 53 (Fig. 15 a) chrysocolla stud from, found with polished

of Eastern Balkans,

11.

Minoan, E.M.
of

I {see too transitional stage

'Upper'

Neolithic):

handmade,

and incised ware of 'Middle' phase,


54-5

i.

I. 56 pottery from early votive deposit, Mochlos,

generally with reddish core,

I-

58, 57

POTTERY
Pottery,

[119]
I (cont.)

POTTERY
Minoan, E.M.
II:

Minoan, E.M.
'pedestal

Pottery (cont.)
type,

evolution of

stemmed
and

'chalice'

or

base',

'bowls'

from
Fig. 3,

various types from

E.M.

II

House

floors,

proto-dynastic Egyptian copper type,


II.

12 (and inset n. 4):

cf. 10,

Knossos, I. 73 (Fig. 40), 74 bowl with elaborate geometrical decoration,


tables

m (a)
burjiished 'chalices' of (and proto-Neo-

Mochlos Tomb, i. 74 (Fig. 41) and pans, including primitive kernos

compared with those from Dynasty Tombs, AbyHos, 11. 12 chalices and other types from Ossuary Cave, Pyrgos (near Niru Khani), I. 58-60 revival of incised and punctuated ware,
lithic),

First

type (Kumasa), I. 75-8 second phase of E.M. II painted ware


illustrated
at
class,

Vasiliki
i.

by

brilliant

'mottled'

77-9

(Fig.
ib.;
I.

46);

character

of

technique,
parallels,

wide
79;

I.

60

Mediterranean

78,

imitation of
60,

woodwork
Figs. 19

graining

in,

I.

59,

original model drawn from pre-dynastic

and
in

A, B, E,
with

F
perforated

Egypt,

ib.

survival

of

vessels

metallic types of

E.M.

II

vessels

from

handles for suspension, I. 60-2 rise of painted pottery in both dark on


light

and

light

on

dark,
i.

I.

62-4

black lustrous paint,


painting of,
i.

63,

64

26, 38

Sphungaras, I. 79, 80; bridge-spouted bowls derived from early dynastic Egyptian copper vessels, i. 80-2, iv. 363 Shapes: asked, I. 117, IV. 80
cups, pedestalled,
11. 635, iv. 363 74, 11. 635, iv. 402 n. 3 pans, pedestalled, I. 75, 76 (Fig. 43 a, b); Egyptian suggestion, ib. and Fig. 45

i. 59, 60 ornament, iv. 84 n. 2 hatched ornament, I. 93 n. 4 herring-bone ornament, iv. 90

burnishing
'butterfly'

of,

ewers,

i.

imitating metal,

i.

59

prototypes of kernoi,
tumblers,
iv.

1.

75, 76

Shapes:
chalices,
I. 59, 60 collared vessels, I. 60

98
I.

bird-shaped,

117, iv. 80
I. i.

bridge spouts,

73 (Fig. 40), 74

gourd-forms,
ladles,
I.

i.

63

cap-like covers,

92

57
I.

baking
58,
ir.

of,

i.

78, 79

pyxides, iv. 90 two-storied pots,

Localities:

428-30

loop-handles,

I.

60

round bottoms, I. 60, 63 beaked spouts, I. 63 square mouths, I. 58


baking
of,
I.

38, 56

from Knossos, i. 74, iv. 79 from Gournia, i. 80 from Kumasa, 1. 117, iv. 80, 163 from Mochlos, I. 74 from Palaikastro, I. 77, iv. 80 from Sphungaras, 11. 635, iv. 98
irc^m Vasiliki,
I.

Localities:

77-9,
I.

IV.

363

from from from from

Gournia, iv. 84 n. 2 Hagia Photia, i. 64 Knossos, I. 60, 61, 11. 9

Minoan, E.M.

Ill:

characteristics of,

108

novel fashion of white decoration on dark

Komo, 11.^88 fromMiamu, i. 58


from Mochlos, i. 57 from Patema, near Palaikastro, iv. 90 from Pyrgos (by Niru Khani), I. 50, 60, and Fig. 19, 11. 10, 12 from Stravomyti Cave, 11. 69 n. i from Vasiliki, I. 60

ground, 1. 108-12 white on dark E.M. Ill pottery specially characteristic of E. Crete, i. 108-10
(Figs. 76, 77),

iii-is (Fig. 80

a, b)

partial survival of 'mottled' Vasiliki ware,


I.

108

partial survival of dark

ornament on buff

ground,

i.

108

POTTERY
Pottery,

[l30]
(cont.)

POTTERY
Minoan, M.M. la (cont.) by earliest stratum of Basement of the
Monolithic
I.

Minoan, E.M. Ill


to,
I.

Pottery,

beginnings of polychrome ware traceable

no,

III

(spouted jug (Ashat

Pillars (with

Dove
>

vase),

molean Museum), found


c. 1896) spouts become less elongated,

Knossos,

and houses beneath Koulouras 2 and 3 iv. 66-87 ^^^ by


146, 172, 173;
,

i.

no, in
i.

spiral

system

now

introduced,

109-12
spiral,

(Figs. 76, 77) typical patterns of (curves,

jug with double-axe pattern, i. 173, 174 (early house floor under West Court)
survival of Neolithic tradition

running
i.

on M.M.

cable,

rosette,

'butterfly'),

112,

la early polychrome ware chevrons, chequers, and punctuations, I. 175,176, IV. 87-90 explanation sought in survi;

113, IV. 91 goats with cross-hatching,

I.

112 (Fig. 80

8)

val in perishable materials, iv. 91 and

survival of

incised
I.

and punctuated orna-

n. 2

ment on,
Shapes:
askoi,
I.

114, 115

exceptional appearance of rude male figure

115-17,

IV.
I

79-82

bowls, IV. 99 n.

M.M. I polychrome pot, I. 607 (from this time human and animal forms disappear from the painted
on
pottery

bowl-shaped jug, one-handled, i. no, in; with prominent bridge-spout,


IV. 94.

of the

Minoan World
iv.

till

mature L.M. Ill and proto-Geometrical times,


I.

ladles,

I.

95 623
seal-stone,
I.

607, 608,

374-6)

pithos,

on
I. I.

124,

11.

54 n. 2
3

pyxides,

114
108,

mature M.M. la pottery found with Babylonian haematite cylinder dating from Hammurabi's time {c. 2100 B.C.)
in

spouts,

no,
I.

III,

III.

402 n.

primitive

ossuary of Platanos,

I.

loop-handles,

60

lug ears,

11. 69 n. i painted vessel in form of woman holding

195egg-shell tumblers

now produced
IV.

of un-

surpassed tenuity of fabric,


I.

98
i.

(cf.

breasts,

i.

115-16
fish

108)
style),

Egyptian influence on, in. 402 n. 3


Localities:

and sea tang (primitive


IV.

182,

from Knossos,

I.

107-13, 166, 623,


i

iv.

115 decorative plant

69. 94. 95. 99 n.

chrome vases
lOI
rosette
iv.

forms on

earlier poly-

textile style, iv. 93, 100,

from Arkalokhori Cave, i. 59, 114 from Gournia, I. 107-13, iv. 92 from Kamares Cave, i. no, in,
9411.3

polychrome design suggested by


iv. 91,

roundels for inlays,


cross in circle

92

from Kumasa, iv. 80 from Mochlos, i. 623 from Palaikastro, I. 107, 112 from Pyrgos (near Niru Khani),
114, IV. 80

return to

on polychrome jug, iv. 94 dark on light technique, I. 164;


pattern frequent,
i.

'butterfly'

166;

I.

60,

by Drachmani jug, ib. three wild goats and water-beetle on, 1. 182, 183, and cf. IV. 74 for water-beetle
paralleled

from Stravomyti Cave, 11. 69 from Vasiliki, I. 107-13

n. i

heron on,

I. 182, 183 cockchafer (beetle) in relief on

M.M.

la

Minoan, M.M.
I.

la.:

bowl,

IV.

74

Ceramic polychromy now well established,


172-5, IV. 71, 85-91, 97-101, 105-8,
cf. I.

moulded

cockle-shell

from

M.M.

la house

and
This

168-71
I

B, IV. 108 (Fig. 75), 109 'barnacle' work, iv. 100, 102, 108
stage of barbotine)
trickle

(initial

M.M. by Vat Room


earlier

phase

illustrated
i.

Deposit,

168-75;

ornament,

11.

300

POTTERY
Pottery,

[121]

POTTERY
Minoan, M.M. la. Localities, from Knossos {cont.) S.W. Columnar Chamber, iv. 3 S. House, IV. 87 wall of W. fa?ade, 11. 665, 666 corridor by W. Entrance, 11. 669 n. i

Minoan,

groups of
Shapes:

M.M. la (cont.) M.M. la pots, i. 144


82-4

Pottery,

(Phaestos),

167, 173, IV.


askos, IV.

79
172, 181,
II.

bowls,

1.

31 n.
i,

I,

369,^.405

cups, IV. 93 pedestalled,


'fruit-stands',

Corridor of the Procession,


Krasi, iv. 676
Mallia,
11.

11.

683 n.

I.

104 n.

168

ewers,

iv. 84, 85, 87, 94,


i.

676
i

hole-mouthed
jars,
I.

176, iv. 73 pots, i. 104 n.


iv.

incense burner,
127,

72
II.

from from from from from


(for

Mochlos,

I.

271 109 n.
11.
I.

Pachyammos,
Palaikastro,

185

185, 224, IV. 405,

168,

271, IV. 73

802, 807

straining liquids)
larnakes,

185 loom weights, iv. 71


ir.

pipkins, IV. 73 pitchers, ill. 254

from from from from from

Phaestos,

I. I.

144
158, 159
i

Psychro,

Sphungaras, I. 109 n. TruUos, 158, 159


Vasiliki,
I.

186

pyxides, iv. 88-90


'sheep-bells',
tray, iv.
i.

Minoan, M.M. lb:


polychrome
style further developed,

175, iv. 689 n. 2

with

72 tumblers (egg-shell
tian copper),
I.

substitution of powdery vermilion pig:

imitation of

Egyp-

168, 169, IV. 98

ment for madder-red and orange (becoming yellow) more frequent, iv. 99
plants

band-handles,
.ledge-handles,
spouts,
Localities:
I.

I. i.

168 109 n.
i

and flowers

in textile style,

i.

18

(Fig. 133, ^), IV. 100,101


floruit of barbotine,

144

88-90, 98 houses under Kouloura W. Court, 71-4, 79, 82-9, 93, 94, 109 magazines, 127, 664 well near Ariadne, 254
IV. 85,

from Knossos, i. 176, il. 31 n. i, 202 n. 6 Vat Room Deposit, I. 164-93, II. 666,
off

combined with brilliant polychromy, 1. 179, 180, iv. 105, 106-8, and Coloured PI. XXVIII
of
coiled
shell

influence

patterns

on
iv.

(parallels

from
185

New

Mexico),

110-15,
oyster',

cf. I.

IV. 66,

influence of local marine forms ('thorny

Proto-palatial

1.

11.

'thorn-back'

crab,

and

sea-

Villa

ill.

urchins &c.) on development of barbotine ('prickle-ware'), iv. 104, 105 influence of 'tun shell' (Dolium), iv. no,
III, 114,

Court of Stone Spout,


IV.

i.

175,

House of the Oxen, 300, 301 Monolithic Crypt, 74, 86 Porch, 104, 289 Portico, 153 beneath Theatral Area (M.M. la M.M. 247, 248 House of the Chancel Screen, 2 395 in S.E. Angle, 368, 369 drain wall above N. Lustral Basin, embankment of bridge over Vlychia, 153 Early house-floor, 172
Sacrificed
11.

85

and

cf. I.

Coloured FL
i.

I, b, d.

crocus flowers imitated,


of
c,

368, 369 ('Close

Pillar

iv.

M.M. la'), IV. Coloured PI. XXVIII,


opp. p. 106 (preferably included

S.

I.

II.

S.

II.

146,

in

M.M.

lb)

to

Ilia),

III.

polychrome imitations of breccia, showing the red, white-bordered veins, i. 177,


178 (Fig. 127, b,c)
clay imitation of copper amphora iridescent
:

11.

n.

11.

sheen

(in

M.M.
i.

lb deposit,

Vasiliki

iii.

13 n. 3

193 imitations of silver kantharos (found with

(Seager)),

II-

them
nia),

in 'house-tomb' ossuary,
I.

i.

191-3 (Fig. 139, a,

b, c);

Gourfrom

POTTERY
Pottery,

[laz]

POTTERY
Minoan,

Minoan,
beneath

M.M. M.M.

lb (cont.)
I floor, Pseira,
i.

Pottery,

M.M.

Ila (cont.)

192

egg-shell cups with rosette

and
;

star flower
i.

(Fig. 139, d), 193 (alternating white

and

patterns of metallic lustre,


PI.

Coloured

dark to imitate effect of shining metal rivets of prototypes shown, i. 191-3) Shapes:
askos, IV. 106

II

opp.

p.

241

architectonic

parallels of rosettes,

11.

697

egg-shell

bowls,

four-handled, 93 with miniature


on
pedestal,

I.

193, IV.

IV. 134,

135

i. 180 (Dove oxen and herdsmen), 181

figures,

pedestalled,
ewers, iv. 87

(Fig. 130) cups, IV. 106

cup resembling calix of waterlily below (perhaps suggested by lotus) with delicately embossed surface, i. 241 egg-shell cups with fine metallic lustre and stamped patterns, i. 242 comparison with Hellenistic metallic lustre ware with central "medallions' reproduced from those of Dionysios of
Syracuse with signature of Euainetos,
I.

I.

186

242

'

fruit-stands, iv. 100, 115

cup of plain black lustre ware from Palaikastro with potter's signature in

hole-mouthed jugs,
pyxis,
I.

i.

189

Minoan

239
iv.

hieroglyphics of contemporary Class

tumbler,
spouts,
I.

99
11.

185 miniature painted wagon,

156, IV. 807,

808
Localities:

from Knossos, iv. 115 town drain, iv. 93, 106 under N.W. Treasury,

house of Palace, deposits on Palace


S.

11.

76, 97, 616


iv.

242 ornament of cups mechanically printed by half-section of cane, I. 245, 246 white blotches on dark ground repeated (as in similar fresco process) by dabbing with a small sponge on stick, i. 244 (Fig. 184 b), 245, and see in.
I.

B,

C-like

iv.

87
97,

361-S
shallow carinated bowls imitating liparite

borders,

105, 106 nn. I and 2 from E. Crete, 11. 214 n. 2 from Hagia Triada, I. 179, 189, 239 from Kamares Cave, I. 189, IV. 105, 113,

114 (Fig. 80,

fl).

from

Palaikastro,

I.

29,

180,

186,

11.

bowls copied from the traditional Egyptian diorite bowls, many fragments of which occurred at Knossos, I. 178, and cf. 85-7 cups and bowls painted to imitate conglomerate and breccia, I. 177, 178
(Fig. 127 d,g), 238 (Figs. 178, 179) veined creamy white patterns on buff ground, fragments (from Royal Pottery

156, IV. 100

from Phaestos, i. 180 from Phylakopi, i. 20 from Pseira, i. 193 from Vasiliki, I. 185

Stores, Knossos), I. 178 (Fig. 1:27, d) hole-spouted polychrome vase with scroll-

Minoan, M.M. Ila: epoch of acme of Minoan Ceramic Art


reflecting architectonic style of con-

work of extraordinary

elaboration in

temporary Palaces
Phaestos,
I.

at

Knossos and

237 Polychrome cups with arcaded patterns, reflecting fluted gold cups, i. 243,
244, and folding Fig. 183 perfection of 'egg-shell' ware,
choicest

creamy-white orange and crimson on a lustrous black ground, i. 246 (Fig. 186 a), 247, and Coloured PI. Ill comparative examples of elegant poly-

chrome patterns, i. 246 (Fig. based on sepia type), 247


earliest

186, /,

imported Minoan sherds in Melos,


Ila,
I.

M.M.

247
bivalve) reliefs
similar types at

examples from Royal Pottery Stores, Knossos, I. 240-4

'Venus-pecten'

(compound

on M.M. Ila cups:

POTTERY
Pottery,

[123]

POTTERY
Minoan, M.M. Ila {cont) swastika on polychrome jug, S.E. Angle
deposit, II. 215, 2x6 polychrome tazza of quatrefoil shape with crinkled rim and thorn-like bosses (outgrowth of barbotine), I. 239, 240, Suppl. PI. Ill a, 24^7, 249 n. 3, IV.

Minoan,
;

M.M.

Ila

{cont.)
iv.
iv.

Pottery,

Knossos, Phaestos, and Palaikastro, 1 16-18 on creamy-bordered bowl,

119 'creamy-bordered' class of M.M. lla polychrome vessels, iv. 120-22; based on
silver

work,

iv.

127

lotus derivatives with quadruple

S pattern on polychrome vase, Phaestos parallel to Egyptian scarab types, I. 257 (Fig. 192, b), 258, II. 204 n. 4, 205 M.M. Ila polychrome sherds from Harageh, of Seiiusert II's time (c. 19061888 B.C.), II. 211, 212 (Fig. 119)

134, 135 (with M.M. \h prototype) origin of 'tortoise-shell ripple' decoration


in imitation metal fluting (on

'creamy

bordered' fruit-stand),

iv.

120-1, and

Coloured
palmette
nail

PI.

XXIX,
119

e)

reliefs, iv.

and thumb marks associated with


repousse ornament,
iv. 118,

late survival of

barbotine style on painted


11.

120

sherd of Harageh group,


(Fig. 119 'Racquet and
a),

211, 212

ball'

213, IV. 108 (Fig. 74) pattern (outcome of

earlier loop and disk) on M.M. Ilfl polychrome pottery, 11. 217, 218; occurs on Harageh sherd (of Senusert IPs time), II. 213 (Fig. 119 g); prominent on large polychrome jar from S.E. Palace Angle, 11. 217, and Coloured PI. IX, d i on 'egg-shell' bowl from M.M. Ila deposit, Knossos, ib. c. I, 2; on polychrome fragments found in M.M. Ila stratum of section explored under E. Steps of 'Theatral
;

from polychrome composition, IV. 128, 129, Coloured PI. XXX d SS motive, i. 243, and folding Fig. 183 a, 4 dark on light technique, i. 244, 245, 247 light on dark technique, i. 244, 247
argonaut
relief

Shapes:
bowls,
I.

213,

II.

216, 300, IV. 118, 119, 213, 219 n.


I,

134, 284 cups, I. 242, 117, 132-4

II.

463,

IV.

beaked ewer,
filter, II.

iv.

126

213
I.

fruit-stand,

hole-mouthed
266, 267,

239 bridge-spouted
215, IV. 131
I.

jars,

I.

Area',

ill.

249

(Fig. 172), 250; survival


itself

II.

of the 'racquet' motive


IV.

on M.M.

knobbed pithoi,

231, 236,562, 567 n. 2;

116 bridge-spouted pot (monochrome),

profiles of, IV. 644,

645
11.

137 (Fig. 107); and on L.M. la (on one-handled 'alabastra'), 11. 512 (Fig.

ostrich-egg 'rhyton',
see above)

223, 225 (and

315 h) (and cf. a), iv. 267 (Fig. 197) cross-hatched decoration on polychrome
tumbler, as on Harageh sherd,
(cf. II.

pilgrim's flask,

11. II.

179, 215, 216

spouts,
tazzas,

I. I.

247,

iv.

131

IV. 131 239, 240, Suppl. PI. Ill a,

215,

219, Fig. 119 h)

IV. 134,

135
iv.

sherds of

M.M. Ila class from Kahun {see under M.M. 116), i. 266
body painted
fittings in-

tumblers,
Localities:

99, 130

ostrich-egg rhyton type, the

from Knossos,
IV.

I.

247,

iii.

216, 320, 463,

white

like the shell,

with

dicatedin 'orange, vermilion, and black (fragmentary remains. Royal Pottery


Stores), I. 594, 595, Fig. 436 a, ii. 223, 225 (Fig. 129, 3). (For Egyptian ostrich-egg flask with mouthpiece, of

iith-i2th Dyn., and modern Soudanese parallels, see 11. 222, 223. See
too

Rhytons)

616, 97, 99, 130, 131 House of the Fallen Blocks, 132 House of the Sacrificed Oxen, other houses, 215, 218
II.

298 Royal Pottery Stores, i. 231-47, 11. 213, 216 store-house beneath N. W. Treasury,
IV.
11.

300,

IV.

11.

300

11.

POTTERY
Pottery,

[134]

POTTERY
Minoan,

Minoan, M.M. Ila, Localities, from Knossos [cont.) S.E. polychrome deposit, 11. 218-220, and Coloured PI. IX (fragments parallel with those from Harageh)

Pottery,

M.M.
I.

lib {cont.)

imitations of metal-work, heavier and with-

out sheen,

259

bizarre veining also derived

from stone-

E. Slope, Ill, 126 beneath Theatral Area, 248 E. Quarter, 134 Palace Magazines, 231-6, 562, 360 422, 576 basement of Monolithic 239 Koulouras, 118, 119, 128
IV.
iii.

ware disappears,
handles

i.

259

iv.

I.

n. 2,

II.

III.-

Pillars,

I.

not organically moulded with but attached to it, i. 259 large jar from Loom-weight Basement with triple groups of inflorescent palmtrees (matt creamy-white with outlines and details in rosy terra-cotta on
vessel,

now

Loom-weight Area, W. Court, 610


II.
11. 11.

iv. 53, 54,

black ground),
this
II.

iv.

iii

old N.W. Court, S.E. Angle, 214 outside Palace, 213


from from from from
Aegina,
Dibaki,
11. 11.

i. 253-6; evolution of date-palm type on Minoan vases, 493-7, and Comparative Table,

iv. 50,

53

Fig. 301, p.
lb,

496M.M.
iv.

Ilia,

L.M.

Ic: influence

of on

L.M. L.M. II

Palace Style,

324-6.

211

Greece,

iv.

90 284
c.

later than 1906-1888 B.C.), II. 213, 216, 228, III. 250, IV. 108 from Kamares Cave, I. 238, 239, 247 n. 2,

Harageh (cemetery not

symptoms of reviving naturalism, polychrome pot with saffron flowers, from Kamares Cave, i. 263, 269 (Fig. 197), Madonna lilies on polychrome jug
from Knossos, flowering olive sprays on polychrome sherd from Knossos, I. 264 (Fig. 194^), 265, cf. 11. 474 imported Minoan sherds found by Prof. Petrie at Kahun, ranging from M.M.

Senusert II's reign,

II.

184
Palaikastro,
I.

from

242,

11.

219 n.

i, iv.

119, 133, 134 from Phaestos, i. 231-6, 562, 567 n. 2,

Ha
11. II.

to close of

M.M.

116,

i.

266, 267,

204 n. 4, IV. 117,637 from Trypeti, 11. 83, 238

Minoan, M.M.
later

116:

phase of polychromy visible, showing tendency towards monochrome decoration,


I.

210 (great epoch of Kahun, approximating 1849-1765 B.C., I. 270) diorite statue of Ab-nub-mes-wazet-user under pavement of Central Court, in M.M. 116 polychrome stratum, I. 286discovery by Prof.

178

mature M.M. 116 style best represented by deposit in Loom-weight Basement, I. 248-58; parallel deposits at
Phaestos, I. 258, 259 frequency of rows of disks, an architectonic feature derived from beam ends of

house fronts on frescoes and faience


inlays,
artistic
I.

90 (perhaps of 13th Dyn., c. 1750 B.C.) Garstang of bridgespouted jug with typical M.M. 116 polychrome decoration (including the rows of disks) in virgin tomb at Abydos (Egypt), together with cylinders of Senusert III and of Amenemhat III (c. 1849-1801 B.C.), I. 267-9, and Suppl. PI. IV, 11. 209, 210

258

form injured by mechanical ad-

vance

-growing use of potter's wheel:


I.

Egypto-Minoan pottery of M.M. 116 class made by Cretan potters at Kahun, 11.
211

generally adopted for medium-sized

polychrome pottery of
well
as

M.M.

116 class (as

259 concentric string markings on bases oftenvisible,

vessels,

M.M.
11.

Aegina,
at

imported into 211 (Helladic sherds found


Ill),

due to cutting

off

when
i. i.

in

Kahun,
IV. 1

ib.)

rapid revolution (Dawkins),

disappearance of egg-shell ware,

259 259

rim of small jug with cockles moulded on


it,

16

POTTERY
Pottery,

[I2S]

POTTERY
Minoan, MM. Knossos (cont.)
iv.

Minoan,
terns,

examples of
pottery,

M.M. M.M.

116

(cont.)'

Pottery,

116, Localities,

from

116 polychrome pat-

I. 261, 262 (Fig. ig^g-l) showing pointed petals, I. 267

thorn in profile

imitation

of barbotine,

IV. 131 (Fig. 99), 132 flower-chain pattern developed into foliate

269, 270. attenuated foUate bands characteristic of


i.

band,

M.M.
191
Illfl)

116 polychromy,

i.

255 (Fig.

centre),

256 (survive in

M.M.
Loom-

Koulouras, 122, 126 beneath Central Court, 800, beneath pavement Queen's Megaron. 358 Loom- weight Area, 493, 488 Entrance of E. Corridor, 264 beneath Portico of Hall of Double Axes, 332 houses under Viaduct, loi
11.

ill.

in

III.

11.

ill.

ill.

S.

III.

11.

pottery of miniature class found in

weight
I-

Basement

(perhaps

votive),

from Mallia, iv. 696 n. 3 from Mavro Spelio, 11. 557 from Phaestos, i. 258, 259,

11.

204, 494

253
(white-

Minoan, M.M.

Ilia:

white on dark ('monochrome') technique


characteristic of latest class

break in ceramic series


of

abrupt decadence
end
contrasted

attesting extent of catastrophe at

banded

M.M.

116 cups and miniature

M.M.

116,

I.

vessels), I. 258 appearance of fully developed 'tortoise-shell rippled' ware, I. 393 dark on light imitation of alabaster veins,
IV. 122, 123 (Figs. 93, 94) survival of 'racquet' pattern (without ball)

general
partial

roughness
survival

552, 553 of fabric

withM.M.

II, 1.592,

591 of black-glazed

ground

usually distinguishes M.M. Ilia fabrics


Earlier

from b, and

1.

414.

later

(penultimate) stage

of

on small bridge-spouted jug resembling Abydos vase, iv. 137 group of M.M. 116. vases from pot in

M.M.

demarcated in the N. Lustral Basin by earlier and somewhat


Ill
later stratum, I. 420 brown-stone bridge-spouted vessels with circular borings inlaid with white shell

Chamber
Knossos,
Shapes:
cups.
jars,
III.
II.

Tomb,
557, 558

Mavro

Spelio,

5
II.

from N. Lustral Basin and adjoining Initiatory Area accompanied by dark493,


III.

hole-mouthed bridge-spouted,
21, 238,
II.

I.

253, 260,

177 n.

i,
I.

488 219-

faced imitative pots with white spots

on dark ground,

i.

412-14.
lid

209
111.

deposit in Initiatory Area approximately

pithoi, corded,
Localities:

264

dated by 'alabastron'
of Hyksos

bearing

name

King Khyan (dated by Weill


B.C.),
I.

from tomb

Abydos, polychrome vase with cylinders of Senusert III and of Amenemhat III (c. 1 849- 1 801 B.C.), I. 267-70 (Ashmolean Museum), 11. 209, iv. 108, 130,
at

from

c.

1633

417-22

(bridge-spouted)

this spotted

M.M.

Illa decoration (some-

times on maroon ground) also visible in high-spouted vases with red rings

round

neck
I.

137

handles,

creamy lips and 416 (cable or guillochc 415,

and

from Kahun, from workmen's settlement by Pyramid of Senusert II, i. 266,


210-13 from Kamares Cave,
267,
II.
i.

pattern also characteristic)

spotted ware absent in


I.

M.M.

III6 deposits,

417

238, 261, 264,

survivals of

594

from Knossos, N.W. Treasury border,

near House of the Frescoes,

III.

17, IV. 136

iv.

116

polychrome style cups and bowls from Gypsades Well, showing patterns of finicking kind (madder-red picked out with white on brownish glaze medium) with cable pattern, i.

POTTERY
Pottery,

[126]

POTTERY
Minoan, M.M. Ilia (cont.) on jug with M.M. Ill rim (white on dark) found with other similar fragments in IVth Shaft Grave,Mycenae (of Minoan fabric), I. 598-600 (Fig. 440) polychrome reproduction of conglomerate on small jug from Gournia, I. 596 (Fig.
438)> 597

Minoan,
I.

M.M.
II.

Ilia {cont.)
this,

Pottery,

595, 596,

549 (attribution of

595, 596, to similar from

M.M.III6 is
Kouloura
I,

corrected):
in

III6 stratum, with patterns of

M.M. M.M.

Ilfl class, I. 593 rhyton of ostrich-egg type (but example of M.M. Ilia polychromy), from M.M. stratum oVKa<f)evlov', Knossos, showing on matt brown-lilac ground three

attenuated foliate bands characteristic of

M.M.
Ilia

inflorescent palm-trees: cable pattern

Ila polychromy, I. 255, Fig. 191 (centre), 256, survive in M.M.

appearing on trunks and decorative


bands, I. 593-5 and Fig. 436 c engraved decoration accompanying
de-

'tortoise-shell ripple'

ware from Knossos of


i.

early

M.M.

Ill fabric,

592-3; acof unfixed

signs of above probably taken over

from ostrich-egg model, I. 594, 595. handled cup with polychrome decoration on black ground including rock-work with red and white spots (from Palaikastro), i. 597, and Coloured PI. VII bottom of granulated rock-work on painted clay basin, the upper part of the interior of which shows spirals ending in sprays (see below) Early example of M.M. Ilia polychromy (from N. of
.

companied by powdery white

bands

(feature surviving to

L.M.

la),

I.

593

triple tangential coil (white

on

black) with

dotted interior decoration on small

jug from Gournia, I. 611 (Fig. 449, a) remains of large jar found in M.M. Ilia medium S.E. of Palace with branching
pattern

(derived

from stone- ware),

presenting white-coloured barbotine


interior, I. 601 (Fig. 442), 602, 603 small jugs with white spots on dark ground

Palace, Knossos),

i.

397, 398

great Naturalistic revival (also


fish

and plants
to

in white

shown by on black)

with moulded

reliefs of ears of barley,


I.

survival of barbotine technique,

414,

traceable to their

tinuing

M.M. Ill phase (contransitional M.M. III6,

and (perhaps for beer) cf. iv. 627, 628 high cup and another more open of M.M.
Ilia
fashion

L.M.

I).
,

cessation

Explained by temporary owing to Hyksos Conquest of

with
1.

ink- written

in-

scriptions of the Linear Script

Egyptian cultural predominance, 11. 360-3. General law regarding natural rendering of objects in Cretan Art this free style flourishes when. Egypt weak, II. 361, 362 jar, with lively school of dolphins (between rocks and pebbly beach from Pachyammos (white on black), I. 60 white on black vetches, Palaikastro, i. 606, (Fig. 445 a,b) survival of same naturalistic style in white on dark in tulip groups on jar from

inner clay surface,

on 6x6 (from above


site),

early Pillar Crypt, S.E. of Palace


I.

588 (Fig. 431), 589, 613-16 group of plain clay vessels, one with incised
inscription of

elongated
type,

jar),

same class (exceptionally and of bridge-spouted


Basement,
i.

from
of
I.

S.

554-6

cup

profiles

M.M.

Ilia and b con-

trasted,

589 (Fig. 432)

Temple
III6),
I.

Repositories (perhaps

M.M.

cup with exterior spiral fluting (concentric marks of string cutting below), I. 590 flat bowls with spiral fluting inside (produced by potter's wheel), special mark
of this epoch,
elongation of jars
I.

spirals

605, 606 terminating in sprays

589 (Fig. 433)


of this

band of M.M. from Knossos,


parallel

on inner Ill polychrome basin


597, 598 (Fig. 439);
spirals

characteristic

epoch,
extensive

I.

571, 572 (Fig. 416) M.M. Ilia deposits in


I. i.

N.E.

motive of

with sprays

Magazines,

568-71

POTTERY
Pottery, Minoan,
burial jar

[127]

POTTERY
Minoan, M.M. Illfl, Localities, from Knossos {cont.) deposit above early Monolithic Crypt,
I.

M.M.

Ilia {cont.)

Pottery,

from Ghazi with large rosette design in white on black ground, i.


584,

585
as
I.

(found

with

M.M.

Ilia

590, Fig. 434) pedestalled type of vase with

cup

maroon slip, red zigzag round neck and creamywhite handles, 1. 417, Fig. 301 (derived from 1 2th Dyn. Egyptian type of alabaster vase on burnished clay base,
ib.,

Fig. 302, a)

similar

pedestalled vase with vermilion


11.

587-90 beneath Theatral Area, 580, in. 250 Gypsades Well, 595, 596, 549 beneath Hall of the Double Axes, in. 331 Room of the Knobbed Pithos, 23 Houses in S.E. Angle (basement
pit
11.
i.

11.

in.

(stratified vessels in situ)

glaze (S.E. Angle),

369, 370, Fig.

deposits),

II.

369-71, and group. Fig.

206, a (with cup b)

'Vapheio' cups in metal-work apparently

copied at this time,


association

I.

245, Fig. 183, b,

(opp. p. 242), and cf. 11. 175 and 226 of M.M. Ilia pottery with
Spiral fresco,
I.

369-72

House, 379 House of the Fallen Blocks, n. 369 House of the Frescoes, 369, 436, 437 of the Sacrificed Oxen, n. House
S.
II.
11.

206

Shapes:
alabastron,
i.

301-4 (M.M.
415
II.
I.

Ilia partially repre-

bowls,
cups,

521, 522, 587-90, IV. 102


308, 369,
III.

I.

587-90,
11.

331,

IV.

122
egg-stands,

Well on of Gypsades, 2 549, in. 255 N.E. Magazines, 568-71


Hill
II.

sented in deposit)
n.

i.

595, 596,

308
303 n.
I.

415); and
5, 555, 415, 416
iv.

cf.

(Figs. 414, I. 389, 390 (these referred

ewers,

high-spouted,
fruit-stands,
jars,
11.

I.

560,

11.

627

Harbour Town, Knossos,


I.

to as

'M.M.

III6')

11.

255

303
303, 369, 437
IV.

hole-mouthed bridge-spouted,
II.

two-handled,
ostrich-egg,
11.

380, 579,

84

224, 303, 494 pedestalled vases, i. 417, 11. 369, 370


11.

from from from from from

Hagia Triada,

I.

415

Mavro Spelio, n. 555 Pachyammos, iv. 252


Phaestos,
Vasihki,
i.

415, in. 403

11.

305 n. 3

Minoan, M.M.

III6:

Localities:

continued divergence from fine


175,

M.M.
in

II

from Knossos,
122

224, 360, iv.

polychrome
erally

tradition

ground
wash
I.

genplace

Koulouras, 63, 102 N. Lustral Basin, 413-17, 320, 9 Palace Stores, 552-90, 697 2 Room of the Stone 268 4 beneath E. Section of Queen's Megaron, 366 basement S.W. region, 554-6, and 84 in N.W. region, 403 Spiral Fresco Area, 369-71 (beneath M.M. Hi blind well in Court of Stone Spout,
iv.
I.

brownish-lilac

of

lustrous

black

and

decoration

11.

mostly powdery white,


greater tendency

III.

now

visible

591, 592 towards buff

i.

11.

n.

ground,
partial

ib.

Pier,

ill.

n.

jars

iii.

in

i.

of polychromy in large from Temple Repositories with broadly drawn conventional plant designs in white and yellow on
survival

cf. IV.

roughish brown ground,

I.

596, 597,

iii.

Coloured

PI.

VII
1.

ill.

exceptional survival of glaze and finish in


'tortoise-shell rippled' ware,

floor)

592, 593

this class of

M.M.

\\\b ware with

its finely

I.

380,

III.

494

polished surface and good glaze (which

POTTERY
Pottery,

[128]

POTTERY
slotted

Minoan,

M.M.

III6 (cont.)

Pottery,
la) true

partially survives into

L.M.

predecessor of typical Late

Minoan

Minoan, M.M. III6 (cont.) and perforated vessel from same deposit (known as 'Ariadne's clewII. 308, 309 (Fig. 179) group of pots from Temple Repositories, I. 465, Fig. 333, 556-8 (Fig.

592, 593 continuance of the free traditions in natural


I.

ware,

box'),

large

designs, noticeable already in

M.M.

contemporary frescoes, showing groups of Madonna lilies on M.M. lllb jars, white on purplish ground, I. 603-5, ^"i- 245 cup with olive sprays (Knossos), 11. 475 similar designs of vetches, tulips and grasses on black ground stylistically M.M. Ilia {see above), but probably
Ilia:
influence

of

404)
profile of plain

cups of

M.M.
Ilia,
I.

1 1 16

con-

trasted with

M.M.

589 (Fig.

432 b,b)

M.M.

Ill pithos with conventional ropein relief


II.

work

Knossos,
'trickle'

from N.E. Magazine, 419 ('tongued' degenera-

tion of this,

representing survival of that tradition


in M.M. lllb, i. 605, 606 Dolphins in same connexion (subject to the same alternative as to date), I. 608 (cf. Dolphin Fresco, ill. 377-99)

II. 418) (and 'drip') ornament on similar


II.
I.

pithoi,
'axe-plants',

419,

IV.

638, 639

584, 610, iv. 292 (paralleled

now (1936) from Tell-Atchana) 'medallion' pithoi, i. 235, 554, 562-4,

11.

barbotine decoration (recalling earlier barnacle work) on 'peg-top' rhyton, Zakro (handled derivative of ostrich-eggtype),
IV. 108 (cf. II. 225, Fig. 129, 11) bridge-spouted pots (for pouring) heigh-

7i.3S6,396,4i8,iv.23i,26i,262,286,
late

630, 633-5; profiles of, IV. 644, 645 type of 'medallion' pithos, showing
imitation plait-work of earlier steatite
class, IV.

635-7
504-5

tened into storage jars (pithoi), the spouts being progressively atrophied: examples from 'Magazine of False-

'medallion' pithoi, showing impressions of


signet,
Localities
:

I.

spouted Pithoi', behind that two


jars,
I.

lily

581-3

store of culinary

and other pots (probably


character)

of

ritual

mostly

with

knobbed surface, some with double walls: from Royal Magazines, i. 5658, and Fig. 412 candlestick (with white spirals on purplish brown ground) from plaster closet
containing the
lily

vases:
I.

Egyptian
578, 579
jars,

comparison, 4th Dynasty,

group of vessels

in

Magazine of Lily

I- 576, 577 (Fig- 421) elaborately shaped bath, with notches to

hold cross-bar, reeds (brown on buff ground) painted on sides, from S.E.

Royal Magazines, 562-8, 245, 246, 231, 286 E. of Royal Magazines, 572, 573 beneath Porch of Central Court, 810 W., 356, 633-5 Temple 354 Repositories, 556-61, loi, 288 690, 701 453, W. fafade, 665, 34 above Royal Pottery Stores, 571, 572 S.W. basement, 554, 556, 587, 588,
I.

from Karidaki, 11. 66 n. 2 from near mouth of Gazanos, from Knossos


IV.

11.

231

ill.

I.

11.

II.

IV.

S.E.,

II.

i.

11.

floor cists,

I.

II.

11.

ill.

1.

I.

Bath Room, I. 579, 580 stores of pottery (mostly M.M.

UK from
11.

House of the
II (Fig. 176)

Sacrificed

Oxen,

303-

suspension pot from above deposit, vfith round mouth on one side, perhaps for
nesting swallows, 11. 306, 307 (Fig. 177)

beneath E. 261 811, beneath Corridor of the Procession, 679. 683, 735 S.E. Corner, 291 drain by Portico, 161
Staircase,
11.

W.734 region,

IV.

11.

288

iv.

11.

11.

S.

11.

POTTERY
Pottery, Minoan,

[129]

POTTERY
Minoan,
I.

M.M.

lllb, Localities,

from
n.

Pottery,

M.M.
i.

lllb,

Shapes

(cont.)

Knossos {cont.) bathroom of S.E. Insula,


II.

2 379 E. Slope, 288 E. Light Area, 376 Koulouras, 502, 350 2 Entrance Hall of E. Corridor, 266 W. Porch, 670 S.E. Angle, 292 S.E. bathroom, 579-80 facade of Central Court, 803 well of Hall of Double Axes, 326 of Domestic Quarter, 246, 402 W. Quarter, 363 sanctuary above Basement of Mono734 Palace, 216 358 514, Porch, 363, 759 drain by Royal Road, 533, 576 Temple Tomb, 976 'Tomb of the Cow', 554 N.W. House, 627 House, 383 N.E. House, 418, 421 House on of Gypsades, 548 House of the Fallen Blocks, 298 House of the Oxen, 305-8, 418, 794 House of the Frescoes, 435 House of the Chancel Screen, 395 Harbour Town, 235
11.

candlestick,

578, 579

589, 597, II. 305, 475, III. 246 ewers, i. 605, 611, 11. 218, 235, 486, 491

cups,

ill.

honey pot,
jars,
IVI.

11.

421
II.

11.

iii.

n.

582-4, 587, 588,


11.

554,

III.

245,

ill.

II.

11.

I.

false-mouthed, 545 spouted. 245 hole-mouthed bridge-spouted,


III.

734

11.

421

11.

iii.

pedestalled vases, in. 402, iv. 778, 779 peg-top rhyton, IV. 108
pitchers,
pithoi,
IV.
I.

stairs

ill.

11.

395
II.

581,

395, 418, 419, 810,


iv.

11.

lithic Pillars, IV.

elongated,
630, 633-5 sarcophagus,

638

11.
I.

419,

638, 639

Little

11.

n. 2,

iv.

235, 554, 562-4, II. 71, 356, 396, 418, IV. 231, 261, 262, 286,
11.

'medallion',

roafl to S.

11.

11.

83,

787
11.

iv.

suspension pots for swallows nesting,

11.

306
I. 213 n. 2, 301 'Vapheio' cups, 11. 305, 421 Transitional M.M. lllb to L.M. la

II.

tripod pots,

S.

II.

11.

(cf. 11.

Hill

11.

11.

Sacrificed

11.

364 and 472): vase (strainer) from Zakro with light on dark band showing frieze of anemones
in freest natural style (unfixed white

11.

11.

11.

and advanced 'tortoiseband below, 11. 472 fragment from Zakro with similar light on
technique)
shell ripple'

from Ligortino, 11. 787 from Mycenae, I. 600-2,


IV.

dark band, depicting bulbous plants,


11.

41, 486, 491,

II.

472 (Fig. 278 a)


(light

241

jugs and rhytons with tangential loops;

from Niru Khani, 11. 284 n. 4 from Pachyammos, 11. 424, 500 from Palaikastro, i. 597, 605, 11. 364 from Pseira, 11. 475 from Trypeti, 11. 83 from Tylissos, 11. 418 from Visala, 11. 71 fromZakro, I. 611, 11. 218, 472, 473, 567,
IV.

108

Shapes:
'Ariadne's
baths,

on dark Gournia and rhyton, Zakro), I. 611, 11. 217-20 (type parallel with racquet and ball and survival from E.M. Ossuary period) jug of M.M. Ill shape combining light and dark ground with imitation basketwork above and 'sacral ivy (with whitebordered leaves) round base; from 6th Shaft Grave, Mycenae, 11. 486
jug); dark

M.M. in

on

light (jug

'

Clew Box',
11.

11.

308
iii.

(Fig. 293)

baking-dishes,
I.

305
11.

Minoan L.M.
288, 379 n. 2,
fabric of

la

(final

triumph of dark on

579, 580,

light (sepia in buff style))

245
bowls,
II.

common

wares above previous


'clink',

305

make, better

levigation

and


POTTERY
Pottery,

[130]
(cont.)

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M. la (cont.) frescoes on vase-painting, 11. 469, iv. 260 vases and fragments with flower and plant
designs in naturalistic style

Minoan, L.M. la
glaze

Pottery,

result

of improved technical

rare

processes, i. 318 example of imported L.M. la vessel Egyptian clay alabastron vs^ith 'racquet' pattern from Gurob (Grave 245, early

i8th Dynasty),

iv.

267 (Fig. 197)

mass introduction of L.M. la types on Mainland side (notably the Argolid),


I.

23, &c.
revival

exceptional

of polychromy of a

470 (Fig. 276 a) 470 (Fig. 2766, k) lily (Madonna), 11. 470 (Fig. 276 d, e), 472 (Fig. 278 b) (transitional M.M. Illi) grasses or reeds, 11. 471 (Fig. 276/,^), 549 (Gypsades Well), in. 277, 278
(star), 11.

anemone

crocus (saffron),

11.

funereal or votive class; exemplified

flowering

olive-sprays,
cf.

11.

475
i)

(Fig.

by goblets with shields and helmets from Royal Tomb, Isopata {kyanos blue, black and Venetian red), m.
309, 310 (Fig. 198 a, b) (iv. 881 for 'L.M. II date' read 'L.M. la') by cups painted brilliant red, from offertory pit near S.W. shrine, iv. 3; chafing pans and incense burners from Mavro Spelio cemetery and H. Triada, &c., III. 309, 310; colours however laid on a wash of pure carbonate of lime,
;

Fig. 283) labiate flowers, 11. 470 (Fig. 276


b,

282

and

vetches (or wild peas),

380 (Fig. 213 a), 470 (Fig. 276 h, Fig. 277) (black bands with unfixed white disks)
11.

according to fresco process,

ih.

new

red glaze
(vermilion

medium now
tint),
I.

introduced

611

exemplified by

Pseira amphora,

11.

476 (Fig. 284)

use of unfixed white, survival from M.M. Ill: often as a 'matt' wash, 11. 472 (Fig. 278 a, Zakro), iii. 280 (of powdery character), iv. 260, 261 (goblet from Palaikastro rather 'early' L.M. la
ritual

leaves like buttercup's, 11. 470 (Fig. 276 c) cup with waz lily and olive-spray hybridized by lily, 11. 475 (Fig. 283) first appearance of sacral ivy-leaf on vases in early phase of L.M. la: example on 'amphoras' from Pseira and Kakovatos, II. 476 (Fig. 284), 487 (Fig. 294) showing 'flowering' papyrus within the leaf-shaped outline (for origin from 1 2th Dyn. canopied waz papyrus wand symbol ^through M.M. I-III stages on stone and metal and frescoes,

cf. II.

480, Fig. 287)

plain sacral ivy-leaf, two-stalked,

on pedes-

talled bowl from Gournia (with conven-

than 'mature', as p. 364) jug with double axes dark on light and black bands with white disks: in
earliest

tionalized imitation of conglomerate),


II. 486 (Fig. 292), and on Transitional jug from 6th Shaft Grave, Mycenae,

(Fig. 254,
ritual jar

L.M. la style, 11. 436, 437 House of Frescoes)

ib.

(Fig. 293)

influence

of papyrus,

in.

115,

iv.

