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Program Help Document

Prasad V. Rallabhandi

JCarnatic
Version 1.0.0

Program Help Document

August 2010

JCarnatic Program Help Document


First Edition.

Copyright 2010 by Prasad V. Rallabhandi

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission by the author.

All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service names, trademarks, or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Neither Prasad V. Rallabhandi nor JCarnatic is associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.

LIMIT OF LIABILITY AND DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE AUTHOR HAS USED HIS BEST EFFORT IN PREPARING THIS BOOK, AND MAKES NO REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE AUTHOR SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFIT OR ANY OTHER COMMERCIAL DAMAGES

Contents

Contents
1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 About The Program ............................................................................................. 1 Acknowledgements ............................................................................................. 1 Version Information............................................................................................. 1 Licence And Disclaimer ...................................................................................... 2 Who Is This PRogram For ................................................................................... 2 Limitations Of The Program ............................................................................... 2 References.............................................................................................................. 3

2 Carnatic Music Fundamentals .................................................................. 5


2.1 A Simple Primer ................................................................................................... 5 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Frequency ................................................................................................ 5 Intensity ................................................................................................... 7 Duration .................................................................................................. 7 Quality ..................................................................................................... 7

Pitch (Sruthi) ......................................................................................................... 8 Raagam ................................................................................................................ 10 Taalam ................................................................................................................. 11 Gamakam (Microtone) ...................................................................................... 12 Carnatic Music Learning Methodology .......................................................... 13 2.6.1 2.6.2 Lessons in Carnatic Music .................................................................. 13 Recommendations for Learning Carnatic Music............................. 14

3 JCarnatic Features...................................................................................... 15
3.1 3.2 Getting Started .................................................................................................... 15 Using JCarnatic ................................................................................................... 19

Contents

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 3.2.9 3.2.10 3.2.11 3.2.12 3.3

Introducing Carnatic Music String .................................................... 19 Swaram (Note) ..................................................................................... 20 Octave .................................................................................................... 20 Instruments ........................................................................................... 20 Tempo .................................................................................................... 22 Note Duration....................................................................................... 22 Raagam in JCarnatic ............................................................................ 23 Taalam In JCarnatic ............................................................................. 24 Pitch In JCarnatic ................................................................................. 26 Song Sequence Classification ............................................................. 26 Pallavi, Anupallavi And Charanam .................................................. 27 Microtonal Music (Gamakam) ........................................................... 27

JCarnatic Menus ................................................................................................. 28 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Edit Input File ....................................................................................... 28 Quick Pickup ........................................................................................ 29 Play ......................................................................................................... 30 Save As A MIDI File ............................................................................ 31 Soundbanks........................................................................................... 31

3.4

Music Database................................................................................................... 32

4 JCarnatic Internals .................................................................................... 33


4.1 4.2 CMusicStringParser.java ................................................................................... 33 ParserListener.java ............................................................................................. 34

5 Things to do ................................................................................................ 35 Appendix A: Names of Notes ..................................................................... A Appendix B: List of Melakartha Raagas ................................................... C

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Contents

Appendix C: Janya Raagas ..........................................................................G Appendix D: List of Janya Raagas ............................................................. K

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1
1.1

INTRODUCTION
ABOUT THE PROGRAM JCarnatic is a Carnatic Music teaching / learning tool. It is built on the Java music library JFugue (www.jfugue.org). JCarnatic is open-source software. In addition to the program, this package also has classes on which further programs may be developed.

1.2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There are several people to whom I should be thankful for. Listing all of them would be a difficult task. However, the following individuals need special mention.

Smt. Vasantha Seethepalli (Music Teacher); Sri Vidyanath Devalpally (Flautist); Smt. Sowmya Sri Rallabhandi (Carnatic Music concepts and documentation help + putting up with me while I did this program -shes my wife); and Sri Billy Cilliers (editing this text and making it better).