323

from Pseira (double axes rising from bulls' heads, light zones, and dark bands with unfixed white disks) lilies, flowering olive-sprays and early stage
:

et seqq.

characteristic jugs, &c., with linked spirals

containing disks in unfixed white

ex-

ample from XVI I Ith Magazine (mature

of 'sacral ivy' with papyrus sprays within 'leaves', li. 476 (Fig. 284)

L.M. la
rhytons
of
spirals:

deposit), iv.

264

(Fig. 195)

'peg-top'

type

with linked

'amphora': spirals papyrus-ivy,

and similar type of


11.

487
of

(Fig.

294,
Ill

Kakovatos)
reflection
'

of floral

types

M.M.

mature L.M. la, 11. 225 (Fig. (Mycenae' and Gournia), IV. 264 (Fig. 196, Knossos) pithoi with plant designs, IV. 640
129, 10, 12)

The Knossian 'peg-top' rhyton, iv. 264 (Fig. 196), is on p. 265 erroneously identified with the rhyton of very similar appearance from Shaft Grave II at Mycenae (Karo, Schachtgrdber, Atlas,
PI.

LXX,

221).

POTTERY
Pottery,

[131]
(cont.)

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M.
11. 11.

Minoan, L.M. la

Pottery,

a {cont)

'pithoid jars'

(from N.E. House) with spiral and foliate decoration (mature

Shapes:
alabastra,

539, iv. 267, 268, 271, 937

L.M.

and two and three tiers of handles, ii. 422-4 (Figs. 244, 245)
la),

amphoras,

786
bowls,
cups,
IV.

n. 2,
II.

III.

386, 424, 425, 497, 747 n. 2, 280, IV. 233

origin of 'pithoid' type'from early family of

two-storied pots,

428-30 (examples from Gournia (E.M. I), Phaestos, Mycenae, Crespellano, Villanova, and
11.

II.

134 n. 2, 478, 486, 491 2x8, 308 n. I, 475, m. 276, 280,


11.

Vetulonia: comparative Table,


Fig. 258) source of distinctive

11.

428,

'Vapheio', 395 77, 548


votive,
II.

265, 267

cylindrical vessels,

II.

471, iv. 211

L.M.

lb

amphora

ewers,

11.

361 n.

5,

395, 435, 632, 647,

types,

II.

425-8, and see below under


(gift

L.M.
in

lb

792, IV. 264, 854 flower-pots, iii. 277-9, iv. looz


'fruit-stands',
jars,
iii.

bronze example

Senmut Tomb,

from Keftiu) copied 11. 426 (Fig. 247)

276

(cf. 737, Fig. 470) painted jug with spiral pattern similar in form to bronze example (f) from

298, 380, 422 n. 2, 475, 484 'pithoid', 11. 422, 424, 425, IV. 233,261
II. 11.

larnakes,

75

Bronze Hoard, by Stepped Portico,

11.

pedestalled goblets, iv. 363, 364 pithoi, I. 459, II. 88, 105, 166, 231, 255,
381, 424, IV. 635-7, 642, 648 rhytons, i. 611, 11. 331, 537, ill. 206, iv. 264, 265, 629, 777
tub.
III.

436 (Fig. 253) high-beaked painted ewer from Stepped Portico Hoard, ir. 631 (Fig. 395 e) goblet imitating metal-work (rivet-head by handle), Palaikastro ('new red' and unfixed white used), iv. 364 (Fig. 304 a) appearance of small one-handled alabastra, some with survival of racquet pattern, II. 512, and see 488; iv. 267 (Hagia Triada, Mycenae, Volo and Gurob:

381

Localities:

deposits of along Transit Route across

Crete,

11. 11.

166
362, iv. 276

dating of,
280,

from Knossos,

W.

Magazines,

11.

358,
iii.

and L.M. Ic) sporadic hoards of mature L.M. la painted


survive to
lb

L.M.

III.
-

263-5, 635-7. 642 pit by S. W. Columnar Shrine,


IV.
ill.

pottery in Palace area (under later E.


Stairs, in
pit

by XVIIIth Magazine, &c) attributed


partial

Corridor of Sword Tablets, S.W. Colunanar Shrine,


to

destruction
c.

of

building

by

earthquake,

1520 B.C. (victims in


,

crypt of Temple Tomb associated with

N.E. Magazine, 277 E. 811, 276-9, 878 near Stepped Portico, 632, 792 well Hall of the Double Axes, 326 W. Front, 310, 311 Queen's Megaron, 367, 381 vault beneath S.E. Angle, 334
n.
i

280, IV. 263


Stairs,

11.

ill.

iv.

11.

in

III.

iii.

ill.

mature L.M. la pottery), iv. 260, 261, 988-90 groups of L.M. I a vessels from Palace and surroundings; early, from House of
the Frescoes, 11.436 (Fig. 253) mature, from under later E. Stairs, iii. 278
;

Lustral
IV.

11.

Basin of Initiatory Area,

iv.

(Fig. 186) ('flower-pots' with grasses),

from Gypsades Well,


influence of
pithoi

11.

549 (Fig. 349)


designs on

264, 265, 854 331, Temple Tomb, 989, 990, 1002 Palace, 2 358 drain near Royal Road, 533, 576 Caravanserai, loi, 105, 127
iv.

937 Corridor of the Sword Tablets,

11.

Little

11.

n.

11.

L.M. la painted

and

plants in rope-work, iv.

11.

House of the Frescoes,

11.
11.

435, 436 471, 619


11.

639, 642

House of the Chancel Screen,

N.W. Treasure House,

395


POTTERY
Pottery,

[133]

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M. lb (cont.) Mainland and Aegean side, 281-4
iv. 248,

Minoan, L.M. la, Localities, from Knossos (cont.) S. House, II. 378, 380, 381, 386, IV.

Pottery,

937 on Gypsades, 308 548 House Well on Gypsades, 469, 549, 276 255 N.E. House, 422, 424, 261 House of High 211, 213 Viaduct, loi Tomb Robbers' Cache, 964
11.

general absence of floor-levels inside Palace

n. i,

11.

iii.

due to continuous habitation there from late L.M. la to the end of L.M.

n- 2,

n,

IV.

291
its

11.

iv.

chief scene of

discovery there. Votive

Priest, iv.

II.

deposit of S.W. Angle, iv. 291 chronological place of style established

Harbour Town,

iv.

from Aegina, 11. from Amisos, iv. 629 from Arkhanes, 11. 65 from station near mouth of Gazanos,
231

235, 255 134 n. 2

11.

11.

by series of finds of L.M. I vases in Egypt of Thothmes Hi's time (c. i53-i449 B-c), II- 537. &c.; Saqqara (Sakkara) Grave, 11. 497 and n. 5, 498 (early i8th Dyn. pottery; L.M. 16 waz-lilies). palms and Sedment (Herakleopolis), Grave 137, alabaster
'aryballos'

from Gournia,

11.

486, 491, 510, 539, IV.


iii.

(imitation

grain:

adder-

265 from Hagia Triada,

mark),
309, 310
ill.
ill.

IV.

270, 271, and n. 2; one-

handled alabastron,
IV.

Kahun (sacral ivy),


;

from from from from from from from

Isopata,

11.

786
11.

n. 2,

Kakovatos,
Karidaki,

484,

309 146

alabastron 272, 273 and n. i three-handled (triple palm type), Cairo

11.

66 n. 2

Mus.,
rhytons of

IV.

272 (Fig. 202)


elongated class
(11.

Komo,
Lutra,

11.

88, 166, iv. 648

'tertiary'

225

11.

77
iv.

(Fig. 129, 15): comparative derivatives

Minet-el-Beida,

777

of ostrich-egg flask) equated with type of tomb of Rekhmara,


Vizier,
c.

Mycenae,
IV.

11.

218, 331, 361 n. 5,

Thothmes Hi's
B.C.,
iv.

265 from Niru Khani, II. 283, 284 n. 4, 478, Sii


497. 647.

1471-1448
alabastron

269
to

(Fig. 199 b)

painted

clay

answering

from

Palaikastro,

11.

486, 537, iv. 364,

L.M.

16 stage

from Anibeh, Nubia,

777 from Phaestos, 11. 424 from Pseira, 11. 260, 422 747 from Pyrgos, 11. 75 from Trypeti, 11. 83, 238 from Visala, 11. 166
III.

with decoration erroneously taken for light on dark, really creamy slipground
n. 2, 475, 484,

(reserved)

n. 2,

206

dium

(the patterns

survival

and sepia decorative meshowing a unique of late polychrome tradi268 (Fig. 198
a, b)

tions), IV. 267,

pithoi of inscribed with Linear Script A,


IV. 639, 640 (Fig. 627) 'pithoid amphoras' (distinctive product

Abusir, Abydos, Anibeh, Gurob, Saqqara,


IV.

fromZakro,!. 60, 611,11.472,473,^.133 from Egypt, iv. 266, 267


iv.
IV.

267 265
267, 268

outgrowth of L.M. la 'pithoid jars' with three upright rows of three or


four handles), 11. 421-428 motives (mostly of sacral significance) on

iv.

IV.

267
271

iv.

L.M.

16 vases:
sacral ('wave

MiNOAN, L.M. K:
epoch of unrivalled decorative harmony and beauty in design on painted vases,
259, 747 common to extensive

adder-mark
Phaestos
ment),

pedestalled

goblets,

{see, too,

and dot') on Knossos and Adder-mark Orna145),

IV.

183, 184 (Fig.

185

Minoan

area

on

(derivation

from markings on native

'

POTTERY
Pottery,

[133]
{cont.)

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M.
\b,

Minoan, L.M. 16

Pottery,

Ogival

Canopy

adder's side, iv. 185 (Fig. 144), con-

[cont.)

firmed in both cases by continuous markings on handles terminating in snake's head, 184, Fig. 145 a, b)\ on

sos,

comparative examples from KnosAegina, Thebes, Vapheio, and

rim of alabastron, Sedment, iv. 270 (Fig. 200) on rim and neck of jug,
;

Knossos, IV. 289 (Fig. 224) ankh, Egyptian 'life' sign, adopted, on Phaestos goblet, iv. 184 (Fig. 145 b)\
see, ioo,

1.432 (Fig. 3ioe) (Gournia jug)

Double Axe: Knossos, S.W. Angle, iv. 260, 261 (Fig. 301 d); on basket-like
vase, Pseira, iv. 290 (Fig. 226)
;

Kakovatos, 11. 492 (Fig. 297), and see 490 (Fig. 296 a), 491 (Fig. 296 b) lily combined with papyrus rod {waz), as sacred symbol on bridge-spouted vessel from Tomb near Temple Tomb Knossos, IV. 290 (Fig. 225); on amphora, Mycenae, of presumed Knossian fabric, iv. 281 282 (Fig. 216) from
, , ;

fre-

283 (Fig. 217) Three-palms motive (of M.M. II tradi11.

Palaikastro,

quency of motive in L.M. lb, ib.; repeated round pedestalled vases, at


Knossos, &c.,
Ivy,
sacral,
ib.

tion),

II. 493-9; and see Comparative Table, 496 (Fig. 301) on Pseira rhyton of 'tertiary' elongated

original

papyrus 'flower'

showing

within
11.

leaf,
iv.

S.W. Palace
c, e)
;

Angle, Knossos,
do., Aegina,

360 (Fig. 301


(Fig.

492

297
(cf.

b)

Kako-

vatos,

II.

485 (Fig. 291 b)

L.M. I a);

outline of 'flower' surviving as 'horse-

shoe'

fragment,
11,

'Aegisthos'

Tomb,

Mycenae,

477, 478 (Fig. 295); Gezer, in. 313 (Fig. 203); plain leaf,

11. 497 (Fig. 302). Cf. Thebes, Boeotia, iv. 326 (Fig. 266) shield motive (reflecting palatial friezes), from Phylakopi, Melos, Gezer, Palestine, III. 312 (Fig. 200) (similar, Knossos), III. 312 (Fig. 201) beaded chain with pendants in shape of saffron flowers and festoons motive excerpted from toilette scenes of M.M.

oval shape,

11. 285 (Fig. 291 e), IV. 361 (Fig. 301 d), Mycenae Shaft Grave 1, 11. 488; Kakovatos, 11. 484 (Fig. 291 c)\ Kahun, ib.,f, and iv. 272, 273 Vole, IV 272 (Fig. 203 b)
;

double stalked, Knossos,

Ill frescoes ('Ladies in Blue', &c.),

combined with 'marine' style bands on 'pithoid amphora' from Tylissos, 11.
426, 427 (Fig. 248), IV. 285-8; similar

motive on fragments from Knossos,


IV.

two-stalked sacral ivy-leaf (plain) motive

287, 288

on amphora from Thebes

on painted bull's-head rhyton of Royal Hittite Class from Amisos (Eski Samsoun), iv. 765, 766 (Fig. 747 a), and cf. 11. 658, 659, and Fig 422; similar fragment from Chirishli Tepe, iv. 766 (Fig. 747 b) curves in reversed bands on 'amphoras' from Egyptian Thebes and Mycenae
taken
over
imitating metal-work, iv. 275, 276; similar ornament on goblet (loving

(Boeotia), associated with sacral ivy

(L.M. Ic example on late 'amphora', lalysos) (the beaded festoon also appears between pillars of shrines),
IV.

Marine

288 (Fig. 223) motives (dolphins,

octopus,

argonauts, whorl-shells, brittle stars,


sea-tang, corallines,

and rocks)

ante-

cedent models in seal impressions,


small
reliefs, fresco designs,

&c. from

cup) of Camp-stool Fresco (probably


silver),

compared,

iv.

389 (Fig. 324),


of
Sacral

principal immediate source probably


reliefs

M.M.

II onwards,

11.

500-5

390
Ogival
in

Canopy

Ivy motive

outgrowth
11.
'

clear evidence of origin

Theban 'amphora',
B),

491 (Fig.

on bronze vessels, e.g. handles of Kurion amphora (L.M. la), 11. 504, 505 (Fig. 309) (cf IV. 456) Knossian and 'Marseilles' ewers imitating metal
.

296

492 (Fig. 297)

rivets, iv.

508

On

IV. p.

ago, erroneously 'from

Temple Tomb'

POTTERY
Pottery,

[134]
{cont.)

POTTERY
pithoi, IV. 637,

Minoan, L.M. lb

Potteiy,

comparative examples from Knossos, Gournia, Palaikastro, Pseira: see, too,


IV.

Minoan, L.M. \b, Shapes {cont) 639-42


346 n.
II. 497, 510, 822, III. 90, 360, 629, 955 pear-shaped, iii. 90, iv. 269, 272
I.

rhytons,

314,

278, Kakovatos 'amphora', 279, 280; flower-pot vase and 'amphora',

5, IV.

506 'Marseilles ev^er' held to be an Egyptian find by Maspero, II. 508-10 and n. i corresponds in style and minute deII.

Knossos,

stirrup vase,
Localities:

li.

510
iv.

from Knossos, S.W. Angle,


291 n.
I,

280, 281,

with Knossian fabric, 11. 508, 510, IV. 277 rivets shown as on Knossian specimen, II. 508 (Fig. 311a, b).
tails
;

marine style vases shown to overlap mature L.M. la at Gournia and Niru Khani, 11. 511 transition to Palace Style (L.M. II), illustrated by 'amphora' (from S.W. Angle), IV. 280 (Fig. 215) Mainland L.M. 16 types of Cretan derivation, IV. 281-4; finest Mycenae 'amphora' held to be of Knossian
fabric of
fabric, IV.

284
of

survival

awhile

L.M.

ceramic

Court of the Stone Spout, 210 W. Magazines, 639-42 W. of Palace, 508, 510, 629 House of the Frescoes, 437, 507, 291 Palace, 539, 540 N.W. Treasure House, 619 House of the High 213, 214, 291 Caravanserai, loi House on Gypsades, 183, 184 Chamber Tombs, 849, 962 Temple Tomb, 281, 290, 291 Harbour Town, 255, 199
iii.

360, 884

iv.

11.

iv.

11.

IV.

n. I

Little

11.

11.

Priest, IV.

n.

11.

iv.

iv.

iv.

n.

11.

iv.

n.

style in

wide Mainland and Aegean


its

area after rise of Palace Style (L.M. II)


at

Knossos, and

diffusion to parts

of the Argolid,
deterioration of

iv.

747, &c.

L.M.

style

on Main-

land side and its survival there in a form described as L.M. \c, partly

contemporary with the later phase of L.M. II at Knossos, iv. 371, &c.
Shapes:
alabastra, iv. 271-5, 278, 341, 342, 358 amphoras, pithoid, 11. 424, 426, 478,

Anibeh, iv. 358 Argos, 11. 41 n. 4 Egypt, 11. 507, 508, 537, 272, 274, 277-80 from Erment, iv. 275 n. i from Gezer, ill. 312, iv. 274 from Gournia, 11. 510 from Hagia Triada, iv. 881

from from from from

Amisos

(imitative Hittite), iv. 629

iv.

271,

from Kahun, iv. 273, 274 from Kakovatos, 11. 424, 478, 486-9, 510
n. 4, IV. 272, 279,

286

488-90, 619, 749, IV. 263, 272, 275, 276, 279-81, 284, 286, 291 n. I, 289
n. 2, 320, 321, 419, 420, 852,
aryballoi,
iii.

884

from Lahun, II. 510 from Mochlos, iv. 271 from Mycenae, 11. 487, 488, 749,

312, iv. 849

basket vase,

IV.

290
281, 962

iv. 239, 243. 244. 276, 284, 293, 298 n. 2, 320, 321,852, 887 n. 2
11.
11.

spouted,
cup,
II.

bowls,

II.

750
IV.

from Niru Khani, from Palaikastro,


651 n.
I

284

n.

489, 510, iv. 284,

braziers, IV. 881

489

ewers,

11. 488, 489, 507, 508, 510, 539, 540, IV. 199 n. I, 213, 214, 239, 274, 27s n. I, 277, 279, 280, 284, 629

goblets, pedestalled, iv. 364, 419,

and

cf.

183-5, 289 hole-spouted miniature vase,

iv.

290

from Phaestos, iv. 184, 185, 364, 639 from Phylakopi, IV. 341, 342 from Pontus, 11. 658, 659 from Pseira, i. 314, 11. 497, 822, in. 90, 346n. 5, IV. 272, 290,955 from Saqqara, 11. 750, iv. 271 from Sedment, iv. 271

POTTERY
Pottery,

[135]

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M.
II (cont.)

^ Egyptian,

Minoan, L.M. lb. Localities (cont.) from Thebes, Boeotian, n. 487, 490, 749
iv.

Pottery,

presenting octopus amidst sea-tang,


anticipation of characteristic 'Palace
Style' series, iv. 280, 281

275, 276
IV.

from Tylissos, 11. 426, iv. 286 from Vapheio, 11. 489, ill. 177, 364, 419, 420 fromVolo,iv. 274 from Zakro, 11. 497, iv. 272

274,

Metal-work, imitations of,

MiNOAN, L.M.
of
II

Ic:

term here applied

to decadent

outgrowth

L.M.
and

lb of

Mainland and Aegean

range, partly synchronous with

L.M.
at

iv. 299-302, 362-7 'amphora' (Palace Style) from Royal Tomb, Isopata, with repeated foliation on shoulders resembling chased border foliation of bronze bowl from 'Palatial Treasure' (M.M. III6-L.M. la), iv. 298-300 (Fig. 233), and cf. 11. 637-9

the

later

Palace

Style

early transitional tradition here ex-

Knossos, IV. 288, 289, 292-5, 358, 371 early examples of style seen on vases from
Shaft Grave
I,

emplified

evidence of overlapping of
301, 302 vase from Zafer

L.M.

I class, IV.

Mycenae, in which the

stirrup

Papoiira

Double Axe open bivalve


stalk

transformed into an shell ('mussel'), a double


is

Shaft Grave showing similar reduplicated foliation of metal-work origin,


IV.

(taken from the 'sacral ivy'),


(Fig.

301 (Fig. 234^,6)


further in-

being substituted for the shaft,


293

227
iv.

a,

b,

c);

292, similar on

iv.

metallic origin of this

dicated
like

latest

sherds from 'Aegisthos' tomb,

by small upper prominence 8-shaped shield imitated from

Mycenae,

293
,

metal rivets of similar form, as the


gold-plated rivets on upper margin of

laterversion of bivalve type at Volo,iv.293


late versions of palm-tree

motive Thebes Korakou, near Corinth, Volo, Maroni, Cyprus, &c., iv. 293, 294, and cf. 11. 496
(Fig. 301 a-k),

497 (Fig. 303, Zakro) argonauts and brittle stars (reduced to wheels) of L.M. Ic type on bowl from

rhyton from Shaft Grave IV, Mycenae, iv. 301 (Fig. 234 b), 302, and similar 8cf. III. 89-92 (Fig. 50 c) shaped excrescence on stirrup vase of latest L.M. II phase from the 'High
silver
;

Priest's House',

Knossos,

iv.

301 (Fig.

Mycenae, iv. 294 late version of pendant crocus and bead festoons on lalysos 'amphora', iv. 238
I,

Shaft Grave

Shapes:
askos, IV. 293

and cf. iv. 213, 214 two-handled pedestalled goblets from S.W. Palace Angle, iv. 362 (Fig. 302 a-c); from drain below Great East Hall, from Temple Tomb, ib. (Fig. 302 d)
23s). 32.
;

bowls,
ewer,

IV.

iv.

294 292
11.

goblets, pedestalled,

473 n.

2, 499, iv.

362,368,369

MiNOAN, L.M.

II (includes 'Palace Style'):

evolution of palatial class (originally confined to Knossos) towards the close of

L.M.
IV.

lb (which

it

partially overlaps),

366 (Fig. 306) (recalling silver goblet from Royal Tomb, Isopata, IV. 364 (Fig. 305 a) and bronze goblet from Tomb of Tripod Hearth) stone-work graining of L.M. II conventional painted plaster type (iv. 895, Fig. 872), as ceramic pattern: on painted terra-cotta bath, ill. 385 (Fig.
IV.

Knossos,

322; style already formed in early part of 15th cent., ib. term 'Palace Style' first suggested (in
1901) by great painted jars and 'amphoras' found on W. borders of Palace,
IV.

256) ;on'Palace Style'amphora,iii.387 (Fig. 258) on lower zones of another,


;

309 (Fig. 244 a) on beaked jug, ib. (Fig. 244 b) on model tower shrine from Gournia (here in architectonic
IV.
; ;

large

L.M.

298 and n. 2 lb 'amphora' from S.W. Angle

connexion),

11.

134 and n.

i,

139 (Fig.

70

bis)


POTTERY
Pottery,
'sacral

[136]

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M.
II,

Minoan, L.M. II {cont.) ivy' and 'ogival canopy' on 'Palace Style' vases (combined with papyrus, and rosettes and marine elements), iv. 318-22 composite plant motives, papyrus and lily, IV. 322-9 (Figs. 268-70) imitative survival of L.M. \h festoons and pendant saffron (crocus) flowers (derived from toilette scenes of frescoes), round rim of Palace Style 'amphora', IV. 321 (Fig. 262 b) lotus or papyrus clumps with rosettes (facing lotus flowers) and symbolic water (as Egyptian sign) on relief amphora from staircase landing of
Royal
Villa
(fulfilled

Pottery,

Marine motives

{cont)

316, 355 (Fig. 298), on goblet, 362 (Fig. 302 b), 1007, 1008 (Fig. 959); parallel
'dual' type, ib. (reappearance of C's

group in generalized L.M. Ilia style, proof of Knossian influence, iv. 315, 316, and cf. 747, 748, and Fig. 729 a) Octopus Group, iv. 305-310; rows of suckers preserved on tentacles of earlier L.M. II examples, 306 and Fig. 240; Haledon with ten tentacles substituted, 308, 309 (Fig. 244a) pro;

degeneration type, 310-13, 350 (in the L.M. II stage the tentacles are separately rendered and do not
gressive

architectonic
iv.

intertwine)
shields, 8-shaped,

function in house decoration),

329,

combined with

spirals
iv.

331 (Fig. 273), and cf. 11. 400, 402 waterfowl (showing reminiscences of Nilotic

and

rosettes,

N.W.

Palace border,

cycle),

IV.

329-38; on Knossian

341 (Fig. 284), 342, and cf. III. 310-12 reflection of 'Shield Fresco' (L.M. la),
III. 308-13, and see Coloured PI. XXIII, opp. p. 306 spiral and rosette band of architectonic character on 'Palace Style' amphoras from N.W. border and Argos, iv. 340

bath-pan, Phylakopi, Melos, 332 (Figs.


274. 27s); on Argos amphoras, 333, 334 (Figs. 276, 277) (late on painted
jar,

W.

of Palace, Knossos, Fig. 278),

336; comparisons with waterfowl on L.M. Ilia painted clay alabastra, Phaestos Cemetery, 337 (Fig. 240), and on Anoia larnax, 337, 338 (Fig. 281) Marine motives of Palace Style, iv. 304-18
see IV. 279,

(Figs. 282, 283)

rosettes (derivation of facing lotus flowers) as

prominent or principal type: with

reeds on large jar repeating Double


IV. 342, 343 (Fig. 286); on three-spouted ewer Tomb of Double Axes, IV. 253, 254 (Fig. 297 c) on two-

outgrowths of L.M. lb 'marine style', 280 (Fig. 281) (transitional


dolphins

Axes,

type)

(from

large

vessel,

W.
with

Palace borders), iv. 304 (Fig. 239), 305

murex

shell (in sea-girt pool,

octopus) amphora,
see below)

N.W.

Palace bor(for Triton

der, IV. 306 (Fig. 240),

307

handled pedestalled goblet, iv. 362 (Fig. 302 a), 366, (Fig. 306^). adder mark, sacral (chiefly on upper margin and rims), bath-shaped coflin, Zafer Papoura, IV. 330 (Fig. 272 a); on duck's wing, late jar, iv. 335 (Fig.
incised on pithos bands, iv. 645 and Suppl. PI. LVIII lilies, on handled cup, Mavro Spelio, iv.

stippled sea sand, IV. 306, 307, 308


(Figs. 242, 243),

275)

319 (Fig. 258)


(Fig.

sea-tang (seaweed, coralline, &c.), iv.

304 (Fig. 239), 305, 309

244

a)

evolution of triple sea-tang group of

353. 354 (Fig- 297 '^j, 361 (Fig. 301;, 9); with barred stamens, ib. (Fig. 301 r),
366, 367 (Fig. 307
c,

L.M.
210),

lb

(cf.

'Marseilles

ewer', of

d, e);

compound
325 (Fig.

Knossian fabric, 11. 508-10, iv. 277 (Fig.

type on Palace 'amphora',

iv.

and Tylissos 'amphora',

iv.

286,

Fig. 220) into conventionalized 'three

268), 328 (Fig. 271), 367 (Fig. 3076); Waz-Y\\y, 361 (Fig. 301 /); general

L.M. II, iv. 314 (and Comparative Table, Fig. 250), 315,
C's' motive of

influence

on plant motives of Palace


iv.

'amphoras', &c.,

324, 325

POTTERY
Pottery,

[137]

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M.
II (cont.)
earlier frutescent

Minoan, L.M.
:

II (cont.)

Pottery,

reeds on large Double Axe jar, with fringed


leaves reminiscent of striated foliage

palm-tree type,

iv.

of

L.M.

II

frescoes (derived

from
(cf.

palm

type), iv. 342, 343 (Fig. 285)

a, 1012-14, and Coloured PI. b compared with papyrus-reed foliage of Griffin Fresco, ib., c; copied on
;

XXXV

1012-16, and Coloured PI. and Suppl.Pl. LXVI,ci,c2) triple frutescent palm group, influence of on Palace 'amphora' types, IV. 325-8
olive-sprays,
trees
triple,

XXXV

indigenous polychrome vessel, Tell-el-

Amarna, ib.,d
Shapes:
alabastra,
11.

539, iv. 358


11.

representing

sacred

'amphoras',

over sacral horns from large amphora, S.W. Palace Angle, iv. 344,

334, 540, 605, 640, iii. 25, 386, 471, IV. 192, 227, 300, 302, 3059,

315 n.

2,

318-20, 325, 328, 329,

345 (Fig. 289 e) (other fragments of 'amphora' connected with Double

332, 333. 339-42. 344, 345, 347, 348,

Axe

cult)

vegetable shoots (perhaps acanthus) round

360, 727 baths, 11. 122, 334 n. 6, iii. 385 cups, II. 492 n. I, IV. 300, 353, 366

Argos 'amphora', iv. 340 (Fig. 283); compared with shoots round 'amphora' from Royal Tomb, Isopata, iv.
327 (Fig. 270) funnel-shaped rhyton on fragment of same
'amphora',
iv.

ewers,

IV.

341, 353, 1007


i, iii.

flask, IV.

305, 339, 353 goblets, pedestalled, 11. 334 n.


IV.

494,

308, 355, 359. 360, 363-5. 881 hydrias, IV. 727

345 (Fig. 289)


;

incense burners,
jars,
II.

iv.

1011-13

conch shells ( Tritons) on fragments of same IV. 344. 345 (Fig- 289 d, e) ritual function for

373, 400

offertory vases, iv. 1016


pithoi, IV. 192, 342, 639, 643-5; profiles

summoning
2,

divinity,

344 (Fig.

285 and n.

and

cf. I.

221, 222); later

of typical late Palace pithoi,

iv.

644,

stages of evolution, 316, 317 (Fig. 254)

645
rhytons,
cotta,
11.

Double Axes, reduplicated blade of on


fragment of preceding amphora,
iv.

539, ly. 339 n. 5


terra-

round tower shrine of painted


II.

344, 345 (Fig. 289 d) ; similar reduplicated type on large 'Palace Style' jar,
IV. 342. 344 (Figs- 285, 286) shrines with Double Axes stuck into pillars

134, 139 (Fig. 70 bis) stirrup vases, 11. 136 n. 3, 400, 550 n. 2,

640,

IV.

300, 301, 315 n. 2, 353, 733,

734
vessels, small, iv. 353-71, Localities:

with chequer bands (as faf ades of buildings) in friezes of Palace Style 'amphora' from Royal Tomb, Isopata, iv. 348,
(as frescoes), imitated, together

1007

from Knossos,

11.

122, 358, iv. 315 n. 2,

349 (Figs. 291,292) importance of this L.M. II type in relation to mature L.M. Ilia ceramic designs ('Late Mycenaean', &c.), iv. 349-52, and Psychro tankard (with chequersquare), 313 (Fig. 249) 'amphoras' of Palace Style

from Deiras

Cemetery, Argos, iv. 333, 334 polychrome decoration (as on L.M. la examples, on pure carbonate of lime wash as frescoes) on incense burners

by

burial

pit

of

Temple Tomb:

striated foliate

sprays derived from

210, 494 Sanctuary Hall, 299, 315 N.W. 325, 342, 360 Room of the Knobbed Pithos, 25 light-well of E. Hall, 365 Hall of the Double Axes, 330 conduit under N.E. Portico, 494 bathroom of Queen's Megaron, 385 Throne Room System, 902 W. Magazines, 192, 639 W. Palace Borders, in. 386, 305
ill.

319.727 Court of the Stone Spout,


iv.

n. 2,

ill.

iv.

ill.

ill.

ill.

iii. 5, iv.

iv.

iv.

POTTERY
Pottery,

[138]
II,

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M. Ilia
of
(cont.)

Minoan, L.M. Knossos (cont.)


11.

Localities,

from

Pottery,

S.E. Angle, 292, 334 S.W. Angle, 299, 344, 345, 355, 360, 366 N.W. Palace Borders, 605, 298, 299, 305-7, 319, 339 Palace, 539, 540, Royal 400, 329, 353 Caravanserai, 122 Viaduct, loi House of the High 301 House, 373 N.W. Treasure House, 619 House on Gypsades 339 Temple Tomb, 305, 353, 366,
iv.
11.

waterfowl

decadent

type

with
water

fish,

waved

and chequer pattern (belonging to L.M. II


lines

indicating

sanctuary type) on clay alabastra of

iv.

high

late

type from

L.M. Illa tombs,

Little

11.

iv. 328.

Phaestos, iv. 336, 337 (Fig. 280 a, b, c) similar waterfowl with fish and 'palmetto-

Villa,

11.

iv.

11.

I.

Priest, iv.

papyrus on 'larnax', from Anoia (Mesara), iv. 337, 338 (Fig. 281) L.M. Ilia pottery connected with late Memorial Cult, Temple Tomb, Knosleaved'
sos,
IV. 1016, 1017; hydria with decadent adder mark on neck and conventionalized spreading octopus IV.

S.

II.

11.

Hill, iv.

n. 5

iv.

1007, loii, 1012, 1016

246)
IV. 332,
ib.

1017 (Fig. 965 k), and cf. 311 (Fig. do. with much stylized papyrus,
;

from Deiras cemetery, Argos,


333 340
>

(Fig. 965 p).

from Gournia, ill. 85, 92 from Isopata cemetery, 11. 640,

.^

symmetrically rendered octopus of L.M. Ilia type, Minet-el-Beida, iv. 776,

iv. 299, 300, 302, 307-9, 315 n. 2, 320, 328, 339. 341. 347. 348, 353. 881, loii

777 (Fig-.7S6

a).

traces of chariot scene

(L.M.

Ill)

on

clay

larnax from Zafer Papoura Cemetery,


IV.

from Mavro Spelio, iv. 353 from Palaikastro, 11. 632 n. 3 from Thebes, Kolonakeion cemetery,
358

659 n. I (cf. earliest painted sarcophagus, Hagia Triada) Chariot scenes


;

iv.

on Cypro-Minoan

'kraters' of sepul-

chral usage taken over

from Cretan
traditions

from Zafer Papoura,


III.

471,

IV.

550 n. 300, 315 n. 2, 642


11.

2,

640,

sarcophagi, iv. 658, 659


this class

prolonging L.M. II
cf. IV.

MlNOAN, L.M.

Ilia:

general cultural continuity, as illustrated

by

contemporary on Mainland and Aegean side with L.M. Ic, iv. 747
(and
rapid evolution of
292, &c.) L.M. Ilia phase

ceramic and other remains, unbroken at Knossos by final Catastrophe of


550, 551, iv. 236, 356 clear evidence of continuity in Ceramic Art
11.

shown

Palace,

by decadent
at

stage already represented

afforded
oura,
II.

by cemetery of Zafer Papstylistic

evidences of

550, 551, IV. 236, 356 decadence: clay ala-

747-9 below
Shapes:

Tell-el-Amarna in 1375 B.C., IV. (this mature stage referred to


as

L.M.

III6)

bastron from Mace-bearer's

Tomb,

alabastra (high form), iv. 336, 356 (large

barbaric representation of waterfowl

confused

squat 3-handled form), 357


goblets, solid-stemmed, iv. 369

jumble of miscellaneous subjects, sprays with birds' and fishes' tails, IV. 356-8 and Fig. 300; perhaps
chronologically L.M. II, iv. 356 new subject here introduced, a one-handled

incense burner,

iv.

loii

kraters or hydrias, iv. 310, 311 (Figs.

245, 246) miniature vessels,

iv. 80,

1008

358 similarly degraded waterfowl already visible on painted jar, possibly antedating
fall

ewer,

iv.

sarcophagi, iv. 338 stirrup vase, iv. 642 (or late


Localities:

L.M.

II)

of Palace, iv. 335, 336, and Figs.

from Knossos:

278, 279

Temple Tomb,

iv. 80,

311

POTTERY
Pdttery, Minoan,

[139]

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M. lllb (cont.) plain low pedestalled cup,
shrine, typical of epoch,
11.

L.M.

Ilia, Localities,

from

Pottery,

Kjiossos (cont.)

House W. of Palace,

from

iv.

334, 335

from Anoia, iv. 338 from Isopata, iv. 356, 357 from Mycenae, IV. 739, 741 from Orchomenos, ill. 426, IV. 681, 739 from Phaestos, iv. 336 from Zafer Papoura, iv. 1008, loii

336 (inset) clay cylindrical stand with openings


11.

(E. Palace slope),

133

part of well-glazed bowl with horizontal handles with linear inscription,

showing development of 'rudder' sign, IV. 738 (Fig. 722) (cf. II. 247 Fig.
114)

Minoan, L.M.

III6:
:

(Mature phase of style corresponding with 'Re-occupation Period' at Knossos) synchronizes with earlier phase of 'diffused Mycenaean' culture, iv. 747 seqq. style already illustrated by pottery from Tell-el-Amarna as royal seat of Akhenaten and Tutankhamen (c. 13771332
B.C.),
IV.

stirrup vases early 19th Dyn.,

748 (compare, too, c. 1328-

Knossian ceramic influences renewed on Mainland and Aegean side (interrupted by coexistence of L.M. II and L.M. Ilia, with L.M. lb and c), iv. 371, 372 (for 'mature L.M. Illa' read 'L.M. lllb'), IV. 746, 747 conventional papyrus designs of Knossos seen in connexion with derivatives of
'three C's pattern, a purely Palatial

1300 B.C. from Gurob) Reoccupation' deposits (marking partial resettlement after interval during which the ruins were deserted), 11. 335, &c. two high 'stirrup vases' on floor-level above chamber containing stirrupvase tablets, one showing octopus with tentacles extended in symmetrical curves, the other with the symmetrical curves only, and recurved
'

outgrowth at Mycenae (iv. 748) and on 'krater' at Salamis (Enkomi), Cyprus (iv. 372, Fig. 310), and lalysos,

Rhodes (iv. 313, Fig. 249 bis. a) palmette-shaped papyrus (a Cretan derivative,
IV.

338) also diffused,


;

iv.

748
;

(Fig. 729)

Mycenae, 374

(Fig. 312 b)

Cyprus, ib. (Fig. 312 c) Tell-el-Amarna class affiliated, iv. 347-9 interesting parallel between dependence of
'diffused

horn-like ornament above,

iv.

734,

736
as

(Fig. 720) (the tentacles detached

L.M.

meandering

curves

which now
;

Mycenaean' class on Palatial and appearance of the Knossian Linear Script B on L.M.
II style

appear as a specifically Knossian outcome of a prevalent octopus type the

III6 stirrup vases at Tiryns, iv. 743

Mycenae
(Boeotia),

iv.

743,

744;

become a common pattern of Mainland and Aegean vessels) from same floor, strainer with adder mark in derivative stage iv. 736 (Fig. 720)
'meandering
curves'
offertory vessels in late Shrine of

now

739 seqq.;

Thebes Orchomenos,

Minoan L.M.
teristic
IV.

739; Eleusis, 744. See, too, y 4.6-^0 lllb Late Revival. 'Late Revival' in ceramic patterns characof advanced

L.M.

Ill phase,

29s, 296
stirrup vase

the Double Axes, among them cylindri-

on

from

intrusive sepul-

bowl with two upright handles and stirrup vase showing octopus with
cal

tures in entrance niche of Royal Tomb,

tentacles in similar extended curves

(associated with cult image rising


cylindrical bases),
11.

from

Isopata (ornamentalized octopus combined with argonauts), iv. 296 (Fig. 231 a)

336, 337 (Fig.

similar
327)

189), &c.

on stirrup vase. Tomb B, Muliana (ornamentahzed argonauts and octopus), iv. 372, 373 (Fig. 311)

image:

Mavro

Spelio tomb,

Goddess and Child, iii. 469, 470 (Fig.

on spouted tankard, Diktaean Cave


(Psychro)

(ornamentalized

octopus

POTTERY
Pottery,

[140] lllb, 'Late

POTTERY
Minoan, L.M.
type,
II.

Minoan, L.M.

Revival'

Pottery,

Illi,

Shapes [cont)

(cont.)

pedestalled cups, low


31

champagne
(inset)

glass

combined with argonauts), IV. 3 12,


fFig. 249)

119 n.
II. 292 689 11.

i,

336

votive,
II.

on stirrup vases Rhodes (dolphins,


'three C's', octopus,
IV.

from

lalysos,

pithoi,

associated

with

stirrup vase,

336, 337, iv. 296, 313,

and waterfowl),

747
strainer, iv.

313 on two-handled goblet from lalysos with highly decorative flying duck;

736

vessel in shape of ass,


late

and papyrus sprays of Tell-el-Amarna


type, IV. 29s, 296 (Fig. 231 c)

on two-handled bowl from Granary, (rosette and 'winged' argonauts on handled jug from same witfi curved bands), iv. Fig. 231 a (For the 'Late Revival' on sealstone with typical Argonaut pattern

Mycenae

II. 157 sarcophagus (larnax) from Zafer Papoura Cemetery showing traces of chariot scene (first Cretan example of break of taboo of about seven centuries from M.M. la on introduction of human or animal figures into vasepainting), jeei. 606-8 (practice becomes

Chariot scenes on Cypro-Minoan


ters'

common in Crete in succeeding epoch)


'kra-

see Figure, p. 183)

from Enkomi,

iv.

659 (Fig. 646),

Minoan L.M.

1 116

tentacles

appearance (per

combined with octopus


saltutn) of

818, 819 (Fig. 797 a, b, c) (cemetery approximately dated by scarab of

decorative motive derived from pillar

Rameses

II, c.

1300-1234B.C.); Cretan

shrine with Double Axes of L.M. II 'Palace Style' type (cf. iv. 347-9)
specially abundant at Mycenae, iv. 349, 350 (Fig- 293 . V) ('metope' types);

origin of,

from Chariot scenes from

sarcophagi,

MlNOAN, L.M.

iv. 295, 296 IIIc (with Sub-Minoan' and

overlapping evidence of Cretan Proto-

example supplied by sherd from under


threshold of 'Atreus Tomb',
iv.

Geometrical)
large later deposit of offertory vessels, in

352

(Fig. 294) panel with chequer work from same architectonic source on tankard from

Spring Chamber of Caravanserai,

11.

Diktaean Cave, Psychro,


(Fig. 219 b); similar

iv.

312, 313

on Krater, My-

cenae, 350 (Fig. 2936)


later degradations of pillar shrine ('metope')

type, IV. 352 (Figs. 295, 296) 'Metope' motive, copied in Palestine by early Philistine settlers from c. 1300
B.C., IV.

128-39 hut-urn from deposit containing figure of Minoan Goddess, outer circumference painted with very late degeneration of Metope motive with tentacles, II. 128-30 (Figs. 63, 64); similar hut-urn (without image) from Phaestos, II.

130 (Fig. 65), and 133 n.

i;

similar urns (cinerary),

from Latium
;

351

pithoi of Re-occupation date

from

later floor, S.

(L.M. III6), Propylaeum, n.

689 (Fig. 433) Shapes: (L.M. Wlb) 'amphora', IV. 296 globular (lalysos), 374 (Enkomi, Cyprus)
;

and Etruria (Early Iron Age), 11. 130 and n. 2 with insets, 131 others from district between HarzandElbe, 11. 132; similar from Sweden (Bronze Age, Vth Period), II. 132, 133 and n. 4 with inset other offertory vessels from Spring Chamber, .clay pans and incense burners
with remains of olives, &c., (Fig. 68), 135; duck-shaped
small
II.

cylindrical vessel,

11.

133
iv.

134

goblets, solid

stemmed,
352

350, 351, 370,

vessels,

371. 373
'kraters', iv. 349,
'kylix', IV.

bell-shaped

'kraters',

stirrup

vase (with conical protuberance above

294 (bell-shaped), 747, 748

and hatched triangular

pattern), gob-

POTTERY
Pottery,

[141]

POTTERY
Localities

Minoan, L.M. IIIc {cont.) lets, &c., and a duck-shaped

Pottery,
vessel

with three legs, 11. 137 fragment of large jar from deposit, showing two confronted herons ( ?) with eels ( ?) or large worms between, 11. 137 (Fig.
70
a),

138; eels or

worms misapplied
ib.
11.

on Dipylon fibulae, figurines of Sphinx and animal,


to horses
(Fig.

Minoan, L.M. IIIc {cont) (Sub-Minoan, &c.): from Asine, iv. 755, 757, 758 from Cretan tombs, 11. 137 from Cypriote tombs, 11. 136 from Karakovilia, 11. 137 from Knossos, Spring-Chamber, 129, i35n. 3, 136, IV. 352

11.

128,

136

above

S. Portico,

11.

146

69 K, l)
11.

parts of bell-shaped 'krater' with 'crested'

triangular motives,

137,

Fig. 70,

2-4 and do. double axe, 5 parallel finds from Chamber Tombs, Karakovilia (near Vrokastro, E. Crete
:

E.

H.
tri-

Hall),

II.

137, 138,

and

n.

(Fig.

70B)
with

from Myndos, 11. 43 Mainland, Non-Minoan Types: Helladic, from Argolid, 11. 211 from Drachmani, i. 168 from Kahun, 11. 211 from Mycenae, 11. 428 from Zygouries, iv. 250 n. i
two-storied pots,
spirals, iv.
11.

(bell-shaped 'krater' with 'crested


angular'

430,

iv.

637

motive,

stirrup

vase

250

hatched triangles and conical excrescence above false mouth, duck-shaped three-footed vessel and two-handled goblet with stumpy pedestal, characteristic

Minyan,

I.

" 309. 473 n. 2,

22, 38 n. 2, 60, 168, 193, 194, III. 133 n. 2, iv. 363

of period

bowed and

slightly

from Knossos, 11. 309 Cycladic from Knossos, Temple Repositories,


:

11.

stilted fibulae)

contents of built chamber


krater with
'agrimis'.

tomb A, Muli-

39. 54 House of the Sacrificed Oxen,


i.

11.

309

ana, E. Crete, iv. 374-7; bell-shaped Fig. 314

from Melos,

558,
11.

11.

185, 430, iv. 80

huntsman pursuing two <z, and horseman

n. 8, 715,

797
179,

from Phylakopi,

484

n. 4,

iii.

115

without legs showing non-acquaintance with riding. Fig. 312 d; cylindrical two-handled bow with doubleaxe ornament. Fig. 314 6 and highstilted fibula (bronze sword and dagger

n. 3> 276, 312, 385, IV. 290, 330, 341 from Thera, 11. 312 n. i, iv. 715

Shapes
askos, IV. 81

alabastron, iv. 290, 341

found)

ary hallos,

ill.

312

human

on Muliana Kylix, iv. 374 (Figs. 2,12 d and 314 a) show 'pig-tail' of Mainland Geometrical kind two-eyed double profiled horse on Muliana 'krater' showing analogies with horses on chariot scenes of Enkomi 'amphora', iv.374(Fig.3i26),and with figures on
figures

baths, IV. 330 bird vases, 11. 309, 540, iv. 81


'fruit-stands',
iii.

276

pyxides,

112, 166, iv. 89, 90 syspension pots, I. 62


1.

two-storied pots,
'wash-basins',
III.

11.

430

385

Syro-Hittite cylinders, iv. 375 (Fig.

Ornament
birds,
II.

313 . *)

309, 540, IV. 81, 330

head of figurine (Minoan Goddess), Knossos, with marks on cheeks and forehead
(? 'tattoo'), IV. 757 (Fig. 738) comparisons with objects in Sub-Mycenaean Shrine of Double Axes at Asine (similar two-handled goblet with

chariots, IV.

797
i

ducks, IV. 330 engraved, iv. 90 n.


fishes, III.

galleys,

11.

385 241

graffito, IV. 89,

90
i.

stumpy pedestal, &c.), iv. 736(Fig.737)

incised and punctuated,

36

:: :

POTTERY
Pottery, Cycladic,

[142]

POTTERY
aryhallos,
11.

Ornament

(cont.)

Pottery, Egyptian, Shapes (cont.)

inscriptions, iv. 715


ivy. III.

497
11.

312
III.

bowls,

II.

193

reeds, in. 385


shield,

candlesticks,

727

n. 2
11.

312, IV. 290, 341

ostrich-egg vessels,

223

spirals, iv.

250
115 n. 3

pans,

II.

190
11. II.

swallow.

III.

zvuz-lily, IV.

341
i.

Ornament Double Axe,


558

28
211, IV. 749, 1013
11.

imitating seal types,

polychrome,

Cypriote:

sprays, iv. 1013


i.

Copper Age,

78, 115

Bronze Age, from Enkomi, IV. 658, 659 from lalysos, iv. 288, 289 from Paraskevi, iv. 407 n. 5
Shapes: amphoras, iv. 288, 289 askos, IV. 80 n. 8

Syro-Egyptian, Asiatic
:

257

from from from from from

Anatolia,

I.

115

Ankhiale,

534 Beth-Shan, iv. 167 Bethshemesh, 11. 237


iv.

iv.

Eski-Samsoun (Amisos),

764, 765,

dove

vessels, iv.

407
659

767

kraters, iv. 295, 338, 658,

Ornament:
chariot scenes of Cretan origin, iv. 295

crocus pendants,

iv. 288, 289 steward holding scales on Cypro-Minoan

from Minet-el-Beida, iv. 776, 777 from Palestine, IV. 391 n. 6 from Ras Shamra, iv. 776 et seqq. from Troad, I. 47, 117, 11. 179, 265,
matt-painted,
I.

IV.

81

559 n.

krater, iv. 658,


:

659
iv.

Shapes:
askos, IV. 81

Geometric from Athens, Dipylon Cemetery,


165

164,

figure vessel,

11.

237

from Kanli Kasteli, 11. 74 n. 5 from Kavusi, iv. 797 from Knossos, in. 171 n. 2, iv. 18 from Komo, 11. 89 from Milatos, iv. 164 from Rhodes, iv. 165 Ornament
chariots, iv.

rhytons, bull's head, iv. 764, 767


fluted, IV.

777
iv.

snake tubes,

167

stirrup vase, iv. 777

Ornament
ivy, IV. 764,

765

lion springing
oats, IV.

on

bull, IV.

534

chequers,

iv.

797 350

n.

snakes, IV. 164, 165

Greek: from Kanli Kasteli, 11. 74 from Knossos, 11. 5, 7 Story of Theseus and 'Ring of Minos' on,
Franfois Vase,
:

767 polychrome, IV. 777 Italian from Bismantova, II. 429 from Crespellano, 11. 428 from Etruria, li. 130, 131 from Latium, II. 130, 131
:

iv.

957, 958

from Sicily, II. 626, 627, from Villanova, 11. 429


Shapes:
two-storied,
11.

iv.

960

n.

Egyptian from El Kab, 11. 727 n. 2 from Gebelein, 11. 190 from Hierakonpolis, 11. 28, iv. 982 from Naqada, 11. 26, 190 from Tell-el-Amarna, iv. 749, 1013
Shapes:
alabastron, iv. 778,

428, 429

urns,

II.

130, 131, 429

Ornament
reeds,
11.

626, 627
i.

imitating metal,

242
85

Roman:
779

from Fair Havens,

11.

POTTERY
Pottery,

[143]
{cont.)

PSEIRA
of,

Roman

Priest-kings {cont.)

from Knossos, 11. 146, iii. 258 Bronze Age, from Nienhagen, 11.

portraits
II.

on

sealings

from Knossos,

i.

9,

175,

ill.

178 n. I Bulgarian, bird vase from Kodjadermen,

iv.

Son. 7
Maltese,
11.

190
iv.

North African modern,


Pueblo Indian,
Zuni,
IV. iv.

91 n. 3

on sealing from Room of the Stone Bench, 925 holding bow, on bead-seal from Knossos, 413 on bead-seals, 413, 414
IV.
IV.

268, IV. 400

iiz
11.

leading Griffin, on bead-seal from Vapheio,

single axe,

iv.

112
13

chisel for smoothing. Neolithic,

slate stands for, Neolithic vessels,

11.

13

Potters,

on E.M. seals, i. 124, iv. 521 Minoan, settlement of in Greece, iv. 283, 284
I.

Potters' tables, of stone,


Pottier,

589 n.

in on

IV.

412

chariot, wielding spear

on Vapheio lentoid

seal, IV.

419

sacrificing boar,
IV.

on lentoid from Mycenae,

572
of, at

Monsieur

E.,

on faience ewer from


at

tomb
Prinia,

steatite

cup from Hagia Triada, iv. 400 Knossos, see Temple Tomb
i.

Central Treasury

Knossos,

II.

655 n. 4

Priestesses of dove-cult,

223
at, I.

on

silver vessel
II.

from Chamber

Tomb

at

L.M.

la snake sanctuary
144, 158-61
at, iv.

508, iv. 27,

825 Poulton, Sir Edvyard, on chrysalises on 'Ring of


Nestor',
11.

Byblos,

early Greek temple


IV.

142 n.

I,

160 n. 4
I.

788

n. 2, iv. 149

Procession Fresco, from Knossos,


ill.

424,

11.

178,

Pounders, ritual, of stone, I. 219 Praesos, Greek-written inscriptions from,

452, 683, 684, 708, 710, 719-57,


399, scheme, Egyptian origin

III.

297,

880

259 haematite seal from, stater of, 11. 278 n. 2

of, iv.

880
lb, iv.

ill.

116 n. 4

Minoan extension of Profile, two-eyed, in L.M.

in

L.M.

881

III6 .ceramic orna-

Priansos, coin-types of,


Priests, Egyptian, of

II.

493 n. 2
11.

Prickle-work, see Barbotine

ment, IV. 374 (Syro-Hittite connexion, ib.) Propaganda House, see Niru Khani, Priest's
28

Double Axes,
11.

House
Propylon
182

at

Maltese, prehistoric organization Minoan, augurs, 573


as
iv.

of Neith at Sais,

48

{see, too,

Knossos) Anatolian type of, 11.


11.

of, 11.

dress of, Syrian influence on,

I.

16, 681,

683, IV. 215, 398, 401, 404, 882

on Harvester Vase from Hagia Triada,


11.47

Minoan type 695 Mycenae, 671, 692, Tiryns, 692, 694; Minoan Crete, 695 Troy, 694 2
of,

695

at at

11.

iv.

222

11.

plan taken from

at

11.

n.
I.

on

M.M.

Ill

bead-seal
iv.

from

Little

Proteus, legend of,

Palace at Knossos,
Priest-kings,

216, 490

dress 398, 401 heroized 447 Palace from 271, 794 palanquin 224, 398 and Palanquin painted S.N. Corridor
of, iv.

on gems from Mainland, iv. 550 Minoan, 1. 1, 5, 6, 12, 26, 154, 159 control of road communications by, 11. 78, 79
cult of,
i.

37 n. 2, in. 155 I. 29 Prow sign, in Linear Script A, I. 641 Pryce, Mr. F. N., on sculpture from facade of Atreus Tomb at Mycenae, 11. 193
297,
11.

Provincialism in

Minoan

style,

painted stucco
11.

Pseira,

I. i

relief

from house
I, i.

at, 11.

731,

insignia of,

early

at Mallia,

pottery from, M.M.


M.M.
L.M.
747

III.

38

193
11.

of,

I.

iv.

see Frescoes,

III6-L.M.
la,
I.

la,
II.

475

611,

260, 422 n. 2, 484,


III.

relief of, in

at

Knossos,

n. 2, III.
lb,
I.

206
314,
II.

353. 427. 644. 685, 774-95 (and frontispiece of II, Pt. i, PL XIV), IV. 6, 323, 400
II-

L.M.

497, 822,

90, 346

n. 5, IV. 272, 290,

955

PSEIRA

[144]

RA
L.M.
lb tholoi at,
11.

stone goblet from,


Psellos, Michael,

Pseira (cont.)

Pylos, Messenian,
11.

43, iv.

790 n. 4

243

on tomb of Zeus, I. 154 Psemmatismeno, Cyprus, copper swords from


cemeteries
at, 11.

Old,

pottery from,
see

11.

246, 247, 487, 488

Kakovatos
at

273 n. 3
II,
I.

Pyramids, Egyptian, n. 41 n. 2

Pshent, see Kilt


Psi hieroglyph,

workmen's settlement

Harageh confound near,

M.M.

278, 284, 285

Psychro,

cave

sanctuary of

identified
11.

with

of Senusert

II.
-

nected with,

II.

211
II pottery

II,

M.M.

Diktaean Cave:

210

on Dikte, I. i, 159, 163, 444, birthplace of Zeus, 11. 48

527

of Teti, siege sqene on, in. 102 n. 4

Pyrgos, on Great South road,


traces of road near, n. 75 Pyrgos, by Niru Khani, ossuary
II.

Minoan guard

connexion with Juktas, ii. 439 with Knossos, II. 439


cult in,
I.

station at, n.

76
at,
I.

629,

II.

81

56, 59, 70,

doves

in, iv.

41
11.

stalagmitic pillars in,

839

pottery from,

L.M.
I.

III, iv. 295, 312, 369,

372
seal-stones from, 199,
ill.

316, IV. 168,

589

larnakes from, 59 n. leg-amulets from, 84 75 pottery from, E.M., 60, n. 80 from, 84


I.

280

n. 2,

I.

i.

114,

10, 12, iv.

schist figurines

i.

steatite libation table

from, with inscription

Pyrgos Psilonero,

see
i.

Kydonia
20, 112, n.

of Linear Class A,
438,
IV.

I. 497, 625-30, II. 48, 157 (found in 1894: in Ashmolean

Pyxides, Cycladic,
-

40

Museum)

votive deposits

135 bronze dagger from, M.M. II,


II.

at, 11.

I.

195 n.

i,

from Kumasa, 91 from Messenian Pylos, n. 246, 247 from Pyrgos, 114
I v.

inlaid steatite, iv. 91

719, 720,

754, in. Ill, IV. 845, 848 double axe and base, I. 427, 438, iv. 212 figure of adorant, I. 681, in. 461

I.

lid of crystal,
III.

from E. Treasury

at

Knossos,
I.

green
362 n.

410
steatite,
I

from Mochlos,

93,

11.

ox-head weight, iv. 655 bronze tablet, with cult scene, inscribed,
I.

632-5,

Pteria, see

II. 790 n. 3, Boghaz Keui

III.

69, 462, IV.

672

Q
Qebeh, Egyptian libation vase from, 11. 825 Quarries, Minoan, at Hagia Irini, n. 62 -at Hagio Pnevma, 11. 233
-at Knossos,
at
11.

Ptolemy, son of Agesandros, on grave of Kinyras, II. 838 n. 2 Pueblo Indians, shell patterns on pottery of, iv.
1X2

Puemra, tomb of
Pugilists, see

at

Thebes,

11.

295

739, 754

Boxers

Niru Khani, n. 233, 280 Quarry (of chase), wounded, in Minoan sphragistic

Pulasati, identified

with Philistines, on pylon of


at

ornament,

iv.

543 et seqq.

Medinet Habu, I. 664, 666 Pumice stone, from Neolithic strata


II.

Knossos,

Quatrefoil inlays, iv. 236, 315, 940 Querns, stone, from House of the Sacrificed

Oxen,
Quibell,

II.

13

305
Cairo,
11,

Magazine, i. 172 Punches, middle Neolithic, from Knossos,


n. 13

from beneath

W.

Mr. C, on dolmens near

i.

42,

181 n. 3

Puppet-shows, religious, in S.
Purple, see Shell,
346, ni. 95

Italy, in.

R
435

murex
i.

Ra, sign
664, 665,
11.

Pylon of Medinet Habu,

35

n. 3,

victory of over serpent Apet,

of, on scarab seals, n. 207 on Mycenaean stela, n. 201


11.

841

RACQUET

[145]

REEDS
{cant.)

Racquet pattern, on M.M. Ila pottery from Harageh, ii. 216, iv. 108; from Knossos,
II.

250, IV. 53 on M.M. 116 pottery, iv. 136, 137 on L.M. la pottery, 11. 218, iv. 267
III.

213,

on seals, 11. 217 Ragusa (Dubrovnik), earthquake


II.

from, bowl, with Minoan 782 stone weight from, 530 from, 451, 781, 782 tombs of corbelled construction and
silver
IV.

Ras-Shamra

inscriptions,

iv.

tablets

iv.

at,

at in a.d. 1667,

form
IV.

identical with

Royal

Tomb at Isopata,

321 n. I, 322, IV. 990 n. I Rain pictograph, origin of drop sign, iv. 658 Rain-bringing rites, on gold signet-ring from

771 et seqq. blind openings in these also paralleled by

Isopata tombs (for percolation of libations),


IV. 771 et seqq. Raulin, Dr. V., on seismic zone in Crete,

Thisbe and clay sealing from Knossos,


451. 452

iv.

11.

on gems from Mainland,


'talismanic'

iv.

550
iv.

313,1V. 989 n. 2

bead-seals

relating to,

446-50
Rainfall,

{see too

under Vegetation Charms)

evidence of greater amount of in


Crete,
in
11. 462-4 Cyprus after

increase of
463 n.
I

Minoan

afforestation,

11.

Ravens on Hagia Triada sarcophagus, I. 440 as symbol of divinity, I. 447 Razors, bronze, from pit in Sepulchral Chamber of Temple Tomb at Knossos, IV. 1004 obsidian, from W. Magazines, IV. 635 Reber, Dr. G. F., steatite Sphinx from Tylissos
,

Ram,

clay votive, inscribed with Linear Class

in collection of,

III.

425

Minoan sphragistic designs on gold signet-ring from Dendra,


in

characters

from Eski Samsoun,

iv.

768

Recipe, Egyptian medical, mention of Keftiu

of, iv.
iv.

571
171

herbs in, 11. 748 n. i Rectangular houses, E.M.

I, I.

70

Ram's horn,
IV.

as crest of

helmet on Vapheio gem,

868
II,

Rameses

on

relief of battle of

Kadesh,
of,

ill.

pigment
ware,

Red

147 paint, ritual use of,


inlaid,

M.M.

I, I.

iv. 3

on Middle Neolithic incised


11.

i.

36

Rameses
346

III, raids of

Akaiwasha in time

11.

Red

Sea, habitat of Tridacna,

46

Neolithic trade of with Mediterranean,


IV.

at Thebes, sculptures of Hippopotamus goddess on, iv. 434 siege of Tabor on, ill. 104 Ramman Martu, on Babylonian cylinder from

Ramesseum

109
as

Reeds,

offering

to

Minoan Goddess on
iii.

473 compared with 'Entry of the Reed' in spring


feast of Attis,
iii.

signet-ring

from Thisbe,
473

Candia, 11. 266 Randall-Mclver, Dr., on


38
Rapiers, see Swords

(at

end of
as

par. for

circles at Msila,

11.

Ras-Shamra, Minoan colony

at,

iv. 533, 557,

Minoan development of motive, 2 627 Minoan M.M.


11.

'wreaths' read 'reeds')

ornamental
i.

n.

in

frescoes,

III6,

426, 539,

alabaster
at, IV.

770

II-

378, 391

vase from, representing

adaptation of Middle

Minoan Kingdom Egyptian


from Library

L.M.

la,

II.

450

('striated'

type)

L.M.
:

II, iv.

890-2,

cuneiform alphabet on
781, 782

type, IV. 778, 779

tablets

910-12 (GrifEn frieze) at Mycenae (as late Knossian fashion), iv. 1013 and Suppl.

Cypro-Minoan connexions

of faience
IV.

mask

ivory carvings from,


IV.

and head-shaped goblet from,


iv.

776

Knossian L.M. II traditions on pottery from,


776,
at, iv.

557

PI.

LXVI,c.

i,c. 2

as bath decoration,
II, III.

M.M.

Illi,

I.

580; L.M.
I.

(or

384-6 grass) on pottery,


I,
II.

M.M.

Ill,

556, 579,

60s

777 Linear Script B used

L.M.
782
vases)

loi, IV. 1002 (on 'flower-pot'

REEDS
Reeds, on pottery
('striated'

[146]
(cont.)

RELIEFS
of by close of

Reliefs, painted stucco {cont.)

L.M. II, iv. 342-4, 1011-14: derived from palm leaves (M.M.
class)

developed by

M.M. 116, III. 189; fully M.M. Ilia, 11. 355 Early ex;

II-III)

Polychrome type on incense burner from L.M. II Sepulture Temple Tomb, IV. loii, 1012 and Coloured PI. XXXV copied on Tell-el-Amarna vase, iv. 1013-14 and Coloured PI. XXXV Melian (on washing bowl), i. 598, iii. 385
Sicilian,
i.

ample from H. of Sacrificed Oxen deposit, II. 319; part of bull's head and bossed rosette, and Spiral Fresco frieze, I. 375, 376
transitional

M.M.

III& 'Jewel Fresco'

(from Toilette scene), i. 312, 525-7 Seated ladies, M.M. IIK, Pseira,
38
(cf.
II.

iii.

28,

22,

11.

627
iv.

731, 732) (Fig. 15a) 40, 731, also Knossos (fragmentary), 11. 39-41

Regulini Galassi tomb, silver bowl from,


_

Priest-king Relief (L.M.

la),

S.-N.

539
III.

Corridor,

on silver rhyton from Mycenae, 89 n. 2, 92 n. 4, 98 n. 2 Reinach, Monsieur Salomon, on galop volant,


Reichel, Dr. W.,
I. 'JIT,

XIV, from bull-grappling


Spiral

685, 774-85, Coloured PI. frontispiece Pt. ii, iv. 6, 323, 400
11.

scene,
i.

area

of

Fresco,

M.M.

Ilia,

and

n. 3:

on

origin of

Naked Godon bone

dess, IV.

427
alphabetic
signs
ill.

Reindeer Period,
carvings of,
vessels, iv.

(Lower relief than those from Higher reliefs. Remains of bull-grappling scenes from N. Portico (M.M. III6): chargIII. 172, 173 (Fig. 116), 174-6, IV. 537; parallels with Vapheio cup scenes, III. 177; with gypsum reliefs from 'Atreus' Tomb fagade (Mycenae), III. 192-201 re;

375, 376 N. Portico)

407
i

ing bull.

Reisner, Dr. G. A., on Early Egyptian stone

985 n.

Rekhmara, tomb

of, at

Thebes,

11.

116, 166,

226, 534, 728, IV. 329, 653, 753 inscription in referring to Princes
Keftiu,

stored section,
of

iv. 16,

17 (Fig. 8)

Olive-trees in bossed relief

from the

II.

656

above,

Minoan tributaries portrayed in, 11. 176, 728, 739-44; ingots carried by, iv. 653; rhytons carried by, 11. 226, 534, 738, iv.
269

166-71 Rock-work fore-ground from the above,


iv.

IV. 171,

172 Part of lion's neck and mane,


II.

Reliefs, painted stucco (A.E.)

333, IV. 538 (rivet-hole as III6 frescoes, cf. 11. 680)


\l\b,

M.M. M.M.

In genere. Unique product of Knossian School of Art those from Island Station of Pseira similar to fragments from Knossos,

III.

28, 38
reliefs

High

supreme development of painted

ill. 496, 517 Disappear in L.M. la 'Priest-king', last example, 11. 775 seqq. and II, Pt. ii, frontis-

stucco technique,

Agonistic and bull-grappling reliefs from Great East Hall, M.M. III6, 497-509; boxers, iii. 498-508 (compared with reliefs on steatite rhytons and seal impressions, iii. 500, 501-4; and cf. I. 688-92, IV. 600, 601) wrestlers, III. 497-9 and Fig. 342 A Woman's breasts from female taureador in above composition, i. 531, iii. 508, 509
;

piece, PI.

XIV

associated (in Great East Hall) with

Appreciations of the style and anatomical

by artistic and physiological authorities: Sir William Richmond, R.A., 11. 783, III. 506, 507; Prof. Arthur Thompson,
fidelity

F.R.C.S.,
Paralleled

II.

783

n. 3, 497,

489

n.

on Mainland

side

by

reliefs

(of

supporting baetylic column on stepped base, ill. 510-15 Ceiling reliefs: remains of large spiraliform, from Great South Hall colouring lost, in. 30 with spiral and rosette design from Miniature Fresco area, in. 30, 31, and
Griffins
;

Knossian gypsum) of bulls of the same


'Vapheio' cycle from the 'Atreus' fa?ade at

Coloured PL
III. III.

XV;

suggested L.M. la date,

31 31

reaction of Egyptian influence on,

Mycenae,

iii.

194 seqq.

Low

relief

technique, evidence of existence

fragment

of,

with lotus design in miplat

RELIEFS
Reliefs, painted stucco {cont.)

[147]

RELIGION
Cairn or peak as baetylic equivalent of
divinity with
antithetic lions:

Religion, Baetylic Cult of Sacred Stones {cont.)

technique, derived from Queen's Megaron,


874, 875; mature L.M. la, date, IV. 874; under i8th Dynasty influence,
III.

371-4,

IV.

sculptural

372; resembles Orchomenos limestone close parallelism with painted friezes in the flat at Knossos and Tiryns, iv.
III.

ceiling:

group on architrave (sealing. Little Palace), IV. 605,608 (Fig. 597 a), 611, 612 Tree as habitation of divinity within
:

.874-7
Reliefs, see Faience,

159, 160, 172, 173, ill. 142, IV. 950-2; as equivalent of baetylic column
i.

Sanctury,

Gypsum,

Ivory, Limestone,

in
'

'antithetic

group',

iv.

453

{and

see

Sculpture, Steatite, Terra-cotta

Religion (Minoan)
Characteristic Features and External Relations (A. E.)
Baetylic (or Aniconic) Cult of Sacred stones
(bethels) in shape of omphali

Goddess replacing her columnar form


between lions (Mycenae lentoid), iv. 620; on peak between lions (sealings. Central Shrine, Knossos), 11. 808, 809, iv. 607, 608
(Fig. 597 A. e)

Trees, sacred)

838-40), and stalagmitic formations (in Cave of


(11.

Eileithyia,

11. 839); as artificial pillars, often associated with trees ('Tree and Pillar

Cult'),

temporary indwelling of which by


I.

the divinity was secured by due ritual,

young God as equivalent of his columnar form, between lions, iv. 467, Fig. 391 bis (lentoid, Kydonia); on seal impression, Knossos, IV. 604; between Minoan Genii, iv. 465 ('Orvieto'); between Genius and Winged Goat (Psilonero,Benaki Coll.),
IV.

159-62, 223, 224 typical representation of on gold signetring from Knossos (descent of divinity above
obelisk, before sanctuary portal with pillar

467

Minoan Genius between lion guardians,


IV.

461

Scheme
itself

of divinity between monsters


cylin-

and

fig-trees);

1.

in

Pillar

159, 160 (Fig. 115), III. 136 Crypts (or 'pillar-rooms')

taken over from Oriental models;

Cypro-Minoan example on imported


der, IV. 425
Pillar or

associated with cult objects (Double Axes,


sacral knots, vats for sacrificial blood, off'er-

Menhir

as

tory vessels),

I.

415-30

(in a pillar crypt

or possibly young
signet-ring,

God

tombstone of hero (in small temenos


172, 173,
ill.

of a Gypsades house, off^ertory cups set in

with suspended shield: mourning scene),

rows beside
libations

pillar,

bottoms upwards and


cairns, pillars,

Mycenae,

I.

covering carbonized vegetable material)

poured over

and

(Fig. 93) (such pillars give rise to Zeus', &c., I. 159, 162)
ritual

'Tomb

142 of
of

sacred trees by

Column
curved

Genii, iv. 453-5 (sometimes standing on in-

Minoan

means

of

securing

descent

divinity:

altar-block)

with

monsters

or

by invocation or incantation, I. 159, 160; by blowing conch shell {triton)


I.

sacred animals as supporters or guardians


Griffins (relief), ill. 5 10-17

(lentoid Idaean Cave),

221, 222; votive of

and

signet-ring), iv.

Lions (sealings 610-12; Lions' Gate,


>

terra-cotta shrine,

I.

159;

by ceremonial
scene

dancing, ill. 72-5 (Miniature Fresco, Isopata


ring,

Mycenae

(antithetic goats before


iv.

it,

sealing,

&c.).

Sarcophagus

(Hagia

Mycenae),

613, 614

Triada), deceased 'hero' brought


sacrifice, libations,

up by
and

incurved altar-base (alone), with Lion


supporters, iv. 611, sealings (Zakro, Hagia

and

strains of pipe

lyre,

Triada); with collared hounds (sealings,

439, 440 evocation of deceased hero from


I.

tomb

608 (Fig. 597 g.) incurved altar-bases with antithetic Griffins and Priest-king's throne in centre. Room of the Throne, Knossos (implied
Knossos),
IV.

by means of libations, music, and ofl?ering: he appears before its portal receiving ship and sacrificed bull; on painted sarcophagus, .Hagia Triada,
(Fig. 317);
i.

439 (Fig. 316), 440

divinity), iv.

919-22

Offertory figure of galloping

RELIGION
heifer, conventionally

[148]

RELIGION
tripod hearth (for offerings), in
offertory vessels,
11.

Religion, Baetylic Cult of Sacred Stones {cont.)

Religion, Ecstatic 'possession' {cont.)

rendered animal of

body of

cell

bull-sports (as Tiryns fresco), iv. 45 (Figs.


28, 29)

336-8; flooring of sea-

Divine
trinity of

'possession'

of

baetylic

object

worn pebbles, 11. 336 (see, too. Shrines); Double Axes stuck in pillars of Shrine
(fresco),

indicated by alighted dove (or other bird),

Knossos,

doves (cf. too, sealing, Mycenae), in Miniature Terracotta Shrine, Knossos, I. 220-4
pillars writh

settled

cenae,

I.

crevices

i. 443, 444; Do., My444, 445; stuck in same way in of natural stalagmite pillars of

lower sanctuary
chro),
I.

vault,-

Diktaean Cave (Psy-

Ecstatic 'possession' (of votaries or divinities),

444

produced by juice of sacred trees, as Soma, (bough pulled down to procure it from
fruit),
I. 432, II. 340, 341 (Fig. 1946), III. 142, 143 (signets, Mycenae), iv. 950, 954

Eschatology of Minoan religious belief new lights on afforded by 'Ring of Nestor', 11.
788,
III.

146-57;

field

divided into four

('Ring of Minos')

doves alighted on nude female figure 1. 224 on head of Goddess, Shrine of Double Axes, 11. 339, 340; parallel to Holy Spirit in shape like a dove, lighting on Jesus at Baptism, I. 223,
(3rd Shaft Grave, Mycenae),
;

compartments by Minoan Yggdrasil or 'Tree of the World', iii. 146-55; Goddess (with companion seated in first compartment) with two chrysalises and two butterflies above [see Butterfly and Chrysalis), ill.
148-52; appearance of chrysalis as emblem
of resurgence, speciality of
151, 152; left of

Minoan Art,
;

iii.

224
Birds,
'possession'

Goddess,

Man and Woman


ill.

possibly

ravens,

symbolizing

at entrance to

Underworld reappear below


152-5;

by divine spirit, perched on Double Axes (as baetylic objects) in ritual


scene of Hagia Triada Sarcophagus,
441,
42, 43 Dove settled
IV.
I.

before Griffin's judgement seat,

440,

on sacred

tree

(Votive

bronze tablet, Diktaean Cave), I. 632, 635 Double Axe Private Chapel of in 'High
:

guardian lion in second compartment, tended by Diaskourai: Translation of scene into Miniature painting, ill. 156, 157 and Coloured PI. A; recall to life illustrated by Hagia Triada sarcophagus, 'hero' brought before portal of tomb by ritual

XX

Priest'sHouse',of ecclesiastical arrangement,

offerings,
itself also

I.

205-13 body (or nave) with side benches (like choir-stalls), iv. 206, 207, 208; intermediate compartment with gypsum cists for offerings entered by stepped opening in columnar balustrade ('Chancel screen') ibid., and inner sanctuary with evidence of double gates of bronze containing central altar of sacrifice flanked by pyramidal pedestals for double axes, ibid. central drain for blood of sacrifices, iv. 208, 210, 211. Late Shrine (sacellum) of Double Axes near S.E. Palace Angle of Reoccupation Period (most complete illustration of earlier arrangement), 11. 335-42 small cell with altar ledge along back wall, 11. 316-18 Cult objects on altar ledge sacral horns with double axes (pair), terra-cotta figures (Goddess and votary with doves), miniature limestone double axe with reduplicated
IV.
;
;

used

439, 440-2, iv. 43, 44; tomb as shrine of Goddess, 11.


cist in

279, 285 shape of


at

symbolical form of grave


ibid.;

Double Axe,
IV.

Temple Tomb

Sepuchral aspects

964-1018 of, tomb, also a shrine: Tomb of Double Axes, Knossos: internal shrine by head of sepulchral cavity with double axes and ritual vessels and baetylic pillar in relief, 11. 278, 279, and 285, Fig. 169 (rock-hewn grave cist in shape of Double Axe) see too Temple Tomb Chthonic character of Goddess evidenced by snake attributes, I. 447, 501-4 (and
;

Knossos,

507-9 Sunken Lustral Basins Crypts connected with, 11. 322, 323. 520-3, III. 10-12 Earthquakes, connexion with, propitiatory offerings of ox-heads in overthrown House
frontispiece),
;

and

Pillar

of the Sacrificed Oxen,

11.

302, 303, 314,

edges; in centre, before altar ledge, plaster

320-2,

III.

10-12

RELIGION
Religion (cont.)

[149]

RELIGION
and North Syrian
influences
{cont.)

Religion, Anatolian

Early Nilotic (Proto-Libyan and Predynastic Egyptian) influences on, I. 19; prototypes of
labyrinth pattern and Minotaur on seals,
I.

limestone statuette of Snake Goddess


in. high, iv.

15-!

193-7

Wazet

358, Fig. 260, opp. 359; Delta Goddess (or Buto) part source of Minoan

Goddess, principal, manifold aspects of:

Snake Goddess, I. 509, 510; Waz or sacred papyrus rod from same quarter, ib.\ Snake and papyrus stem, ib. and iv. 893 Nilotic types of figurines, Mesara and Knossos, I. 83, 84 (primitive tholos, Hagia Triada, Fig. 52), II. 31, IV. 984; cupped libation blocks of early Cretan Ossuaries and Temple
;

holds corn and poppy capsules as DemeterGaia, 11. 277, ill. 458; rises out of earth as

Tomb, Knossos,

of late predynastic type,

" 44. 45>


n.
I

same, iii. 458 holds breasts as Mother Goddess, II. 236 (Fig. 133, 277); hunts stag as Artemis-Diktynna, 11. 277, IV. 577, 578; holds anchor or rides the waves in vessel as Mistress of the Sea (Isis Pelagia), 11. 249-5 1 boats of with hippocamp's head (as Amphitrite), iv. 950, 954; associated with
;
!

III-

978, 979-83. and see iv. 985

cymbal and
Kybele,
ill.

lions

as

Minoan Rhea
iv.

or

Egyptian (dynastic) influences on Hathor and Horus and Hathoric cow and symbols,
:

607 (Fig. 597 a, c, e), 610, &c. (lions); male dress of arena (Libyan sheath, &c., but coupled with
fashionable corset) as

472 (cymbal),

I.

509-15, II. 844 n. 6; Hippopotamus Goddess Ta-Urt (Reret) prototype of

Lady

of the Sports
iv.

chryselephantine figurine,

28-35 and
I.

Genii, iv. 43 1-41 ; Egyptian religious hieroglyphs taken over, i. 280; influence

Minoan

Coloured

PI.

XXVII,

Frontispiece; holds

snakes as Mistress of the Underworld,

on Linear Class B (uraeus staff), IV. 685, 686; Early form of sistrum in Harvester scene, II. 47, 48; adorant Cynocephalus on sealings, I. 683, 684; reaction of Egyptian beliefs as to Underworld, ill.

Coloured PI. Frontispiece and 500-10, &c. (see too Snake Cult and Snake Room (cf.
originally domestic, Goddess as 92) 'house mother'', &c., iv. 159 seqq.); as infernal Goddess with power over EarthIV,

154. 15s Anatolian and North Syrian influences (due to underlying ethnic connexions, but with

quakes,

IV. 186,

187

adder mark

of,

taken

Chaldaean background) the most ancient, I. 6, IV. 935 n. 2; Cult of Double Axe (Lydian labrys), from that side, I. 6; Minoan tonsured boy-God and votive locks, illustrated by ritual in Carian Temple of Zeus Panamaros (otherwise Double- Axe God, Labraundos), IV. 478-83; Minoan Goddess and boy-God paralleled by divine pairs on Eastern side (Inanna (Ishtar) and Dumuzi (Thammuz), Astarte and Adonis, Kybele and Attis), but here simpler, filial relationship, ill. 468-76; primitive Cretan clay and stone images perhaps distantly related to those of Babylonian Mother Goddess,
I.

from native viper, iv. 182-5 (see under Adder mark) holds Double Axe, as Anatolian divinity, I. 435 (Amazonian aspect, 11.
;

277)

Youthful acolyte (perhaps the boy-God)


giving courtly assistance to

Minoan God-

dess rising out of the ground as Perse-

phone-Gaia (both in fashionable costume on gold bead-seal from Thisbe), iii. 458
(Fig- 319)

Cult of Mother and Child


that
still

in,

akin to

throughout Mediterranean Christendom, 11. 277, 278; traditional site of Tomb of Zeus re-dedicated to
existing

'Christ the Lord',

I. 154, 11. 278; adoration of Mother Goddess and Child by Chieftains

51
:

Iconic Cult advance in

shown not only

figurines but by colossal statues: evidence of wooden statue 9 ft. high in Great East Hall, ill. 521-5 marble-like hand of statue c. 2 ft. 4 in. high, iii. 518, iv. 194;

by

on Thisbe signet-ring, 11. 471 by Adoration of the Magi on Early Christian ring, ill. 474, 475 (Fig- 33); Underlying Syro-Anatolian cult of Goddess and youthful divinity related in grosser form to old Cretan
with
gifts

(Fig. 328), 472; paralleled

RELIGION
Religion, Anatolian
{cont.)

[ISO]

RHYTONS
Minoan anointing ceremonies in {cont.)
male;
Genius, Minoan; God, youthGoddess, Minoan; Knossos,
;
;

and North Syrian

influences

Religion,

of; Altar;
II.

(belonging to same ethnic stock),

278; St. Jerome's record that birth cave of Christ at Bethlehem was previously attri-

ful

House of High Priest at Kybele Libationtables;

buted to Adonis (Thammuz), ill. 476 Goddess performing rain-bringing ceremony standing before fruit-tree and pouring water into jar (Gold Signet,
Thisbe),

Niru Khani, warehouse at; Priests; Rhea; Sacrifice; Shrines; Snake Cult, and Snake Room Trees, sacred Votive offerings
; ;

Maltese, aniconic cults in,

11.

189

Mohammedan,

'Saints' graves' in, iv.


in, IV.

977

451 (Fig. 376); parallel representation on clay seal impression from 'Area of Daemon Seals', Knossos, iv. 451
iv.

Phrygian, mysteries

935 n. 2

Rendle, Dr. A. B.,


Reret, see

11.

70

n.

Ta-Urt

(Fig. 376 b); cf. too IV. 515

and

n. 3, 516,

Reservoirs,
II.

L.M.

III6 remains of at Tylissos,

517, 517 n. 3 Minoan anointing ceremonies in, iv. 937 ethical aspect of, 11. 279

65 n. I Resheph, Syrian Lightning-god, dress of,iv.4oi


identified in Cyprus with Apollo of Amyklae, iii. 480 images of, in. 466, 477, 478, iv. 46

'

domestic character of, iii. 347, 348 lustral ceremonies in, iv. 935, 936; stone fonts for lustral sprinkling, ib.; one of purple gypsum found near Room of the Throne, ill. 26 (Fig. 13), iv. 936; Holy water sprinkler {aspergillum) with sword symbols of spiritual and temporal dominion in Goddess's hand on L.M. I bead-seal, 11. 792-4 (Fig. 5 17),< iv. 936, 937; on sherd, 11. 794, 795; officeij holding sprinkler and sword before 'young prince'

Resin, use of in 'incense burners' in

L.M. tombs at Knossos, 11. 174 n. 3, iv. loii Rethymnos, communications of with North
coast,
II.

Venetian buildings Minoan bead-seals


523
Reticulation, see

232

at, 11.

313 from, in. 316,

iv. 500,

on

steatite

cup, Hagia Triada,

11.

790-4

(Fig- 516)

matriarchal character of,

ill.

456, 466

Network Rhadamanthys, i. 10, 11 n. i, in. 155 Rhaukos (H. Myros), erroneous identification of with Rokka (Kanli Kasteli), n. 74 n. 2 Rhea, Cretan, i. 6, 75, n. 48, 51, 334, in. 466
associated with lions, n. 831, 832; with

on Mainland,

I.

721,

11.

841

orgiastic aspect of,

11.

279, IV. 219, 220


in, 11.

propagandist element
purity of
rites). III.

279-85
Oriental

Cymbal, in. 472 compared with Cypriote Myrrha,


in. 472 on ring

(contrasted with

in. 473 connexion of with Kybele, n. 191 n. 4,

476
clay female image (seated)

nude

from

from Mycenae, n. 832; from


471
of,

Shrine of Double Axes, reversion to crude


primitive type,
I.

Thisbe,

III.

52 (Fig. 14)

recrudescence of paganism in. Fetish Shrine of Re-occupation Period with grotesque natural concretions, 11. 342, 346
(Fig. 198), 520, 521 survival of in Greek religion. Professor

cypress grove Knossos, 334". House Knossos, n. 334


at
I

on sealing from Knossos, n. 808


i.

344, n.
i

and

of, at

7,

n.

see

Kybele
of, 11.

Martin Nilsson's views on

its

relationship

animal foster parents of divine children taken over from similar Minoan tradition,
III.

pottery from, and lalysos


see

Rhegion, coin-types Rhodes, i. 20

831 n.

iv. 165,

295, 338
li.

466
Syrian connexions
unity of,
11.

Rhone, trade-route with Adriatic,


of, ill.

170 n. 4

475
cult

Rhjrtion,

I.

10
of,

439

Rhytons
origin

and see Adder Mark; Axe, double,

and development

i.

170, n. 221-7

RHYTONS
Rhytons
III.

[iSi]

RHYTONS
{cont.)
11.

(cont.)

Rhytons, lion's-head
ii.

alabaster, in

form of lion's heads,

822, 827,

Treasury of Central Sanctuary,

420,

199

breccia,

from Inner Hall of Hall of the Double Axes at Knossos, iii. 346
I.

from

827-32,

IV.

727

colouring 260 Sumerian origin 259-65, from Mesara, 260, 205 538, 654 from Mochlos, 260, 205 from 205 from 260 bull's-head, chthonic import 538 origin 538 from Ain Tab, 538 658 from Knossos, Palace, 262-3, 108, 408, 527-30, 820, 727 Royal Road, 531, 533 Tomb of the Double Axes, 236 from Mycenae, Atreus Tomb, 195 4th Shaft Grave, 530, 531 from Pontus, Eski Samsoun (Royal
of, 11.

bull-shaped,

188-90,

11.

260

Delphi, from beneath adytum, of same form and marble-like material as that from Treasury of Central Sanctuary,

of, 11.

11.

ill.

11.

in.

from Mycenae, 4th Shaft Grave, 827 represented on from N.E.


sealing
at

Knossos,

II.

833, 833, IV. 727

II.

420,

House

Porti,

11.

Knossos,

11.

419, 536

Pseira,

11.

of, 11.

sign in Linear Script A,


ostrich-egg,

on tombs

at

Thebes,

11.

534, 741

iv.

678

of, 11.

11.

n. i,

marble, from Crete, in. 199 obsidian, from Tylissos, n. 56 n. 6


1. 337, 338, 385, 594, 595, n. 222303. IV. 265, 269 7. a traditional form of flask throughout

Little
III.

11.

IV.

11.

iv.

in.

n.

11.

Hittite
2,

found in Shaft Graves Mycenae of egg-shell gold mounts, 594, 595-7, n. 234 Polychrome imitation, in egg-shell ware
still

Egypt and N. Africa, n. 233, 333


at
I.

at

ware with L.M. lb patterns),


747, 748) from 206 from Sumeria, 315 represented on tomb of
Pseira,
ill.

11.

538 n.

IV.

764-7 (Figs.

iv.

Men-Kheper'-

207 n. i, 536, 746 of User-amon, 11. 535, 738 sign in Linear Script B, 11. 533, iv. 729 clay, see under Pottery faience, from Ashur, iv. 534, 535
11.

ra-senb,

from Mycenae,
IV.

Knossos, M.M. II, I. 594, 595 (Fig. 436 a) Table showing evolution of Minoan rhyton types derived<from Egyptian ostrichegg flask, II. 225 from Knossos, I. 594, 595, n. 303
i.

237, 594, 595,

11.

224,

265 pear-shaped, borne by Minoan tributaries on


of Rekhmara {c. 1450 B.C.), n. 226, 269 from near Candia, n. 231 n. 3 from Pseira, in. 90 silver (funnel-shaped), with Siege Scene, from Mycenae, 4th Shaft Grave, I. 302,

tomb
IV.

filler-shaped (or funnel-),

L.M.
i

la,

11.

705

from Gournia, 705 from Zakro, 234 animal drinking from, 769 held by Goddess on Triada, 769 held by Minoan
11.

n.

n.

11.

on

Mycenaean
from Hagia

fresco,

II.

sealing

11.

308, 312, 314, 668, 698, 699, n. 178 n. 3, 344. 53. 531. 536, 640 n. i, 753 n. i, in. 31, 83, 89-101, 163, IV. 301, 955 represented in Cup-bearer Fresco, n. 705

tributary

on tomb of
11.

on tomb of User-amon, n. 738

Rekhmara, 11. 226 gold, from 4th Shaft Grave, Mycenae,


827
ibex head, held by

420,

from Hagia Triada, with bull-sports and


boxing scenes, in. 35, 64, 90, 335, 498, 500 with Harvest rout, I. 19, 38, 84, 85,

steatite,

i.

688-91

Minoan
534, 741

tributaries

on

tomb

at

Thebes,

11.

jackal's-head, held

by Minoan tributary on

tomb at Thebes, 11. 534, 738, 741, 746 lion's-head, (or lioness'), 11. 536, in. 4, 199 from Knossos (marble-like limestone).

from Knossos, Palace, head, 363 408, 537-30, 830, 737 fragment, from near Royal Road, n. 531,
Little
bull's
II.

n. 47, 224, 279, 473,


n. 3,

III.

449,

IV.

318

III.

108, IV.

533

ROADS

RHYTONS
Rhjrtons, steatite, fragment {cont.)

[IS2]

from Room of the Throne, with octopus,


II.

224, 502, IV. 276, 277, 930 with boxers, 11. 615 n. 2

Rims, flattened, of vessels from Spring House of Caravanserai, 11. 134, 135 n. 2 'Ring of Minos', see Signet-rings 'Ring of Nestor', see Signet-rings
Rings, see Signet rings (for evolution of

from Sta Hellenika,

iv. 600 with sacral horns, iv. 201 with altar and fig-tree grove, 11. 614 with ecstatic devotee, ill. 69 with bull dragged to altar, ill. 184 with men with offertory bowls,

Minoan

type with bezel at right angles to hoop from tubular bead-type and pendant seal see iii.

Anglo-Saxon,
11.

139. 140,

and

IV. 510, 511 (Fig. 454)) Chinese type of bezels of

set at right angles to

hoop

as

Minoan,
at

iv.

752
bull relief,

from N. Border of S. Propylaeum, with 11. 702 from N.E. area, with superposed pillars,
64 from

510 n. 3 Ring-snake (or grass snake), found


148 Ritual, see Religion
IV.

Knossos,

III.

Rivaltella, shells

from,
iii.

I.

55 n. 5
11.

Tomb

of
Iii.

Double Axes, with


195 n.
i

Rivers of Paradise,
Rivets,
n.
I

147
172

quatrefoil inlays,

on halberds from Calvatone,

stone,

from near Candia, 11. 231 n. 3 (marble-like) from Central Sanctuary, Knossos, in form of lion's and lioness's heads, 11. 827-32 (Figs. 542-4); remarkable discovery of snout of similar, in same material, from Delphi, beneath oBvtov of Apollo's sanctuary, with votive Double Axes, II. 832-4 (Fig. 549), IV. 727 Harbour Town, 11. 238

conical,
conical,

conical,

from Ireland, 11. 173 n. 2 from Mycenae, 11. 172 from N.E. Europe, 11. 173
11.

301 imitated
II.

from Spain, gold-plated, on

silver

170 n. 2 rhyton from Mycenae,


11.

in ceramic ornament,

175, iv.

277, 301

Breccia
inlays
IV.
(cf. III.

Mavro

Spelio,

11.

fragment

of,

556 with incisions for

Roads, Minoan, iv. 793 defence of, 11. 78


structure of,
11.

from 'Atreus' Tomb, from Mycenae,


195 n.
i)
IV.

71, 92, 576

235 (Fig. 180); restoration (Fig. 181)


315

264 in L.M. II ceramic ornament, iv. 345 mouthpiece of from Ashur, iv. 779, 780 Richmond, Sir William, on reliefs from Knossos,
11.

from Sumeria, from Erech,


II.

11. 24, 61, 62, 66, 68, 71, 73, 74, 76-80, 89, 91, 99, i5o> 154. 15s. 226, 684, IV. 6, 203, 996

'Great South Road' from Knossos,

paved section
IV.

of,

passing

Temple Tomb,

996 South- Western,


11.

11.

76, 77, 81
to
Little

Eastern,

99
Palace
11.

783 n. 2, III. 498, 506 Ridgeway, Sir William, on Minos, I. ii n. i against use of 'Minoan', I. 13 n. i on gold currency rings from Mycenae,
IV.

from Theatral Area


('Royal Road'),

155, 514, 533, 572, seqq. 98, 99

over Viaduct,

11.

665 n.

Riding,

non-existent

in

Minoan
iv.

Crete,

iv.

on right bank of Kairatos, 11. 553 North of bridge, 11. 151, 152 from Bridge to S. Porch, 11. 61 et
363
to Entrance, to
11.

seqq.,

evidence of Crete, 375 introduction of Greece, 830 4 misunderstood in L.M. IIIc (proto-geometriceramic ornament, 375 references Homer, 830, 83
earliest

830

in

152, 155
11.
11.

in

iv.

n.

Harbour Town,
S.W. Angle,
11.

153, 154, 230

near Villa Ariadne,


to to

154

cal)

iv.

165 165

to in

iv.

W.

Entrance,

11.