1.3

VERSION INFORMATION The current version of the program is 1.0.0. This is the first time that the program is released and may be considered a Beta version. Methodology that will be followed for future updates of the program is as follows: For any update of the program that does not affect the functioning of the program, only the last digit will be incremented by one; Any update that will result in addition of features for example, allowing use of janya ragas (planned for the next edition) will cause the middle digit to be incremented by one. At this time, the last digit will be set to 0; The update that will see a total change to the look and feel and with many more additional features (I have a list of things that I want this software to do and completing that list will be one such update) will result in the first digit incremented by one. The other two digits will be set to 0 at that time.

The next major release is planned for December 2010. However, this is not a guarantee.
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JCarnatic Program Help Document

1.4

LICENCE AND DISCLAIMER This program and the API thereof is free software. You can distribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or any later version. This program (and API) is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You can view a copy of the license by selecting Help in the menu bar and then selecting Licence under it. Or you may get a copy from http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

1.5

WHO IS THIS PROGRAM FOR This program is for learners of Carnatic Music. There are menus and windows in the program using which one can practise singing Carnatic Music. The program is suitable also for practising playing Carnatic Music instruments.

1.6

LIMITATIONS OF THE PROGRAM The following are the limitations of the program. While some of these are applicable for this version only, some are general in nature and applicable to Carnatic Music as a whole: Firstly, no program, however great it may be, can substitute a teacher. Human interaction is one of the most important aspects of Carnatic Music. The teacher is the best person to understand your needs, know your strengths and weaknesses and is the best person to decide the best way for you so that you achieve your goal of learning Carnatic Music in the most effective manner. The recommendation always has to be Learn from the teacher. JCarnatic can help in giving you the practice required. It can and does change the frequency of the notes played, as required, so you too can tune and culture your voice to be a better singer. The duration and frequency of the notes are perfectly controlled by the program, so that the student knows exactly how long to sing for and what the frequency is;

JCarnatic Program Help Document

Purists scorn at the idea of using digital means in Carnatic Music. A tempered instrument such as guitar or a computer playing synthetic music cannot simulate a human being. This is most notable in gamakams (microtones). I, for one, tend to agree with the purists. After all, Carnatic Music evolved many, many years ago and was (and still is being) passed on from generation to generation. For many centuries, there was no written record of the songs taught and the students learnt from their teachers by the ear. Even if there was a written record, the record cannot capture the melody part in a given song. However, I also believe that as long as a qualified teacher is involved and as long as we understand the limitations of the digital means, utilising digital means for practice purposes is acceptable. And thats where JCarnatic comes in; Gamakam (microtone) notation used in the program requires further work. The next version should show a major improvement in how microtonal music is processed and delivered; The next version of the program may see inclusion of a few more instruments to the instrument list; The program currently does not work on Linux operating system. It may work on Apple McIntosh systems, but this has not been tested.

1.7

REFERENCES The following references have been followed: Ganamrutha Bodhini Panchapakesa Iyer; Ganamrutha Varnamalika Panchapakesa Iyer; Ganamrutha Keerthanamalika (Vols. I to X) Panchapakesa Iyer; Gana Kala Bodhini; Sangeetha Sampradaya Pradarsini.

JCarnatic Program Help Document

JCarnatic Program Help Document

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2.1

CARNATIC MUSIC FUNDAMENTALS


A SIMPLE PRIMER I am not writing a treatise on this. I am not an expert in Carnatic Music (I am only a civil engineer, with an interest in programming, and I am a nobody when it comes to Carnatic Music). Nor am I intending that this text will be of any use to an expert. This is just a feeble attempt to explain the basics of Carnatic Music. The purpose of this section is follow from this primer to what JCarnatic is presently able to do and the features of JFugue that this software has used. Well. Lets get on with it. Music is an extremely subjective, aural experience. Some sounds are perceived by us as pleasant and some others as unpleasant. What is considered pleasant or unpleasant can be quite personal, based on our specific culture, exposure to particular kinds of music and perhaps even on what our parents told us. Sounds have four basic attributes: The sound frequency; Intensity (volume loud or otherwise); Duration; and Quality.