Rifeh, alabaster figure vase


II.

from cemetery

at,

256

n. I,

257

from N.W., 11. 572-87 near House of High Priest, iv. 203
State approach

ROADS
Roads, Minoan
6311.5
(cont.)

[iS3]

ROOF-DRAINAGE
(cont.)

from Kritsa

to Malles

and Mirabello, n.

on

Rocks

stela

above 5th Shaft Grave

at

Mycenae,
style,

from Mycenae, iv. 60 from Pedeada, 11. 78


to

252 Rock-canopy motive in L.M. lb marine


IV.

IV.

277, 278

Arkhanes,

11.

64, 68
11.

to

summit

of Juktas,

66

Rock-rose (Cistus), suggested representation of on panel from House of the Frescoes at


Knossos, II. 466 Rod, metal, used for support of ceremonial
Ida,
11.

over Lasithi range,

11.

63, 68, 78

to N. Coast,
232

to

Niru Khani,
II.

11.

552 280 n. 2

via Tylissos to

West

of

Mount

axes, II. 274 Rodenwaldt, Dr. G., on frescoes from Mycenae,


I.

445 n.

I, II.

599,

III. iii.

85, IV. 87s n.

Roman,
517 n.

to Siteia,

11.

78
11.

from Tiryns,
576

304, 305, iv. 243 n.i,

near Little Palace at KLnossos,


I,
11.

570 to port of Lebena,

84

from Knossos, ill. 83 n. 3 on influence of inlay on fresco painting,


IV.

'Road of Hercules', foUovsfs trade-route, 11. 170 Road, Royal, through Asia Minor, I. 14 Robert, Prof., on picture of Odysseus in Hades by Polygnotos, III. 156 n. 6 Rocca ('Po/ca, Castle of Kanli Kasteli), 11. 74; probably site of Lykastos, ib. folk tale connected with, 11. 74 n. 2 Rock-carving, Hittite, at Boghaz Keui, 11. 275, 276
in
11.

576

on Egyptian influence on stucco floor at Mycenae, iv. 895 n. i on Hagia Triada sarcophagus, i. 439 n. i Rogdhea, green schist quarries at, iv. 992 Rohde, Dr., on eschara, iv. 144 n. 6 Rohlfs, Dr. Gerhard, on ostrich-egg vessel from
Soudan,
11.

223 n. 2

Libyan, Atlas region, 51 Frescoes Kjiossos, known Maraviglie, Col Tenda, Ligu- Rolleston, Sir Humphry, on 454 of Minoan 170-2 metal 2 448 Oreo Feglino near Finalborgo, 170 4 Roman de Rou, 454 Rocks, popularity of Minoan Romans, occupation of Knossos by, 432 453 representation Rome, bull-sports 229 313, 314, 955 Ancilia of marine compared with Minoan 8453 in from Knossos, shaped 52 25) 453 on Casa Romuli, connexion of with hut 895 597, 608 from Knossos, Saffron-gatherer, 131 452 Curia Saliorum, described hut, 131 Cup-bearer, 706 Esquiline, hut Procession Frescoes, on, 131 452, 728, Fiats 616 171 Forum, pavement games Partridge 452 395 household snake-cult House of the Frescoes, 152 447, 448, sprinkler Minoan 450. 452-54
at
ii.

Roller, blue bird

on fresco from House of the


effect

as

di

ria, II.

belt, ill.
iv.

n.

at

11.

n.

in
I.

art, 11.

11.

of,

iv. 16,

at, iii.

in

pieces,

11.

Salii

faience,

11.

shields,

11.

(Fig.

frescoes,

i.

n. i, iv.

circles,

11.

II.

11.

as

11.

n.

11.

iii.

circles

11.

ruminalis, cult of,

11.

Frieze,

11.

in, ill.

II.

in, iv.

lustral

(Aspergillum), like
at, 11.

in

from Mycenae, 11. 730 from Phylakopi, 11. 453 metal, on dagger of Queen Aah-hotep,
453
iv.

used by Pontifices

793, 794 and Fig.

II-

Temple of Vesta, Tugurium


II.

518

11.

131
11.

on pottery, L.M. on 488 on signets with


seals, iv.

from Mycenae, 11. 730 on hilt-plate from Zafer Papoura,


1, 11.

131 Roofs, conical, of huts on bead-seals from Crete, 131

Faustuli,

865

loi, iv. 277, 278, 358

of hut-urn from Phaestos, from Sweden, 133


11.

11.

133

religious subjects,

iii.

137

Roof-drainage,

M.M.

II,

i.

228, 230

ROOF-DRAINAGE

[154]

ROWERS
Minoan
sculptural orna-

on houses in Town Mosaic, 305 in Room of the Plaster Couch Knossos,


i.

Roof-drainage

{cont.)

Rosette and spiral, in

ment,
I.

at

on

25 ceiUng from

IV.

Corner Sanctuary
iii.

in

333 Rope moulding,


derivation of,
gallipot

N.W.
Egyptian
(proto-dynastic),

Insula at Knossos,

30

on

late

Predynastic alabaster

from Knossos, 11. 124 on pottery, M.M. Ill, 11. 418 from House of the Chancel Screen
II.

at

on frieze, M.M. Wlb, from Hall of the Double Axes, iii. 324 L.M. la, in Bathroom of Queen's Megaron, iii. 381 -on limestone slab from S.W. Angle, 11.
256
in fresco

Knossos,

395

from Tylissos, 11. 71 from Visala, 11. 71 from larnax from Pyrgos, L.M.
_

from Knossos,

iii.

310, 324,

la,

" 75
pithoi,
I.

372, IV. 877 from Tiryns, in. 372 Rosette and triglyph friezes

332,
A.,

II.

298, 299 n. 2, 418,

general use of for entrances,


223, 225

11.

696, IV. 222,

IV. 634, 638, 639,

643
11.

Roselle,

Mr. Walter

Roses, wild, not

now found
chalice

260 n. 5 near Knossos,

Mainland use
II.

origin of,

11.

of, 11. 595, 596, iv. 223, 227, 228 607, 608, iv. 210

465

classical analogies with,

on faience
tory,
I.

from Temple Reposi11.

499

11. 595 connexion of with incurved altar-bases, 595. 607, IV. 210

11.

on fresco from House of the Frescoes,


454
in gold,
I.

from Knossos, 4th Magazine,


N.W.
IV.

sculptured, iv. 223, 225, 877

11.

356

on E.M.

II, pins

from Mochlos,
IV. 92,

97

590, 605, iv. 223 S. Propylaeum, 11. 162, 163, 591, 696,
11.

Angle,

Rosette patterns, in Crete and Egypt,

225

874

S.W. Porch,

II.

591, 696, 697,

IV.

225

use M.M. faience E.M. on 721, 725 in fresco and painted


architectural
of,

E.M. III, I. 112 M.M., I. 473


inlays of,
11.

W.
Ill,
I.

Court,

IV.

222, 223
11.

347

II, iv.

940
310, 592 n. 4,

dresses,

reliefs, 11.

from Egypt, 92 from Knossos, 452, 471-3, 481


in inlaying,
iv.
I.

in gold work,

IV. 92, 227, 339, 877,


I.

940
26, 530

97,

11.

from Mycenae, 591 594, 595, 223 695, from Tiryns, 595 227 painted, 164, 224, 877 from Knossos, 480, 604, 704, from Mycenae, 697, 227 from Orchomenos, 592, 594, 599
11.

Caravanserai,

123

n. 3,

596,

IV.

11.

n. 2, iv.

11.

iv.

i.

11.

iv.

224

11.

iv.

11.

n. 3,

on pottery, E.M.
M.M.
L.M. L.M.
II,
la,
II. II.

from Mycenae, I. 452, 482, 483 from Tylissos, i. 482


Ill, iv. 91 216, IV. 132, 133
III.

11. 592, 604, Rosette and triglyph motive:

208 n. 2 on Miniature Fresco,


III.

IV.

221

suggestion of on robe of Goddess in Procession Fresco, 11. 729 (Fig. 456 a), 731 on gold signet-ring from Tiryns, iv. 228, 461 on pottery, M.M. Ha, 11. 697

373, 380, 386, 418, 497,

310, 311, IV. 264


II, IV. 301, 339, 341, 342, 353, 358,

360, 369

L.M. II, IV. 227 Rossbach, Dr. O., on agate bead from Orvieto,
IV.

L.M.

Ill, IV.

369
iv.

465 n. 1,466
discoveries
at

in stone, on
614

'Mycenaean',
11.

26, IV.

333 1006
axe, iv.

Rowe, Mr. Allen,


n. 2

Beisan,

IV;

sealing,

combined with double

417 Rowers, on E.M. steatite Knossos, IV. 520

bead-seal

from

RUBBLE
Rubble, use of in Minoan building,
7.03,760,1V.
I.
11.
ii.

[iS5]

SALUSTROS
Psychro Cave,
I.

353, 690,
IV.

Sacrifices, evidences of in

627
i.

in

W. Temple
for, in

Repository, Knossos,

Rudder sign,
714 Rudders,

in Linear Script B,

247,

681,

fixed,

on E.M. IIU,
;

seal-stones,

11.

242 on primitive ships, 11. 240 on pyxis from Messenian Pylos, ii. 247 Rugs, probable influence of on Egyptian 206 Runnels, parabolic, by open
11.

drain 497 private chapel of House of the High 211 on and 568 on sarcophagus from Hagia Triada, in. 69
Priest, IV.

496,

seals

sealings, iv.

Saffron, as colour for dresses in the Ancient

painted ceilings,

World,

IV.

718
i.

cultivation of, in Cilicia, iv. 720

stairs ascending East Bastion, iii. 236-44 (Figs. 169, 170); of M.M. IlJb date, iii. 244; extraordinary

in Crete,

in Minoan
Knossos,

art, iv.

265, iv. 718-21 718 n. 2

flowers, faience,
I.

from Temple Repository

at

anticipation of hydraulic science,

iii.

242,

499
I.

243

on faience votive robes from Temple


S. of

by open stepway
III.

Domestic Quarter,
ill.

Repositories,

506, iv. 718


II,
I.

245

on
248-51

pottery,

M.M.
I.

256
1.

by E. steps of Theatral Area,


dated to

M.M.

Ilia,

iii.

251
at, 11.

60s sign, in Hieroglyphic Script A,


IV.

M.M.

III,

280, 281,

pottery from,
II.

Ruphas, Minoan guard station

80

680

11. 80 Rusas, King of Armenia, cuneiform inscription

Gatherer,
Sahure,

on Chariot Tablets,
fresco of,

iv. II,

668

M.M.

from Knossos,

of, II. 169 n. 2 Rushes, on fresco from House of the Frescoes,

464

I. 265, 266, 530 n. I, 604, II. 317 n. 2, 354, 452, 469, 728, III, 21, 22, IV. 718, 895 Sahara, Neolithic settlements in, 11. 49, 222

South, Neolithic pottery


S curves,

Russia, ritual transportation of ashes in, iv. 152 S.E. painted cinerary urns from, 11. 428
of, 11.

Temple

of, 11.

56
I.

alabaster
reliefs

bowl from,
11.

85

from,

35 n. 3
11.

invented by Egyptian and Minoan, embroidered,


traditionally

Sails, early

use of in Crete,

242

Isis Pelagia, 11.


11.

252 206
2,

M.M. 256 78 Mycenaean, 195 85 Maltese, 185 552 on of tomb of Amenemhet on Cretan 153 Island Thebes, 86 205, 733 on gold from Mycenae, W. 242 Meskinia, Phanourios, church of 251 on ivory from Kakovatos, 2 Sava, church 242 83 on E.M. 2 Titus, church of Candia, 258 314: and
Ill, IV.
III. 6, IV.
11.

M.M.

II,

I.

243,

11.

195

St.

Andreas, Siphnos, fortifications


11.

at,

156 n.

St. Cyril, village of, St. Elias, village of,

11.

184,

11.

ceiling

scribe
i

at

St. Paul,

liars, I.

11.

n.

of, 11. 84,

plates

St. St. St.

in

11.

disks

iv.

n.

of, 11.

n. 3

pottery,

Ill,

11.

n.

at

11.

see

M.M.

II,

II.

183
11.

Hagia, Hagios
133
Sais,
11.

on seals and sealings, E.M.,


M.M. M.M.
I, II.

Sub-Minoan,

worship of Neith

at, 11. 23,

48

199

184

II, II. 184,


11.

202

on

Egyptian,

199, 207 n.

stela from Mycenae, iv. 252 8 barred, sign used to countersign sealing, IV. 618 Sa, protective symbol of goddess Ta-Urt, 11. 259

Cyprus, Enkomi 52 on
see
Salii, ancilia of, 11.

Sakje Geuze, relief with lion hunt from, iv. 815 Salamis, coins of, 11. 53 n. 2

curia of,

Palatine,

11.

131 n.

Salustros,

Kyrios

Manolis,

restorations

of

Minoanpottery by, 11.215 339 n. 4. 342 nn. i and 2

n. i,iv. 132 n.2,

SAMAS
Samas, Babylonian sun-God, Samson, iv. 476
Sanctuary, see Shrine
Sandal,
iv.

[is6]

SCHIST
Script B, iv. 797
as carpenter's sign
IV.

47

n. 5

Saw sign, in Linear


797

on Chariot Tablets,

worn by Minoan tributary on tomb of Rekhmara, 11. 728 Sanitation, Minoan, advanced character of, I. 2, III. 387: and see under Kiiossos, Drains Santorin Island, see Thera Sappho, Ode to Aphrodite, iv. 412 n. 2
Saqqara, pottery from,
497, 750, iv. 271 Saracens, foundation of Candia by, 11. 231 Sarakina, East Crete, green steatite from, iv. 232 Sarcophagi, see Burials
11.

Sayce, Prof., on date of Cappadocian sealing,


15 n. 3, II. 259 n. 4 on Hittite script on silver boss of Tarkondemos, iv. 713 n. 2 on source of silver, 11. 169 n. 2
I.

inscribed votive clay

ram obtained
iv.

by,

from Eski Samsoun (Amisos),

768
i.

in faience
I.

Scale-patterns in embroidery,
inlays,

11.

731

M.M.

II,

from Knossos,

312,313,11.731; represent rocky landscape,

Sard, bead-seals of,


Sardinia,

iv.

587, 815, 816


n.

copper ingots from, 624 pottery of Cretan Neolithic type from,


11.

Nuraghe of, I. 106, 11. 181 bone stud from rock-grave in, 11. 170

in fresco fragments from beneath Corridor of


i

313

the Procession,

11.

734

Scales (or balance),


I.

21

L.M. III6 bronze, from Chamber Tomb at Mavro Spelio, n. 556,


IV.

Sardonjrx, seals of,

from Avdu,

iv.

822, 823

from Gela, iv. 536 from Mycenae, ill. 125, IV. 514 from Vapheio, in. 116, iv. 418, 544, 820 Sargon of Akkad, influence of in Mediterranean,
IV.

42s conquest of Amurru by, 11. 264 relief of, symmetrical lions on sword
11.

gold, weighing of from 3rd Shaft Grave Mycenae, 661 151, on inscribed bowls, 656, 657 on inscribed of Class A, of Class B, 660, 661 on Cypro-Minoan krater charioteer with
for
souls,
at

661

in.

iv.

early

libation

iv.

tablets

iv. 658,

IV.

steward holding scales,

sheath,

274 47
I.

iv. 659 and Fig. 646 (strangely interpreted as 'Zeus holding

Sarpedon,
Sati,

i.

9, 10, iv.

Sarzec, Monsieur de,

15

perhaps represented in siege scene on of Anta, in. 102 n. 3 Saturnia, halberd blade from, 11. 172 n. i Saturnus Balcarensis, on Punic monuments, 11.

tomb

Scandinavia, halberds from,


a?id see Scania,

the scales of destiny', ib.n. 2) 11. 170 hut-urns from, n. 132

Sweden

Scania, hut-urns from, n. 132 n. 4 Scarab, see Beetle, Seal

African sky god,


Saul,

3911.5

Sceptre sign in Linear Script B, Egyptian origin


11.

191
in

of,

IV.

687,

688:

and

see

Throne and

armour of hung
iv.

temple of Ashtoreth
in. 69
11.

at

Sceptre sign
Schaeffer, Prof. Claude F.-A., discoveries of at

ecstasy of on joining Prophets,


Minoan use of on gypsum,
on liparite, 11. 671 on obsidian, 11. 671 on stone, 11. 671
in
II.
;

Beth-Shan,

168

Minet-el-Beida and Ras-Shamra,


n- 3. 533. 770-9.
i

iv.

530

Savignoni, Dr. L., on steatite cup,

47 n. 4
1

782-4

Saws, invention of ascribed to Tal6s, 11.


672
11.

16 n.

Scheffer, Johann,
Schist,

632

on Lapp troll-drums, in. 315 brown, M.M. la, ceremonial axe of from Palace at MaUia, 11. 270-4, 794, iv.
416, 417, 845
at
of, at

green, quarries
at

Rogdhea,

iv.

992

M.M.

Ill

buildings

Knossos,

Spinalunga, n. 670 slabs of, used under painted stucco in

671 at Mycenae, 11. 671 bronze, from Hagia Triada,

M.M. IIIL.M.
11.

houses, n. 683

632, iv. 798

used for paving in

629, 632, 672 from Neolithic sites in Sahara, n. 222 n. 5


11.

from Knossos,

L.M.
;

I, III.

255 at

M.M. Ill and 360 n. 2; at Anemomylia, 11. Knossos, n. 670, 684, 690, 692, 812,

SCHLIEMANN
IV.

[iS7]

SCRIPT

992 (Temple

Tomb

pavement of upper

Script, Hieroglyphic
seal

{cant.)

terrace, &c.)

from Mallia, including bow with


11.

Schliemann, Dr., on objects from Mycenae, 11. 420 n. 2, 602, 788, III. 126 n. I, IV. 231 Schmidt, Dr. Hubert, on halberds, 11. 172 n. 4,
173 n.
I

sign-group on 12th Dyn. amethyst scarab


from Diktaean Cave, Psychro, placed, from high-spouted Vase, in Class A, I.
199 (Fig. 147) Hieroglyphic B
:

chisel-bladed arrow,

50 (Fig. 23

bis)

Schuchhardt, Prof., on ostrich-egg vessels from the Soudan, 11. 223 n. 2 on relation between Minoan and Maltese
decoration,
11.

glyptic

class of

more advanced

character on

184 n. 2
IV.

Schweinfurth, Dr., on amphora from Argos,

332 n. I Scorpions on E.M. Ill seals, I. 120, 123 n. 4 'Scorpion' King, stone mace of, 11. 26 Scotland, staircases in brochs in, I. 106 Scott Fitz, Mrs. W., donor of figure of Minoan Snake Goddess to Boston Museum, iii. 439 n.
Script,
3

mostly of crystalline rocks and other hard materials, I. 274 prism seals, signets (and other seal types
bead-seals
of this class)
I.

now

275-7

(F'gs. 204, 205,

clay

207)
seal

impressions presenting similar


I.

sign-groups, 207)
silver

276 (Fig. 206); 277 (Fig.


in-

Minoan:

classified

discovery of tablets
Agesilaos, iv. 672
at

and analysed (A.E.;: in unknovifn script, by

signet -type from E. Crete with scription of Class B, 488 on cachet from 242 inscribed prism, red cornelian preIV.

potter's

Palaikastro,

I.

seal,

pictorial
earlier

Knossos, in time of Nero, iv. 672-4 and ideographic signs subsist in

sumably containing name and

titles
I.

of

Minoan

prince, with 'cat' badge,


;

277

and

later forms,

I.

281, iv. 700, 716

Hieroglyphic

conventionalized outgrowth of preceding


pictographic groups
(cf. I.

A:

(Fig. 207 a, 278) similar official signgroups found on seal impressions from Hieroglyphic Deposit associated with

seen

on
la,

seal-stones,
I.

first

239, 240), as current in


143); at

portrait head, 1.271,272 (Fig. 201 a),

276

M.M.
latest

195,

196 (Fig.
deposits

(Fig. 206)
later survival of hieroglyphic signs as talis-

Knossos seen in
with Dove Vase
style),
1.

seal impressions

pre-Palatial

associated

from

(M.M. la polychrome 146 (Fig. 107) from Early Pillar Basement (earliest stratum), I. 196 (Fig. 144); from Vat Room Deposit, I. 168
;

manic types on seal-stones, I. 673 (illustrated by 'lion's mask,' ib., Fig. 492) clay documents of this Class found with
sealings in Hieroglyphic Deposit (bars,
labels,

and oblong

tablets),

I.

278 (Fig.

(Fig.

19 d) (with earliest

M.M. la poly-

chromy)
also represented

by graffito signs and signgroups of 'primitive linear' character on

M.M. la pithos, 'Oval House', Chamaezi,


1.

639

(Fig. 47412)

on smalljugs fromPro-

dromos Botsano, E. Crete, 1. 639 (Fig. 474 b, c, d); from M.M. la tholos, Krasi, iv. 676, n. 3 from Niru Khani also in M.M'. la relation, ib. from Palace of Mallia, ib. on archaic black steatite seal-stone presenting signs that occur later in the Conven;

on these signs of glyptic 210) 279 clay from Phaestos, 278 209) boustrophedon arrangement of 280 + and X marking beginning and end of sign-groups, 280 system of numeration, 279 211,
class,
i.

209) seqq. linearized versions


tablet

(Fig.

I.

(Fig.

inscriptions,

I.

I.

I.

(Fig.

Table), 280

hieroglyphic signary of Class B,


(Fig. 214)
parallels to certain signs,

I.

282

Egyptian

i.

280

tional Linear Class A,

I.

639, 640 (Fig.

475) sign-group

system on the whole independent of Egypt,


but some direct borrowings,
I.

(Fig. 212, Table), 281

on

M.M.

la triangular bead-

281

SCRIPT
Script, Hieroglyphic

[158]

SCRIPT

hieroglyphs
culture,

(cont.)

Script, Linear Class

{cont.)

epitome

of

I.

281-5
sign,

(oil

contemporary production and


bee,

round bezel from Chamber Tomb, Mavro

trade, olive spray

and

vessel, repetition

early

Spelio, Knossos,

11.

557 (Fig. 352)

irregular seal-stone of black steatite

of

ship

saffron,

perhaps

of archaic

appearance, engraved with

great

Silphium)
catastrophe of Knossian Palace at

three characters of Linear Class


II probable
I.

(pur-

end of

M.M.

term of Hiero272
Mallia
largely
II),

hieroglyphic inscribed
with
I.

glyphic Deposits there,


deposit
at

parallel to that of

Knossos (M.M.

emergence of Script A systematized, over 641 wider diffusion in Crete than


fully

chased at Athens, of supposed Cretan provenance), I. 639, 640 (Fig. 475)


large area,
I.

later class (B),

266, IV. 676 and n. 3'

clay bars from Mallia Deposit 'horned head-piece' and other signs of the Linear Class A, to be referred to early phase of M.M. Ill, iv. 688, 689
(Figs. 671,672)

prevalent from M.M. Ilia to close of L.M.

IV.

67s

characterized

lb, IV. 675,

676

abrupt

disuse of Hieroglyphic script at

by groups of composite 465 (Fig. 478), iv. 679 (Fig. 662) signs differentiated by bars, I. 644
signs,
1.

religious

close of

M.M.
A:

II (inscribed seal-stones
I.

and dedicatory character of a numerous early series of inscriptions


of this class (on libation tables, offertory

practically cease),

612, 613
class
earlier

Linear Class

substituted hieroglyphic in phase of M.M. 612, 613, 641 about a third of signs derived from
for
Ill,
i.

bowls, cups, and ladles, on votive bronze


plate

and clay
IV.

figurines),

i.

613 seqq,

11.

its

lin-

656, 657 inscriptions of quasi-monumental aspect


cut on shallow cupped stone vessels for

438-40,

earized hieroglyphs,

I.

641 and Compara-

ideographic
I.

tive

Table 643, Fig. 477


usage
still

shown by

ability

of most signs to stand in solitary position,

signs of ideographic aspect, Nos. 79-90


Table,
i.

644

of

642 (Fig. 476), and supplementary series, iv. 678 (Fig; 661) numeration, i. 644-6 and Table, Fig. 479 compared with the Hieroglyphic system, compared with that of Class I. 644, 645 B, IV. 691, decimal system used, ib. signary of Linear Class A (90), i. 641, 643
;

on bowl of basic rock and N. of Palace site, Knossos, IV. 656 (Fig. 641); on threecupped slab of libation table of black steatite from offertory deposit Diktaean Cave (Psychro), i. 626-30 (Figs. 465-7); on steatite libation table from Cave, Palaikastro, I. 630 (Fig. 468); on steatite libation bowl with high base, Petsofa, IV. 657 (Fig. 643); libation table of banded limestone with stepped base. House of
libations:

archaic aspect, found

(Fig. 476),

and see

iv.

676, 677 (Fig. 659),


lists, iv.

and supplementary
660, 661)

678 (Figs.
script

general disappearance of engraved


from
seal-stones,
i.
;

inscribed grey ment), inscribed votive


IV.

Frescoes,

11.

456, 459 (Fig. 256)


steatite
I.

spouted cup

(frag-

Palaikastro,

631 (Fig. 469) cylindrical vessel of black steatite

(for libation)

679; clay sealings,

(Fig. 642),

from Apodoulou, IV. 656 657 and n. 3, with inset


vessels

used instead for graffiti, ib. exceptional Linear Class A inscription on steatite amygdaloid from Little Palace, i. 669, 670 (Fig. 490), and gold signet-ring with

ladle-shaped

(limestone)

from Juktas with traces of signs, I. 624; from TruUos (Arkhanes) with 23 signs,
625, 626 (Figs. 462, 465)

As pointed out by Monsieur Fernand Chapouthier, Les ecritures Minoennes au Palais de Mallia, p. 7, the presence of inscribed clay roundels like those of the Temple Repositories at Knossos is also a late characteristic showing overlap into M.M. III. clay bar, too, shows characteristic signs
of Linear Class

A (see iv.

688, 689).

SCRIPT
Script, Linear Class

[159]

SCRIPT

{cont.)

Script, Linear Class


I

recurrence of formula B T T /

on votive

graffito inscriptions on stucco wall-facing,


Hagia Triada,
gold ring
i.

{cant.)

groups (Diktaean Libation Table, and TruUos 'ladle', that from H. of Frescoes Knossos, and perhaps that of Palaikastro),
possibly actual reference to divine
or
title,
I.

on

637 (Fig. 423

a, b)

from

M.M.

Ill

deposit
11.

Chamber Tomb, Mavro

Spelio,

557

name

exceptional

(Fig. 352)

458, 459; on steatite cup, Palaikastro, double-axe sign


630, 631;
first
II.

appearance of sign-group of Linear Class A on amygdaloid seal-stone of green steatite from Little Palace, I.
769, 770 (Fig. 490)
graffito
I.

substituted for

of group,

I.

631 (Fig.
lion's

469); on

House of Frescoes Libation


11.

early diffusion of Class A


two
signs

Table formula followed by sacred

in Aegean area on base of Melian

mask

sign,

439 (Fig. 256, 9)


sign
(
;

bowl,
libation

637, and inset, iv. 715 (recur,

recurring
vessels

'drop'

on

probably as personal

name on Knossian

tablets of Class B); imperfect graffito

(from

Knossos,

Petsofa,

and

Apodoulou)

significant of ritual pouring,

offertory
floor

IV.

656, 658

group on indigenous fabric from Thera Santorin, ib. and n. 2, iv. 715 clay documents with inscriptions of Class

cups (M.M. Ilia), with inkinscriptions,

Aearly
long,

types of tablets, square or ob-

written

from

sanctuary

Knossos (Temple Repository and

above S.E. Pillar Crypt, Knossos, I. 588 (Fig. 431), 613-16 (Figs. 450-2) signs of Class A (perhaps name of votary) on bronze votive tablet with sacred trees and scene of offering from Diktaean

S.E. Corridor), 1. 496, 617, 618, 619 (Figs. 454) 4SS)i Phaestos (Fig. 480 a, b) (with Disk), I. 647, 648 (Fig. 480), roundels

(with seal impressions on edges),

I.

456,

457 (Fig. 456


Repositories,

a, b, c),
I.

Knossos, Temple
b),

clay

Cave (Psychro),
Class

I.

632-4

figure inscribed with

(Figs. 470, 471) two signs of

621 (Fig. 457 a,

Gour-

nia (also Mallia) bars, Palaikastro,


Mallia,
i.

A (probably name
I.

of votary)

from

I. 676, 676, 688, 689 (Fig. 671) (show-

on votive terra-cottaramfromAmisos(Eski
Samsoun) with signs, resembling Minoan
Linear Class A, written boiistrophidon,
Hittite fashion, iv. 768,

Tylissos,

634 (Fig. 472)

clay

ing 'horned-helmet' sign)


sealing with
graffito

characters
11.

of

early

type, N.E. House,

419, 420

769 (Figs. 749,

(Fig. 242)
later tablets of Class

signs incised on fragment of clay sarcophagus Crete, 841 inscription on M.M. III6 S.W.
(/flra),Trypeti, S.
11.

750)

A (L.M. I a, b) from Hagia Triada, in buildings outside the


Palace, iv. 680; balance sign on,
IV.
;

i.

619,

graffito

jar,

Basement, Knossos (perhaps referring


to contents),
too,
I.
I. 616, 617 (Fig. 453). See, 572 (Fig. 416) on fragment of stone jar, S.E. Rub-

658 (Figs. 644, 645) with male and female figures showing axe-like a/ppendages accompanied by prow-sign and the female type holding anchor, 11. 248, 249,

and Figs. 145^,6, i46(cf. tooi.615, 616);


vessels

with

superscriptions,

iv.

733

117; two characters of it recurrent on pithos rim of Magazine,

bish heap,
Phaestos,

I.

(Fig. 717); illustrations of industry and commerce (ships, olives and various

painted inscriptions (sepia on rosy ochreground and orange on pale buff) in large characters on stucco wall-facing. House of Frescoes, II. 440-2 (Figs. 257, 258) signs compared with typical Linear Class A,
;

ih.

442 (Fig. 259, Table)

loom, talent, 680 abnormal tablet with rounded ends from Papoura on borders of Lasithi (shows 'balance-sign'), iv. 660 evidence of survival of Class A (outside Knossos) to close of L.M. lb, iv. 680
trees, saffron,

barn-sign,

metal vases),

iv.

SCRIPT
Script (cont.)

[i6o]
Script, Linear Class
IV.
;

SCRIPT

(cont.)

Linear Class B:

appearance
IV.

at

Knossos of more advanced

683 some signs (as 'flying bird' and 'leaf') nearer prototypes than A equiva683 to be regarded as mainly of independent grovrth, ib. signary of Class B and comparisons with A, IV. Fig. 666 a, b, c, opposite p. 684;
lents, IV.
;

Linear Class
clay tablets

discovery of hoards of
in 1900

Campaign, 668, 669; mostly stored in upper


on Palace
669
IV. graffiti

finds of sealings with of 616-18 (Figs. 603, 604) same shape and character of L.M. 16
parallel
class, iv.

chambers,

tablets:

probably mostly sun-baked, easily destroyed by rain, preservation being result


of conflagration, iv. 669, 670, 673 prevalence of elongated 'slip' type, 674 (Fig.
;

progressive reduction alphabetic tems Hieroglyphic, Linear B. 73 disappearance of


(in

73 signs represented, syllabary in ordinary use 62, IV. 682


in

numbers of

signs

direction)
c.

in three sys-

150; Linear A.

85,

(62), iv.

682

certain typical

signs,

657); tablets of abnormal dimensions,

existence of
sparsely

IV. 699,

703, 800
earlier, wrell-baked class
;

but

represented:

tablet shovying lion's

good example head rhytons and

clay documents now shape and clay appearance of a


first

IV.

683 (Fig. 663)

confined to tablet

sealings, iv.

696

series of typical

cup of 'Vapheio' type (imperfect, short oblong with sharply cut angles), iv. 729,

large clay

730 (Fig. 711)


disks, to secure packages, with

graffito inscriptions,

from Hall of the

597 tablets originally contained in cists and boxes remains of wooden chests found with Granary and Chariot Tablets, iv. 668 (with bronze loop handles and hinges of lids); 'Adze' tablets, with remains of

Colonnades,

iv.

general absence of 683 phonetic and ideographic, with 684, &c. phonograms capable of standing ideograms, 682 alone evidence of highly and bureauligatures, iv.

signs, IV. 683 (Fig. 664)

signs,

pictorial illustrations, IV.


still

as

iv.

legalized

cratic

system in contents of

tablets, iv.

693

incised lines for entries (like ruled

paper), iv. 695 (Fig. 680); secondary details in minute script, e.g. iv. 697
(Fig. 682)
;

docketing of edges,

like

books

gypsum

chest, fallen

in original order in

from above, found Magazine VIII, iv.

on

shelf, IV. 696: special

formulas for

evidences
times:

669-71 (Figs. 65s, 656).


of previous finds in Classical

groups and systematic arrangements, iv. 697; theft of tablets brought home to culprit through Minoan formula accepted

inscribed bronze tablet found,


to

according

Plutarch,

in

Alkmene's

clearer

by Canea Court, Aristides 'the unjust', ib. methods of punctuation and divisions of groups, IV. 683, 703, 704, &c.; graduation in size of type according to im-

Tomb

at Haliartos, iv. 672; tradition preserved in prologue to fictitious work of Diktys of Crete that it originated in the discovery of inscribed 'lime-bark' docu-

portance of groups in same tablet, iv. 697 seqq. modern advance in Art of Writing
;

ments in 'tin chest' brought to light at Knossos by earthquake of Nero's time, IV. 672-4
relations of Class

name-groups

contrasted with early Greek,


(often

iv.

704
by

authenticated

B to A,

partial

synchron-

'man' or 'woman' signs), iv. 709-1 1 (Figs. 693 A, b); terminals of name-groups, male

ism,

I.

646; reactions of
'ladle' of

'throne' sign

on TruUos
large

A type, iv. 680, 683 of decimal sign on late A tablets, iv. 680
common
element,
iv.

and female, iv. 714 (Fig. 696), 715 sign of declension, iv. 415 ideographic elements in name-groups, iv.
;

682 Class B largely drawn from Hieroglyphic sources of equal antiquity with A, I. 646,

712-13, Fig. 694

a, b, swine's

head

(c,

i,

fore-part of ox; g, Goat; e, f, i, prow of vessel, lily, 713, leaf, 713, eye, 713)

SCRIPT
Script, Linear Class

[i6i]

SCRIPT

identical name forms

(cont.)

Script, Linear Class

Hieratic and 688-90 numeration,


IV.

B, iv. 684 (Fig. 665); proof of survival of same racial elements, ib.
in

A and

vase tablet depositseries of metal types,


IV.

{cont)

727-33

original location

and area of
I v.

dispersion, IV. 728, 729 (Fig. 710, Plan);

Egyptianizing element,

iv.

practically identical with A,


; ;

691 (Fig. 676) A and B compared, ib. signs of addition and 'total', iv. 693 (Fig.

signs

679)
specially attached to

services of vessels shown, 730 (Figs. 712.713) associated with 711), 731 714, 715) 729 hoard of referring
iv.

compared with Palace hoards,

727

vessels

special signs, iv.

(Fig.

(Figs.

tablets

to

'stirrup

numbers and
iv.

vases',

IV.

733, 734 (Figs. 718, 719);


later floor level

'percentage'
from
IV.

quantities, IV. 725 (Fig. 708) tablets ( X sign for o),

found under

with L.M.
e,

example of insertion of sign of


Siteia, iv.

691-3 (Fig. 678)

III^> pottery, iv.

734, 735

prow

of ship, iv. 712 (Fig. 694


iv.

/); oc-

this Class

beside principal type on jasper lentoid

great bulk of inventories and 698 exceptional character of large without numerical indications perhaps warrant, 698, 699 683) human 'man' and 701-9 'woman' 701 684) large dealing with male persons,
tablets
lists,

570 (Fig. 544

h)

tablet

offi-

cial

iv.

(Fig.
;

rudder sign on name-groups, 69s) and herds, swine and horses, 706) 723 horned sheep and signs (numbers up 19000), 723, 724 707) horse's head and signs
flocks
iv.

currence in personal names,

iv.

714 714 (Fig.

(Fig.

flock

to

IV.

(Fig.

pictorial

linearized

figures,

iv.

on

tablets, iv.

signs, iv.

(Fig.

tablet

in

tablet with elegant


of

three groups (24 lines) iv. 70 1-4 (Fig. 686)


,

(Fig. 774) ; list, IV. 800 (Fig. 775), 801; horse's head on Chariot Tablets as substitute for a pair,

799 (Figs. 772, 773), as ideogram, repeated in

800

script containing lists

men

('throne' sign before


IV.

some name-

of Wimals, iv. 789 (Fig. 763 a, d,g,

i, I)

'chariot' tablets, in three large Deposits,

with female names, 706-9 sign-groups of children of both 708, 709 miniature ering children, 709
lists

groups,

704-6 (Fig. 687


iv.

a, b)

near S.W. border of Central Court in N. Entrance Passage (near upper West

indicative

sexes, iv.

ideograms relating to superintendence,


;

tablet ref

to

IV.

iv.

701 (Fig. 685) (male and female) derivative sign in connexion with olive groves,

IV.

716 (Fig. 699)

tablets relating to olive culture, IV.

(Fig. 698); with other trees, iv.

716-18 717 (Fig.

700)
tablets relating to saffron culture, iv.

and by Central Section of paved way from Palace to Little Palace ('Armoury' deposit), iv. 786 seqq.; full chariot shown, iv. 788 (Fig. 763); type shown on B tablets later Minoan chariot of 'dual' form (otherwise depicted from L.M. lb onwards), iv. 821 (Fig. 800 a, b), 823 (Fig. 803 Avdu sardon5rx ring), 824 (Fig. 804: Tiryns), 825 'Throne' sign and bisellium atcorner),
:

718-

tached to names or

titles

on,

iv.

787

21 (Figs. 703, 704) cereal group: 'Granary' Tablets, iv. 622-9


(Fig. 609); 'Granary' signs, iv. 622 (Fig.

body and
789
;

parts of chariots on, iv.

608) bifid cereal type, iv. 624 (Figs. 610, 611) ear of barley, iv. 625 (Fig. 612) ideo; ; ;

iv. 790 792 (Fig. 766) wheels of, with carpenter's saw, iv. 793-7 (Figs. 767, 768) (numbers on

without wheels, specimens,

(Fig. 764),

graphic signs connected with agriculture

single tablet

up

to 478)
sign, iv.

and cereals, IV. 721 (Fig. 705, Table), 722 Throne and Sceptre sign, iv. 686-8 (Fig.670);
sceptre as Egyptian shepherd's crook
ib.

saw on as carpenter's (Fig. 770), and see Wheels.

797

'fodder' sign on, iv. 801, 802 (Figs.

SCRIPT
Script, Linear Class

[162]

SCRIPT

B,

'chariot' tablets (cont.)

Script, Linear Class

later series (cont.)

776-8); coupled with 'flock' sign 'goats'), IV. 801, 802 (Fig. 776 f,g)

(=

741, 747, 748 (Fig. 728 a, b); Knossian elements in this Tell-el Amarna class,
IV. 747-9 (Figs. 731, 732); similar contemporary fragments from later Palace at Thebes, IV. 748 (Fig. 730) and Mycenae, IV. 747-8 (Fig. 729 a) with 'three C s' and 'two C s' motive of L.M. II Knossian

whip sign on,


inset a-c)-5

iv.

807 (Fig. 786)


with corslets of (and inset d)
;

corslet or breast-plate on, IV. 803 (and


;

parallels

Rameses

Ill's time, iv. 803

counter-marked or obliterated by ingot


sign or' talent '= knight's fee, iv.805 (Fig.

783a, b)

651-3); ideographic 'Cup' sign on (badge of Royal Cup-bearer), iv.


(cf.

palatial origin

parallel relation- of 'diffused

Mycenaean'

style of pottery and the Mainland adoption

'horned helmet' sign and 688-90 deposit of Sword in Corridor near


origin, iv. tablets

806 (Fig. 785), 807

Mainland

L.M. II, Knossos, iv. 749 shown to correspond in overwhelming degree with Class B at
of Script

of

signs

S.E. Angle of Palace, above mature

L.M.

la floor level and below

L.M.

III6 de-

posit,' IV. 854-7 (Figs- 838, 839); type with square headed blade-development of earlier dagger sign, iv. 856, 857 (Fig. type often with protuberant 839 a) shoulder (late Palatial cruciform type),
;

indigenous character, only taken over exceptional 732, 733 735) iv.753 754 735 736) inscription from Thebes of
cases, IV.
,

Knossos, IV. 744, 745 (Comparative Table, Fig. 728), 746 one sign only peculiar to Class A, iv. 744
in (Fig.

'gridiron' sign,

(Figs.

a,

13

signs' all
iv.

IV.

857 (Fig. 839 b)

part of crystal hilt

corresponding with Knossian,


(Fig. 733 a, b)

750

of this type found near, iv. 854 Linear Class later series (L.M. III6):

re-emergence

correspondence of Mainland name-groups


Ill

of inscription of Class B,

painted on bowl-fragment of

L.M.

date from Reoccupation deposit, Hall of

Colonnades, Knossos,

appearance^ in

739 and n. i form of 'rudder',

738 (Fig. 722), (sign-group with developed


iv.

with Knossian of Class B, iv. 751 (Fig. 734, Table); other parallel allocations, ib. necessary conclusion that the language was also to same, iv. 732; possible reference
in

some

cases to

same persons,

ib.

cf

11.

247

(Fig. 144^, b))

later

L.M.

III6 Mainland de-

reminiscences of Class B visible in decorative use of some signs on rim of


shrine at Asine,

posits of inscriptions, painted or written,

on vases essentially representing the advanced Linear B script of the Knossian

from 'Sub-Mycenaean' (L.M. IIIc) iv. 755-8 (Fig. 740) head of clay figurine from Knossos showjar

inscribed
menos,

Palace tablets,

iv.

739
vases'

'stirrup
iv.

739 (Fig.

from Orcho723); Mycenae, iv.

ing parallel usage, iv. 757 (Fig. 738) Cyprus and the Minoan Script, iv. 758-63: Cypro-Minoancharacterson clay balls, IV.
759, 76o(Figs.742,743),76i; on cylinders, IV. 760 (Fig. 743,/,^) ; on gold signet-ring

739. 741-3 ; Tiryns, iv. 739, 741-3 (Fig. 726 a, b, dark on light and light on dark)

from Store Room, House of Kadmos, Thebes, iv. 739-42 (Figs. 724 a,b; copies
of the painted inscriptions); at Eleusis,

comparisons
Class

from Maroni, iv. 759, 760; on limestone fragment, Enkomi, iv. 759 (Fig. 741 ), 760 ^
of

Cypro-Minoan

signary

Theban
'

IV.

744 and

n.

(Suppl. PI.

LXIX)

vessels associated with L.M. III6 fragments of Tell-el-Amarna class, iv.


iv, p.

with Cretan Script B, IV. 761, 762 (Fig. 744, Table) correspondences with both
;

A and

B, iv. 760, 761

is

854, erroneously 'L.M. Ilia'. (A. E.) as 'imported', but statement iv. 738 preferable that superior glaze here visible rather 'a characteristic of Mainland Mycenaean technique'. (A. E.) 3 P. 760, end should read 'the terminal sign of the ring (No. 1 1 of the Table)' there, erroneously,

Vol.

There described

'No.

9'.

(A.E.)

SCRIPT
Script, Cyprus

[163]

SEAGER
bull-sports,

comparisons with
bary of
;

and

the

Minoan Script (cont.) Greek Cypriote Sylla762 (Table,

later date, iv. 761,

residuum of early Cypriote signs of nonMinoan types, iv.763


Cypriote
(Fig- 745)
;

Fig. 744) important bearing on phonetic value of Minoan signs, iv. 762 inscription on early

Graeco-Roman, of 229 Greek, from Athens, of


III.

Sculpture, Egyptian, influence of on Crete, n. 697

from Smyrna,

lion attacking bull,

IV.

537
II.

from Knossos, of Herakles and Eurystheus,

546
in
Hellenistic
style,
II.

cylinder

from Copper Age


iv.

of

youth,
I

Cemetery of Hagia Paraskevi,

763

Syrian connexions
of
its

517 n.

Hittite, at

inscription of Class

Boghaz Keui, iv. 417 from Marash, iv. 410


at Sendjirli, n.
iv.

on votive silver bowl from Ras-Shamra, IV. 782-4 (Fig. 762) suggestive character
;

53 Minoan, E.M., of animals,

occurrence, iv. 784. Craftsmen's signary, relation of to Linear

M.M. in

development

of, 11.

486 362

Egyptian influence on, n. 697


free standing, evidence for, in. 518, iv.

A and

B,

i.

134
ill.

to pictographs, I. 134 alphabetiform character of,

612

407
ill.

importation of into Greece,


influence of

iv.

612, 613
11.

numeration in, ill. 408 on bone fish from E. Treasury, 406-9

on Mycenaean sculpture,
art, iv.

697

on sphragistic
scale of, IV. 194

566, 567

on faience inlays, in. 408, and see Mason's marks, Tablets


Script

IV.

941

and

see

Alabaster,

Breccia,

Bronze,

Diorite, Figures,
tablets

Cuneiform alphabetic, on Shamra, IV. 781, 782


Cypriote, relation of to

from Rasscript, iv.

stone,

Gypsum, Ivory, LimeMarble, Mycenae (Atreus tomb.


Stelae),

Lion

gate,

Reliefs,

Reliefs

of

Minoan

painted

stucco.

Seals,

Sealings,

Signet-

755. 763 to Cypro-Minoan, iv. 761-3

Mycenaean,
484

rings, Stone,

Wood
character of,

Minoan

n. 43,

early indigenous, on

to Egyptian hieroglyphic,

11.

steatite cylinder

from from

697, in. 199, IV. 233, 234, 613, 614 Scupi, Roman Colonia at, iv. 455
Scylla, see Skylla

Hagia Paraskevi, iv. 763 Egyptian hieroglyphic, on faience

inlays

Sea, conventional representation of in


art, IV.
:

Minoan
at

Tell-el-Yahiidiyeh, iv. 941 on seated diorite figure of User

from

Sea-snails,

955 and see Marine style on stone lamp from N.W. Insula

Knossos,
III. s, IV.

I.

18, 286-90,

II.

219, 220, 801,

985

Greek alphabetic, compared with Minoan,


IV.

.on inscription from Eleutherna, in. 259


at

704

Knossos, III. 26 Seager, Mr. R. B., in. 440 collection of, n. 254n. i, 255 n. 2, 619 n. 3 discoveries at Gournia, 11. 134 n. i at Mochlos, I. 56, 70, 345, n. 249,

Gortyna, with some un-Greek signs,


I

258 n.
at

2,

HI. 259 n.

624: and see Mochlos Pachyammos, I. 150: and see Pachy-

at L)rttos,
III.

with some un-Greek signs,

ammos
-at Pseira, in. 38
^

259 n.

and see Pseira

from Praesos, in. 259


Hittite hieroglyphic,

at Vasiliki,

I.

78, 193

boustrophedon arrangeiv.

on imitation of Egyptian stone vases in


pottery,
I.

ment of, IV. 769 on silver boss of Tarkondemos,


:

571, 572
n. 6

713

Phoenician alphabetic, introduction of into Greece, iv. 755 and see Phaestos Disk

on light on dark ware, I. 108 n. 2 on snake sanctuary at Gournia, iv. 143 on Thisbe bead-seals, iv. 515

SEAL-STONES

[164]

SEAL-STONES
E.M.
II {cont.)

Seal-Stones, Minoan (with signet-rings, &c.). Author's collection of, I. 432, in. 116 n. 2,
IV.'

Seal-stones,

ivory

'bottle' seal,

Mochlos (E.M.

II

Tomb')

485 n.

first

Seal-Stones (with signet-rings and bead-seals) Chronologically arranged and specimens


approximately placed (A.E.)

with cynocephali back to back, i. 83 appearance of lentcrid type, in dark steatite, with rudely engraved figures,
I.

671
visible

E.M.

III:
in

E.M.

I:

progress
I.

natural

representations,

primitive class in soft native materials, soapstone, steatite,

117

baked clay

(cylinders),

ivory lion with

man

beneath
IV.

it

on square cut

mostly of irregular fabric, I. 68; prevalent types whorls, roughly formed threesided seals, and cylinders with side perforation, ih.

base from primitive tholos, Kalathiana,


II.

55 (Fig. 26),

b); derivative of prehistoric

486, 487 (Fig. 401 a, and proto-

rudely engraved pictographic figures on these,

draught pieces in form of couchant lion on base, 11. 55, iv. 486,
dynastic

some
on
steatite

of

convoluted

and

monstrous
I.

forms, showing a relationship to figures


early Nilotic class of cylinders,
68, 69, IV. 502-5
three-sided
seal

487 (Fig. 406) couchant ox, squatting ape (cynocephahis), and boar's head in relief above ivory
seals

from Platanos

tholos,

I.

118 (Fig.

and whorl from with figures of this


'Minotaur',
I.

from Kalokhorio, Hagios Onuphrios


class including

87- i>2, 3), 119 parallel signets of stone (crouched oxen, sheep,

rude

68,

69 (Figs. 37, 38 a)

and other animals) found over wide Oriental region from N. Syria to Babylonia,
I.

three-sided seal of black steatite


fitting

from Karnak, on to early cylinder class, showing similar rude 'Minotaur' type, i. 69 (Fig.
38 B), 358, 359 (Fig. 259), IV. 504 (Fig. 447), 505 relation of these Nilotic types to later Minotaur types on Minoan seals,
;

119

ivory

dove sheltering young, spiraliform motive below (horizontal and vertical


perforations),
IV.

Kumasa,

i.

117 (Fig.

86),

486, 487 (Fig. 409); compared with early Nilotic hawk amulets, similarly

I-

relation

358. 359. IV. 504 (Fig. 448); further to acrobatic types on later
seal-stones, IV.

bored, iv. 486, 487 (Fig. 408) ivory seal in form of Little Owl, Mesara, com-

Minoan
,

502-4
i.

distant echoes of early Chaldaean types of

pared with E.M. Ill breccia vase, probably from H. Onuphrios tholos, iv.

Gilgamesh and Ea-bani,

69

E.M.

II:

487 (Figs. 410, 410 bis), 488 processional or serial figures of lions, reminis-

similar types, better executed, of ivory,

now

cent of proto-dynastic Egyptian Art, on


ivory seals, Platanos,
I.

common,
lian,

besides soft stones,

I.

94, 95;

118 (Fig. 87, 4)


ib.

ordinary beads already


typical

made
I.

of corne-

(and

cf. ic, zb, 6),


.

119; spiders,

(Fig.

amethyst, and crystal,

95

cylinder seals

with side perforation

^7' 4) gold imitation

of

Oriental

cylinder
:

types

and engraved above and below, example from Mochlos, X. 94 (Fig. 63)
compact
three-sided

with large vertical perforation primitive ossuary, Kalathiana: attributed to close

bead-seals

pictorial designs

now
ivory
I.

with more begin to be exe-

cuted,
bird's-head

I.

95
of

E.M. Ill, II. 194 (Fig. 104 b); developed type of spiraliform decoration here visible of North Aegean origin, 11.
of
192, 193 linked curves on ivory conoid from primitive

seal

from

M.M.

II

deposit Sphungaras,
seal types in

95 (Fig. 65)

form of
i.
'

birds

and animals begin

tholos ossuary, Hagia Triada, compared

in this period,

117
p. 83 the erratum

with similar decoration in white on

On

'M.M

II

Tomb', occurs

for

E.M.

II.


SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[i6s]

SEAL-STONES
E.M.
Ill {cont)

black on
III,

E.M. Ill (cont.) E.M. Ill pot, I.


11,

Seal-stones,

no (Fig. 77 a, h),

scenes connected with potters' craft on three-

and see

200 (Fig. iioA w), &c.

sided seals,

I.

124 (Fig. 93 a)

ivory cylinder of indigenous, side-bored type

from Platanos with pattern formed of


combination of three pairs of C-scrolls
(3 inner

and

3 outer), Platanos,

11.

199
to

on same, potter playing draughts, I. 124, 125 (Fig. 93 A, a 2), IV. 521, 522 (Fig. 464); draught-board and men (of early dynastic form) on seal from Hagia
Triada tholos,
(Fig. 465) scorpions, reversed,
I.

(Fig.

109);

adaptation

of

pattern

125 (Fig. 93

c), IV.

521
I.

Middle Empire scarab type, 11. 201 (Fig. iioAe); M.M. Ill survival of scheme and its appearance on stela of Vth Shaft Grave, Mycenae, ib. (Fig. no a w) ivory conoids with meander patterns, I. 121 (Fig. 90); models to be sought in Egyptian seals of 6th and succeeding
Dynasties,
1.

on ivory

seal, Platanos,

118 (Fig. 87. 10), 120; Egyptian analogies,


I.

120.
I.

spiders on ivory cylinder,

118 (Fig. 87, 4)


spiral,

massive signet-rings of ivory (Mesara tholoi),


1. 1 I-

13

and steatite with quadruple


(F.ig-

122 (Fig. 91), 358 (Fig.

258

a, h, c), 359,

and

cf.

Fig. 260 a, b
I.

'bottle-shaped' signets of steatite,

121

81 6) tubular ivory bead-seal for suspension, with oval face engraved with ants in reversed

113

three-sided steatite bead-seal of later,

'com-

positions

(related

to

6th

Dyn.,

&c.,

pact' type with ships, rowers,

and beast

reversed

lion

types)

from Tholos B,

of burden, I. 120 (Fig. 89): do., ivory with ship and fish, i. 118 (Fig. 87. 7), 120 (cf. II. 239, 240, IV. 520, 521) appearance of three-sided steatite bead-seals with conventionalized pictographs approximating to early hieroglyphic class example, I. 125 (Fig. 83 b, a) influence on E.M. Ill bead-seals of a class

III. 139, 140 (Fig. 90 b i), 510 (Fig. 454) importance of above type as illustrating the

Kumasa,

IV.

origin of the typical

Minoan

signet-ring

with the bezel

at right angles to

hoop,

III.

139 (Fig. 9). IV. 510 (Fig. 454) (showing evolution from tubular bead) this origin
:

explains

abnormally

small

hoops
really

of
in-

of 'button seals', of bone and ivory, of Nilotic fabric, belonging to the period

many Minoan

finger-rings,
ill.

between the close of the 6th and beginning of the nth Dynasty (c. 2400-2100 B.C.), I. 123-6; specially due to SyroEgyptian 7th and 8th Dynasties, iv. 505 recurring feature on these Nilotic 'button
seals'

tended for suspension, and n. 3

139, iv. 511

M.M.

la, 6:

three-sided seal-stones of soft stone of

more

elongated form, presenting Hieroglyphs

of

Class

A,

opposed, confronted, or reversed

impression
Pillar

I. 196 (Fig. 143); clay of similar type, frorh E.

figures of

men and
already

animals,
traceable

i.

123; this
in

influence
signet with

ivory

monkeys back
II),
I.

to back (attri-

M.M. la 196 (Fig. 144); brown steatite example from Mallia, of somewhat more
Basement, Knossos, in
I.

stratum,

83 (Fig. 51) 'button-seal' type also found in Central Babylonia (Bismiya, &c.), IV. 505; a vehicle
for the
ib.

buted to E.M.

advanced
circular

style,

11.

50

(Fig.

23

bis:

'chisel-edged' arrow)

clay sealing with

spiraliform

and

opposed and two-headed motives,


'button-seal'
class

foliate

design from

M.M.

la deposit,

characteristic

with two lions in reversed positions, with tails


to

becoming attached
results in
I.

common

base

Knossos, I. 201, 202 (Fig. 151); design completed, 11. 202 (Fig. iii); palmette, vegetable design here repeated, taken from Egyptian determinative sign for
'tree', ib.

E.M. Ill 'double sickle' motive,


illustrating
b, b)

123-4 ^^E- 92j Table evolutions), and 125 (Fig. 93

'weight-seal'

of solid gold, perforated for suspension, Knossos, with triple foliate

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,
coil

[i66]
la, b (cont.)

SEAL-STONES
M.M.
11a (and largely b)
(cont.)

M.M.

Seal-stones,
fields

motive engraved below resembling


in field of ivory cylinder,
;

now

largely occupied

by signs and
I.

foliate coils

groups of Hieroglyphic Class B,


seqq.

273

Tholos B, Platanos, iv. 665 (Fig. 654 a, b) correspondence of vsfeight, 12-25 grammes wit)i Egyptian gold unit, ib. Twelfth Dynasty amethyst scarab from Diktaean Cave (Psychro), engraved with Minoan hieroglyphic group of Class A the first known example of Minoan sealengraving on a crystalline stone, I. 199
(Fig. 147) Minoan imitations

Forms of

seal

connected with this advanced

Hieroglyphic script: lentoids, I. 194; type with two circular bossed faces and
square-cut
disks,
I.

circurnference
(cf.

'flat-sided

275

Fig.

204

a, b), iv. 488,

489

(cf.

Fig. 418 a, b); type with con-

I. 274, 27s (Fig. 204 e)\ three-sided 'prisms' of elongated form,

voluted back,

of Egyptian scarabs in ivory and soft stone from M.M. I deposit,


Platanos,
i.

I.
I. I.

199, 200; imitative scarab

276, 277 (Fig. 207 a); four-sided do., 276, 277 (Fig. 207 c, h); 'signet' type, 274-7 (Fig- 204 h, i, k,l,m; Fig. 207 b,

with figure of Hippopotamus Goddess (Ta-Urt), from same deposit, I. 200 (Fig.
148), IV.

c), II.

200 (Fig.
;

no

A, o); IV.

417

a, b)

silver signet

488 (Fig. with Hieroglyphic


iv.

439

(Fig. 363)

inscription

from E. Crete,

448; Hittite

black steatite 'button seal' showing canopied

comparisons suggested for signet type,


ib.

waz
i2th

or sacred papyrus stem taken from

Dyn. scarab

type,

I.

200,

201

four-sided prism,

cornelian,

from

Central

(Fig. 150 e) (cf. Fig. 150 6); other imitative scarab types, ib.

Crete, presenting facing head with long


side tresses (suggested

by Ishtar

types),

ivory hemicylinder (Nilotic seal form, 6th to

and winged symbol,


207
c)

I.

276, 277 (Fig.

nth Dynasty) with M.M. la sherds, Knossos huntsman and bride and hunt:

three-sided prism, cornelian, Lasithi; royal seal

ing scene,

i.

197 (Fig. 145),

iv.

523 (Fig.

469); flounced dress of the woman due to influence of Oriental fashions, I. 197;

example of analogous flounced dress


supplied by Ishtar figure on Babylonian

with seated cat badge, flanked by signgroup that recurs on seal impressions from the Hieroglyphic Deposit at Knossos, presenting the portrait of a Minoan Prince, i. 277 (Fig. 207 a), and
see II. 203,

Hammurabi's time (c. 21 10 found in a M.M. I relation in Tholos B, Platanos, i. 198 (Fig. 146) thick flat-sided ivory disks, engraved above and below, of ivory, and soft stone, found in M.M. la association,' iv. 489 tabloid ivory bead-seal with slightly rounded faces from Knossos, with coil and leaf ornament, attributed to M.M. la, iii. 21 (Fig. i\ a,b,c); similar, less rounded, from Tholos A and B, Platanos M.M. la, or E.M. HI, IV. 499 (Fig. 438); regarded
cylinder of
B.C.)
:

204 (Fig. 115 a, b). Of the accompanied by decorative motives associated with M.M. 11a, polychrome vases, see I. 246 (Fig. 186 )
finest execution,

chalcedony,
decorator's

E.

Crete,

illustrating
itself

template by
insertion

and
11.

as

used
(Fig.

for

of

conventional
sign),

palmette (Egyptian
112
II.

'tree'

203

b,

c);

use of template
a, b);
11.

illus-

trated,

203 (Fig. 113

ceiling

pattern reconstructed,

204

(Fig. 114)

as prototype of

'flat

cylinder class,

ib.

M.M. Ua

(and largely b) hard stones (as agate, cornelian, chalcedony, rock-crystal, amethyst, and jasper), now
in general use
'

by engravers, i. 273,
(iv.,

iv.

487

abnormal lentoid bead of yellow steatite from Gortyna with intaglio pattern of M.M. Ilfl, polychrome type, iv. 489 (Fig. 419^ and inset); red filling visible in design showing that it was worn for ornament and not as seal, ib.

e.g. Platanos.

In description of Figure

p. 489), read

'M.M.

11' for

'L.M. IF. A. E.

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[167]

SEAL-STONES
M.M.
in

M.M.

Ila (and largely b) (cont.)

Seal-stones,
I.

lib {cont.)
c,
I,
i.

lion-shaped seal of amethyst with spiraliform


pattern, iv. 486 (Fig. 416); parallel presented by scaraboid lion-seal of white

565 (Fig. 411

2),

a type

still

in

vogue
well

M.M.

Ill,

564, 565
design,

lentoids with picturesque naturalistic

(Knossos 1932), with fine engraving of crouched female figure, I v. 486


steatite

represented

by

seal

impressions

from Hieroglyphic Deposit, Knossos (and


therefore overlapping use of Class B),
I. 272, 273, IV. 490, 491; specimens with rock-scenery: doe beside stream, I. 273 (Fig. 202 a); sea 273 (Fig. 202 c), IV. 116 (Fig. 81); fish and squid in rocky pool, I. 273 (Fig. 202 b), IV. 490 (Fig. 422) rock setting of these compared with SaffronGatherer fresco, belonging to period of ceramic polychromy, I. 265 seqq. and Coloured PI. IV; tradition of rock-set

(Fig. 415 a-d)

revolution of sphragistic practice in closing

M.M.

lib phase (due to incipient usage

of the Linear Script A),

marked by

dis-

peaks beyond,
grotto,
I.

appearance of Hieroglyphic bead-seals,


IV.

438

'prism type' also used for natural forms as


wild-goat, couchant beneath tree, and
I. 274, 275 (Fig. 204 a), and forepart of stag with spreading antlers, ib.

bird,

(Fig.

204

b)

'signet' seals
jects,

for more natural subsuch as wild-goats broWsing on

now used

scenes carried on in

M.M.

Ill, iv.

500

impressions of 'signet' seals of clay sealings

peak, IV. 489 (Fig. 417) appearance of 'flat cylinder' type (used as bezel of finger-rings), an evolution from ivory 'rounded tabloids' (E.M. IIIM.M. la), IV. 499; impression on claysealing from House B, Zakro, with
ib. and specimen of banded agate (Rethymnos) with spirited design of agrimt in wild flight over rocks and trees, I. 274,

from Hieroglyphic Deposit, Knossos, showing portrait of male head (presumably of Minoan prince) of Armenoid type, I. 271, 272 (Fig. 201 a); accompanied by impression of prism seal giving title, I. 276 (Fig. 206): see too i. 8 (Fig.
2 a); contrasted with 'Cup-bearer' of
fresco. Fig.

signs of Hieroglyphic Class B,'


n. 4;

similar

'signet'
i.

2 c impression of young
271, 272 (Fig. 201 b)

boy

(prince),
'signet'

275 (Fig. 204


439, Suppl. PI.

r,

s),

IV.

499, SCO (Fig.

LIV

a)

M.M.

116:
disks

flat-sided

with

slightly

bossed faces,

derivatives of

M.M.

lb type in ivory

and
cf.

soft stone, iv. 488,


I.

489 (Fig. 418), and

of yellow steatite (found in association with M.M. II a polychrome pottery, about Senusert IPs time, 1906-1888 B.C.), with quadruple pattern of interlocked curves, 11. 119, 220 (Fig. no A, 0) pattern here supplies parallel to triple com-

685; specimen in banded agate from Central Crete, showing 'triple palm-tree'

group on knoll of conventional rocks, 11. 494 (Fig. 299); sometimes above and
below, like
(Fig.

M.M.

la prototypes,

i.

275

E.M. Ill ivory cylinder (see shown to refiect a common Middle Empire Egyptian scheme (adaptation of Minoan circular form to oval scarab field), 11. 199, 200: compare Figs.
bination of

above)

204 b, c) (wild boar and hound seizing long-horned agrimt); rock crystal, Sfaka, Siteia: chalcedony from Lasithi: with horned sheep, fine natural style on
triply

109,
ra,

no
{re)

A e, /; central 'sun' symbol, of scarab form taken over on


Zakro,

Minoan
type
at

signet, ib. (for survival as signet

and
see

appearance
under

on

graduated base,
;

IV. 489 (Fig. 418 a) showing part of conventional fa9ade

684 (Fig. 503 b), upper part of design


i.

Mycenae grave stela,

M.M. Ill)

{see

amygdaloid type, represented on sealings of Hieroglyphic Deposit, i. 671

' An impression from another seal-stone of the same type with a hieroglyphic inscription of Class B was taken by Professor Sayce at Athens, Cretan Pictographs, A.E., p. 30 [209], Fig. 39. On the other face was an agrimi seized by a dog (Scripta Minoa, PI. 11, p. 41). A.E.

: ;

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones (cont.)

[i68]

SEAL-STONES
M.M.
Ill {cont.)

Seal-stones,

M.M.III:
cessation of hieroglyphic seal-stones

due

to
i.

(N. of Palace): fisherman holding up skaros fish (parrot wrasse) and octopus
attached to string,
I. 677 (Fig. 497), iv. 500 (Fig. 440 and Suppl. PI. LIV c) cylinder', onyx (A.E., once Tyskiewicz

introduction of

new Linear

Script A,

669, 671 linear signs not adapted for decorative types

'flat

of seal,
exceptional

I.

669, 670

Coll.),

cowboy grappling bull while drinkill.

amygdaloid seal of soapstone from Little Palace, with linear characters of Class A, I. 670 (Fig. 490) survival of prism type in modified form with bossed faces, i. 670 (Fig. 491, red cornelian), 671; with pattern of M.M. II derivation (from 12th Dyn. scarab repertory), ib.

ing at cistern,
cf. I.

185, 186 (Fig. 129),

and

377

(Fig. 274); lattice

work of tank,
pattern, iv.

compared with Phaestos wall

501 (Suppl. PI. LIV e); perhaps finest combination of powerful execution with minute detail in the whole range of the

Minoan gem
'flat cylinder'

engravers' Art, ill. 185 of sapphirine chalcedony (from

cornelian, Central Crete, with agrimi stricken

by arrow, and flying bird (talismanic virtues good hunting, and swiftness),

blers in flowery field


recalling

Knossos), depicting two youthful tumtheir double crests


:

543 (Fig. 495) survival of lion's mask hieroglyph as


IV. 541,

talis-

iv. 501-3 (Fig. 443 and Suppl. PI. LIV,/); prototypes of tumbling figures on earlier Minoan

Libyan plumes,

manic sign on
seals,
I.

M.M. Ulb

lentoid bead-

673 (Fig.

402 a-d)

continuance

of flat-sided disk type those presenting conventional fagade specially


in vogue,
I. 564, 565 (Fig. 411 a-d); 'Medallion' pithoi of Royal Magazine,
I.

lentoid, iv. 502 (Fig. 444), and an Egyptian class of black

on those of
cylinders,

502-6 (Figs. 445, 446, 448); and on grey marble cylinder of Nilotic class, iv. 506 (Fig. 450) tumbling motive reflected in Minotaur
iv.

protodynastic and earlier,

stamped with a broken specimen,


(Fig. 410); clay seal impressions

564 from
b);

types, IV. 504, 505 (Figs. 448, 449); Jater parallels in Taureador scenes, iv. 506 (Fig.

W. Temple
motive,
I.

Repository presenting this

564, 565 (Fig. possible reference to Palace


in

411

a,

451); Egyptian female tumblers, iv. 507, 508 (Fig. 452); Kv^LcrT-qTripe oi Iliad, still
paralleled

itself, ib.

by Cretan dancers,

IV.

507,

'flat cylinder'

(used as bezel of finger-ring),

508
'flat cylinders',

vogue of
black
steatite

Suppl. PI.

M.M. LIV

Ill, iv. 500:

and

see

clay impressions of from Zakro


lion for sus-

two men trussing body of


from
Palaikastro

example

coated with gold plate, with designs of

pension, IV. 522 (Fig. 467); compared with E.M. Ill type agrimis suspended

dolphins
fitting

swimming towards rocky border on to naturalistic group of


and
also recalling
a, b),

on

pole, IV. 522 (Fig. 466)

'flat cylinder'

M.M.
Fresco,
501,
ally

116,
I.

Dolphin

675 (Fig. 495

676, iv. 500,

and Suppl. PI. LIV 61, 62 (originforming bezel of ring); the same
applied
to
vessels

of sapphirine chalcedony from Arkhanes showing goat in butting attitude on rocky ledge, barked at by dog on stony flat below, iv. 508, 509 (Fig. 453) and Suppl. PI. LIV, j-; interpreted
as illustration of

method

dark rhyton fragment from Palaikastro with gold


of
steatite with relief decoration, e.g.

Minoan

fable, iv. 509;

comparison with Aesop's 'Lamb and

Wolf, ib. Eastern range of beast stories,


;

plate attaching to
'flat

676 (Fig. 496) cylinder' type made use of for a series


it, I.

ib.

'flat cylinder'

of cornehan from near Lyktos,

of masterpieces of the

Minoan

glyptic

'flat

Art executed in this period, iv. 301 seqq. cylinder' of mottled chalcedony, Knossos

horned sheep with shaggy breast, standing, i. 684 (Fig.


naturalistic design of

503

a), 685, IV.

571 (Fig. 546)

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[169]

SEAL-STONES
M.M.
b,

M.M.

Ill {cont)

Seal-stones,

Ill,

'flat cylinder'

haematite, resembling bronze.


full sail, 11,

Figs. 495
fish,

Amygdaloid type (cont.) 496 on other types); ships,

Harbour Town, Knossos, picturesque


view of ship under
later

and octopus types, Double Axes,


ib.

243 (Fig. 140); sail divided into squares (recalling

&c.,

Lentoid types:
case

now much
'flattened

in vogue,

as in

embroidered sails of Ramessid Egyptian vessels), 11. 207, 208 Amygdaloid {almond shaped) type (also known as 'glandular') now comes into vogue (no Minoan ancestry but, on larger scale, already known in Sumeria and predynastic Egypt, iv. 493) of black schist veined with red, Knossos:

of

cylinders',

present

series of masterpieces, iv.

489 seqq.
prepared

dark

steatite lentoid,

Mirabello, showing
calf as

finely

modelled head of

for table, with three globules, iv. 491


(Fig.

42s and Suppl.

PI.

LIV d)

clay impression of lentoid

on Hagia Triada

sealing with flying bird, apparently dove,


freely rendered, iv.

with cabin at stern (perhaps also at prow, but broken away): its broad lateen sail is decorated (as 'flat
sailing vessel

490 (Fig. 424), 491


material

lentoid of opaque green

from

Mirabello,

presenting

instantaneous

cylinder' above, but with diaper spaces),

sketch of three waterfowl in characteristic attitudes, feeding, sleeping,

828 (Fig. 807) with bold design of skaros fish (parrot wrasse) amidst marine growths, giving
IV.

and

suggestion

of

perspective:
iv.

cornelian,

spreading wings' for flight, iv. 491, 492 (Fig. 426 and Suppl. PI. LIV m) white chalcedony lentoid (Knossos district),

Lappa,

I.

677 (Fig. 498),

494

(Fig.

instantaneous sketch of

wounded

430, Suppl. PI. LIV h) of broader form, design set horizontally,

shovving flying-fish, in free style, like

endeavouring to extract arrow, iv. (Fig. 498 and Suppl. PI. LIV/), 544; 543 type transferred to wounded lions and
calf

those
678,

of

Phylakopi fresco: cornelian,


Arcadia,
I.

lionesses, iv. 544, 545.


part, apparently, of lentoid seal

site of Kleitor,
III.

677 (Fig. 499), 129, 130 (Fig. 84), IV. 494 (Fig.

impres-

sion,

design set horizontally


cornelian, Crete, iv.

429, Suppl. PI.

LIV

I)

from Temple Repository, showing parturition of kid, i. 696 (Fig. 518 d),
on rocky ground and Suppl.

herd of agrimis

494 (Fig. 431) Taurokathapsia scenes, clay seal impressions

IV. 563 (Fig. 531) lentoid showing agrimis

in act of procreation, iv. 563


PI.

from amygdaloid gems


504
d), III.

M.M.
I.

III6

LIV i

deposit, E. Magazines, Knossos,


(Fig.

686

steatite lentoid

219 (Fig. 153); early sealings of Zakro deposit, i. 686 (Fig.

found in Little Palace beneath slab of main stairs, presenting bearded head described as of 'Dervish
Priest'

504 b, c), III. 219 (Figs. 151 b, 152) talismanic types of amygdaloid class with
plain back, dated
burial deposits to

chanting,

a, b: bull's

iv. 217-20 (Fig. 167 head on reverse), 489 (Fig.

M.M.

by Sphungaras urnIll and in part

la, I. 671-4, IV. 445, 446; fa9ades of gabled buildings, I. 674 (Figs. 493, 494), 675; vegetation charms, 'kan-

L.M.

419 6w; Suppl. PI. LIV^), 490; compared with sistrum player on Hagia Triada 'rhyton' depicting 'harvest rout',
IV.

steatite lentoid

218, 219 (Figs. 168, 169) from M.M. Ill stratum,


skirt

curiously The selected that case quadruple and followed


'

and beaked vessels, with iv. 446-50 (Figs. 3705); lions' masks (also on lentoids), I. 673 stricken (Fig. 492 strength-giving) wild-goats for hunters, iv. 446 (cf. 542,
tharos' spouted

Court of the Stone Spout, Knossos,

sprays of foliage,

Goddess in short

holding Double
:

Axe and
434>435

sacred vestment
(Fig. 312 )

behind, what
I.

appears to be section of dado band,

attitudes

recall a Chinese artistic formula for groups of water-fowl in typical Chinese paintings. A. E.

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[jyo]
Ill,

SEAL-STONES
M.M.
Ill,

M.M.

Lentoid types

{cont.)

Seal-stones,

Zakro Hoard

{cont.)

jasper lentoid from site of Kydonia with


toilette

scene analogous to that of


('Ladies
in

M.M.
Blue',

nodules (including one or two with signs of Hieroglyphic Class B, also a clay
'roundel'

Ill

wall-paintings

with
I.

inscription
;

of

Linear

518 (Fig. 461 a, b) Clay sealings, probably from gold signet-rings matrix of elongated oval outhne taken
&c.), IV.
:

Class A),
to

from

M.M. M.M.

678, 679 ascribed as a whole Ill early and late (with overlap
II),
ib.;^

archaic

dress

showing mystic chalice offered to Goddess seated on wing of pillar shrine, from deposit by S.W. Corridor, 11. 767 (Fig. 498), iv. 395 (Fig. 331); impressions based on this found in late Palatial deposits, iv. 597
Ill prototype
(Fig. 591 a)

from

M.M.

(double-flounced loin-cloth and baggy

garments, 'apron' of men, short skirts of women), I. 679, 680 (Fig. 500), 800;

compared with dress on clay sealings of Hagia Triada deposits, I. 679'


flat

cylinder impression from, with Hieroiv.

glyphic inscription of Class B,

499
I.

early seal impression

showing replica
matrix,
11.

from Zakro hoard, of design on Knossian

oval impressions from, depicting religious subjects (probably

from

signet-rings),

768, 769 (Fig. 499)


tiaras (perI.

679, 680; one a replica of clay matrix

oval seal impression, KaKJievelov, Knossos,

two female adorants wearing


haps infant

God

between),

683 (Fig.

S2) elongated oval seal impression from Hagia

from Knossos [see above) round field castle on rocky height central round tower with entrance and two similar towers with small peaks above on
: :

either side: isodomic masonry,


(Fig. 227 a)

i.

308

Triada, showing gladiatorial combat in

arena with fallen champion and pillar indicative of stand for spectators,

691 (Fig. 512); source of scene of warlike combat on Mycenae signet-ring (IVth Shaft Grave), i. 691 (Fig. 513), 692
I.

round field building with four divisions peaked helmet to left and two 8 -shaped shields below couchant Sphinx or Grif: :

fin to right, indicative of divine protec-

tion (apparently princely residence, a

(compare, too, Hagia Triada seal impressions, IV. 512, Fig. 456 a, b) clay sealing of more elongated oval outline

type connected with the 'conventional


fagade'

of flat-sided disks,
III),
I.

M.M.

II-

M.M.

565

with bold relief of bull's head combined with Double Axes from M.M. lllb stratum of Court of the Stone Spout, I. 699
(Fig.

large percentage of types from, presenting

monstrous forms, executed in lentoid seal-types, of composite and fantastic


character,
I.

522

b)

701 seqq.; endless variation

clay sealing, with oval field (perhaps of


signet-rings,

M.M. Ill deposit, E. Magashowing lions at full galI. 716 (Fig. 539 a, b)
I.

and transformation of limited number of types, I. 701, 702; to be regarded as due


not to gradual evolution but to rapid

zine, Knossos,

lop in finest style),

(for 'flying gallop', see

713 seqq.)

oval seal impression of


gallop over rocks,

same class from Hagia Triada, two wild-goats in flying


I.

change designed to baffle forgers, ib. bird-winged creations, perhaps suggested by 'tailed' winged motive of Hieroglyphic
lion's

717 (Fig. 539 d)

Cherub-headed

Zakro Hoard. Evidence supplied by large hoard of clay sealings, found in House A (D. G. Hogarth), about 500 three-sided

I. 706 (Fig. 530); winged design with hind-legs, i. 702 (Fig. 525 a);

Class,

and

cf. p. 721 (tailpiece) wings connected with looped bucrania heads of oxen, and

' The statement made, loc. cit., that 'few' of the designs 'can be classed as typical Late Minoan' requires revision. It can safely be said that none of them b^ar a Late Minoan character. The attempt that has been made to compare certain religious types of the Zakro series with some from the Vapheio tomb is altogether negatived by later fashions in dress there visible. A. E.

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[171]
Ill,

SEAL-STONES
similar adorant figure

Zakro Hoard [cont.) tusks and bestial heads attached to horns, I. 702 (Fig. 535
others with
d)
boars'
b, c,

M.M.

Seal-stones,

winged goat-men and goat-women, crane with woman's breasts, and bird-woman,
707 (Fig. 531) bird-winged types of, in their general connexion, I. 706-8; wings distinct from the
I.

Zakro Hoard {cont.) on Hagia Triada sealing, 11. 764 (Fig. 492 b)\ and later scene on L.M. \a signet-ring, with ostrich plumes of Maat above, 11. 764
Ill,

M.M.

(Fig.

492

c)

&c.,

influence of sacred papyrus rod or

Waz

scarab form,
Religion,

ib.;

creations of
goat,

Fancy not
however,

ib.;

Winged

found in religious connexion, i. 708 (Fig. 532); appearance of hawk-headed Griffins with birds' wings in i2th Dyn. Egypt, I. 709, 710 (Fig. 533, Table)*;
relation to

symbol of Egypt, as associated with double scrolls on 12th Dyn. scarabs, on Zakro seal types, I. 705 (Fig. 528 a, b, c and Fig. 529 d) imitation of Canopied waz types: 'cordiform' patterns and scrolls, i. 700 (Fig. 523 a, b); comparison with sealing pattern from Temple Repository, i. 700
(Fig. 524)

Minoan

Griffin types,

I.

711

(Fig. 533). 711-13; Pard with 'Cherub' above, I. 711 (Fig. 533 d)

find

on site of Harbour Town of Knossos (Anemomylia) of three-sided nodules


(threaded along axis) answering to those

bat-winged types, combined with diabolic head, I. 702 (Fig. 525 g); combined with hind-quarters of animal Minoan Tuck',

of Zakro and with identical types of seal

impressions (including
figures),
II.

many composite

705 (Fig. 529 a) horned, diabolic head of above, compared with 'horned imp' on chalcedony 'signet' seal, Mochlos, I. 703' (Fig. 526); winged Melian 'Goblins' compared, i.
I.

254, 255 (Fig. 149); clay with copper particles answering to that of
Vasiliki,

E. Crete, dominating the North

Coast, but different from that of Zakro

704 (Fig. 527)


butterfly-winged types, combined with derivative of sacred
bol,
I.

on the South Coast, 11. 254, 255 evidences of Knossian customs system and
extension, 11. 254, 255 rapid variation of types (productive of fantastic creaits
;

waz

or papyrus sym-

705 (Fig. 528 c); with boar's head, 70s (Fig. 529 b) facing Sphinx with wings of eyed butterfly, I. 705 (Fig. 529 c); compared with triple group showing human eyes on wings:
&c.,
I.

tions)

an
I.

official

protection

against

forgery,

701-3

reappearance on early Zakro sealings and those of Knossos Harbour Town of

quadruple pattern of interlocked curves


{see

lentoid

sealing

from

Little

Palace,

above,

M.M.

II,

'signet' type),

I.

Knossos, I. 705 (Fig. 529 d), 706 evidences of renewed influence of Oriental two lions symantithetic schemes:
metrically posed

on

either side of portal

700 (Fig. 523 c), IV. 254 (Fig. 149 a); type (as shown, 11. 199-200, Fig. no a) modification of 'Egypto-Minoan' scarab pattern and essentially sphragistic, but
taken over in sculpture
(like

with altar-base within, i. 307, 308 (Fig. 227 c), IV. 611 (Fig. 599 fl), 612; two confronted lions standing on either side of incurved altar block, iv. 611 (Fig. 599 b) sealing from Hagia Triada (somewhat later) compared, iv. 6i i (Fig. 599 c) anticipation of Lions' Gate type, iv. 611 Minoan version of adorant Cynocephalus
;

the analoStela of

gous
(Figs.

triple

curves)

of Vlth
11.

Mycenae Shaft Graves,

200,

201

noA^,

iioBfl)

M.M. nib

Deposit of clay seal impressions in

seated
type),

before
II.

Goddess (short-skirted 764 (Fig. 492 a) compared with


; '

West Temple Repository. Circular impression with composite design pileus, and pair of antlers, barred crest, and crab? compared with Zakro compositions,
I.

699, 700 (Fig. 522 a)

In text for 'M.M.

II'

read

'M.M.

II or IIP.


SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,
[172]

SEAL-STONES
la:

pressions in

IIU, Deposit of day seal imWest Temple Repository {cont.) fragment of impression with cordiform design compared with Zakro motives, I. 700 (Fig. 524, and cf. Fig. 523 a, b) spirited scene of mariner beating off sea monster from skiff, I. 697, 698 (Fig. 520),
952 (Fig. 921); prototype of Skylla, with features oi Hippocampus, I. 697, iv. 951-3 (Figs. 919-21) subjects of natural inspiration stems bent before breeze and rippling water, I. 697 (Fig. 519); tulip flower with wavy stalk,
IV.
:

M.M.

Seal-stones {cont)

L.M.

'flat cylinders',

associated with

finest intaglio designs at

Thisbe,

iv.

some of the Mycenae and 504: cornelian, Snake Godspiritual

symbols of temporal and dominion found, with bronze hoard and


L.M. la painted
tico, II. 792,

dess holding sword and lustral sprinkler

ewer, by Stepped Porbull's


it, 11.

agate,

N.W.

793 (Fig. 517), 794 Treasure House: facing

head with Double Axe rising from

I. 696 (Fig. 518) animal motives and adjuncts: four little owls round stellar symbol rock border, I. 695, 696 (Fig. 518/); three heads of wolves (or dogs), i. 696 (Fig. 518 e)
:

red
*

619 (Fig. 388)


jasper, Kydonia warrior covered by 8-shaped shield thrusting spear at
:

lion's neck, kneeling archer in front of

him, rocks below,

iv. 575 (Fig. 556), 576; design derived from pictorial prototype

horned sheep beside manger: swastika above (18 examples), i. 684, 696 (Fig. 5186), IV. 570 (Fig. 544 a); possible reference of symbol to horned sheep suckling infant God on sealing of Hieroglyphic Deposit, I. 273 (Fig. 202 e), 684,
696, IV. 570 {also similar animal without swastika)
cross

parallel to lion-hunt

on

inlaid dagger-

blade,

ib.

group of three 'flat cylinders', gold (perhaps for wrist), from earlier deposit,

Chamber Tomb, Thisbe,


seizing
bull,
ill.

Boeotia: lion

123,

scenes of Taurokathapsia

youth thrown
field, ill.

124 (Fig. 75);


225,

by

bull, 'Sacral

Knot' in

somewhat elongated
I.

as -j- of 'Linear'

scripts,

515 (Fig. 374)

and symbol on gold signet-ring from Smyrna,


226 (Fig. 159)
III.

(parallel design

recumbent ox with head turned back, away from the spectator, i. 695, 696 (Fig. 518 c); suggestive of later group of two
565 seqq. she-goat in act of parturition, i. 695, 696 (Fig. 518 d)
I.

225, Fig. 158); ritual stabbing of


III.

bull,

226 (Fig.
'flat

160),

227

(parallel
iv.

supplied by Boegia of Miletos,

47)

oxen,

696 (Fig. 518

c),

iv.

group of three
also for wrist,

cylinders', probably

from Third Shaft Grave,


with
one-handled

Mycenae
'aryballos',

(found

marine types: crab, i. 696 (Fig. 518 g); conch shells and cockles, I. 696 (Fig. 518 h); four cockle-shells, I. 696 (Fig.
518 enigmatic design of rocks and horizontal bars with crescent-shaped stands, I. 696
(Fig. 518 k), 697 pallium-like figure /superposed

lion

mature L.M. la), wounded with arrow in flank on rocky slope,

IV. 546 (Fig. 507); warrior stabbing lion with short sword, iii. 125 (Fig. 78); type imitated by Hellenistic engraver on

ivory ring bezel,


(for the third

iv.

125 (Fig. 79), 126


see Schlie-

example of the group


p. 174, Fig. 123)

on

triple-

'Hector slain by Achilles'

looped coils, I. 696 (Fig. 5187) scene of Taurokathapsia youth performing back somersault over coursing bull, figure behind holding out arm, as later
:

mann Mycenae,
large tholos
Pylos',

solid gold finger-ring with oval bezel,

from tomb, Kakovatos, 'Nestor's


Nestor'
:

694 (Fig. 514), iii.2i8(Fig. 149) fragment of boxing scene, pugilist with part of fallen champion, and pillar indicating
fresco,
I.

into

known as 'Ring of Minoan Underworld,

entry

scenes divided

by boughs and trunk of 'Tree of the World' (Minoan Yggdrasil) with monster at foot ('one-headed Cerberus'): (i)

Grand Stand,

i.

689 (Fig. 509), 691

: :

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[173]
la, gold signet rings (cont.)

SEAL-STONES
L.M.
la, gold signet rings (cont.)
piles,

L.M.

Seal-stones,

Goddess with chrysalises and butterflies emblems of resurgence above, and young couple (2) guardian lion recumbent and two attendant AiaaKovpoL {see,

144/); (3, 4) the couple led by 'Grifiin-ladies' before enthroned


too, II. 341, Fig.

Griffin Inquisitor, with


III.

Goddess behind,

145 seqq. (Figs. 94-104); restoration of subject as fresco of Miniature Class


special details, chrysalises of white but-

148 n. 4 (Figs. 96, 97), 149, 151 I. 148 (Figs. 96, 98, 99), 150-2; short skirts, survival of
terfly,
I.

one offering her bianch from the tree two female attendants, one holding lilies and iris in field, double axe, small descending divinity with spear and 8shaped shield six lion-masks at side, and sun and moon in reserved compartment above, 11. 340, 341 (Fig. 194 e) (somewhat short skirts of M.M. Ill tradition) gold signet from Shaft Grave IV, Mycenae scene of heroic combat amidst rocks, iv.
Kovpai)
flowers, the other a
:

on rocky

(Fig. 102); butterflies,

551 (Fig. 511


ence,
ib.

bis);

presumed epic

refer-

M.M.

Ill

fashion,

ill.

146;

earliest
la, ib.;

Cylinder, agate, Kakovatos


as

painted pottery of tomb,


'sacral ivy'

L.M.

483

on tree, ib.; and cf. 11. 482, comparison with 'Golden Bough',
and ornament of 'Ring of

(first appearance an ordinary seal form) warrior attacking lion, sword guided by Minoan
:

Genius,

iv.

462, 463 (Fig. 387)

parallel

"483
identity in shape

figure to warrior

on gold 'flat cylinder' from Shaft Grave III, Mycenae (with

Nestor' and 'Ring of Minos', iv. 948 (Fig. 915 a,b); consecutive series of
solid

L.M.

la aryballos),

iv.

462

cylinders of 'talismanic' class, cornelian,

separate religious scenes on both, iv. 949 gold signet-ring called 'Ring of

Minos' found near Temple Tomb, Knossos; and consequent discovery of Tomb, IV. 962, 964; as on 'Ring of Nestor',

E. Crete, iv. 496 (Figs. 434, 435) Amygdaloids I early smooth-backed class: red and white cornelian (Crete) lion bringing down bull (strong, deeply in-

cised work), IV. 533 (Fig. 483)


agate,

short skirts of

M.M.

Ill tradition,
(Fig.

round hut with pointed


11.

see IV.

Suppl.

PL

LXV

and 950

apparently at sides,

roof, snakes 132 (Fig. 66) re-

917); successive scenes referring to Goddess (i) nude female figure seated on
:

(handle-like projection

on one side

calling 'granary' signs, IV. 62, Fig. 608

ledge of shrine and pulling of


its

down branch
;

(2) 954 Goddess steering vessel, with hippocamp prow, bearing two small pillar shrines,

sacred tree,

iv.

(Fig. 924)

b,f,g) sardonyx, Shaft Grave III,

Mycenae (with

L.M. la
heroes,
126);
Iii.

aryballos),

combat of two

125 and Fig. 80 a (opp. p.

across sea, iv. 950 seqq. Goddess seated on altar-ledge below rocky knoll crowned
;

subject copied (with misunder-

by sacred tree
taining
figure
its

in pillar shrine

a youthful

stood details) by Hellenistic engraver on ivory bezel of silver swivel ring, from

attendant holds out to her a flask (con-

Canea tomb,
of
'talismanic'

ib.

(Fig.

80

b)

and a small female descends to her from above, iv.


juice)

class

(designs

of

rapid

execution) getting on to

M.M.

Ill, iv.

950 (Fig. 917), 951 seqq.; the sea indicated by reticulated pattern as on silver rhyton from Mycenae, &c., iv. 955, 956; seal impression from Knossos compared, Goddess reposing on reticulated
waves, IV. 955, 956 (Fig. 925) gold signet-ring from Mycenae, Goddess seated beneath fruit-tree holding poppy
capsules, with
little

445 seqq. Amygdaloids II appearance of new


:

class with

grooves [sometimes with incised

lines)

along

handmaidens

{Aidcr-

margin of back, TV. 495 (Fig. 432) rare examples of 'talismanic' series with grooved backs, L.M. la, iv. 495 sardonyx. Central Crete calves seated with heads in opposite directions, only upper part of hinder visible: tree behind
:

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[174]
la,

SEAL-STONES
L.M.
la.

Amygdaloids II (cont.) in succeeding epoch), IV. 567 (Fig. 541 b). Fine work cornelian, Kastri, E. Crete: hunter lassoing horned ewe while suckling lamb: man wears short tunic (double flounced),

L.M.

Seal-stones,

Clay Sealings from L.M.


{cant.)

(scheme

common

la stratum, S.W. Basement Deposit

from
this

fine style, to

L.M.

la stratum of

deposit);

of frequent recurrence,
seal),

however (apparently from the same


603 (Fig. 597 b;);
cf. iv.

in the late Palatial 'Archives' deposit, iv.

jv.

569 (Fig. 543).

560. (This

flat

Lentoids.

Red

jasper,

man

wearing short

cylinder

may

therefore have remained in


II)

double-flounced tunic (early characterisdriving oxen, iv. 564 (Fig. 535) haematite, Knossos, butterfly over papyrus
tic),

use to

L.M.

L.M.

lb:

spray. Argonaut
in the Air,

and flying duck Sea, and Land', iv. 1018

'Life

General observations: principal vogue in this epoch of type of Minoan Genius (derived
Urt), IV. 430seqq.;

(Fig.

966: tail-piece); ('knob-winged' butterfly resembling that of the Priest King

from Hippopotamus Goddess Taand of long-robed


iv.

princely or sacerdotal personages, not-

Fresco

(L.M.

la)

papyrus spray as
11.

ably at Knossos,

404 seqq.; Scenes

788 (Fig. 514))' chalcedony, clouded red, Athens, lion seizing fallow deer, executed with great
finesse,
PI.
iv.

House

of Frescoes,

illustrating heroic saga

now

appear,

iii.

513 seqq.; Oriental quent:


intaglio
illustrations

'antithetic'

schemes
fre-

(derived from cylinders)


of

become
by

532 (Fig. 481) and Suppl.

contemporary
'Thisbe

LV.

work

supplied

banded

agate, Argive Heraion, bull's

head
c).

Treasure' (from later sepulchral deposit)


see especially iv.

facing double axe above, on either side

sacred vestments,

I.

434, 435 (Fig. 312

Perhaps M.M. III6 Clay Sealings from L.M. la stratum, S.W. Basement Deposit.^ Clay matrix of the
bezel
above),
of

513-16, 816, 817 and genuineness, iv. 51517, 817 n. 2; chronological equations supplied by series of bead-seals from
note
4,

818; for

its

the

'Vapheio

M.M.

Ill

signet-ring
;

{see

pottery. Flat cylinders are


501).