These are briefly explained in the following sections. 2.1.1 FREQUENCY Frequency: as per what we studied in school, a human ear can hear sounds ranging between about 20 Hz and about 20000 Hz. The ability to express thoughts through sounds is one of the basic requirements of all living beings. This, of course, needs to follow certain principles. Music is an extension to this. Music may be defined as an art form that arranges sounds in a fashion that follows certain natural principles and provides that special inner feeling of happiness and contentment. The basic principles are natural and thus the theory of music is only an attempt by human beings (of course, this could be applicable to whales as well) to rationally explain what is already beautiful.

JCarnatic Program Help Document

The audible range of sounds has been split into octaves and octaves further into notes. An octave is a collection of notes. In western music there are twelve notes per octave, whereas in Carnatic Music, there are many more. Octaves and notes are further explained later. But this difference in western and Carnatic Music is perhaps because Carnatic Music is much more vocal. A note is, in simple terms, the position in the audible spectrum occupied by a particular sound or the pitch of the sound. The Indian word for note is Swaram. An octave is a collection of, in Western Music, twelve notes that are separated by a certain geometric progression. The middle C in Western Music has a frequency of 240 Hz. The divisions are C, C#, D, Eb, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, Bb, B and C in the next octave. The second C, i.e. the C in the next octave, has a frequency of 480 Hz. There are twelve divisions between the middle C and the next C, and the frequency of each note in the octave is 2(1/12) times that of the note immediately preceding it. This rule of starting middle C at 240 Hz is not strictly followed; fixing middle A to 440 Hz is one alternative that is widely used in fact, JFugue follows this rule. On a polyphonic keyboard, or on a 12-string guitar, try pressing both Cs simultaneously and listen carefully. It is easy to realise that the combined sound has an oneness. If you tried it with C and D, you would immediately realise that the two sounds stand out separately. Next, especially on a keyboard, we observe that there are twelve keys in a repeating pattern. In Indian terms, there may be called twelve swara sthanas (swara in English is note and sthana is position) in a repeating pattern. The division of an octave into twelve notes (I will start using the term swara or swaram from here on) has evolved over a period of millennia. Music history books definitely present a better picture, but for the present just take the statement as correct (It is). Western music believes in specifying an absolute pitch (or frequency) of all swaras. Thats the reason for frequencies of all notes being fixed and the same for all (western) instruments. Indian music, both the Carnatic Music and the Hindustani Music, is based on relative positioning and thus, the notes are not of fixed pitch. Please refer to the section on Pitch for more details. Similar to the Western music, Carnatic music also has twelve notes in an octave, or twelve swara sthanas in an octave. But at a give point of time only seven are used. These seven are Sa (Shadjamam), Ri (Rishabham), Ga (Gandharam), Ma (Madhyamam), Pa (Panchamam), Da (Daivatham), and Ni

JCarnatic Program Help Document

(Nishadam). As a collection, these seven notes are referred to as Saptha swaralu (Saptha Seven and Swaralu Plural for notes). A better and more detailed explanation is given in the section on Raagam. We observed earlier that doubling the frequency of a note produces the same note in the next upper octave. This is more applicable to Western Music. Carnatic Music is based not on the logarithmic division but on rational division. For example, the frequency of note G (the eighth note in the scale mentioned above) is 1.498 times that of C immediately below it. In Carnatic Music the frequency of Pa the eighth swara sthana is 1.50 times that of Sa immediately preceding it. The discrepancy is pretty minor but a professional musician can pick out the difference. Similar definitions exist for other swara sthanas. A few centuries ago, Western classical music too was based on rational division (the resulting scale was called as the natural scale), but this has given way to the equally tempered scale produced by logarithmic division. The difference is subtle, but quite important. The rational division claim is supported by the fact that tuning of instruments (for example, in setting the frets of veena) is performed mostly by the ear and not by reference to standards. 2.1.2 INTENSITY It is the easiest to explain. You may sing a song at the top of your voice (so the others know for sure you are in the bathroom having a shower), or sing the same song in a barely audible whisper. The voice modulation required to produce the song will not change, but what changes is the volume of the voice. 2.1.3 DURATION This is self-explanatory. 2.1.4 QUALITY This attribute is slightly difficult to explain. It is simply a signature of the source of the sound. It is a term which explains why a violin sounds like a violin and a drum sounds like a drum. This attribute is precisely the reason you can make out a famous singers voice on radio, irrespective of the fact that you have never met him/her. The bottomline is, when you or an instrument produce sound, you not only produce one frequency, but also produce a spectrum consisting of several 'overtones'. This is variously
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referred to as 'timbre' or 'tone colour'. This constitutes the 'Quality' of that sound. Just to explain this concept some more, let us say you try to produce a single frequency with your voice - one way to 'produce' a single frequency is to get a keyboard and keep pressing one of its keys and you hum along till you resonate. If you actually analysed the waveform you produced, you would see not only a significant amount of the frequency you were trying to produce but also see small amounts of other frequencies - which are the overtones. The exact composition of overtones you produced is in some sense the signature of your voice and constitutes its quality. So much for the attributes of sound. Lets now move onto other interesting aspects. 2.2 PITCH (SRUTHI) We said earlier that Carnatic Music is predominantly vocal. We have also said that Carnatic Music is based on natural scale. Imagine a child of six or seven years, a male singer and an elderly female singer all singing the swaras at the same time, each of them modulating his/her voice simultaneously to match the frequencies of the swaras. It is possible to realise that the childs starting frequency (pitch) is much higher than the female singers, and that the female singers starting frequency is higher than the males (the resulting sound is a cacophony, but never mind). The point here is that each human being has his/her signature frequency. To facilitate such natural differences, Carnatic Music divides the sounds into pitches (Indian word for Pitch: Sruthi). One of the very first items a Carnatic Music teacher does, with a new student, is to ascertain the Sruthi of the student. The Sa is analogous to C in the Western notation. A new student might be comfortable to sing, and does so on a consistent basis, the saptha swaras with Sa starting at 260 Hz as against the Western 240 Hz. The teacher sets the students Sruthi at 260 Hz. How is it done? Carnatic Music used to take the help of tamboora, a string instrument that is continuously strummed and produces Sa, Pa, Sa. The sound the tamboora makes can be adjusted to produce Sa at the exact frequency as the students. The student thus can, while singing, periodically check his/her voice frequency against the reference sounds. Tamboora is not widely used nowadays. In its place is the digital equipment such as Sruthi box, which primarily does the same thing (and many more, but I am not getting into it). The teacher makes note of the students reference (or
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signature) frequency or Sruthi and sets the box to that frequency whenever the student sings. How is it measured? The units of measurement are kattai. If a student sings such that the frequency of Sa is 240 Hz, then he/she is said to be singing at five kattai (This needs further checking It is not a mistake that I have not deleted this statement. I really need help on this. Anyone?). Or in the modern notation, the student is said to be singing at G scale (??!). Modern Sruthi boxes divide the pitches into the Western scales, which is very intriguing really. A typical Sruthi box will have divisions starting from F, F#, G, G#, A, A#, and the underlying agreement is that F corresponds to 4 kattai, F# to 4.5 kattai and so on. Curiously like there is no E# in Western Notation, there is no 3.5 kattai. Similarly there is no 7.5 kattai, as there is no B# in Western notation. Why it is that way, I have no idea. The idea behind this write-up is to explain that Carnatic Music is based on natural scale and that the music takes into account the differences there are among individuals. Not only that, some of the Indian instruments, say a Flute, are available with kattai numbers written over them. A flautist normally has several flutes at his/her disposal, each having a different number. In a stage performance where a flautist supports a Carnatic Music singer, he/she (the flautist) picks the flute whose kattai closely matches that of the singer. The sruthi accompaniment (tamboora or sruthi box) provides the reference pitch and we indicate the reference pitch by saying that somebody sings at one and half kattai pitch, or a veena is tuned to four and half kattais. This simply means that the Sa has been set to that pitch and all other swaras occupy corresponding sthanas. The importance of the Sa is that it provides the fixed foundation note upon which the rest of the music is built. Such a foundation note exists in classical Western music also and is indicated by the scale name e.g. F-Major indicates that the tune is built using F as the base note. The base note can be discriminated with a little practice since the music generally returns to dwell on the base note every now and then.