Tomb' with L.M. now rare

lb
(iv.

impressions of 11. 767 (Fig. 498) found in the late Palatial deposits, ib. and see below
oval impression of 'the

peculiar class, characteristic of

this epoch, that

now makes

its

appear-

Young

Minotaur',
atti-

seated on campstool, with hands in

ance are the proportionately thick and elongated amygdaloids of the 'grooved back' type (iv. 495). This type copied
in gold in the

tude of adoration (cf. Contemporary Frescoes); couchant rams apparently oflfered to him by male figure, 11. 763
(Fig. 491)

Thisbe

series (iv. 513, 514)


is

The L.M.
Thothmes
(see

lb ceramic style

shown

to correspond clearly with the reign of

III (iv. 276),

youth holding cord attached to two seated


mastiflFs,
11.

'Pottery').

765 (Fig. 495); guardian


11.

hounds of Cretan Goddess Diktynna, 765, 766

into

Knossos and is 'L.M. Ic' elsewhere

c. 1500-14508.0. Overlaps L.M. II at gradually transformed

(see 'Pottery')

Cylinder.

Banded

agate, Kakovatos, warrior


;

female figure luring swallows with another


attached to a string, rocky border below

stabbing lion with short sword Minoan

Genius taking hold of

his sword-sheath,

and two conventional


(Fig- 497) collared bitch standing
II.

lilies

above,

11.

766

IV. 462, 463 (Fig. 387) Flat Cylinder. Cornelian, Phaestos Cemetery,

r.

and looking back,

Minoan Genius
(Fig.

carrying doe,

iv.

435

764, 765 (Fig. 493) (referred there,

358 a)

'

On

9,

This deposit also contained a stratum showing a 10, and probably 11).

account of these parallels read preferably L.M. la, in description of Fig. 966 (iv. 1018). late Palatial element (see iv. 601, Nos. 3, 6,

7, 8,

; ;

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[I7S]

SEAL-STONES
L.M.
lb,

L.M.
(or

lb (cont.)
'glandular')

Seal-stones,

Amygdaloid

(or 'glandu-

Amygdaloid
type,

'grooved back'
use.

lar')

'grooved back' type (cont.)

now

of

common

Cornelian,

cases, these elongated

amygdaloids were

Knossos, charioteer in chariot of Class B, IV. 815, 816 (Fig. 79s); similar from Vapheio Tomb, ib. 815, 816
cornelian, Crete,

cut out of ordinary cylindrical beads, with

bulging middle, such as were

much

in

vogue from the beginning of the Late

cow

licking hind-leg (reiv.

sembling Vapheio type),

560 (Fig.

design,
sos,

Minoan Age
set vertically, applied to a series

523) haematite, Crete (1888), two lions couchant in reversed positions (resembles oxen

of figures of long-robed princely and


sacerdotal personages
:

haematite, Knosiv.

personage with bow,


;

413 (Fig.

type on Vapheio, &c., lentoids), transition


to 'elongated' class, iv. 585 (Fig. 570) ends square-cut and design set vertically: cornelian. Central Crete; Minoan Genii

342) similar, of haematite, holding axes of Syro-Egyptian type, Vatheia, W. of

Knossos,

IV.

414

(Fig. 343 a); Knossos,


:

by Room of the Throne dolphin beside


figure, ib. (b);

and tree, iv. 453 (Fig. 377) banded cornelian (set vertically). Hydra: Minoan Genius between two attendant youthful figures, iv. 466 (Fig. 391) group of five gold specimens from 'Thisbe Treasure' Minoan Goddess (as Persephone-Gaia), holding poppy-capsules, assisted to rise from Earth by
;

Vapheio Tomb,

ib.

(c);

green jasper, Knossos, youthful personage in similar long robe holding Rock,

Dove,
a, b),

IV.

405 (Fig. 336), 406 (Fig. 337

cornelian,

495 (Fig. 433, section and back) Vapheio Tomb, ecstatic female dancing figure, holding flute, in. 69

youthful attendant,

458 (Fig. 319); Goddess with female attendants pouring liquid into jar from one-handled ewer,
ill.

(Fig- 39) Lentoids {selected examples)

Ritual Subjects
cornelian, flounced figure of votary or

God-

fruit-tree behind, in.

451 (Fig. 376 a); design connected with vegetation charms, ib. paralleled by type of L.M. II sealing from Knossos, in. 451 (Fig. 376 b), 452; Goddess (as Diktynna) shooting stag, iv. 577 (Fig- 561), 578; Goddess holding two waterfowl, back only shown, in. 516 (Fig. 460 d) huntsman spearing charging
; ;

dess holding horned sheep, iv. 571 (Fig.

545)

peaked helmet set with boars' tusks and with two ram's horns, cornelian, Vapheio

Tomb,

IV.

long-robed
cord,

693 (Fig. 675) priestly personage

leading

Griffin (looking back towards

him) by
11.

Jasper, Vapheio

Tomb,

785

lion, IV.

575 (Fig. 552).


plate

elongated oval type


in

group of three beads


for

(Fig. 512) pair of Griffins tethered to

column on

altar-

gold

(perhaps

necklace
heroic

base,

Mycenae,

in. 511 (Fig. 361), 514,

front),

'Thisbe'

Tomb, with
;

scenes, III. 5 13 seqq. (a) Minoan Oedipus as youthful warrior attacking Sphinx,

515; its relation to earlier Griffin Relief of Great E. Hall, ib.


agate lentoid depicted

on wrist of Cup705

513 (Fig- 457 ). 514; (b) the same attacking warrior in chariot with rocks
IV.

bearer of Fresco,

11.

above (Minoan Laios),


b),

514;

(c)

513 (Fig. 457 scene apparently illustrating


iv.

Minoan Genius in various relations, chalcedony lentoid, carrying bull, iv. 435 (Fig. 358 b); carrying stag, between two stars,
441 (Fig. 361); serpentine, Crete, carrying lions on pole, iv. 522 (Fig. 468) E.M. Ill scheme, as applied to hunter,
IV.
ib.

murder of Aigisthos and Klytemnestra by Orestes, iv. 514 (Figs. 458, 459), 515,
-

agate, H. Pelagia, W. of Knossos, huntsman


stabbing overthrown agrimi,
this
iv. 576,

517. 518

(Fig. 466) leading lion, 444 (Fig. 369) onyx, Vapheio Tomb, two Genii water;

577 (Fig. 559). In

and some other

ing nursling palms, sacral horns and

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,
(cont.)

[176]
lb, Lentoids,

SEAL-STONES
L.M.
;

L.M.

Ritual Subjects

Seal-stones,
(cant.)

lb,

Lentoids, Bovine Types

basin in front: between lions seated on


architectural
(Fig. 386)
;

bases,

Mycenae,

iv.

461

(Fig. 539) haematite. Candid district, one struck by shaft, iv. 566 (Fig. 540), earlier

Genius on either side of male be from Orvieto, IV. 465 (Fig. 389), 466; rock crystal from Phigalia, iv. 466 (Fig. 390); Lapis Lacedaemonius, Genius leading bull (first pubdivinity, crystal, said to

anticipations of

scheme

in Crete, iv. 567

(Figs. 541 a, b); duplicated in Vapheio


series, ib.

Lapis Lacedaemonius, Central Crete: cow


licking hind foot, iv. 560 (Fig. 525) dark cornelian, similar type, iv. 560 (Fig. 524); similar type (cornelian) from Vapheio
;

lished in M'llchhoier' sAnfdngederKunst),

banded

442 (Fig. 368 a; Suppl. PI. LV a) agate, Crete Minoan Genius leading cow, IV. 443 (Fig. 368 b; Suppl. PI.
IV.
:

LV6)
mottled agate, Crete: man leading bovine animal in similar manner to Genii, iv.
565, 566 (Fig. 536)

ib.; earlier example on lentoid, 560 (Fig. 523); parallels on coin of Eretria, iv. 560 (Fig. 526), 561 (Fig. 528) Griffins in parallel scheme to Lions' Gate type, tethered in opposed position to

Tomb,

IV.

Lion

types,
lion,

onyx, Vapheio
lion, iv.

Tomb:
(as

seated

their fore-feet set

column (with section of entablature), on altar with incurved


base, that supports the column,
III.

head turned back

in case of

Mycenae,

speared

(Fig. 509,

and

547 (Fig. 508)), iv. 547 cf. Fig. 508)


type
(without
arrow),

511 (Fig. 361), 514; compared with M.M. lllb relief of East Hall, Knossos,
ib.,

wounded
503 b) chalcedony,

lion

Mycenae,

spirited design, iv. 545 (Fig.

and with lion-types in Zakro and Hagia Triada sealings, iii. 515, iv. 611
(Fig. 599 a, b)

clouded

red:

lion

bearing

Crossed and opposed animals suggested by Babylonian Cylinder types {See


11 1.

down

fallow deer, beautiful design with

great finesse of execution, iv. 532 (Fig. c. (The rather 481) and Suppl. PI.

cornelian

lentoid,

lions

with

515, 516) crossed


iv.

LV

bodies, fighting for slaughtered stag,

square forepart of the lion is taken over on the Vapheio sardonyx below)
sardonyx, Vapheio
extract arrow
IV.

h, 586, 587 (Fig. 580 and Suppl. PI. sard lentoid) leaping bulls with crossed
;

LV

Tomb,

lion trying to

from

flank, above, rocks,

bodies, iv. 586 (Fig. 578; Suppl. PI. g) sardon)fx, Crete, standing bulls

LV

544, 545 (Fig. 500) maned lion with similarly rendered fore-

with crossed bodies, IV. 565 (Fig. 537) opposed animals (of similar origin), cornelian,

haematite, Crete:
goat's

quarters, suckling cub, iv. 559 (Fig. 522 b) maned lion and cub,

two

lions, antithetically set, seiziv.

ing fallow deer by neck,


(Fig. 580; Suppl. PI.

586, 587
late

head and shield, iv. 559 (Fig. 522 a)


.

LV A)finest

green jasper, Crete: lion supporting bull in his mouth (cf Vapheio), IV. 583 (Fig. 572) jasper, Athens: lion seizing bull by neck,
583 (Fig. 571) sardonyx, Vapheio
IV.

Minoan

style

Outgrowth of 'antithetic' scheme, opposed bodies


of animals with single head. Sard, Mycenae, lion-type, fore-feet on altar, iv. 586
(Fig. 577)
;

Tomb:

lion

seizing

jasper,

Mycenae, Kriosphinx
altar,

bull,

III.

123, 124 (Fig. 74) (a master-

with fore-feet on

iv.

586 (Fig

piece of gem-engraver's Art)

Bovine Types. Red jasper, Rethymnos, Crete: bull with head thrown back (paralleled by Vapheio type), iv. Suppl. PI. LV k. banded agate, Crete: recumbent ox with another partly outlined behind its head turned back, graduated base, iv. 566

576); sard, lion seizing horned sheep, head concealed, so that there appears to

be a one-headed

figure,

as above, IV.

585, 586 (Fig. 575; Suppl. PI. LV/) animals in reversed positions occupying

upper and lower section of field (compare Vapheio type: two reversed bulls.

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[177]

SEAL-STONES
L.M. lb. Signet-rings: gold {cont.) Axe and Sacral Knot, I. 432 (Fig. 310 c),
:

L.M. 15, Outgrowth of Oriental scheme, opposed bodies of animals with single
head (cont.) two reversed
agate,
lions),

Seal-stones,

contorted bulls re-

versed, IV. 586, Suppl. PI.


lions preying

LV

i\

yellow

Mycenae, two reversed groups of on horned sheep, iv. 532


one another round field by Vapheio types), cornelian Athens, man-bull and man-lion

(Fig. 482)
figures following

III. 140 (Fig. 91), 141 Tiryns Treasure procession of four ewerholding Genii, bearing libations to seated Goddess, holding up chalice: frieze of half rosettes below: corner of altar and bird with lowered wings (symbol of

spiritual possession):

(paralleled

above in reserved compartment, sun and moon, iv. 460


(Fig. 385) (cf. 393, Fig. 329), 461. (The processional arrangement is in keeping

found

at

in contorted position, iv. 589 (Fig. 586) Vapheio (possibly L.M. II)

Tomb

with the contemporary Egyptian style of


wall-painting)

Signet-rings, stone:

chalcedony,
pair of
chariot.

Mycenae (Cyclopean House):


calf,

Mycenae
III.

cows licking

in

reversed

pair of Griffins standing back to back and with heads turned backwards,
:

positions, iv. 553 (Fig. 515) and n. 2 Type (including stage without

511 (Fig. 360), 513

attitude like that

of Griffins of stucco

bowed annex), sardonyx, Vapheio Tomb


long-robed personage in
spear,
iv.

Great E. Hall, Knossos, but column omitted, ib.


relief,
:

car,

holding

419

(Fig.

348),

820 (Fig.

799) sardonyx, Avdu, near Lyktos: chariot of

Ashmolean Museum, from Boeotia Goddess and descending boy-God with bow and dirk, female figure leaning on jar, rock and tree: above, ear and eye symbols,
II.

Type C,

early

example of

its

complete

842 (Fig. 557)

stage (as on tablet of Class B), with

Signet-ring, bronze:

bowed annex behind,


nessed to
jasper,
it:

wild-goats har-

bronze,

from

near
iv.

warrior with sword beside

'canopied was',

Knossos, showing 319 (Fig. 259)

driver, iv. 823 (Fig. 803)

L.M. II {Knossian
(c.

'Palace Style', see Pottery)

Mycenae: bearded hero (reflection of Gilgamesh) holding up two lions, Mycenae, iv. 584 (Fig. 573)

1475-1400 B.C.) General observations: overlapped by L.M. lb (iv. 322); overlaps 'L.M. Ic' (iv. 294, &c. See Pottery);

Signet-rings, gold:

much
(iv.

dated material supplied by series


iv.

Peronne Museum: two heroes combating


lions, IV. 584 (Fig. 574) Thisbe, sepulchral deposit: lion bringing

of Late Palatial deposits of clay sealings

591 seqq.); A. S.W. Basement,

Goddess

down

stag, iv. 532,

seated,

540 (Fig. 491) holding up poppy

593, 601, 602'; B. Central Shrine Deposit (off Central Court), iv. 596, 602; C. Archives Deposit, iv. 596-8, 602, 604; D.

Mycenae ring), two small handmaidens on each side of her, holding same, in one case also a necklace: female attendant seated to left and above,
capsules (as on
curving, reserved section, indicative of

East Hall Border Deposit,


;

iv. 598, 599, 604, 605 E. Little Palace Deposit, iv. 599, 600, 605, 606; signet types, illustrating

heavens (but without sun and moon):


later variant of

Mycenae

signet scene,

11.

Vapheio
ing

340, 341 (Fig. 194 d), 342 Tomb youthful attendant reach:

late Palace Cult, and antithetic schemes and feats of Taurokathapsia, much in vogue lentoid form overwhelmingly predominant types, often much convoluted, and cleverly adapted circular field, iv.
:

587, 588
IV.

others suggestive of revolution,

down branch

of fruit-tree to ecstatic
:

amygdaloids Goddess large shield to right, bead-seals, iv. 606 and above, combined symbol of Double ' Nos 4, and 14 of the list belong to a L.M. la stratum.
figure of

589; cylinder

only

slight survival

of

flat

and

elongated

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,
flat

[178]
(cont.)

SEAL-STONES
L.M.
II, Signet^rings (cont.)

L.M. II, General observations

Seal-stones,

cylinder chalcedony (gold mounted).

Isopata
style

Tomb

i,

pottery:

collared

Knossos, with Palace lion with two

winged shrine with bi-columnar central compartment, iv. 608 (Fig. 597 A, y):
Little Palace

attendants and 8-shaped shield, iv. 500


(Fig. 442), 501
flat cylinder, clay impression of. Deposit

fragmentary sealing, perhaps from signet


Little Palace, E, showing two opposed lions resting their fore-paws on rocky peak like that on which the Goddess stands on the preceding signet types, IV. 610-12 (Fig. 597 A, i, upper part rering.

three (less probably, four as restored

in Figure) female adorants, iv. 603 (Fig.

numerous
Deposit',

597A,&)

impressions from 'Archives

stored);

(C) represents

free

standing

IV.

603 (C. 38, Fig. 597

b. j)

sculptural group in the round, iv. 61214; comparison with Lions' Gate type, iv. 610, 611 (Fig. 599 a, b, c,), 613 (Fig. 600)

showing collared bitch from the same 'flat' cylinder as others from L.M. la stratum of A 6 an evidence of con-

gold

signet-ring,
to

tinued palatial use

tethered

Mycenae: two lions column showing part of

Amygdaloids
haematite, Mirabello: expanded
116, 117 (Fig. 68) haematite, Crete: feline

wing of
iii.

water-bird seized by cat-like animal,

animal chasing

water-bird,

117 (Fig. 69) (The spirited design of this and the preceding intaglios warrants their incluill.

sion in

L.M.

\b.

For near

relation of

types to duck-hunting scenes on Mycenae dagger-blade, see

amygdaloid
licated

lii. 114 seqq.) impression of design,

architrave, with sacral knots attached, towards which their heads are turned, IV. 610 (Fig. 598 a); compared with agate amygdaloid from Mycenae with Goddess replacing baetylic pillar between the lions, IV. 610 (Fig. 598 b) seal impression: two antithetic lions resting their fore-paws on rocky peak, set on base supported by two pillars, iv. 608 (Fig. 597 A,y), and (with heads confronted, Knossos) cf. II. 524 (Fig. 327)

set

vertically, four

Double Axes with redupsymmetrically

round

arranged 608 (Fig. 597 A, d); ceiling pattern restored from it, iv. 614
edges
rosette, C, iv.

young God (representing baetylic peak), between two lions similarly posed (probably from signet-ring), Knossos, D. 4,
IV.

gold signet-ring,

608 (Fig. 597 A, K\ Dendra,

Royal

Tomb

(Fig. 601); set horizontally,

two

sacral

knots on either side of palm-tree, C, iv. 608 (Fig. 597 A, ^) elongated oval, two oxen walking towards one another, a palm behind each, C, iv. 609 (Fig. 597 B, m, probably gold bead) Signet-rings clay impression Goddess on peak with lion supporters, male adorant before her, behind, pillar shrine with sacral horns. Central Shrine, B, iv. 608 (Fig.
'

on various grounds, equated with L.M. II) two fore-parts of horned sheep antithetically placed with heads turned to one another, above triple
(date of contents,
:

'snake-frames' {see iv. 168 seqq.) plaited


together; in exergual space below, two

opposed symmetric figures of calves with heads turned back, iv. 170 (Fig. 134), 171

Lentoid bead-seals {antithetic subjects in


gious connexion)
large

reli-

597 A, e): and see 11. 809 (Fig. 528) (remains of numerous examples) variants of same, iv. 607 Goddess richly apparalled, with hands raised: male adorant to left, B, IV. 603 (Fig.
596)
:

chalcedony,

chro):

Diktaean Cave (PsyGoddess standing between lions

antithetically grouped, holding

up over

her head a 'snake frame' (as above) with

Double Axe
set

rising

from

its

centre.

On

impression imperfectly preserved

either side of her. Griffins antithetically

fragmentary impression probably from gold signet: male adorant before two-

on raised

base, iv. 169 (Fig. 130);

similar design

on lentoid from

lalyscs,

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,
IV.

[179]
II,

SEAL-STONES
L.M.
II,

L.M.

Lentoid bead-seals (cont.)


131);
Griffins

Seal-stones,

Lentoid bead-seals [cont)


as, iv.

169 (Fig.
(tb.)

on ledge

of single-headed, two-bodied type

with painted stucco relief fromEastHall, Knossos, m. 511 (Fig.355)


similar type, cornelian.

compared

two
two
to

586 (Fig. 577)


pairs

of

antithetically

grouped

Tomb

375, Kalkani

oxen, sealing, Knossos, C. 51, iv. 609


(Fig. 597 B, c) Griffins standing antithetically,

Cemetery, Mycenae, but Goddess on graduated architectural base, antitheti-

by two lions standing (on the same base) on hind-legs, their fore-legs lowered: two specimens of identical
cally flanked

back,

their

heads turned to
crested

back one

another,

small

bird

in

inter-

design from, with pottery,


169,

L.M.

lb, iv.

space, Knossos, C. 15, IV 608 (Fig. 597 A, /): compare L.M. I signet-ring above

synchronous with early part of L.M. II: similar type


170 (Fig. 133
style)
b,

c);

(Mycenae)
Lentoid bead-seals: convoluted types adapted
to

(in

inferior
IV.

in

brown

steatite,

circular field:

Contorted

lion,

rock

Knossos,
parallel

170 (Fig. 133a)

type,

banded agate

(Kassel

Museum):

fore-parts of lions antitheti-

Knossos, iv. 588 (Fig. 583); contorted bull round globule, iv. 588 (Fig. 584) Galloping bull, head thrown back,
crystal,
;

cally projecting

on either side of God-

dess: curved line (resembling skipping-

rope) in front of Goddess, iv. 169 (Fig.


132)
seal impression,

Rethymnos, iv. 588 (Fig. 585) Various subjects of a religious nature. Forearm with bracelet and hand holding
Jasper,

sacred

lily,

Knossos,

19, iv.

608 (Fig.

Knossos, A: Goddess raising hands to necks of two lions, antithetically grouped, their heads turned towards her, IV. 608 (Fig. 597 a, c) Knossos, D. 3: young God laying his
outstretched hands over two confronted
lions (cf. IV.

Minoan Genius with man-lion and two


animals' legs, Knossos, C. 13
(Fig. 614)
altar
:

597 A,/)

see iv.

626

467 (Fig. 391 bis)) white agate lentoid, site of Kydonia, similar
design, iv. 467 (Fig. 391 bis) Lapis Lacedaemonius, Pyrgos, near Kydonia

two doves seated on block with incurved Knossos, E. 605 (fragmentary) galloping knot and 8-shaped Knossos, 609 stagwith two knots, Knossos, D.
sides,
4, iv.

bull,

sacral

shield,

IV.

sacral

8,

IV.

609 (Fig. 597

B, I): see, too, iii.

557

(Benaki Museum), young


sides

God

stand-

ing above sacral horns, his hands on his

between winged goat and ewerIV.

holding Genius,
sealing,

467 (Fig. 392) same


:

and fluted column, 603 horned sheep before


lion

(Fig- 562)

Knossos, C.

24, IV.

style as preceding.

fluted column, 8-shaped shield symbol infield, Knossos,


6, III.

Knossos,

E:

two

hounds

in

opposed
:

positions, heads looking back,

D.

sealing

317 (Fig. 208, and cf. 209) from Corridor of Bays (shield
iii.

with fore-feet similarly set on incurved altar between heads, star and 5 globules on either side, IV. 608 (Fig. 597 A, g) sard, Mycenae two lions with single, facing head, and with bodies in opposed positions, the fore-legs resting on altar with
:

omitted), Knossos, C,
similar
(agate

317 (Fig. 209);


'Chieftains-

lentoid):

Grave', Zafer Papoura, referred to, iv.


604, D. 6; similar to last (agate lentoid), by same hand, from near Gortyna (cf. IV. 604, D. 4, A.E. Coll.) hound on base, flying bird in front, 'impaled triangle' symbol above, haematite, Crete,
IV.

incurved

sides

(as

L.M.

\h

scheme

two

above), iv. 586 (Fig. 577)

thetically placed

bovine animals with bodies antiand large bull's head above, between them, sealing, Knossos,
C. 50, IV. 609 (Fig. 597 B, g)
;

sealing,

581 (Fig. 569), 582 horned sheep and wild-goat in


positions

interlocked

accompanied by

outgrowth

8-shaped shield and 'impaled triangle'

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[i8o]
II,

SEAL-STONES
L.M.
II,

L.M.

Various subjects of a

Seal-stones,
[cont.)

Transport and navigation

religious nature (cont.)

symbols, Knossos, East Hall Deposit,


ly.

570 (Fig. 544

c),

and 605, D. 21

horned-shaped

similar seal impression.


object, like Cornucopiae,

horse with two horses' Knossos, C. 604 (incomplete) transport


60, IV.

heads above,
vessel,

single

with flowered mouth, Knossos, C. 64 (a sacral vessel), iv. 604 pillar horizontally placed above two animals in reversed positions, Knossos, C. 18, IV. 603 sealing: three serpents with cauldron-like object above, upside down, Knossos, E.
13, IV. 151 (Fig. 116)

masted with rowers and deck shelter, and superposed figure of horse, its tufted mane resembling that of those on Chariot
Tablets, a Syrian fashion, Knossos, E.
16,
II. 244 (Fig. 141), IV. 827 (Fig. 805) similar vessel with furled sail (without

horse), Knossos,

N. Entrance

Passage,
11.

with deposit of Class


(Fig. 141 b), IV.

Tablets,

244

827 (Fig. 806)


Sealing: cow,
calf, in

Granary Department. Lentoid. Crete, presumably from Knossos, hard dark green micaceous stone Bull with head turned round and near hind-leg raised towards it: in the upper field bifid cereal sign
:

Cattle pieces

and

single beasts.

suckling and licking


attitude,

conventional

(probably

miller's,

of

the

'granary'

group of the Linear Script B, with Griffins antithetically set on either side, IV. 624 (Fig. 611, and cf. Fig. 608 c, d)\
identified as signet of Palace granary

(Fig. 597 C. 52 (6 specimens), E. 31 sealing: man leaning on fence surveying bull, Knossos, A. 11, iv. 564 (Fig. 532) boy leading walking beast (cancelled by
13, iv.

Knossos,

604

B, d); also

sign: Class B), Knossos, C, iv. 564

superintendent,
sealing: facing

ib.

human head and

part of

body with large barley corn in field to right, Knossos (upper filling of Magazine X), iv. 626 (Fig. 613); similar with two grains in field, Knossos, F. 11
leonine

533) boy milking cow, Knossos, 564 two 534) walking on


(Fig.

(Fig.

C. 46,

iv.

bulls

1.

architectural

base with facing ox-heads, Knossos, N.

Entrance Passage (with tablets of Class

several similar Knossos, C. 604 germinating grain (apparently of Knossos, E. 626 615) Minoan Genius, with paw upraised,
grains,

(Little Palace), iv.

605

recumbent

B), IV. 568 (Fig. 542 a)

65,

66, IV.

barley),

12, iv.

(Fig.

ox, with head turned away from spectator (compare above specimen from Temple Repository, iv. 567 (Fig. 541 d), M.M. III6), Knossos, D. 9 recumbent ox with another behind in reversed position, head turned away from

before large similar grain, Knossos, E.

spectator (as

L.M.

\b scheme), Knossos,

fore-part of ox

10, IV.

626 (Fig. 614)


to right with linear sign

Y in front (associated with cereal group),


IV. 623 (Fig. 609 b, c, d) Transport and navigation: Sealing, chariot

566 (sealings D. 11, &c.) bull with head turned back against his flank, on architectural base with bands bearing spiraliform decoration, from Entrance of Royal Tomb, Isopata (L.M.
IV.

II pottery), iv. 562 (Fig. 530): twelve

and horses with charioteer and personage beside him reduced to pulp by effects of flood-water: found in 'Magazine of
:

examples
Episodes of the Taurokathapsia. Three-sided clay sealing, Fifth Magazine, Knossos:

Chariot Tablet', Knossos,


sealing (fragmentary)
:

iv. 609,

615

fore-part of bridled

hero with conical helmet and Minoan loin-clothing, grappling bull by horns

horse,

Knossos

(Little Palace), iv.

828

and

raising its

(Fig. 809)

L.M.

II style: barred

whole body: of finest S countermark of

: :

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[i8i]
II,

SEAL-STONES
L.M.
II,

L.M.

Episodes of the Tauroiii.

Seal-stones,
(cont.)

Animals, &c.

Various

kathapsia (cont.)

Linear Script B,
IV.

617 (Fig. 604

b).

230, 231 (Fig. 163), On two smaller

collared
in field

B graffiti, one sign group beginning with 'throne' green jasper lentoid, Mycenae: similar design, but the grappling figure is bareheaded and he is distinguished by a prosides linear

nounced proto-Armenoid
230, 231 (Fig. 164 a) agate (said to be from

profile,

ill.

Peloponnesos)
B),
ill.

version 524 couchant wearing turned back, Knossos, E. two looking


later
of, iv.

bitch and two puppies, one above (lentoid form complete), Knossos, E. 37, iv. 606 bitch suckling pup, Knossos, E. 36, iv. 606 dog seizing stag by neck, Knossos, C see
:

(Fig. 471)
collar,

lion

head

25, iv. 606


in opposite

lions seated,

man
132)
sealing,

lassoing bull (derivative version of

scene on Vapheio

Cup

188 (Fig.

Knossos, C, youth leaping forward and seizing bull's horn, iv. 609 (Fig. 597 B,k) sealing, Knossos (countermarked by balance sign and with Graffito Linear B on back) coursing bull with arms of acrobatic figure stretched out towards bull's back (the rest of figure missing probably from amygdaloid seal), iv. 6 17 (Fig. 604 a) agate intaglio (said to be from Peloponnesos) two coursing bulls and acrobatic figure executing back somersault over the back of one. At side standing figure stretching out arms as if to help performer, ill. 218

D. 604, 605 seizing Knossos, C. 31 603 boar behind, Knossos, C. 603 boar walking Knossos, C. 603 head of horned sheep surrounded by
15, IV.

Knossos, C. 33 (several examples), IV. 601 lion leaping on bull, Knossos, C. 25, 35,
directions,

lion

deer, naturalistic foliage,


(several), iv.

to

right,

tree

36, IV.

r.,

37, iv.

spray, apparently suspended


bar, Knossos, C. 40, IV.

from crossB, h)

603 (Fig. 597

Waterfowl, and other birds. Sealing (half-large sealing): waterfowl and reeds, Knossos,

A.

13, IV.

609 (Fig. 597


:

B, e: restored)

(Fig. 150)
fabric)
sealing,

and

cf.

Taureador Fresco,

ill.

two in upper compartment, among reeds with papyrus sprays, iii. 117 (Fig. 67), iv. 615
large sealing

three waterfowl,

212 (Fig. 144).

(Perhaps of L.M. Ill

(Fig. 602)

fragments

Knossos, E. 22 (with many other of Taurokathapsia scenes):

green jasper, Knossos: group of ducks and papyrus sprays, iii. 116 (Fig. 66 a), IV. 492 (Fig. 427) above types reflection
;

man

leaping on fore-part of bull, in field

of Egyptian wall-paintings,

ill.

sacral knot

and 8-shaped shield symbols,

haematite

lentoid,

Crete:

114 seqq. waterfowl


b)

IV. 609 (Fig. 597 B, a) Animals, &c. Various. Wounded lion, arrow not shown: spirited design, Kalkani, Mycenae Tomb 515: in ceramic asso-

spreading wings for flight: clump of


reeds behind,
sealing:
ill.

116 (Fig. 66

two ducks in reversed

positions,

ciation
IV.

synchronous with early L.M.


h) {see ib.

II,

544-6) sealing: two lions attacking bull, Archives Deposit, Knossos (not in list below), iv.
534. 535 (Fig- 487) collared hound and

545 (Fig. 503

D. 25, E. 606 fragmentary, apparently two conjoined


39, IV. birds, Knossos,

Kjiossos, E. 41, IV. 606 flying bird (uncertain), Knossos,

D.

24, iv. 605

Fish. Sealing: flying-fish, Knossos, C. 62, iv.

attendant:

green

jasper lentoid. Central Crete, iv. 380,

604 two fish

in reversed positions,

Knossos,
(cf.,

381 (Fig. 569), 382 sealing dog with spray below, Knossos, C.
:

E. 40, IV. 606 Circular type, designed for lentoid field


too,

39, IV. 602

L.M.

\b animal types).

Contorted

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,
lion,

[182]
II,

SEAL-STONES
L.M.
Ilia, Cylinders {cont.)

L.M.
rock

Circular type (cont.)

Seal-stones,

crystal,

Knossos,

(Fig. 583; Suppl. PI.

588 LV7); found with


iv.

haematite,
figures)

Crete,

showing

(with

other ewer,

Minoan Genius bearing


:

interment containing
:

L.M.

II pottery

sealing lion of similar type, Knossos,


IV.

D.

16,

604
:

similar,

but facing head, Knossos,


iv.

about to pour libations over baetylic pillar before standing man-bull flying dove above Cypro-Minoan style, iv. 458, 459
:

C. 32,
intaglio

IV.

603
17,

(Fig. 383),

460
E.

contorted bull, round globule,

haematite,

Astrakous,
:

of

Knossos,
subjects

588 (Fig. 584); sealing, Knossos, D. similar, without globule, iv. 604
sealing:
position,

Cypro-Minoan

Orientalizing

wild-goat (agrimt) in contracted

but chariots with bowed appendage as on Knossian tablets of Class B, iv. 425,

head drawn towards hind-legs,

426 (Fig. 351)


haematite,
'stag'

Knossos, D. 20, iv. 605 haematite: two agrimis' heads symmetrically grouped with that of horned sheep.
Central Crete,
intaglio:
iv.

seized

Harbour Town of Knossos: by hound while suckling

kid,

587 (Fig. 581)


iv.

two

bulls in reversed positions,

man-stag in Minoan loin-clothing, running animal, and seated Sphinx: of Cretan execution and types, iv. 498 (Fig.

symmetrically grouped,

Suppl. PI.

LVj
Minotaur, back-somersault types (of Nilotic origin), iv. 504,

437), 499 Lentoids. Pale yellow cornelian, with gold

hoop or

505 Sybrita, Crete, IV. 504 (Fig. 448); Lapis lacedaemonius, Diktaean Cave (Psychro), iv. 589 (Fig. 537) similar man-bull, 8-shaped shield,
;

ring, uncertain provenance' (Franks Coll. B.M.): Goddess in long robe seated on lion's head, between anti-

thetic lions, IV.

402 (Fig. 333)

pale yellow cornelian, said to

and 'impaled

triangle'

symbols in

inter-

spaces, IV. 589 (Fig. 587): sealing (half), similar man-bull in contorted position,

come from Mycenae: standing figure of Goddess in shorter robe between antithetic lions,
:

Knossos, E.
cornelian
:

14, iv.

605

interlocking figures of man-lion

sacral knot above, iv. 402 (Fig. 334) rock crystal, Idaean Cave Votary blowing conch-shell before altar-base on which

and man-bull, suggestive of revolving


motion,
iv.

are sacral horns with three sprays (sacred

589 (Fig. 586)

L.M.

Illa:

General observations: although lying outside the true palatial history of Knossos, a series of seal-stones belonging to this
phase, chiefly with religious subjects, are

behind: r. and 1. of altar, a star and another base with painted projection above, and behind votary a sacred tree,
trees)
I.

221, 222 (Fig. 167) (ritual conch-shell

illustrated

by miniature specimens from


terra-cotta
shrine),
iv.

M.M.
base)
cornelian,

II

210

here referred

to,

and a

class of

haematite

(Fig. 162) (illustration of incurved altar-

cylinders are here included.

Since, too,

in spite of the fall of the Palace, the

Mycenae
on

bull with dagger stuck

course of the local culture went on for a

in neck
nia,

while with
of

little

change, the difficulty in


seal-stones

distinguishing

its

from those

head with bucrapalm-tree behind of advanced conventional form, IV. 41 (Fig. 24)
altar-block,

L.M.

II is often great

Cylinders. Haematite,
Pelagia,
:

W.

of

Chamber Tomb, Hagia Knossos, with L.M. Ilia


carrying Griffin, and

pottery fantastic hunting scene in papy-

banded agate (debased execution): Arkhanes, sacrificed bull on table, iv. 41 (Fig. 25): green steatite, Candia Museum, similar subject, horned head, &c.,
below,
IV.

rus thicket,

man

41 (Fig. 26), 42

female figure on cantering animal with

agate lentoid.
(similar
,

Chamber Tomb, Mycenae


style):

bushy

tail, iv.
'

497 (Fig. 436)


'said to

late

long-robed priest

Not

come from Mycenae

as IV.

402

(Figs. 333

and

334).

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones,

[183]

SEAL-STONES
L.M. IIU
[cont)
style of the close of

L.M.

IIIa, Lentoids (cont.)

Seal-stones,

(haruspex)

of a

making incision into entrails boar, laid on sacrificial table, as last,

L.M.

III6

itself a

derivative of the Knossian 'Palace Style'

L.M.

IV. 572, 573 (Fig- 53) III6:

of

L.M.

II,

and presenting

at times the

tell-ta'e 'three Cs'.

'Reoccupation Period' of Knossos. General observations: It is always possible that


stray sealings belonging to this phase

L.M.

\\\c (term here applied to concluding

L.M.

Ill phase, including Cretan 'proto-

Geometrical')

may have

intruded themselves

among

Gpld signet-ring of Minoan type


at right angles to
taglio.

(oval bezel

the scattered remains of the true Palatial


deposits (L.M. II). For an isolated seal

hoop) but without inKarakovilia,

Chamber Tomb,
B, 13), 138,

impression attributed to this phase (lion springing on bull) from the Little Palace,
.

near Vrokastro, E. Crete (E. H. Hall),


II.

137 (Fig. 70

and

cf.

198

535 (Fig. 467). The most important remains were from the Lapidary's Workshop, S.W. Basement, showsee IV. 534,

(Fig. 108 d: bronze ring of

Minoan type

with engraved pattern from Glasinatz,


Bosnia)
It

ing steatite bead-seals of lentoid form in

may be

notfed that the

manufacture

process of manufacture,
calf design (Fig. 590).

iv. 594, 595, in-

of typical

Minoan

bead-seals of hard

cluding unfinished intaglio with cow and

stones also survived to this transitional

On

clay nodule

used for

dog seizing quarry, couchant oxen, goats, horned sheep, and part of conventional palmtrial

pieces were a

Age. In other contemporary tombs of Vrokastro were found two seal-stones, one a cornelian amygdaloid, the other agate of exceptionally broad amygdaloid

tree, IV.

595 n. I Referred to this epoch is also the cornelian lentoid from Arkhanes, IV.

form with what appear


vegetable motives.
Bead-seals.

to be degenerate

Forms and material of and


list

animal and ducks illustrating a further advance of L.M. II convoluted types. A remarkable dark steatite lentoid (transitional to

588 (Fig. 582),

feline

chronological place in above

Primitive three-sided type of irregular fabric,


steatite,

E.M.

Whorl of

irregular

fabric,

green

steatite,

amygdaloid) lately found in Knossos district, here given in inset, shows a

E.M.I
Cylinders of indigenous type, with lateral
perforation, steatite

baked

clay,

E.M.

II,

E.M. Ill Compact three-sided


in
soft
II,

type, better executed,


steatite

materials,

and

ivory,

E.M.

E.M.

III

Bottle or pear-shaped seals (forerunners of


'signet' type), steatite

and

ivory,

E.M.

II-M.M. la
Animal types
(bulls

and sheep couchant, apes,


Ill

fore-parts of swine), mostly ivory, begin


Steatite bead-seal

from near Knossos


Ill b (f)

E.M.

II,

E.M.

L.M.

Bird's-head, ivory,

E.M.

II

Birds (Dove and young), ivory,

E.M.

Ill

highly convoluted and ornamentalized


tentacled

Lion couchant, ivory (imitations of protoEgyptian draught-pieces), E.M. Ill Owl, ivory, E.M. Ill Cylinder of Oriental type, imitated in gold,
Little

design of an Argonaut with its three fish. This design is of great

Argonaut types of the Ceramic 'Late Revival'


interest as a glyptic version of the

E.M.

Ill

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones, Bead-seals (cont.)

[184]

SEAL-STONES
disks'

Seal-stones, Bead-seals [cont)

Conoids, steatite and ivory, E.M. Ill,


Ilia

M.M.

above),

M.M.
I

lib,

M.M.

Ill,

overlapping
la
(ivory)

L.M.

Hemi-cylinder (an Egyptian type), of ivory,

Lentoids, mostly in similar hard stones (exceptionally found of steatite already in

M.M.

Tubular bead

with engraved oval facet, M.M. la; prototype of Minoan signet-rings with oval bezel at right angles to hoop, which itself is often too
small for the finger

tinuing to
'Flat

E.M. HI), M.M. L.M.


Cylinders'
(in

116,

M.M.
in

HI, conlllb

Ilia,

L.M.

usually of steatite
similar

hard

stones,

also haematite),

M.M.

lib,

M.M. HI

Solid gold 'weight seal' (Egyptian gold unit)

with engraved spiraliform pattern below,

type),

(masterpieces of design seen on this L.M. la,b, L.M. II (decadent

M.M.
Elongated

la

'Button' seal, black steatite,

M.M.
(soft

three-sided
la, b

type

stones),

example found in Tomb at Kalkani, Mycenae, L.M. III6. A.E.) Amygdaloids first come into vogue (on hard
:

M.M.
1

stones) in

M.M.

Ill (in

M.M.

III6-

2th Dyn. Egyptian scarab (amethyst) used by Minoan engraver for hieroglyphs of

L.M. la
jects).

largely used for talismanic subearlier

Cretan Class A,

M.M.

Ih

Minoan
Thick,

imitations in ivory and soft stone,


16 disks

M.M.

flat-sided

(designs

on both
la

faces), ivory

and

soft stone,

M.M.

are of a smoothbut in L.M. la their back appears framed with grooved borders (perhaps imitative of plum-stones A.E .) In L.M. II they become rarer, lentoid impressions largely predominating in

The

backed

class,

'Tabloids' with slightly rounded faces (re-

garded as prototypes of
class),

'flat

cylinder'

MM. la

Hard

stones, as agate, cornelian, chalcedony,

general

rock crystal, amethyst, and jasper, first in use by Minoan engravers in


of seal in use in

late Palatial deposits at Knossos (a remarkable specimen in dark steatite of a form transitional between the amygdaloid and lentoid shapes, recently found near Knossos, shows a decorative design largely suggested by an argonaut type

MM. II
Forms

and

paralleled

by a

series of vase designs

M.M.

II for
:

advanced

of the 'Late Revival'


<^.

Hieroglyphic inscriptions (B) flat-sided disks, prisms elongated (three-sided), do. four-sided 'signet' types, types with convoluted backs. (Similar types on M.M. II bead-seals also used for natural subjects)

(iv. 296 (Fig. 231 573 (Fig- 311))- The pure amygdaloid type in agate and cornelian is shown
<^).

from
the

finds in the late cemetery of Vro-

H. Hall) to have survived (like Minoan type of ring) down to the latest 'Sub-Minoan' phase, L.M. Ilk
kastro (E. (A.E.)

Abnormal

lentoid bead form, yellow steatite,

inlaid with red material

(M.M. Ha,

poly-

chrome pattern)
Lion-shaped type, amethyst, M.M. II Outgrowth of prism type with three slightly bossed engraved faces tapering towards
ends; red cornelian subjects often
manic',
'talis-

Elongated amygdaloid type (grooved back), generally succeeds the normal type in

L.M.
beads

16 (taken over for engraved gold


at

Thisbe and Knossos). Survives


(Also described as 'elongated

L.M.
oval')

II.

M.M. III-L.M. la (surviving example in Vapheio Tomb) Flat-sided disks in hard stones (agate, cornelian, jasper,

Cylinders of Oriental type (longitudinally

bored and engraved round circumference), cornelian

and

agate,

L.M.

la, b

rock crystal), slightly bossed


exceptionally,

Cylinders of haematite (Oriental tradition)

faces,

design,

on both
flat-sided

with designs both purely Cretan and

faces

(derivative

of

'thick,

Cypro-Minoan, L.M. Ilia, b

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones, Bead-seals (cont.)
Illustrative subjects

[i8s]

SEAL-STONES
III.

Seal-stones, Bead-seals [cont.)

and

details (short selection)

215, 216 (on gold signet and Thisbe

After-world, scenes
III.

of,

on 'Ring of Nestor',

gold bead-seal).

Bull grappled by hero


iv.

146 seqq.

who
;

raises

him from the ground,

230,

Antithetic types, IV. i6g, &c.

Ants in reversed positions on ivory bead (reflection of 7th Dynasty 'button' seals), IV. 510
Architectural types,
I.

23 1 Feats of Theseus and Herakles with Cretan and Marathonian bull compared,
IV. 229,

230
Chrysalis),
ill. 148; above comparison with that of

Butterfly

(see, too,

564, 565, 684, 685;


I.

flower, IV. 1018;

'triple gradation',
tral' pillar

686-9; with 'thea-

Priest-king fresco,
ib.,

ib.;

emblem

of

life,

and

capital,
I.

with spiral dadoes,


793:
attribute

689 (Fig. 509); 694, 695


I.

and

cf. ill.

80; on gold scales from


III, allusion to

Mycenae Shaft Grave


:

Aspergillum (holy-water sprinkler),


spiritual

of Goddess dominion Axe (Double) rising from bull's head, i. 434, 435, IV. 244; placed above with sacral robes on either side, ib.
'

792, entreating

11.

weighing of souls eyed butterfly of clay


sealing, in. 149-51; butterflies
still

re-

garded as
Calf's

'little

souls' in Crete, in. 151,

iv. 491 Cat pursuing ducks (inspired by Egyptian

152 (and cf. 148, 149) head (dressed for table),


III.

Axe

(single-bladed), of Syro-Egyptian type,

Chita),

117
title, I.

held by long-robed priest-princes,

iv.

Cat badge accompanied by royal


(Fig.

277

413-19 Boar on sacrificial table haruspex making


. :

207
:

a),

278

in-

Cattle-pieces
base,

Group on architectural stepped


566; kine in reversed posi565-7; fragment of 'prize ox' 564 (Fig. 532); boy milking
; ;

cision in entrails, iv. 572, 573

IV.

Boar hunt, iv. 473, 474 Boars, group of three (fine M.M. Ill style), IV. 572 (Fig. 549) with young, sealing, ib.
;

tions, IV.

scene, iv.

cow,
ib.

IV.

564 (Fig. 530) boy leading beast,

(Fig- 548) Boxing scene, of arena,

Grand Stand

pillar,

(Fig. 533) man driving three oxen, ib. (Fig. 535); man leading ox by rope, iv.

and

fallen

512),

champion shown, I., 691 (Fig. and cf. IV. 512 (Fig. 456 a, b (Hagia

565 (Fig. 536); Minoan Genius leading


bull in similar

manner,

iv.

443 (Fig.

Triada sealings, M.M. Illb); Martial Combat on Mycenae signet, i. 691 (Fig.
513) (L.M. la); a later adaptation of the spectacular scheme, ib.

368); do., leading cow, ib.; two lowing oxen in crossed positions, iv. 565 (Fig.
tions, palm-trees' in

537); oxen walking in different direcbackground, signet

Boy-God,
altar,

see

under Goddess
neck on
;

impression,

Knossos,

iv.

609

(Fig.

Bull, sacrificial, with knife stuck in

597

B,

m)
11.

showing bucrania, iv. 41 ritual sacrifice of, in arena by Minoan matador, IV. 40, and see ill. 226
Bull of taurokathapsia in net, iv. 574 bursting through barrier, ib.
: ;

Ceiling patterns, relation of, to seal-types,

203, 204, 207; 'Template' used for, with

Egyptian
to seated

'tree' sign, 11.

203
767, iv. 395 (on similar type, Za-

Chalice: with symbolic circle above, offered

Goddess,

11.
;

Coursing bull with acrobatic figures above, I. 636, IV. 218, 219; performer turning back somersault over bull's back while an assistant figure stands by with outstretched hands,
I.

clay matrix, Knossos)


kro,

II. 768; held by seated Goddess (Tiryns signet-ring), iv. 393, 460
:

Chariots, &c.

694

(sealing,

Temple

Thisbe,
goats

iv.

Type B (Knossos), iv. 816; 817. Type C (Vapheio), iv.


IV.

Repository); agate lentoid, iii. 218; Circus scene of Taureador Fresco compared, ib. charging bull with overthrown performer below, sacral knots in field,
;

820 (Avdu),
Chrysalis
(see,

823

drawn by wildsymbolic ap:

too, Butterfly):

pearance of on

Minoan

signets

on 'Ring

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones, Bead-seals (cont.)

[i86]

SEAL-STONES
manic' class of bead-seals, iv. 447-50; held by Minoan Genii (as rain-bringers),
IV.

Seal-stones, Bead-seals {cont)

of Nestor',

iii.

148 (Fig. 96), 149-51 (of

White

butterfly);

140, 141 (Fig. in gold


III.

on Vapheio ring. III. 92), 142 (also on parallel

451-60

signet scenes recently discovered, A. E.)

Fable, illustration of, recognized in episode

from Mycenae Chamber Tomb,

149, 151 (Fig. 102); gold pendants.

of goat and dog, iv. 508, 509 Fallow deer {Cervtis dama) represented in

Third Shaft Grave, Mycenae. (As emblems of resurgence peculiar to Minoan


Religion)
Cockle-shells,
i.

Minoan seal-type (not Red


;

deer), iv. 578,

Column,

pillar,

696 (Fig. 518 A, i) or menhir, 'baetylic' as repre-

579 horned fallow deer suckling young, IV. 558, 559 Fish (flying), in. 129, 130; compared with
Phylakopi fresco, in. 129,
Fish, in rocky pool,
i.

iv. 604, no.

62

sentative of divinity

and

its

ritually se-

cured,

temporary

habitation:
I.

visible

697, iv. 490, 491; in reversed positions, iv. 606, no. 40

within temenos or shrine,


sacrificial

160,

161;

Fish, Skaros, or 'Parrot Wrasse' (amidst sea-

horned sheep tethered to, in. 317; libations poured over by Minoan
Genii, iv. 454, 455, 459; in front of seated Goddess, iv. 393, 460; replacing divine figure between antithetic lions,
IV.

weed), I. 677, IV. 494 Fisherman, holding octopus and parrot wrasse {skaros), Knossos, I. 677, iv. 494 Flying bird: Masterpiece on Hagia Triada
sealing, iv. 490, 491
;

of 'talismanic' class

610-13 (Lions' Gate type); between

on

late

prism

seal, IV.

542 (Fig. 495

e);

Griffins, in. 511 (Fig. 361,

and

cf.

Fig.

in Palatial deposits, IV. 605, no. 25, 606,

3SS)'

(-^^^i

^""i

under Religion)

Column with
sos.

capital of
I.

(see Frescoes),

Grand Stand type 689 (Fig. 509) Knos-

no. 39 Frescoes and painted stucco


reflected in seal motives

reliefs
:

(Minoan)

scenes of bull

Temple Repository
I.

sealing

sports with acrobatic figures {see above),


toilette

Conch-shells,

518 /j), IV. Cornucopiae, iv. 604 (no. 64) Crab, I. 696 (Fig. 518^) Cup-bearer (fresco), lentoid agate on wrist
70s (Fig. 441) Cynocephalus, adorant (Egyptian types),
III.

122 (Fig. 167), 696 (Fig. 210 (ritual use of)

scene of class of 'Ladies in Blue'

(M.M.

III), IV. 518 (Fig. 46ifl,i); duck-hunting scenes, probably of similar

origin, in. 115 seqq. (for Flying-fish see


of,

above) Gallop (flying) on seal-types,


characteristic of

i.

716; specially

11.

794 Dancers

ecstatic, in. 68, 69,


,

140
.

Minoan Art, i. 713 seqq. Galopetras or 'milk stones', name applied by Cretan peasants to Minoan seal-stones,
iv.446, 485 n.
I
.

Dendra (Mideia) gold signet-ring from, iv 17 'Diaskourai', twin girl attendants of Minoan
Goddess, n. 340, 341 (Fig. 194), 342, ni. 154

(The lighter hues are pretoo,

ferred for their talismanic virtues. A.E.)

Genius,

Minoan

{see,

under separate

heading), iv. 430-67.


largely a

Type derived from

Dog

{see

Hound)

Hippopotamus Goddess Ta-Urt, though

Doves, seated facing on incurved altar-block, IV. 605, no. 4; one held by long-robed
Priest-king, iv. 405 (Fig. 336),

Minoan creation, iv. 431 seqq.; pregnant outline of body in cases preserved, IV. 434, 435; astral relation still indicated by stars and ox-legs {Khopsh

406 (Fig.

337); recognized as Rock-dove, ib.; ivory pendant seal in form of dove with

sign of Set, Great Bear constellation), 441, and cf. 436, 437; beneficent nature of as leaders and carriers of aniIV.

young, I. 117, IV. 486, 487 Duck-hunting, Nilotic scenes, in. 116, 117, IV. 492; taken from wall-painting, in.

mals, IV. 441-4; ewer-bearing as waterers

"5
Ewers (beaded and high-spouted) on
'talis-

of vegetation, iv. 445-7 (relation to talismanic class of vegetation charms, iv. 445-

;:

; :

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones, Bead-seals (cont.)
52);

[187]

SEAL-STONES
Minoan (co<.)
with boy-God (adolescent and child) youthful figure armed with spear before seated Goddess, in. 464; tiara'd youth
assisting

Seal-stones, Bead-seals, Goddess,

Genius before grain of barley, iv. 626; Ministers of Goddess, iv. 460, 461 of youthful God, iv. 465-r7 as magical
;

protector of hero attacking lion,

iv. 462,'

Goddess

to

rise

from

earth,

463 (Fig. 387); between antithetic lion guardians, iv. 461; between youthful
attendants, IV. 466

with
lap,

boy-God above brandishing bow and holding up disk with child on


little
:

Goat, Cretan (Agrimt), constant appearance of on Minoan seals from Early Minoan
times: winged,
i.

from reed-holding warriors, in. 471 paralleled by Christian sixth-century signet showing adoration
receiving gifts
;

708
seal-

Goat-men and -women, winged, Zakro,

Gold
IV.

of Magi,

III.

475
la,

'weight-seal' (answering to Egyptian

ings, I. 707 Goddess, Minoan {see separate heading and Religion): important illustrations of by gold signet-rings from Knossos, 'Ring of Minos' (transmarine migration),
IV.

gold unit),

M.M.

Knossos

district,

950

seqq.

(Fig.

917);

Mycenae

(tended beneath fruit-tree, Double Axe symbol, &c.), 11. 340, 341 Tiryns God;

dess

holding chalice, Minoan Genii bearing ewers for libations, iv.


seated,
;

665 Grain, perhaps barley, germinating, iv. 626 Greek adoption of Minoan seal motives and shapes: two ivory ring-bezels from Hellenistic Grave, Canea, imitating heroic Minoan scenes both found on L.M. la bead-seals of Third Shaft Grave, Mycenae, III. 125, 126, and Fig. 80 a, 6;
revived amygdaloid type with late Greek
version of Theseus and Minotaur,
lion springing
iv.

460 Clay matrix of signet-ring, Knossos (and seal impressions showing votary bearing chalice with mystic circle above to seated Goddess), 11. 767, iv. 395; impression of signet with identical subject,
Zakro,
11. 768; reconstruction of subject of seal impressions from Central Shrine,

18
in-

revived sixth-century Greek versions of

on

bull,
;

due to Ionian

fluences, IV. 559, 560 paralleled by coin types, Akanthos, &c., ib. revival of cow
;

Knossos, Goddess on lion-rguarded peak,


shrine,
IV.

and male adorant, 11. 808, 809, 608 (Fig. 597 A, c) Thisbe, gold sig;

net.

Goddess seated, offered and holding poppy capsules (as Mycenae ring), Kainto

kovatos (Pylos) 'Ring of Nestor', entry


butterfly

World below, Minoan Yggdrasil and and chrysalis emblems of reIII.

and calf types and cow licking hind-leg and scratching head on sixth- and fifthcentury Greek coins suggestive influence of similar kind on revived steatite imitations of Minoan amygdaloid and lentoid forms in Melos, Crete, and Corinthia about 700 B.C., IV. 560 Griffins: antithetically seated, sealing, Knos:

surgence,

146 seqq.

attributes and symbols attached to her with 'snake frame', see below; wreathed with snakes and holding holy-water sprinkler and horned sword, emblems of spiritual and temporal dominion (L.M. la deposit), 11. 793-5; drawing Asiatic bow (hunting stag), IV. 577; wearing

712 (Fig. 5366); eagle-heads of, one with protuberance on beak (as Greek), sealings, Zakro,
sos,
I.

antithetic, crested,

ib.;

crested,

eagle

type,

antithetically

placed with head looking back, signet,

Mycenae, in. 510; do., bound antithetically to column on base (Lions' Gate scheme), ib.; do., back to back, looking
back, bird between, late Palatial sealing,
IV.

341 (Fig. 194 c), IV. 577 (Fig. 560); holding poppy capsules and offered them, 11. 341 (Fig.
11.

'sacral knots' (see below),

608 (Fig. 597

A, I)

Eagle-heads

of,

substituted for Egyptian hawk-headed


type,
I. 710-13; Griffin enthroned as Chief Inquisitor in Under-world, on 'Ring of Nestor', in. 153, 154

194

d, e);

III.

458 (Fig. 319); holding


471

cymbal

as CybelS, in.

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones, Bead-seals (cont.)
:

[188]

SEAL-STONES
gold signet-ring from Mycenae, 786; flower of Hyakinthos, ib.
e),
11.

Seal-stones, Bead-seals (cont.)

Horse part of clay sealing showing, forepart of, bridled, iv. 826 (Fig. 809); chariot horses, iv. 828 (Fig. 808); figure of, with knotted mane, superposed on transport vessel, large sealing, Knossos, iv. 827
(Fig. 805)

341

(Fig. 194

and

see

Iris reticulata,

Ivy, sacral,

on Tree of the World of 'Ring of


11.

Nestor', ring

462,
II),

463;
lily

in

conjunction
signet
iv.

with decorative
Bitch)
:

on bronze

Hound

{see, too,

collared, resembling

(L.M.

from near Knossos,

greyhound led by man, 11. 765 (Fig. 494), IV. 581 (Fig. 569) two antithetic mastiffs, cords round necks, held by youth (perhaps boy-God) standing between them,
;

319 (Fig. 259) Kantharos (or two-handled chalice), sometimes with conical lid, on 'talismanic'
class as vegetation (rain-bringing)
IV.

charm,

II.

765 (Fig. 495),

IV.

580, 581

do.,

with

two attendants (leonine head), following hunter in pursuit of wild-goat on ivory


hemi-cylinders,

446, 447 Kid, parturition of (Repository sealing),

i.

M.M.

la,

I.

197, IV. 523


stag,

hound leaping on back of hunted

696 (Fig. 518 d), IV. 563 Knots, sacral, hung on each side of baetylic column, I. 432 (Fig. 310 b), iv. 600; pair
in front of coursing bull of taurokathapsia
i. 412 225 (Fig. 158), 226 (Fig. 1 5 9) part of similar design on fragmentary sealing, iv. 609 (Fig. 597 B, a); conjoined with Double Axe above ecstatic scene, i.

M.M.
neath

II, IV.

524 (Fig. 470);


baetylic
it, ib.

do., be-

small

column with

(overthrown performer below),


(Fig.

seated dog beside

(Fig. 471) (pro-

310

a). III.

bably L.M. II); correspondence of type with that of Odysseus' brooch, ib. type of lion leaping on quarry taken over from that showing hound, iv. 525; hound on base with sacral 'impaled tri;

angle'

symbol above, iv. 581 (Fig. 568); dedication of dogs to divinity illustrated

432 (Fig. 310), III. 140; triple group between 8-shaped shields (reproducing dado band above spiral frieze), iv. 608
(Fig. 597 A, k) Labyrinth: see Meander Lapidary's Workshop, Knossos (L.M. Ill bead-seals in process of manufacture,

by the use of gigantic hounds

to

guard

Temple of Diktynna, 11. 795; by sacred hounds of Er3rx, ib.

paralleled

b),

iv.

Hunter lassoing horned sheep, iv. 569; with bow, stalking wild-goat (agrimi), M.M.
la ivory half-cylinder,
IV.
;

Lily

574.575 (Madonna)
especially
I.

(native

to

Crete).

See
II.

I.

197 (Fig. 145),


iv.

506 seqq.,

603,

604,

523 stabbing wild-goat, erect,


;

577

454 seqq.
Lions of primitive seal-stones (due to Nilotic
:

already prostrate, iv. 577 (Fig. 559)5 spearing boar, iv. 573; bearing wild-goats on pole (E.M. Ill), iv. 522
(Fig. 558)

influences), IV. 525, 526; lion types in


.

M .M appear as result of first-hand Mainland experiences,


lion leaping
iv.

two hunters trussing slaughtered lion, Hagia Triada sealing,' iv. 522 (Fig. 467); similar type from Vapheio
(Fig. 466)
;

526; type showing

Tomb,
field,

IV. 522, n. 2.

Hut, round, with pointed roof; snakes in


I. 674, 675, II. 132 (Fig. 66); compared with primitive hut-urns, ib.; gabled huts with three and four posts in

on quarry now supersedes earlier version in which hounds seize the prey, iv. 527; Minoan scheme of lion springing on victim's back (of indigenous
Cretan tradition) contrasted with Oriental type (of cylinder tradition) with lion's
Lion,
hind-feet on ground, iv. 528, 529 wounded type, iv. 544, 545
at flying gallop,
i.

674 (Fig. 493 b, c) Impish horned face and raised hands on M.M. II signet, Mochlos, i. 703
front,
I.

Lion

lioness overtaken by,

i.

716 (Fig. 539 a); 716 (Fig. 539 b)

Iris

flowers offered to seated


'

Goddess on

Lion-seals, ivory, copied

from proto-dynastic

Erroneously described in text as from 'Zakro'.

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones, Bead-seals (cont.)

[189]

SEAL-STONES
abnormal form on Zakro sealing with human arms, I. 359, 702 (Fig. 525/)
relation of to kindred type of man-lion,
IV. 589 (Fig. 586); man-stag, I. 702 (Fig. 525 e); man-goat, I. 707 (Fig. 531 a) type as revived with labyrinth on reverse on Greek coinage of Knossos, I. 359

Seal-stones, Bead-seals (cont.)


iv.

draught-pieces,

11.

55 (Fig. 26),

486,

487 (Fig. 407) (cf. Fig. 406); steatite, Knossos (assimilated to Egyptian scarab type), IV. 486 (Fig. 415); amethyst (M.M. II), IV. 486 (Fig. 416)
Lions, antithetic, as guardians of divinity
(Lions' Gate type, &c.), iv. 610-14, ^'^
See, too, above

Column,

'baetylic', 11. 808,

(Fig.

260/ I,/ 2)

809 (sealings from Central Shrine, Knossos) Lions on Late Minoan seals: masterpieces, IV. 532 (Fig. 481, and Suppl.Pl. LV d, e,h, j); prominence in this epoch, iv. 582, 583 Lion-hunting scenes, iv. 574-6; spearman with 8-shaped shield and archer attacking lion on Kydonia
;

on lentoid identified as, iv. 624 guarded by Griffins, probably seal of Granary Superintendent, ib. Monstrous forms on Zakro sealings, I. 700
Millet: bifid cereal
;

seqq.

'flat

cylinder', iv.

Oedipus story on gold bead-seals from Thisbe Treasure; Oedipus slaying Sphinx, III. 416-18 (Fig. 282), iv. 513,
chariot

575 (Fig. 556) paralleled by episode on inlaid Mycenae dagger-blade, ib., and
III.

514; slaying his father Laios, riding in through rocky defile (o-xtcTi)

n8

seqq.; original version probably


iii.

to be sought in w^all-painting,

117 seqq.; modern African parallel to scene (from Tanganyika Territory), ill. 122,
123

oSdj), 111.416, 417, IV. 515 (Fig.457), 516, 816, 817 (Fig. 796: chariot type B)

Orestes story on gold bead-seal of same

Thisbe parure
Owls,
Little, four

murder of Aegisthos and

Klytemnestra,

Lioness suckling young, depicted as maned


lion, IV.

iv. 514 (Figs. 458, 459) round star, I. 696 (Fig. 518

559
Ill
i.

Meander (Maze and Labyrinth): on E.M.


sealings,

/); ivory seal cut in shape of (Mesara), iv. 488 (Fig. 410 bis) (compared with breccia vase, IV.

121 (Fig. 90), 122, 357, 359


c,

488

(Fig.

(Fig.

260

d);

relation

to

meander

Palm-tree:
part of

nursling,

410 a, b)) watered by Minoan

types of 6th, and following Dynasties,


I.

358 (Fig. 258 a-c); relation to Egyptian

'house'

and

'palace'

signs,

meander
;

1. 257 a-c) human figure (suggesting Minotaur) in centre of

hieroglyphs,

358 (Fig.

Egyptian mazes

Minotaur (man-bull), antecedent suggestion of type on black steatite cylinder, Karnak,


I.

716 539 behind group of two oxen, L.M. Knossos, m) 603, no. 41 597 conventional Late Minoan type behind
(Fig.
a)

Genii, iv. 453 (Figs. 377, 378); upper L.M. II sealing, iv. 604, D. 18 behind lions, M.M. Ill sealing (Zakro), I.
II sealing,
B,

IV.

(Fig.

sacrificed bull, iv. 41 (Fig. 24),

568 (Fig.

598 (Fig. 259 opp.),

IV.

503 (Fig.

542

b)

c), 504; primitive Minoan form on Phaestos whorl, iv. 504 (Fig. 448); reminiscence of Sumerian cylinder figures, prototypes of Ea-bani, ib. black steatite

447

Palm-trees,

on peak:
11.

traditional

group of

three 'flat-sided disk' (agate),

M.M.

lib.

464 (Fig. 299): the ceramic vogue of this type extends from

Central Crete,

lentoid of early style

from Knossos with

M.M.
&c.

lib to

L.M.

I c

Minotaur making a back somersault, above a star, iv. 505 traditional attitude of tumblers on early Nilotic cylinders, ib. Minotaur types of this form on late
;
;

Papyrus with waterfowl, in. 116, 117,

iv.

602,

Papyrus rod (Waz), sacred emblem, adopted


i. 705 (Fig. 528), &c. Periphetes falling back over his body shield, sardonyx amygdaloid. Third Shaft

by Minoan engravers,

Minoan
IV.

lentoid,

i.
;

358 (Fig. 260

e,

opp.),

this attitude to the lentoid class, iv.

504 (Fig. 448) special adaptability of 589

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones, Bead-seals (cont.)

[190]

SEAL-STONES
Scarab, amethyst, 12th Dyn., engraved with Minoan hieroglyphs, I. 199
Scarabs,
copies

Seal-stones, Bead-seals {cont)


ill.

Grave, Mycenae,

514, and see Fig. 80 a, opp. p. 126; travesty of,


iv.

by

Schliemann's
as
'a

artist

and misdescription
i
;

of

Egyptian
Spelio,

12th
11.

Dyn.,

woman

in early dress with gold

Tomb XVII, Mavro

537

buttons', IV. 126 n.


Hellenistic

type imitated by
iii.

engraver,
II

Fig.

80

b,

Shield (8-shaped body shield): religious aspects of, compared with Ancilia, iii. 314,

opp. p. 126

Polychrome

M.M.

yellow steatite

ceramic pattern on lentoid with inlays, iv.


inset)

489 (Fig. 419 and

bead in form of, ill. 316 symbol in field of sealstones beside horned sheep and baetylic column. III. 317 (Fig. 208); by bulls and
315
;

lapis lazuli

(Fig. 207); as

Poppy

capsules (or beads) held by Goddess


11.

or votaries,

340, 341 (Fig. 194 d,

e)

Minotaur, ill. 3 17 (Figs. 210-12) processional warriors wearing 8-shaped shields


;

Priest-king (or long-robed priestly figures),

representing frieze, above spiral dado,

404-19; holding dove, iv. 405 (Fig. 336); leading Griffin, iv. 412 (Fig. 34'i); with bow, IV. 413 (Fig. 342); holding Syro-Egyptian axe, iv. 414 (Fig. 343 a, h, c)\ in chariot holding spear, iv. 419 (Fig. 348); similar long-robed figure as haruspex opening entrails of boar, iv.
IV.

313 (Fig. 204); similar type, but no dado, III. 313 (Fig. 205) Shield, small, of child-God, or hero suspended
III.

in grave enclosure,

iii.

Shield

142 (Fig. 93)


figure on,
in

prone,

entranced
ill.

religious scene,

Signet-ring,

Minoan

140, 141 (Fig. 91) (gold, &c.), with bezel

572. 573 (Fig. 55) Rowers, on E.M. Ill prism seal, iv. 520;

M.M. III-L.M.

I a, IV.

520, 521
Ill,
I.

Sailing-vessels (ships),

L.M.

118 (Fig.

'

hoop: evolution from bead with engraved facet, iii. 139 (Fig. 90), IV. 510 (Fig. 434), 511; originally for suspension, hoops thus often too
at right angles to

239 (Fig. 136 a, b) (mostly equipped with oars) on seals of Hieroglyphic Class, M.M. I-II6, i. 283 (Fig. 215 d); with olive-trees above,
87, 7),
II.

small for finger,


senting,

ib.

Silphium, hieroglyphic signs apparently repreSkiff (or


I. 284 (Fig. 216) rowing boat) with hippocamp-like head, bearing Goddess (sometimes also shrine and sacred tree). See especially

referring
(Fig. 702)
II

to transport

of

oil,

iv.

717

M.M. black 241 140) M.M. III


II.

steatite lentoid (with oars),

(Fig.

'flat

cylinder'

(haematite),

Knossos, at full sail, 11. 243 (Fig. 140); sail divided into squares indicative of textile decoration as in case of Egyptian ships, 11. 206, 207; parallel type of sail

950 seqq. (Figs. 917-19); sea-monhead compared with Skylla, ib. with oarsman fending ofi^ dog-headed monster, I. 698 (Fig. 520); sealing of
IV.

ster's

with

IV.

828 (Fig. 807) oars, deck cabin, and passengers, L.M. I b, Tiryns Treasure, 11. 245 (Fig.
142), IV.

Temple Repository, Knossos also compared with Skylla, ib. Snake-entwined Goddess, Knossos hoard, L.M. la, holding symbols of spiritual and temporal dominion, 11. 793 (Fig.
:

on Late

926

517) 'Snake-frames',
(Fig. 494),
figure,

iv.

168-71
v\fith

244 (Fig. 141 a, b), IV. 827 (Fig. 806); with furled sail and deck shelter; iv. 827 (Fig. 807); similar type with rowers and horse like those of chariots on
11.

Palatial

Knossos

sealings,

Snakes associated
II.

round hut,

I.

674

132

Swallow, decoy, on string held by female


II.

763
i.

Swastika, above horned sheep and manger,


69s, 696 (Fig. 5186)

tablets

superposed, the

mane knotted

in late Egyptian fashion indicative of

Sword (horned) held by Goddess


of temporal dominion,
11.

as

symbol

transport, iv. 827

792, 793

SEAL-STONES
Seal-stones, Bead-seals [cont.)

[191]
Seals, Cylinder,

SEALS
Babylonian
(cont.)

Textile style in floral patterns of


IV. 100,

M.M.

la,

loi (Fig. 66 a-e)

Tree, olive, as idebgraphs above ship, Vf.jij


(Fig. 702); sprays of, iv.

717 (Fig. 701),

from outskirts of Candia, 11. 265 Cappadocian cylinder, sacred bulls on, 206 Chaldaean cylinder, chariots on, iv. 810
lions attacking prey on, iv. 528

in.

and

I.

283

(on seals of Hieroglyphic

Palm, Sacred

Class)
see

Cypriote cylinder

seals,

adapted from Orien-

above

tal

(see, too. Religion): associated with Goddess, and baetylic pillar: fig-trees in temenos, i. 160 (Fig. 115); fruit-tree (in similar connexion), branch pulled

prototypes, iv. 408, 496 designs on

dove

down

to offer fruit or juice to


iii.

Goddess

cult, IV. 407, 408 primitive inscription on, iv. 763 from Astrakous, Crete, iv. 425 from Hagia Paraskevi, iv. 763

(Minoan Soma),

142 (Fig. 93), iv. 950 (Fig. 917), 951, 954 (Fig. 924) ('Ring of Minos'), II. 340, 341 (Fig. 194 e); (Mycenae signet-ring), carried with
;

scarab, with cow and


Egyptian button

from Old Salamis,

iv.

407, 408

calf, iv.

557

seals, influence of

on Cretan
504

baetylic shrine, in boat of Goddess, iv.

952 (Fig. 919); in the air, with Goddess above vessel, iv. 953 (Fig. 923); (for

cylinder, proto-Egyptian,
506
influence

types, n. 45 n. 2, in. 140, iv. reversed lions on, in. 140


I.

133, iv. 505,


of,

Minoan 'Tree

of the World', see

YggIV.

Chaldaean derivation

n. 28

Sacred,

drasil)

on E.M.

seals, n. 28, 54,

of papyrus-like appearance beiv.

506
animals on, iv. 503 tumblers on, iv. 503, 506

tween two wild-goats,

604,

D. 19

in front of 'young Minotaur', iv. 387 (Fig- 331)

Waterfowl, with reeds and papyrus (scenes


of Nilotic
class), in.

glazed steatite, from Abydos, n. 209 of Senusert III and Amenemhat III,

116, 117, iv. 609

(Fig. 397 B, c), 615;


(Figs. 68, 69)

pursued by

feline

prism,
IV.

from Abydos,
steatite,

iv. 130,

137

animal (Chita or Caffre Cat), in. 117


Yggdrasil,

from Karnak, iv. 503 compared with Early Minoan seals, Middle

504

Minoan 'Tree

of

the

World'

scarab, introduction of in time of

divides After-world Scenes

on 'Ring of

Nestor', in. 148 seqq. (see Figs. 95, 104)

Seals

Kingdom, 11. 207 Minoan influence on, n. 207 influence of on Minoan seals,
I2th Dynasty,
744, 745
lotus

iv.

248

Sub-Minoan, crystal scarab with lion attacking cow from Beirut (possibly Phoenician
work),

waz

pattern of, n. 480,


n. 3

Early

535 Cycladic adaptations

IV.

buds motive on, n. 207


11.

of

Oriental

cylinder types, iv. 496


Seals, Cylinder:

Assyrian cylinder, lion attacking bull on,

iv.

54 from Crete, found in the Diktaean Cave and engraved with Minoan Hieroglyphic Signs of Class A, n. 45, 480
n. 2

Ta-urt on,

53
Babylonian, button type from Central Baby-

of Rameses II from Kurion,


of

iv.

371
11.

505 cylinder, importation of Oriental examples into Crete in M.M. age, in. 515, iv.'

lonia, IV.

Queen Thii from Enkomi,

495
11.

497 from tholos


n. 265,
IV.

from Phaestos, I v. 24 n. 4 motive, on vase from Phaestos, 204 n. 4


imitation Egyptian faience beads,

at Platanos,

I.

15, 197, 198,

in

54

Sub-Minoan ('L.M.

IIIc'),

or proto-

SEALS
Seals, Cylinder,

[192]

SEALINGS

Egyptian

(cont.)
ii.

Sealings, clay,

Geometrical Tombs, near Vrokastro,

from Asine,
M.M. n, 8 designs on
I.

E.M. lllb
11.

(cont.)

137 (Fig- 7- 13) Elamite, early, leopard attacking prey on,

529 Greek, geometric period, with horseman from

IV.

202 n. 3 M.M. I, from Knossos, i. 171, 11. 202 Room of the Stone Drain Head, from MaUia, 11. 266
barley corn, iv. 627 11. 188
iv.

i.

201

eighth century,

Megara,

iv.

830 n. 4
revival of

gem

engraving

castellated buildings,

in translucent green steatite, &c., at Melos, Corinthia, and in Crete, IV. 560;

influence of Assyrian wounded-lion type on Greek 548 Minoan types 'Theseus and
visible
intaglio, iv.

faience type (talismanic), iv. 445 n. 3

Classical

in

Minotaur' on revived amygdaloid beadseal, Crete, iv. 18; revival of lion

and

bull types, iv. 536-9

of Artemis Britomartis from site of

Cretan Chersonese, 11. 843 remarkable reproduction of types of heroic combat found on signets of the

116 834, 835 marine 501, 502, heads, 271, 272, 276, 400. 474. 986 rock scenery, 453 sheep suckling 571 ship and spray, 247 and 247 from Knossos, 834
grotto, IV.
11.

Double Axe,

627

lyre,

subjects,

11.

iv.
11.

115
268,
iv.

portrait

i.

11.

child, iv.
11.

olive

tree, 11.

11.

Hieroglyphic Deposit,
247, 268, 453, 501, 502, 474, 571, 627 Palace Deposit, 11. 835

I.

271-85,

11.

IV.

115, 400,

Third Mycenae Shaft Grave on ivory bezels of rings from Hellenistic Tomb, Kydonia (Canea), ill. 125 (Fig. 79),
126 (Fig. 80
b)

Graeco-Roman, religious scenes on by Minoan, ill. 137


Hittite,

paralleled

from Zakro, 185 M.M. HI 669-700 designs on: archer, 754


11.

W. Temple

Repository,

i.

564, 565

in genere,

i.

11.

double-headed eagles on,

iv.

375

birds.

III.
11.

411 n.

Sumerian cylinder, gold mounted lapis lazuli, from Knossos, iv. 423-5 Sargonid, from Ur, iv. 814 Syro-Hittite cylinders, wide diffusion of, IV.
498 Egyptian influence on,
imitated in Crete,
iv.

boxers,
IV.

615 n.
11.

2, Iii. 35, 503, 504,

600
421, in. 85, 92
II. 11.

buildings,

bull sports,
bull's head,

355 n. 619 n.

2, in. 218,
i

230
iv.

iv.

458

butterflies,

11.

787, 789, in. 151,

458 iv. 409 from Vari, iv. 498 faience, iv. 498 lapis lazuli, iv. 409 impression of, from 'Room of Seals', Knossos, iv. 598

with with with with with

cow and

calf, iv.

498 554
408, 409

490

Double Axe,
fish, IV.

11.

619 n.

i, iv.

343

dove Goddess,
man-bulls,
iv.

iv.

iv.

459
375

491 Genius, iv. 626, 627


II.

profiles, double, iv.

God,

832,
11.

III.

465

Ta-Urt, from Athens,

Goddess,

804, 808, 831, in. 465

heads, n. 829 rhyton, n. 537 knobs, I. 431-33


lions, n. 754,

831,832
11.

Daemon

religious types, n. 523


script.

Linear A,
III.

419, iv. 638

and see Signet-rings


Sealings (clay):

shield,

313, 316

Skylla,
i.

III.

imitated on Melian pottery,

558 E.M. Illb, meander pattern, 11. 202 n. 3

spirals, iv.

96 248

squid,

IV.

491

SEALINGS
Sealings (Clay),

[193]

SEALINGS

M.M.
III.

Ill in genere, designs

Sealings (Clay),

on [cont^

^'from Knossos,

M.M. IIIi-L.M.
iv.
11.

la (cont.)

from Hagia Triada, 411 1,465 from Knossos, 829,


n.
11.

towers,

85

591 Domestic Quarter,

765, IV. 956

11.

832,

iii.

151,

iii.

35, iv. 490, 491

Central Court,

11.

804, 808

Corridor of the Bays, ill. 316 Court of the Stone Spout, I. 432

94, III, S7. 563, S7o> 952 associated with Palanquin Fresco, iv.
i, iii.

E.W. Corridor, iv. 521 room off S.-N. Corridor, 11. 762-7 S.W. Basement, iv. 594 Temple Repositories, 11. 421, iv.

Domestic Quarter,
399, IV. 343 Fifth Magazine,

11.

313, 619 n.

594

ill.

230
iii.

from Zakro,
316

Harbour Town,
11.

11.

254, 255, iv. 248

Room
II.

of the Archives,
Repositories,

254, 515, 763, 769, iii. 136, 188, 465 n. 6, IV. 174, 248, 490, 521 n. 2,
I,

Temple

496, 505, 515, 615 n. 2, 754, 831, 832, III. 96, 218,
I.

522, 867, 868

L.M.

465. S3. 504 Little Palace,

11.

523, 789, iv. 600, 626,

countermarking and endorsement of, 616-18 inferior quality of clay and baking of, in
IV.

627 N.E. House,


11.

from Zakro, 201, 567, 787, 100 248 from Deposit S.W. Basement,
n. 4, IV. in
;

419, 421, iv. 638 Harbour Town, 11. 201, iv. 248
11.

storage of in upper rooms, designs on: barley corn,


butterfly,
iii.

L.M.

lb, IV.

592

iv.

592, 593

IV.

626

iii.

85, 92,

151

11.

766-8
763

828 combats, in. 500, 502


chariots, iv. 820,

designs on: adorant cynocephalus,


bow-like motives,
bull
iv.

11.

174

Genii, iv. 441 Goddess, in. 137,


lions. III. 515, IV.

iv.

387

and cow,
II.

ill.

188

544

iv. 94 764 dog-headed sea-monster,

cruciform signs,

dog,

Minotaur, iv. 387 oxen, IV. 566-8


iv.

952

rain-bringing ritual, iv. 451, 452


ill. 313, 316 votary, in. 463 warriors, in. 313, 314 n.

fantastic designs, iv.

490
6,

shields,

female acrobat, iv. 507 Goddess, 11. 340, 465 n.


III.

764, 769,

136, IV. 956


iv.

helmets,

867, 868

house,

II.

421

from Hagia Triada, in. 137, 151, 314 500, 502, 544, 566, 820, 828 from Knossos, Domestic Quarter, n. 767,
IV.

n. i,

kid, parturition of, iv. 563

611 hon hunt, iv. 522 Minotaur, 11. 763


lions, IV.

in. 313, 488 n. 2, IV. 441 Area of Daemon Seals, in. 404, iv. 451,

offertory scene, iv. 594

452, 598 Central Palace Sanctuary, in. 463 N. Entrance Passage, iv. 567, 568

rowers,

769 sacred symbols, iv. 570 sow and litter, iv. 572 spirals, iv. 248
11.

iv. 521 sacramental scene,

near Stepped Porch, ni. 313, 314

from Zakro, m. 515


L.M.
I-II,

Little Palace, in. 316, iv.

387

from Archives Deposit, Knossos,

triton shells, iv.

11

iv.

513 swallows, 11. 766 from Hagia Triada, 11. 340, 763, 769,

warlike scenes,

iv.

with Goddess, in. 474

in. 316, 474, IV. 596-9 with cattle scenes, iv. 564

woman and

with shield, in. 316


II, in

L.M.

connexion with Linear Script B,

513. 591. 592. 868

in. 404, IV. 601

SEALINGS
Sealings (Clay),
antithetic

[194]

SERAPIS
I

schemes catalogue of subjects arrows, countermarking designs on:

L.M.

II (cont.)
of, iv.

Sea-weed, on L.M.
lOI

pottery from Knossos,

11.

585

of, iv.
iv.

601-6*

Sebek, see Crocodile sign

relating to

836 of, iv. 619, 620 bull-sports, iv. 618

Sedment, L.M. lb alabastron from cemetery at, I V 270 with chevrons imitating veins iv 27 Segesta, Elymian Goddess with hounds on coins
.

goat, IV.

God
IV.

570 young, between collared hounds,

of,

II.

765 n. 3
11.

580
11. 243, 244, IV. 827 forepart of, iv. 828

club in
Selinus,

Selge, coin-types of,


cult of,
i.

345 n.

5, in. 99,
i
II.

100 n.

656, in. 100 n.

horse on ship,

Seline, upheaval of coast-line near,

87 n. 3
at,

mould of

epistyle of

Temple C

n.

lions, IV. 534, 582, 610, 611,

855

papyrus,

ill.

116
11.

taenia of temple
Seltman, Mr. E.

596'

at,

n. 605

925 script, Linear B,


sheep,
IV.

priest, IV.

J.,

on connexion of Minoan

331, iv. 618

570

ships, II. 243, 244, IV. 827 snake-cauldron, iv. 150

Goddesses, iv. 45 n. i 406, 411 Semites, influence of on Egyptian language,


classical
iv.

and

Semiramis,

11.

from Knossos

water-fowl, in. 116,

iv.

615

religion use of
_

27

of,

Minoan
and
27

parallels with,

'right'
II.

'left'

I. 16, 223 contrasted with Egyp-

Archives Deposit, iv. 534, 570, 580 Armoury Deposit, iv. 615, 836 Arsenal, in. 116 Borders of E. Hall, iv. 599 Corridor of Sword Tablets, 11. 331, iv. 853 E. Treasury, in. 399, 404
Hall of Colonnades,
Little Palace,
11.

tians,

Senam

of Msila,

iv.

597

243, 244, iv. 150, 534, 599-600, 610, 611, 827, 828

N.E. Entrance Passage, iv. 827 Room of the Stone Bench, iv. 925
Shrine in Central Court, iv. 596 S.W. Basement Deposit, iv. 593, 594 W. Magazines, iv. 618 Cappadocian, with bull-sports, I. 15 n. 3, II. 259 n. 4, III. 205 of Syro-Hittite cylinder, from Room of the Daemon Seals at Knossos, iv. 598
Seal Island, identity of with Plataea,
tholoi at,
II. 11.

814, 815 n. gate 695 fixed open hearths n. 20 Palace 269, 270 Senmut, Vizier of Queen Hatshepsut, 648, 736 tomb 166, 178, 534, 727, 464
relief
iv.

Sendjirli, in.

11. 39 7 with Sumerian war chariot from,

citadel

of,

53,

at,

at, 11.

11.

of, II.

IV.

882 Cretan envoys depicted on walls


ceilings of, in. 31, iv. 439,

of,

II.

425, 647, 648,

III.

178, IV. 262, 266, 729 n. 3,

880

4 division of population of Egypt by, 694 glazed cylinder from Abydos,


iv.

Senusert

I,

n. 207 n.

steatite

of,

11.

90

37

Seat,

stone, ornamented, stucco, N.E. Hall, of honour, Royal


in in

resort of Greek sponge fishers, 11. 37 n. 2 woman's limestone, in Kitchen of Throne Room System at Knossos, iv. 925, 926
at Phaestos, at
11.

606
390, 571
iv.

Knossos,
11.

i.

Villa,

Sea-tang, in
214, 360

L.M.

lb,

404 ceramic ornament,


iv.

modern route near, n. 63

209 Senusert II, builder of Pyramid, n. 210 Senusert III, 11. 213 nn. i and 2, iv. 53 seals of, from tomb at Abydos, iv. 130 Sepia, see Octopus Septimius, L., supposed translator of Chronicle of Diktys Cretensis, iv. 672 Ser sheep on palette, 11. 27 Seraia, importance of situation of, 11. 62, 63, 78

on bronze hydria from Kurion,

457
*

Seraphim and Cherubim, Egyptian, i. 709, 710 Serapis, head of on contorniate, n. 252 n. i

Not sub-indexed.

SERBIA
Serbia, household snake cult in, iv. 153 Seriphos, swinging in, iv. 26 n. 9

[i9S]

SHELLS
chiefs' wives,
II.

worn by
11.

Sheath, Libyan (cont.)


35, IV. 23

bead-seal from Crete, use of in M.M. building,


428 n.
I

Serpent, see Snake Serpentine axe, Neolithic, from Knossos, bowl, from Temple Tomb, iv. 1006
iv.

Minoan adaptation
10
ings,
II.

of, IV.

34

represented on Egyptian wall-paint-

737

441 I. 211 Serra Ilixi, copper ingots from, iv. 563 Serrin, primitive figurines from, i. 48, 49,
Sesklo, late Neolithic fixed hearths at,
figurines from,
palettes from,
I.
11.

iv.

clay stone
.

20 n. 6

50

use of in Togoland, n. 35 Sheep, on 27 M.M. from Petsofa, 153 horned, associated with Goddess, 570
prehistoric slate palette,
11.

worn by women performers in bullsports, II. 35, IV. 21: on Chryselephantine Goddess as Lady of Sports, iv. 28-31

I figures of,

i.

IV.

11.

44

n. 2

in

Minoan

sphragistic art,

I.

273, 346,

Sesostris, see Senusert I

Set, desert monster,

419 constellation of Ursa Major, iv. 436, 437 associated with Hyksos, iv. 437 relation to Ta-Urt, iv. 436, 463 libation vessel associated with cult of, I. 19 Seta, Dr. A. della, discoveries at Athens, 11.
iii.

515, 684, 685, IV. 488, 569, 570, 595 hunted by lion, on sard lentoid, iv. 532,

585
lassoed,

on

lentoid, in.

no

suckling child, on sealing from Hiero-

glyphic Deposit, Knossos,


Repository,
iv.

i. 515, iv. 571 with wild-goat on sealing from Temple

n.

570
I.

on
422
Sety
I,

steatite

sphinx from Hagia Triada, in.

sign in Hieroglyphic script,


Sheep-bell, pottery,
Shell-fish,

281

M.M.

I, i.

189; restored
at

capture of Kadesh by, in. 103


lines, first
;

Sfaka, see Siteia

Shading, by hatched

attempted in

with clapper, iv. 689 n. 2 (insets) remains of, from Neolithic houses Knossos, II. 10

on

Minoan painting, in. 3 06 on shield fresco, ib. Grifiin Fresco in Room of the Throne
at

Shell, white, inlays of, history of, n.

732 on limestone vases from Knossos,

I.

Knossos,

iv.

912, 913
i.

412, 413, n. 303, 348

Shaft graves, see Burials, Minoan Shakalasha, confederates of Lykians,

663

Shale slab for games in Chieftain's House at Kavusi, III. 391 Shamash, Babylonian sun-god, 11. 266 n. 3 on cylinder from Candia, 11. 266 from Initiatory Area at Knossos, iv. 424 Shamrock leaves, on E.M. II gold pins from

seum. 104 803 horned helmet


III.

Mochlos, I. 97 Shardana, confederates of Lykians, I. 664 on pylon of Medinet Habu, I. 664 on siege scene in sculptures of the Ramascorslet of, iv.

479 Sumerian panels n. 27 commerce 55 from Neolithic houses Knossos, 10 deposit Phaestos, 521 from Arene Candide 55 4 from Knossos, Domestic Shrine, 581 Temple 498, 517-21 with Minoan Goddess,
of,

from Vat

Room
i.

Deposit,

i.

Shells,

in,

at

ii.

at

I.

cave,

I.

n.

I.

Repositories,

I.

associated

iv.

10
as,

cult use of,


II.

I.

581

ritual vessels

shaped

Libyan,

690 n. 2 Shar-Gani-Sharri, see Sargon Sheath, with two bows, attribute of Neith,
of, iv.
i.

11.

49

27,

11.

23,

34
reliefs,
11.

on palette, II. 46 n. 5 worn by women in Sahure


35 n. 3

in Minoan ornament, n. 502, 104, 105, 109, 113-15 from Temple Repository, 498 matrix 488 116-20 522, tops of M.M. 488 Whorls on pottery, M.M. 108, 109, 111,113-17
iv.

822, 823

faience,

I.

for,
i.

i.

terra-cotta,

iv.

as

seals, iv.

of:

I, IV.

M.M.
116-20

II,

I.

240, 258, IV. 109, III, 113,

SHELLS
Shells,

[196]
of,

SHERDS
Pectunculus,
i.

whorls

on pottery
508 512

(cont.)

M.M. HI,
L.M. L.M.

I.

374, 522, 523, IV. Ill, 116

lb, II. II, II.

on from Temple Repository, 695 Argonaut, prototype of navigationinMeditersealing


i.

Phaestos, 'Thorny

Shells (cont.)

from

Neolithic

deposit

at

37, iv. oyster' {Spondylus gaederopus), in

no

ceramic ornament,

M.M.

II-III, iv. 104

ranean folklore,
faience,
terra-cotta,

iv.

130
Repository,
i.

from Temple 521 from Kouloura II, iv. 128 on gaming board from Knossos, I. 473 on fresco from Upper Hall of the Double
IV.

on pottery from Kouloura II, iv. 104 Tridacna, found in Persian Gulf, 11. 530 malachite model of, from Lustral Basin of Room of the Throne, iv. 933

Minoan use
cameo
931. 932
inlays of,
of,

of, 11. 46, iv. 109 with dagger and

belt,

from
iv.

Axes,

889-92

Lustral Basin of

Room
bull's

of the Throne,

from House of the Frescoes, 11. 500 on pottery, M.M. IIIi-L.M. lb, iv. 129

on
530

head rhjrton from

L.M. L.M. L.M.

lb, II. 508, IV. 277, 278,


Ic, IV.

369

Knossos,

II.

II,

II.

295, 369 512, IV. 863

from Phaestos, 11. 46 image of, from Central Crete,


iv.

11.

46, iv.

on
103

lentoid seal

from Knossos,
marine

1018
102,

no

Barnacles, in
Bivalve, in

M.M.

style, iv.

plaques of, from Vat Room Deposit, iv. 93


Triton, religious associations of, iv.

in

L.M. I6-L.M.

Ic ceramic orna-

ment, derived from Double Axe motive,

Cockle

IV.

369

from shrine near Magazine of the Lily Vases, II. 822 n. i from Phaestos, i. 219, 221 model of, stone, from Knossos, 11. 822, iv.

moulded,

M.M.

la,

from House B
relief,

at

in
terra-cotta,

Knossos, IV. 108 in ornament, in

from Knossos,

i.

221,

iv.

on pottery,

Ill
in sphragistic ornament, iv. 344 in ceramic ornament,

M.M.

II, IV.

284
Ilia,
II.

M.M.

369, IV. 116; as

L.M.

lb, iv.

360

border to faience bowl, I. 498 on bronze ewer from Zafer Papoura,L.M.II,ii.636(Fig.40o),iv.ii7 Cone, foundation of half-ivy leaf ornament on pottery of Pueblo Indians and Zunis, iv.
see

Conch, Triton 117-19 Cowrie, used ornaments by inhabitants of Danube n8 109 Dolium galea and perdix found Kou- Whorl,
as

Tun, see Dolium Venus in M.M.


pecten,

345 ritual use of as trumpet, 11. 822, iv. 344; on crystal bead-seal from Idaean Cave, iv. 211
II ceramic reliefs, iv.

L.M.

II, IV. 316, 318,

verrucata,

from Temple
11.

Repositories, iv.

Valley, iv.

in

in ornament,

145, iv.

10-12
112

louras at Knossos, iv.

no
I.

geometrical evolution of,


in metal-work, iv. 3 17 87,
11.
;

iv.

importance of
56,823,1V.

iv.

114
IV.

from Mycenae,
i

of liparite, from Hagia Triada,

317; from Vapheio,


in pottery,

II.