JCarnatic Program Help Document

2.3

RAAGAM Crudely translated into English Raagam means Scale. The seven swaras of Carnatic Music are Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, and Ni. The cycle rolls into the next octave with the same swaras but with higher frequencies. The saptha swaras constitute the Solfege notation, very much similar to the Western Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, La and Ti. We have also noted earlier that there are twelve swara sthanas, and that at a given point time only seven are used. Of the seven swaras mentioned, the notes Sa and Pa are fixed, or unary. Notes Ri, Ga, Da, Ni have three variations each, and Ma has two. (From now on, I will use shorter S, R, G, M, P, D, N for the notes). Therefore there are a total of 16 notes namely S, R1, R2, R3, G1, G2, G3, M1, M2, P, D1, D2, D3, N1, N2, and N3. Each of the sixteen notes has a distinct name such as Suddha Rishabham (R1), Chatusruthi Rishabham (R2), Satsruthi Rishabham (R3), etc. Names of each and every one of them is listed in Appendix A. The twelve swara sthanas and the notes are as below 1 Sa 2 Ri (1) 3 Ri(2) Ga(1) 4 Ri(3) Ga(2) 5 Ga(3) 6 Ma (1) 7 Ma (2) 8 Pa 9 Da (1) 10 Da (2) Ni(1) 11 Da (3) Ni(2) 12 Ni (3) You will notice that Ri(2) and Ga(1) share the same swara sthanam. Similarly there are other sthanas shared by two notes. The rule book says that you may pick one of S, R, G, M, P, D, N from the above 12 swara sthanas. Say you pick S, R1, G3, M1, P, D1 and N3. The resulting combination is a Raagam. Of course, you may not pick R3 and G1 (i.e. you cant go backwards) or D2 or N1 (you may not pick two notes from the same swara sthana). Going by these rules, you may work out the maths, you will find out that there are 72

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combinations. Each of these 72 combinations is a raagam, and each of them has a name to it. For example, the combination that we have just picked is Mayamalavagoula Raagam. Each of them has all seven swaras in it. These 72 raagas are collectively called as Melakartha raagas. In Carnatic Music, each and every raga has its own quality and its own special attributes. You should not sing a song composed in raagam in a different raagam. It simply wouldnt sound nice. A list of the Melakartha raagas, together with what exact notes they have, is in Appendix B. In contrast to the Melakartha ragas, there are ragas called the Janya ragas (English for janya: Derived). These derived ragas do not have all seven swaras in them. Or they have a note from one swara sthana in the ascending order and have a different note in the descending order. For example, the raagam called Ananda Bhairavi has N2 in the ascending order and has N1 in the descending order. There are, as per the reports, more than 4000 janya ragas in Carnatic Music, of which only about 300 are in use today. To give an example, the raagam Hamsadhvani is derived from Dheerasankarabharanam and has only Sa, Ri(2), Ga(3), Pa, Ni(3). More information on Janya ragas is in Appendix C. Appendix D gives a complete list of janya ragas, which raagam they are derived from, the notes they contain, etc. 2.4 TAALAM Raagam refers to the tune or melody characteristics. The term referring to the rhythm or beats of Carnatic music is taalam. It indicates the pacing of the music and the placement of syllables in the composition. The Taalam system is essentially based on a cyclic pattern; in other words, the rhythm is always cyclic. In Carnatic music, the singer indicates the taalam using gestures. There are three basic hand movements used in keeping the rhythm downward beat with the palm facing down (called thattu); the wave (sometimes the downward beat with the palm facing up) called veechu; and counts using one finger for each count staring with the little finger.

These basic movements are combined into three groups, called Laghu (represented by |), Dhrutham (represented by 0) and Anudhrutham (by U). A Laghu is one thattu followed by a specified number of counts to make up
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JCarnatic Program Help Document

the requisite number of beats. A Dhrutham is one thattu followed by one veechu while an Anudhrutham is just one thattu. Each beat or unit of taalam is termed as an aksharam (English for Aksharam: Letter as in letters a, b, c, etc.) and thus, an Anudhrutham is one aksharam long, a Dhrutham is two aksharams long and the Laghu is of variable length. There are several other movements but these are rarely seen in practice. The absolute duration of an aksharam is not fixed and it varies, depending on the composition and the mood of the performer. This is similar to the way in which the absolute pitch of the swaras is not fixed but defined only relative to the reference pitch or sruthi. The aksharam is further divided into a number of swaras and this division is referred to as gathi. Four swaras per aksharam is standard and is termed Chaturasra gathi (It is same as saying four quarter notes to a beat). The other standard divisions and the associated number of swaras per aksharam are Tisra (three), Khanda (five), Misra (seven) and Sankeerna (nine). The most commonly used taalas are as follows: Adi Dhruva Matya Rupaka Jhumpa Chaturasra Eka Sankeerna Eka Ata Triputa |(4) 0 0 |(4) 0 |(4) |(4) |(4) 0 |(4) 0 |(4) |(7) U 0 |(4) |(9) |(5) |(5) 0 0 |(3) 0 0

(Dont be confused by 0 in the above table. 0 actually means a Dhrutham with two beats in it. Similarly |(5) means a Laghu with 5 beats). 2.5 GAMAKAM (MICROTONE) One of the basic differences between the Western and the Carnatic Music that while Western notation is based on twelve keys per octave, the Carnatic Music system needs more than twelve per octave. It is just not enough to produce the Carnatic Music with just 12 notes. One ought to produce even the intermediate frequencies. These intermediate frequencies do not have any keys to produce them, and are called microtones. The Indian word for the microtone is gamakam (meaning of Sanskrit word gamakam: an ornamented note). It is often very difficult to explain this concept clearly and precisely. If the C key produces 240 Hz and the C# key produces 254 Hz
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JCarnatic Program Help Document

what intermediate frequencies are we talking about? Does Indian music use sounds produced at 247 Hz? Treatises have been written in India about such microtonal aspects of music. Suffice it to say that microtones or gamakams tend to be clustered around the primary key frequency, although this is not always the case. The vocal gliding and rolling is an example of microtone usage, whether it sounds pleasant or not. Microtones add variety to the Indian classical music an extra dimension. The very heart of Carnatic Music is this continuous flow or gliding through a continuum of frequencies or gamakam or microtonal excursions. To explain the concept, I would like to think that the Western Music is more digital, i.e., often you jump from one note to the next. In contrast, Carnatic Music is more analogue. To go from one frequency to the next, you glide through all the frequencies (of course, in a predetermined order) between the two frequencies. Carnatic Music describes several types of microtones. While the types themselves are not explained here, it is a fact that microtones add a certain flavour to the music. 2.6 CARNATIC MUSIC LEARNING METHODOLOGY