641 n.

Mitra, Neolithic trade 109 Mother of Neolithic trade Murex, deposits of Knossos,
in, iv.

no

E.M.

II, iv.

316; E.M. Ill,


iv. IV.

IV. in, iv.

pearl.

109
n. 5

214;

no, in; M.M. I, i. 185; L.M. lb, L.M. II, IV. 306, 316; L.M. Ill,

at

iv. iv.

iii n. 5

on Island of Kouphonisi,
i n. 5 use of for dye, iv. in ceramic ornament, L.M.

in

lb, iv.

in;

244, 318: and see Marine Style Shemesh, perhaps represented in figure vessel from Bethshemesh, 11. 257 n. i Sherds, used as basis for L.M. 111b cult objects
at

L.M.

II, IV.

316; L.M. lUb,

IV.

371

Knossos,

i.

59

SHIELD
Shield of Achilles, see Achilles

[197]

SHUTTLE
Minoan
clay
(cont.)
i

of Herakles, described by Hesiod, compared


with design on
silver

Ships,

fixed rudders of, n. 241 n.

rhyton from Mycenae,


11.

model

of,

E.M. I-H, from ossuary


240
slab

of Neith,
III.

III.

lOI

figure of eight shaped,

29, 50,

314 n. 6
11.

Geometric period, Minoan, S3 681, 680,


Hittite,
II.
i.

Shield, Boeotian type of, allied to Hittite,


11.

53

53
11.

52, 53
11.

afSnity with shield of Neith,


baetylic function of,
11.

50

53, in. in. 315

314

compared with Roman with Burmese gong,


religious aspect of, in.

ancilia, in.

314

with Palladium, in. 314 314-17 funereal significance of, in. 142 probably suspended in Halls of Palaces,
in. 307, 343 replaced Knossos, in. 345
;

by reproductions
of, in.

at

engraved on gypsum of Temple Tomb Knossos, 956 on Town Mosaic, 311 on gold bowl from Midea, n. 507 on rhyton from Mycenae, 98 on Cycladic n. 241 on sarcophagus from Hagia Triada, 438: and Hagia Triada on and 120, 121 239, 240, 243, 446, 520, 521, 827, 828 on n. 245, 250 on from Hagia Triada, 680 Egyptian, n. 26 Greek, on ivory from Sparta, 246 Roman, on contorniate 252
at
iv.
i.

at Palaikastro, n.

in.

pottery,

I.

see

seals

sealings,

I.

11.

IV.

signet-rings,
tablets

iv.

relief

11.

coin,

11.

n.

i (see,

too,

under Seals)
I.

amuletic beads in form

315

on alabaster carving, iv. 302 on bead from Mesara, n. 52 on faience bowl from Temple Repository, 1.498
307 on ivory carvings, iv. 302 on frescoes at Knossos, i. 336, 337, in. 302, 304-14, 383, IV. 6, 341, 786, 881

Linear A, 644, n. 248, Linear B, n. 248 on Phaestos 656


I.

Ship-sign, hieroglyphic,

280, 283,
iv.

11.

247

680
'

disk,

I.

Shoes, see Dress


Shrines, Minoan,
I.

Town

Mosaic,

I.

218-20,
i.

11.

109 n.

3,

336

basements
portals of,
votive,

of,
I.

146 151-3
of, iv. 755,

307, 308
I, i.

M.M.

at

Tiryns, in. 295, 304, 306,

iv.

786,

at Asine,

Minoan type
see

756

933

at Christos Avthentis, at

11.

81

on inlaid dagger-blade from 4th Shaft Grave, Mycenae, in. 120, iv. 301

Knossos,

under Knossos

at Phaestos, iv.

24

on pottery, L.M.
^

la,

ill.

L.M.

lb.

III.

310-12,

309, 347 IV. 290, 881,

882

miniature bronze, from Cyprus, n. 134 gold, from Mycenae, 11. 187, 607 615, 806, IV. 407
terra-cotta, from Knossos, I. 249, 253, 258, 302, 305, 369, 427, n. 158, 160, 187, IV. Ill, 201, 406

L.M. n,
on
589
seals,

IV.

301, 341, 342, 881, 882


iv.

n. 52, in. 313-16,

444, 559,

on on

signet-ring,
silver

I. 432 rhyton from Mycenae, in. 89,

94. 95. 98

on stela above 5th Shaft Grave, Mycenae,


IV.

on frescoes from Knossos, I. 213, 443, 444. 479. 480, n. 599, 804, iv. 20, 895 on seals, I. 674, 675, n. 132, iv. 607 on 'Ring of Minos', iv. 951 on steatite rhyton from Knossos, 11. 752 and see Cave-sanctuaries, God, Goddess, Religion, and Snake Sanctuaries
at
11.

253 on painted
III.
II.

terra-cotta tablet

from My-

cenae,
Saite,

136
I.

52
283, 284,
11.

Ships, Minoan,

27, 229-52,

iv.

Hal-Tarxien, n. 190 Greek, Knossos, 346


at

680
fish-tailed sterns of, iv.

Shubad, Queen,
951

toilette
11.

'Shuttle' of Neith,

box of, 49 n. i

iv.

529

SHUTTLES
Shuttles,

[198]

SIGNET-RINGS
Minoan
I.

bone Middle Neolithic, from Knossos,


lily

Signet-rings,

[cont.)

1.42 Sibthorp, John, drawing of Pancratium


II.

E.M.
by,

III,
I,

121

456
of with
3, 22,

M.M. M.M.

II,

Sicily, relations

Minoan Crete
IV.

after

with wingless sphinx, in. 418

from tholos at Platanos, in. 139 from Arkhanes, in. 418

firmed, 626, 959 overseas trade of with Spain,


traditional
II.

L.M.

la,

1.

960 494, Minoan colonization


n.
IV.
11.

M.M.
of

con-

180
11.

Iberic

and Hibernian halberd types from,


I.

Neolithic images from,


bone objects, Sikel

627
pottery from,
I.

170

21

21
626,

I, from, 11. 182 bronze rapiers of Minoan type from,

11.

from 2 from Mavro 557, from Phaestos, 24 4 from Smyrna, 225 from Sphungaras, 511
Isopata, in. ,140 n.
Spelio,
iv.
11.

Ill, with bull-sports, 11. 355 n. 2, in. 225 with Double Axe cult. III. 139 with Linear Script A, 11. 557, iv. 510 from Arkhanes, 11. 355 n. 2

iv.

510

n.

in.

L.M. Illb pottery from, 626, 627, 960 tombe a Maltese analogies 181 Tomb of Minos, compared
11.

from Zafer Papoura,


M.M. III-L.M.
L.M.
I,

iv.

11.

563
Phaestos,

iv.

la,

from

with

n.

Goddess and adorant cynocephalus, n. 764

fenestra in,

to, 11.

traditional, in,
at

with Temple

Tomb

Knossos,
i. i.

Sickle, double, motive, origin of,

978 123, 124


of

iv.

on E.M. Ill
'Sideboard',
plaster

seals,

103 coated, in Kitchen


at

landscape backgrounds 137 of due influence of 134-57, 187 subjects on, 134-57 Syrian influence on, i6 portrayal of gesture on, 58
of, in.

buried with dead, in. 144


to

pictorial style

fres-

coes,

III.

n.

religious

in.

I.

vivid

in.

Throne Room System


as

Knossos,
11.

iv.

927

L.M.

Side-lock, Libyan, predynastic,

34

'Ring of Minos': discovery of, leads to that of Templela,

Minoan

fashion,

11.

33
in

Tomb,
Egypt and
947
n.
I

IV.

947 seqq.
iv.

Sidon, Astarte as Goddess of, in. 457


Siege-scenes, as artistic

uncertainty as to present whereabouts,


date of, IV. 949 subject of, IV. 950 et seqq.

theme

in Egyptian

Crete, in. 82, 87, loi, 102, 104 art, in. 101-4

on tombs at Beni Hassan, in. 102 on tablet of Nar-mer, in'. loi Minoan, on miniature fresco from, N.W.
Insula at Knossos, in. 31, 81-106

compared with 'Ring of Nestor',


949

iv.

947,

Greek legend

of, iv.

957-9

L.M.
i.

on Town Mosiac from Knossos,


308,
III.

302,

'Ring of Nestor': from Kakovatos, n. 785 n.


la,

87

on

silver rh3rton

from Mycenae,

i.

302,

308, 312, 314, in. 89, 99 Siganos, traditional Cretan peasant dance, in.

5, in. 145, iv. 44 146, IV. 949 subject of, II. 278, 334, 342, 482, 785 n. 4, 788, III. 127, 145-57, IV. 950 et seqq.

date of,

III.

compared with Ring of Minos'


'

iv.

947, 949

78
Signets, see Seals

of, iv.

Michelangelo's ring, in. 145 with Miniature Frescoes, iv. 949


of, iii.

Signet-rings,

Minoan:
485
iv.

probable fresco original of design


510,

Author's collection
SIX, 948 n. I importance of in

evolution of from bead-seal, in. 139,

156 L.M. la with boxing scene, in. 500 with Goddess with double axe,

iv.

512

Minoan
450 n.

culture, IV.

958

and female dancer,


scene,
i.

and

mourning

oval bezel characteristic of, IV. 510

161, 162,

11.

278, 838, in. 90,

use of gold for,

11.

2, iv.

512

140-4

SIGNET-RINGS
Signet-rings,
{cont.)

[199]
la,

SILVER
Minoan
{cont.)

Minoan, L.M.
of,
11.

with Goddess

Signet-rings,

with lancer with 95 from Mochlos, 249, 952 from Mycenae, 161, 162, 278, 838, 512 95, 140-4, 314, 500, from Phaestos, 70 from Pyrgos, 75 L.M. with Asiatic bow, 50 842 with boy-God, 832, 842, in. 143 with 141, 149 with Genii, 436, 459 with Gilgam,esh, 466, 583 with Goddess, 340, 832, in. 136,
shield,
ill.
11.

migration

952

iv.

I.

11.

III.

IV.

iii.

11.

lb,

11.

n. 2,

11.

chrysalises,
I v.

ill.

470-4 with isodomic masonry, 160, 188 with 138 245, 250, from Knossos, n. 188 Harbour Town, n. 250, 138 from Ligortino, 463 from Mycenae, 553, 565 from Thisbe, n. 340, 470-4, 219 from Tiryns, n. 245
i.

L.M.

with cattle, iv. 553, 565 with Goddess, n. 250, 340, in. 138, 463,
Ill,
11.

ship,

II.

III.

i.

160,

in.

in.

iv.

50,

in.

iv.

in.
11.

iv.

Egyptian, from Enkomi, n. 494, 495 Sub-Minoan, 11. 175, 198

i37> 141. 143. 149. 463- IV. 392, 393, 459,

954 with in. 123, 466, 526, 527, 584 with in. 70 with rams, 171 with snake-frame, 171 with stag-hunt, 123, 579 with Ta-Urt, 430 with triglyph 228 with warriors, in. 463 from Arkhanes, 219, 220 from Candia, from Dendra, 953, 954 171 from Knossos, Temple Tomb, 393 from Mycenae, n. 340, 832, in. 463, 466, 579, 584 from Thisbe, in. 123, 137, 40, 526, 527 from Tiryns, 228, 392, 430, 459 from Vapheio, 70, 136, 141,
lions,
iv.

512, 526, 953,

Cypro-Minoan, from Enkomi, iv. 759, 760 Sub-Geometric, from Aegina Treasure, n. 53 Greek, 3rd century, imitating Minoan, from
Canea, in. 125, 145"

orgiastic figure,
iv.

and

see Seals, Sealings

iv.

in.

iv.

iv.

Silphium, Cyrenaic trade in, I. 284 as sign in hieroglyphic script, I. 284, n. 54 Silver, sources of, Halys, 11. 169 n. 2 Spain, II. 180

frieze, iv.

in.

iv.

iv.

iv.

50,

IV.

iv.

iv.

Taurus, 11. 169 n. 2 Trebizond, n. 169 n. 2 Tripolis, n. 169 n. 2 Troad, I. 20-2, 11. 169 n. 2, IV. 766, 777 imported into Crete, I. 20-2, n. 169 into Egypt, 11. 657 into Greece, 11. 169 use of in E.M. Ill, i. 191-3 armlet, from Inner Shrine of Room of the Throne at Knossos, iv. 930 on Cup-bearer Fresco, 11. 705

in.

149,

with n. 771 with canopy, 319 with 68 dancers, with sacred 138 from Avdu, 822, 823 from 68 771, 789, from Knossos, n. 615, 832, 838, 319 from Mycenae, 610
lilies,

512 L.M. II, with chariot, iv. 822, 823 with eye in background, n. 789 with fig-trees, n. 615 with armed God, n. 838, in. 136, iv. 610 with Goddess, 11. 832, in. 136, 137
IV.

base of Egyptian alabaster bowl from Chamber Tomb


825 641 n.
1
,

on Procession Fresco, n. 726


flask,

n. 179 n. 2

at Byblos, n. 655,

from 5th Shaft Grave, Mycenae, n.


642

ogival
ritual

iv.

in.

spring, in. 137,


IV.

Isopata,

11.

in.

ni. 136,

i37> IV.

iii.

137, 138, iv.

from Palestrina, iv. 418 from Ras-Shamra, IV. 782, 783 from Regulini Galassi Tomb, iv. 539 from Vapheio Tomb, n. 641 n. i cup, E.M. Ill, from Mochlos, I. 99 from tholos at Midea, 11. 507 depicted on Camp-stool Fresco, iv. 389 borne by Minoan envoy in tomb of Senmut, n. 425 cylinder, E.M. II, from Mochlos, i. 83

SILVER
Silver (cont.)
III,
i.

[200]

SKINS
vessels

daggers, E.M. II and from Kumasa, 21, 169 double Arkalofrom cave khorio, 347 dump from E. Magazines Knossos, 664 ear-ornament on Cup-bearer Fresco, 706 ewer, L.M. from S. House Knossos,
100,11.
axes, votive,
iv.

Silver (cont.)

from Byblos, 11. 654, 655, 825 from Knossos, S. House, 11. 386,

387,

at

570, IV. 727

at

iv.

Harbour Town, 11. 235 from Mycenae, 4th Shaft Grave, and see 'Rhy tons'
imitated in pottery,
II,
I.

iv.

868

11.

M.M.

I, I.

22;

M.M.
Min-

I,

at

242, 243, 244, IV. 121, 127, 363;


i.

I.

633 from 4th Shaft Grave, Mycenae,


498, 499,
II.

yan ware,
11.

22
in

633,

Simba,

film

of lion-hunting
ill.

Tanganyika

IV.

127
11.

Territory,

122
in, I.

from 5th Shaft Grave, Mycenae,


647
depicted borne by
of Senmut,
11.
;

646,

Sindjirli, see Sendjirii

Siphnos, walled strongholds

156,

iii.

6:

Minoan envoy on tomb 648 on tomb of User-amon,


ill.

and see

St.

Andreas
from,
i.

silver bracelet

95 n. 4

n. 738
figurine of
foil,

Resheph from Nezero,


I.

477

diadem from, i. 97 Sipylos, Mount, I. 14


Siret,

applied to crystal, from

Temple Re-

Messieurs, discoveries in Spain,

i.

78

positories,

470-5
II use of, iv.

goblets,

L.M.

303

from Royal
ritual,

Tomb

at Isopata, iv.

364
IV.

depicted on Camp-stool Fresco,

Sistrum,

85 perhaps represented on Procession Fresco,


II.

Minoan use

of, i. 19,

722

player,
II.

on

steatite vase

from Hagia Triada,

359 ingots from Troy, 100 on bronze, 113, 118 jewellery, Cycladic, 95, 97 kantharos, M.M. introduction from Vapheio tomb, 939 with siege scene, from 4th
I.

48,

III.

449, IV. 218, 219: and see Har11.

vester Vase

inlays

ill.

i.

of, iv.

363
Shaft

ladle,

iv.

'rh5rton'

bead-seals from, 523. 570 stone matrix from


"1-75
Situla,

Sistrum sign, in Linear Script A, Siteia, Minoan road to, II. 78


I.

48, iv. 219

274,
i.

ill.

95 n.
11.

3, iv.

445,

479, 514,

721

Grave, Mycenae,
698, 699,

i.

302, 308, 312, 314, 668,

Sitiak6s, traditional peasant

dance of E. Crete,

640 n.
IV.

I,

II. 178 n. 2, 344, 530, 531, 536, 753 n. I, III. 31, 82, 89-101, 162,

bronze, remains of from well below


Ill house at Knossos, in. 258

30i> 955 bull-shaped, depicted borne

M.M.
by Keftiu
Siut,

envoy on tomb of Men-kheper'ra-senb, II. 536, 648, 649; on tomb of User-amon,


IV.

wooden models of black mercenaries from tomb at, II. 756, 757
11.

Siva, tholos ossuaries at,

80
i.

44

E.M.
from 4th Shaft Grave,

II candlestick from,

579,
iv.

11.

55

bull's head,

My-

Sjokvist, Dr., discoveries at

Enkomi,

658
I.

cenae,

II.

530

Skalaes, cave at with Neolithic remains, Skalani, village of,

32

depicted borne by Cretan envoy on


11. 536 borne by Minoan envoy on tomb of User-amon, 11. 738 lion's head, Knossian, 11. 536 ring, E.M., from Mochlos, i. 99 from tomb at Enkomi, 11. 494, 495 hoop of, from Hellenistic tomb at Canea, III. 126

tomb

of Men-kheper'ra-senb,

Skaros

fish,

Minoan remains at, 11. 62, 63 on Minoan gems, in. 411, 412, iv.

jackal's head,

494. 677 Skeletons, see Bones

Skenen-ra, dynast of Thebes,


Skins,

i.

420
di

on rock-carvings of Col

Tenda,

11.

worn by Minoan imitated


vessels of,

170 n. 4

votaries, iv. 401

in pottery,

i.

558: and see

seals

from E. Crete,

11.

268, iv. 488

Askoi

skoteinO
Skotein6, sacred cave
of,
i.

[201]

SNAKE-SIGN
pottery,

163

doves
Skulls, see

in, iv.

41
of, iv.

on
952, 953

Snake, (cont.)

Bones Skylla, dog-headed form Minoan form of on


ICnossos,
I.

seal impression
III.

from
I.

494, 697,

96
698

on

silver

rhyton from Mycenae,

Slate, Neolithic disks of, for pot stands,

from
n. 2,

predynastic Egyptian, 2 49 pavements S.-N. Corridor


palettes,

Knossos,
n.

II.

13

from lalysos, iv. 164 from Milatos, iv. 164 from Geometric vase, iv. 164 Snake, cat (Cretan adder), wave and dot mark on skin of, IV. 182, 183 {see Adder mark) Snake-cauldron, perhaps represented on sealing from Little Palace, iv. 150, 151 Snake-charming a priestly function, I. 507
Snake-cult,
as

11.

27,
at

44

household

spirit,

I.

509,

iv.

46,

of,

in

Knossos,
281 n. 4
Selge,
11.

II.

761

in

warehouse

at

Niru Khani,

11.

Slaves,

employment of, 11. 41 Slingers, on coins of Aspendus and


345. "I- 99 Slings, Asiatic weapons,
iii.
11.

not used by Minoans, used Anatolia, 345


in
11.

99 344

in Greece,

11.

345
archers on silver rhyton

limestone, from outside tomb on Acropolis


at Mycenae, 11. 345 Smaland, hut-urns from, 11. 132 n. 4 Smalle, hut-urn from, 11. 132 n. 4

11. 344, 345 Sling-stones, haematite, from Hissarlik,

by barbarian from Mycenae,

iii.

99

152-4. 163, 185 as terrifying being, in


IV.

more advanced

cults,

186

in Albania, iv. 153

in Athens, at Erechtheion, iv. 150 n. 4, 154,

157
in Balkans, iv. 1015

in Crete, iv. 1014


in

Cyprus,
I.

iv. 143, 163,

166

in Dalmatia, iv. 153 in Egypt,

509, IV. 157

in Gournia, iv. 142, 143, 158, i6o in Greece, iv. 153 in Kalinovo,

tended by British

officers, iv.

154 in Knossos, primitive character


159
in
I-

of, iv.

158,

House S.W. of S.W. Treasury House,


N. of Koulouras of
iv.

Smalt, see Kyanos

Smith, Mr. Sidney, on lapis lazuli cylinder from Knossos, IV. 424

138, 143. 158-61 in L.M. II house

W.

on vase from Khafaje, iv. 819 n. 5 Smyrna, Graeco-Roman relief with bull-sports from. III. 229
signet-ring with bull-sports from,
iii.

76 in connexion with Temple Tomb,


IV. iv.

Court,

225

Snails, see Sea-snails

Snake, associated with


IV. 24,

159, 186,

Minoan Goddess, 11. 469, 187, 406: and see under


11.

natural 177 on
465

Goddess with Juno Sospita, with Wazet, I. 289

52

Kumasa, 142, 163 Lithuania, 150 in Livonia, 150 2 in in Rome, 152 Serbia, 153 tables 150,
in in
iv.
iv.

1014, 1015

143, 147, 158 n. 2, 160,

n.

Prinia, iv. 142, 143, 158, 160


iv.

in

iv.

diet of, IV. 158

traditionally honey, iv. 156-8

knots and interlacings

of,

I v.

176,

figures of

Minoan Goddess,

i.

223 n.

3,

157, 158 n. 2, 166 149, 2 Snake-frame, construction of, iv. 175 connected with bows, double axe, and horns
for, iv.

n.

of consecration, iv. 168, 175


religious significance of, iv. 168

235, 289, 291, 469, 486, 495, 507, 508, 523, n- 237, 31711.2, 323, 540, 744, 793, III.

on bead-seals from Psychro and lalysos, iv

438-42, 455,

IV. 32, 38,

no,

177, 179, 193,

on gold signet-ring from Dendra,


Snake-sign,
11.

168

iv.

171

146

li. i

SNAKE-SKIN
Snake-skin^ used as charm in

[zozl

SPHINX
11.

modern Greece

and Crete,

iv.

i68

Snake-tubes, origin of in

Minoan drain sections,

chronology

IV. 14s, 147,

148

of sanctuaries connected with,


cots, iv.
of, i.

converted dove Sneferu, date of accession tomb 56


into
of, II.

IV.

160

165

70

held by Priest-king on bead-seal from Vapheio, 419 Early Troadic and Cycladic stemmed type 2 843 used by Minoan warriors, 841 on fragment of Miniature Fresco from Knos841 on rhyton from Mycenae, 98
iv.
of, IV.

Spear, attribute of Juno Sospita,

52

n.

iv.

sos, IV.

iii.

bowls from, I. 85, 86 Snofru, see Sneferu Soapstone, use of for E.M. bead-seals, for Melian gems, iv. 560 n. 5
diorite

Spear-head, Minoan, ring on socket

of, iv. 842,

843
iv.

485

compared with Homeric description


Hector's spear,
iv.

of

843
II type of, iv.

Sockets, dovetailed, of

wooden

crossbars in

W.

bronze,

M.M. III-L.M.

Knossos, iii. 200 -of fafade of Atreus Tomb at Mycenae, III. 200, 201 Solar symbol, see Sun Soldiers, see Warriors Somaliland, types of bow in, II. 49 Sont bush, Egyptian equivalent of mimosa, 11.
at

Wall of Palace

842

Ill n.

Sophocles, cited,
Sothis, rising of,

iv. 45,
11.

559
of,

from Chamaezi, I. 194 from Isopata, iv. 356 from Mochlds, iv. 842 from Zafer Papoura, iv. 844, 860 copper, from Hagios Onuphrios, i. loi two pronged, I. loi Spearmen, see Warriors. Speleers, Monsieur Louis, on Hittite bronze
figures. III. 478 Speliopotamos stream, see Kairatos Spelitossa glen, wild roses in, 11. 464 Spercheios River, 11. 169 Sphakoryaki, Minoan guard station at, 11. 90 Sphinx, Egyptian, characteristics of, in. 419 folded cloth headgear of, influence on

29 Soudan, dog-faced ape

in

Minoan

icono-

route from Benghazi


151

graphy,

II.

763

to, 11.

756
iil.

Souls, weighing of in Egyptian mythology,

180 492, 494, trade from, 180 halberds from, 170 imported beads from, 180 primitive stone images from, Megalithic monuments
II.

scales for, from Mycenae, iii. 151, iv. 661 Spades on Chariot Tablets, iv. 668 Spain, early Bronze Age in, I. 23 Minoan communications with, I. 22, 58 n. 2,

Hittite type, in.

Hittite, influence of

420 n. 2 on Minoan type,


ill.

in. 419,

179,
11.

tin

179,

Minoan,
11.

420, 424, 425 outside citadel gate at Eujuk,

420

11.

characteristics of, in. 415, 416 Hittite influence on, in. 419, 420, 424

11.

180

in Minoan religion, i. 19 wingless, Anatolian relations of, in. 418,

in, 11.

181
at

Spalato, Palace of Diocletian at, 11. 684: its portico

plumed and crowned, n. 778


side-locks of Hathoric,
iii.

et seqq.

compared with South Corridor


ib.

Knossos,

419-22

'adder mark' on wings

of, i.

549, 550 ; taken

Spar, amethystine, fragments of vessel of, from

Minoan primitive ivory


778,

of the Throne, iv. 934 Sparta, L.M. lb settlement near, iv. 420, 421
religious tradition at.
III.

Room

over on axe-head of King Aahmes, iv. 551 ivory crest and wing of, from E. Treasury
of Domestic Quarter, in. 415 steatite, from Hagia Triada, in. 420-6

232

figurines from, iv.

relief

with strip from,


n. 2, IV.

11.

429 246
i.

from Knossos, in. 422, 425, 526,


342,
11.

iv.

Spata, tholos
III.

at,

ivory carvings from,

6l2

415

533

from Phaestos, iv. 24 n. 4 from Tylissos, iv. 525

SPHINX

[203]
Spirals, in

SPOOLS
Minoan,
frescoes,
II.

Sphinx, Minoan, steatite (cont.) locks of, from E. Treasury of Domestic Quarter at Knossos, iii. 419, 420, 422,
of, from Mycenae, i. 549 on miniature fresco of embroidery, iii. 40 on Town Mosaic, I. 307 on sealings, iv. 490 on seals from Central Crete, iii. 419 from Cyprus, iv. 408 from Knossos, IV. 424, 491 from Thisbe, ill. 416, iv. 18 on signet-rings," iii. 144 from Arkhanes, ill. 418 Theban, the name Hellenic, the art-form Minoan, ill. 417

M.M.
i.

Ill (cont.)

on
6,

411,

249, 323, 333, 351, 370355, 559, III. 23, 37, 38, 189,
11.

334. 343. 372, 48s, IV. 256

stucco head

on goldwork from Mycenae,


127, 342, 253, 255 -^ in gold inlay, iii. 119

633, iv.

on gypsum lamp, 11. 599 on pottery, iv. 256


in sculpture,
IV.
11.

163, 164, 696,

ill.

324,

229, 255, 256

on

L.M.
on

on

silver

bowl from

S.

House,

11.

387

seals, 11. 243, iv.

248

interlocked iv. 256


I,

on

ceiling
i.

from Knossos, in. 30

M.M.

Sphungaras, cemetery of jar burials at, I. 585 Ill gold signet-ring with crystal intaglio from, IV. 5 1 pottery from, E.M. II, I. 76, 78-80, 11. 635,
IV.

336, 337, 411, 525, 11. 72s. 744. "I- 31. 281, 294, 302, 372, 378, 381-3. 387. IV. 6, 205, 209 in metal-work, 11. 738, 741

frescoes,

on pottery,
III.

98
11.

burial urns,
seals from,
I.

364
i

Spiders,

on

95, 672-5, iv. 199, 445, 541 n. E.M. Ill seals, I. 120, 123 n. 4

L.M.
877
882

11. 331, 380, 395, 422, 435, 310, 311, IV. 264, 854, 881, 882 interlocked iv. 256

II,

on

frescoes, in. 343, 387, iv.

Spilia, spring at, 11.

66
at, 11.
11.

in metal-work, iv.

864

Spinalunga, schist quarries

670
i74.n. 2 13

on

pottery, iv. 302, 333, 340, 342, 881,


sealing, iv. 563
Ill, derived

Spindle-whorls, from Amira,

from Knossos,
clay,
I.

i.

42, 43,

11.

42, 43,

II.

13

on

crystal, 11.
steatite,

174 n. 2 11. 174 n. 2

on

L.M.

from
11.

shells, iv. iii


i

glass plaques,
11.

596 n.

Spirals

Aegean and Cycladic ornament, 11. 193, iv. 250 on pyxis from Amorgos, I. 100 n. 3 on object from Hissarlik II, 11. 194 in Egyptian ornament, I. 114, II. 206 n. 3
in

129 Neolithic use of, I. 114 on pottery from Butmir, 1. 114 Sikel, on door slab from Castelluccio,
Syro-Hittite,

on pottery,

I.

22

on

cylinder, iv.

409

Syrian,

on

silver
II.

bowl of Minoan type from

Byblos,

655, 825

in Maltese,
in

I.

22, 342,

11.

183

Spirally fluted columns,


I.

M.M.

Ill

and L.M.

I,

M.M.
on

Minoan, E.M., I. 20, II. 193; possibly derived from whorl-shells, iv. no E.M. Ill, I. 103, 111-14, 117, 121, II. 274
1, 1.

344-6

Spleenwort, on
II-

L.M.

pottery from Knossos,

186, 200,

III.

21 21

475 Sponges, 'nature printed', on


coes,
III.

M.M.

Ila fres-

steatite pyxides, iv. 91

M.M. M.M.

vessel
II,
I.

from Knossos,

iii.

258, IV. 253 on creamy-bordered ware, iv. 120, 121

on frescoes from Knossos, L.M. on pottery, M.M. in. 362


Ila,

361, 362

la, in.

364

stencil

used

for,

i.

533

used
II.

L.M.
for

lb, III. 364, IV.

279
I.

M.M.

II vase painting,
I.

247
I.

on ceilings at Knossos and Orchomenos, iii. 517, iv. 242 on faience, i. 498, 11. 744
Ill,

Sponge-fishing, in Libyan sea,

17
42, 43,

Spools, clay, Neolithic, from Knossos,


13

SPOUTED BOWLS

[204]

STEATITE

Spouted bowls, E.M. II, of marble, i. 92 vessels, Egyptian predynastic, I. 80 Spratt, Captain, on winds of Crete, 11. 84 n. 5 Spray sign as mason's mark at Knossos, ill.
711.3.14
Spring, sacred, at

Statue, see Figure


Steatite

dark green, from Sarakina valley in E. Crete,


IV.

232

Mavro

Spelio,

iii.

138

adoration of on signet from

Chamber

Tomb, Mycenae,
Minoan

ill.

137

Sprinkler, holy water (aspergillum)


ritual, iii. 27, iv.

936
11.

M.M. 177 93 coated with gold, 675, 676 beads, from Crete, M.M. 179 from Gortyna, M.M. 489 from Kalathiana, M.M. 179
I, I.
i.

use

of,

E.M.

II, I. 90,

1, 11.

lla, iv.

attribute of
IV. 24,

Minoan Goddess,

793,

I, 11.

n. 10

400

from Knossos, with Linear I. 669, 670


Neolithic,
11.

A inscription,

carried

by Priest-king, iv. 400 by Minoan officer on cup from

from Platanos,
697, 698

13

Hagia Triada, 11. 792 on M.M. III6 fragment from House of the Sacrificed Oxen, 11. 794 found in Initiatory Area at Knossos, III.
9
of

179 n. 10 bowls, 'blossom', Egyptian parallels


11.

to,

11.

Roman
II.

pontifex,
IV.

compared with Minoan,


11 .

from from Petsofa, from Sacellum


91 buttons,
I.

II.

310

Palaikastro,
iv.

11.

633 n.

657
I.

at Phaestos,

219,

II.

217,

792, 936 on coins of Julius Caesar,

IV.

793

iv.

93 6
i.

E.M.

Ill,

from Hagios Onuphrios,


I.

Square-mouthed pot, E.M. I, i. 58 Stais, Dr., on faience knots from Mycenae,


430 n. I on silver rhyton from Mycenae, ill. 96 on stone pot from Cerigo, 11. 200 n. i Stag, see Deer Staircases in Brochs of Scotland, I. 106
I.

112, 113

from Kouphonisi,
cup, from Apodoulou,
83, IV.

112, 113

and

in Nuraghe of Sardinia,
see

from Hagia Triada, 400 from 631, fragment with heads


11.

iv.

657
47, 742, 779, 790,
II.

III.

Palaikastro,
of,

I.

438, 439 in relief,

ill.

106
ill.

under Knossos

Stalagmite,

E.M. pendant of from Mesara,

vases from Nippur,


Eileithyia,
11.

446

11. 264 n. 3 Stalagmitic pillars in caves of Psychro and of

444 Double Axe stands, iv. 212 from Knossos, I. 438, 11. 527 from Psychro, i. 427, 438 double-spouted jug, from Gournia, I. 81
figures,

839; baetylic use of, ib. Stamatakis, Ephor, on Atreus Tomb at Mycenae,

M.M.

on tholos near Argive Heraeum,


Stamped
patterns, imitating metal,
I.

IV.

242

iv.

246
II

Caravanserai,

64 from Tylissos, in. 426 inkstand, from Ur, in. 424 lamps, from Knossos, i. 390, iii. 26, iv. 936
I, i.

E.M.

lllb,

on

M.M.

fragment
Blocks,
II.

11.

123
Fallen

of,

from House of the

pottery,

242

II.

298

on burial found near Knossos, on bead-seal from Idaean Cave,


jar

Stands for Double Axes, see under Double Axes Stars, associated with Minoan Genius, IV. 441 with Minotaur, ill. 316, iv. 589 combined with adder mark, i. 549

lapidary's trial piece,

from Harbour Town,

238

libation bowl,

from Petsofa, iv. 657 from Phaestos, i. 219, 252, 11.

195, 217,

i.

584
211

iv.

IV.

91

tables,

from Knossos, W. Temple Reposi427


near House of the Frescoes,
11.

on lentoid from Knossos district, iv. 589 Star sign, as mason's mark, I. 394, 401, 11. 290, 664 n. I

tory,

I.

433,

438, 440

STEATITE
Steatite, libation tables (cont.)

[205]
Steatite, 'rhytons' (cont.)
i,

STILUS

from
636

Palaikastro,

i.

497 n.
11.

630, 631,

from Petsofa, I. 636, from Psychro, i. 75,


II.

440

159, 497, 625-30,

48, 438, 839, IV. 157 froiri Tartari, I. 630, 631

from Phaestos, 64 from Vapheio, with boar, 676 E.M. 69 beads, process of manufacture 595 E.M. H-HI, 80
ill.
i.

seals,

I, i.

68,

in

into

seals, IV.

bead-seals,

iv.

from Kno.ssos, 11. 29 n. i from Mochlos, I. 93, 11. 362 n. i locks of Sphinx, from E. Treasury in Domestic
lid,

E.M. in,

II.

52, IV.

520
II.

Quarter,
votive,

ill.

419, 518,

iv.

481, 612

from Mycenae, iv. 482 from Thessalian Thebes, iv. 480 matrix for faience, from Knossos, I. 488 pithoi with plait-work bands, from Mycenae,
IV. 531. 537.

434, 639, 640, 669, 670, 671, 673, 675, 676, II. 503, IV. 491, 500
I.

M.M. M.M. M.M.

I, I.

195, 196, IV. 505

II,

I.

671, 673,

217, 242, 835

in,

M.M. III-L.M.
L.M. L.M. L.M.
I, III.

I, IV.

216 455

II,

154 n. I, III. 116 n. 5

IV. 170,

637

pot,

M.M.

la,

from tomb
iv.

in Cerigo,

11.

199,

III, IV.

42
11.

cylinders, Egyptian,

209, iv. 503


iv.

200, IV. 255 pyxides, 1. 112,

from Knossos, Domestic Shrine, from Kumasa, 91


iv.
relief,

91

i.

58
Sta

with boxers, from Hellenika, iii. 35, 100, iv. 600 'rhytons', bull shaped, from Erech, 11. 262 from Hagia Triada, with bull-sports boxing scenes, I. 689, 690, iii. 35, 90,
lllb,

M.M.

M.M. signet-shaped, E.M.


scarab,
I, I.

E.M., I. 94, IV. 503 with Cypriote inscription, prism, from Karnak, iv. 503
199, iv.
Ill,
1.

763

439 117-25

M.M.
260,
signet-ring

II,

I.

273

and
225,

498
Harvester's Rout,
II.
I.

19, 28, 84, 85,

449, IV. 218 -^ from Knossos, N.E. Palace region, with


47, 224, 279, 472,
III.

boxer,

i.

689,

11.

615 n.

2, ill. 64,

504
11.

N.W.
537,
III.

region, with sacrifice of goat,

184

S.

Border, with
II

men

with offertory

bowls,

752
of the Throne, with octopus,
IV.

Room
II.

from Candia district, 11. 776 Sphinx, from Hagia Triada, m. 420-6 from Knossos, ill. 422, 425, 426, iv. 612 from Phaestos, iv. 24 n. 4 from Tylissos, iv. 525 spindle-whorls, from Amira, 11. 174 n. 2 tripod stand of, from Knossos, i. 387, 571 vessels, M.M. Ill, i. 605, 606 from Aspis site at Argos, I. 23 n. 2 Chaldaean, ill. 422 from Knossos, ill. 21, 100, iv. 129 from Mochlos, 11. 75 from Palaikastro, iv. 573, 574 weights, disk-shaped, from Knossos, iv. 653

224, 502,

276, 277, 930

Steatopygous images,
Steffen, Colonel,

see

under Figures

N. Border of S. Propylaeum, 11. 702 Treasury of Tri-Columnar Hall, 11. 822 Tomb of the Double Axes, iii. 195 n. i with altar and ecstatic dancer, 11. 614,
69 with sacral horns, I. 220, iv. 201 with bull and capital, I. 688 bull's head, from Little Palace,
3,

measurements of Minoan road near Mycenae, iv. 60 n. 3


III.

Stein, Sir Aurel, discoveries in Central Asia,

293

III.

Stelae, see Burials

symbol, see Star Stephanus of Byzantium


Stellar
11.

cited, iv.

781 n. 2
in

Stigmata,

possibly represented

on hands of
129
Palaikastro

262 n.

408, 527-30, 539,

III.

108, IV.
11.

727
53 1,

image of Goddess from Spring Chamber


Caravanserai at Knossos,
Stilus,
11.

from drain near Royal Road,


533

Tomb of the Double Axes,

bronze

instrument

from

i.

514

possibly used as, in. 13

STIRRUP VASES
Stirrup vases, see under Pottery
'Stockings' of columns

[206]

STONE
(cont.)

pn Minoan

frescoes,

ii.

109
Stock-rearing, influence of on
gistic art, iv.

Minoan sphra11.

563

Stolo, P. Licinius, denarius of,

52 n. 3
11.

Stone, baetylic,

of Snake Goddess, perhaps

used Knossos, 697 pounders, use 219 querns, from House of the " 305 Triton from W. Treasury
pithoi,
at
11.

Stone

n. 2

ritual

of,

i.

Sacrificed Oxen,

'rhytons', see 'Rh)rtons'


shell,

at Knossos,

from Lustral Area of 520 525 of Royal amulets, 45 Niru Khani, 234 arrows, from Greece, 838 Egyptian, 233 found Knossos, from beneath N.W. Angle Knossos,
fetish figures of,

represented within hut on bead-seal,


Palace,
II.

132

IV. Ill

Little

vats for liquid offerings, in Pillar Crypt of Little Palace, 11. ; Villa, 11. 406
at
11.

11.

iv.

vessels,

11.

23, 30,
I.

n.

i,

256

basin,

at

at

16,

II.

bath 599foot-washing, for


104, 116-20, 123
11.

"

31, 56, 193,

IV.

982, 983, 984


iv.

in Caravanserai,

11.

46,

beads, from Aveyron, 180 from Egypt, 179 from Knossos, 13 bench, Court of Stone Bench under Knossos bowls, Egyptian, 985 E.M. imitating black burnished pot11. 11.

from Mycenae, Minoan, 11. 16 E.M., I. 17, 26,

984

n. 5

66, 67,

92
553,
554,

M.M. M.M.
697 n. 3

I, I.

177, 178
I.

Ill,

412,

419,
i.

see

imitating leatherwork,

412, 419
11.

iv.

n.

imitating pottery,

Ill,

92 imitating 'Vapheio Cup',


I. I.

380
221
IV.

tery,

90 n. 2 from Knossos, Neolithic house,


I.

imitated in pottery,
11.

87,

II.

16
n. 2

E.M.,

I.

17, 31,

87
II.

North Lustral Basin, 11. 348, 349 Tomb of the Double Axes, 11. 627
for libations, inscribed, iv. 656

M.M.
100

I, I.

23, 169, 177-9,

369, 452,

core of hearth Mycenae, 180 cup, L.M. from Knossos, 178 cupped block, from Temple Tomb, 978 seqq. dadoes, Dadoes
fixed
at
iv.

from Platanos,
la,

i.

193

M.M. M.M.
L.M.

II,

I.

238, 239, IV. 122 380, 413, 414, 554, 558, 597,

Ill,

I.

600-2
lb, IV.

iii.

iv.

et

ewers, from Lustral Area,


348, 697 n. 2
figures, see Figures

see

I.

411-14, 419,

11.

from from from from from


44

270, 271, 276 Hagia Triada, I. 149 Hagios Onuphrios, 11. 46

Hierakonpolis,
Isopata, iv. 845

11.

44
11.

Knossos,

I.

170,

30, 31 n.

i,

n. 4. 380,

697 n.

2, iii. 9, iv.

777

implements. Neolithic Cretan, 348, 349, 627 knives, Egyptian, 26 5 from Knossos, 433 from Trullos, 687 lamps, Lamps Libation maces, Egyptian, 26 from Cyclades, 44 from Mesara, 44
inlays,
II.
11.

from Pseira, 11. 790 n. 4 hammers, from Hagia Triada, i. 468 from Knossos, i. 468, 469
goblet,
i.

54,

11.

13

n. 2, iv. 315
n.

ladle,

11.

11.

64, iv.

see

libation tables, see

tables

from Mavro Spelio, 11. 356 from Mochlos, I. 165, 11. 58 from Mycenae, 11. 31 n. i, 41, 44 n. 4, 697 n. 2, IV. 232-4 represented on fresco fragment from Knossos, II. 722 weight, from Ras-Shamra, I v. 530 from Zakro, iv. 662 and see Alabaster, Breccia, Building, Cists, Column-bases, Diorite, Gypsum, Ironstone, Limestone, Liparite, Marble, Pave-

11.

palettes,

11.

n. 2

ments,

Rosette

and

Triglyph

Friezes,

11.

Steatite, &c.

STORE-CELLS
Store-cells, in Neolithic houses at Knossos,

[207]
11.

SWORDS
(cont.)

Sun, on seal

houses, in Cos, and under Pottery, pithos rooms, in Egypt, 570


S. Italy,
jars, see
I.

M.M.
I.

Ill prism,

I.

671

Syria,

106

on signet-ring from Tiryns, on votive from Psychro,


tablet

talismanic bead,

iv.

446

IV.
I.

461
633
tablets,
iv.

at

Knossos,

see
I.

under Knossos

Sundwall, Prof.
663
n. 2,

J.,

on Knossian
I

at Phaestos,

570
11.

681 n.

Stravakis, Nikolaos, description of earthquake

Sura (Elyros), upheaval of coast

at,

n. 87 n. 3

314 n. 2 Stravomyti, cave of, pottery from, 11. 68, 69 n.i Strongylos, Mount (Venetian Stromholi), 11. 232 Stucco technique, Minoan, i. 528, 530-6 works in the round in, L.M. I, in. 518 painted female head, from Mycenae, in.
at

Candia in

a.d. 1856,

Susa, two-storied pots from, n. 428

Suspension pots for birds, modern use of in


Syria and Italy, 11. 306 Suspension pots, I. 60-2 and see under Pottery Swallows, Egyptian cult of, n. 28 n. 5 Minoan fondness for, 11. 306, 307 as embroidery motive on fresco from Knossos, I. 546, II. 307, 379; from Phylakopi, n. 307 n. i, 766, iv. 40
:

coating
in.

519 Sphinx, from Mycenae,


of,

I.

549
Tylissos,

on steatite figurine from

426 on hearths, 11. 20, iv. 179, 180 on seat near N.E. Hall at E[jiossos, i. 571 on tables in Kitchen of the Throne Room
iv.

on pottery from Phylakopi, 115 on M.M. Ill bead-seal, n. 307 766 on 449 from Knossos, n. 766, 594
in.
n. 3

n. 3,

n. 3,

IV.

sealing

iv.

system,

926, 927
II.

Swan
:

associated with
.

Minoan Goddess,

iv.

on

walls,

670, 683, IV. 967


reliefs

and

see

Frescoes and painted

impression of pillar flutings

in, in.

323

301, Studs, amber, n. 170 bone, 170 55 170 169


floors of,
II.
II.

on

sacral horns, n. 160, in. 525


III.

22, 23

chrysocolla,

I.

jet, II.

whistling, n. 836 Swastika in Minoan ornament, 358, 197 symbol, 358, 570 L.M. lb form of probably derived from n. 492 on M.M. pottery from 186 on M.M. l\a from Knossos, 216 on sealings from Temple Repositories, 515,
n. i
i.

24

II.

as religious

I.

iv.

brittle-stars,
I

Vasiliki,

I.

flask

11.

i.

tin, II.

Styx, offerings of milk and

honey

to

dead

at, iv.

157
Succinite, true

Sudan, see Sumatra, use of parrying-stick in, 11. 52 n. 2 Sumeria, 11. 264 influence of on Egypt, n. 26, IV. 505

North Soudan

Baltic amber, n. 174 n. 3

570 Sweden, domestic snakes in, iv. 153 n. 2 hut-urns from, n. 132 Swimmers, on inlaid dagger-blade from Vapheio
III.

IV.

96

n. I, 127,

128
terra-cotta

Swine,

see Pigs

Swing of Minoan Goddess, from Phaestos, IV. 24


IV.

model of

on Minoan Crete,

11.

253-66, in. 261,

Swinging

as religious rite, iv.

26

head rhytons from, convention for rocks steatopygous images from, 51


inlaid bull's
scale
I.

125, 421, 955 jewellery from, iv. 125

Switzerland, remains of six-rowed barley in

iv.

236, 315

Lake Dwellings Swords


as attribute of
24, 400, 849

of, IV.

628
793,
iv.

in, iv.

955

Minoan Goddess, n.

Sumu-ilum of

Larsa,

name

of on steatite dog

Minoan, copper daggers prototypes

of, II.

54,

on draughtsman from Knossos,


on
seal,

ink-stand, in. 422 Sun, symbol on fresco from Knossos,


i.

i.

480

479

length
847

IV.

848, 851
of, II.

association of long

273, IV. 845, 847 and short types of, IV.

E.M.

Ill,<