2.6.1 LESSONS IN CARNATIC MUSIC After ascertaining the pitch of a new student, generally a Carnatic Music teacher teaches the following, starting from the first to the last in order: Sarali swaram these are simple tunes. There are several sarali swaras and the main purpose of these is to begin to culture / train the voice of the student such that the student is able to modulate his/her voice to match the frequency of the notes; Janta swaram similar to the earlier ones, these are also simple tunes. Dhatu swaram slightly more complicated than the earlier tunes. Also longer; Upper sthayi swaram here the student is introduced to sing upper octave notes; Alankaram there are several of these. Till this stage the student would have used only the Adi taalam. Here the student is introduced to knowing and singing in several other taalams; Geetham English for geetham is song. Here the student is introduced to singing a few simple songs. This is a major jump from the
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earlier lessons. Till the beginning of geetham, the student would only sing the swaras. But from this point onwards, the student would begin to sing proper songs (and the swaras) while modulating the voice to the underlying notes. At this stage, the student is also introduced to singing songs that are composed in several ragas; Swarajathi / Swarapallavi these are more advanced versions of the earlier section; Varnam more complex. This part introduces the gamakam (microtones). Microtones are widely used here Keerthana / Krithi these are the most complex songs of Carnatic Music.

A student generally needs about five years of regular practice to reach and be able to sing the last section. There are over a thousand krithis and the music education continues. The final stage is called the Manodharma sangeetham, wherein the student (by now an expert) is expected to improvise on the music. However, I am not getting in the details of that part. 2.6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LEARNING CARNATIC MUSIC If you want to learn Carnatic Music, first of all, you would need a teacher. To use the internet-blogs jargon, IMHO thats the only method to learn Carnatic Music. However, you can use JCarnatic to give you the practice.

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JCARNATIC FEATURES
Enough for the theory part. Lets get straight into what all this is for.

3.1

GETTING STARTED JCarnatic makes playing Carnatic Music easy. It is possible to enter the Indian notation into the boxes provided and the program will play the sequence entered. This section explains how to set up and get started with JCarnatic. Installing JCarnatic You may already have Java installed on your machine. To check whether Java is already installed, type java version in the command prompt window (Programs All Programs Accessories and then select Command Prompt to bring up the console window). If the output is something like the following, then you have Java.
java version 1.6.0_11 Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.6.0_11-b03) Java HotSpot(TM) Client VM (build 11.0-b16, mixed mode)

Or if the output says java is not recognized as an internal or external command, operable program or batch file, you will need to install Java. JCarnatic works with Java 1.5.0 or higher. If the output of java version (as above) says java is not recognised or if the version number is lower than 1.5.0, then install Java. You may download the latest version of Java (1.6.0_Update 21 at the time of writing this) from http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/index.html. I would recommend downloading the JDK (Java Development Kit) variety, rather than the JRE (Java Runtime Environment) variety. Download the file, double-click, and follow the instructions on screen to install Java. Next, download Soundbanks provided by Oracle (Sun Microsystems) from http://java.sun.com/products/java-media/sound/soundbanks.html. Download the Deluxe version (4.92 MB). This soundbank contains higherquality sound samples. Download the soundbank (as above) and unzip the soundbank zip file. You will see a file with a .gm extension. Move this file to C:\Program Files\Java\jre\lib\audio (on your system, the path could be different). If there is no audio directory, create it. If you find a soundbank file already in
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there, rename it to something like soundbank.gm.orig. Rename the Deluxe soundbank file to soundbank.gm. Repeat this procedure with <jdk-installdir>\jre\lib\audio folder. Create a new folder under your C:\ drive or D:\ drive, either using Windows (right click followed by New Folder), or by typing mkdir <dir-name> into the command prompt window. Do NOT create this new folder under C:\Program Files directory. (Creating a subfolder under C:\Program Files will work, but as JCarnatic creates additional files during execution, the Windows operating system will keep asking you to confirm file operations. This could be annoying at best, and downright hazardous at the worst.) Copy JCarnatic.zip file into this folder. Unzip the contents of the zip file to this new folder using WinZip or any other archive extraction programs. Once extracted, the new folder should show the following files and folders that comprise the JCarnatic package: JCarnatic.jar The software file; LICENCE.TXT Software licence document DO NOT MODIFY THIS DOCUMENT; lib folder libraries used by the software; MusicDatabase folder containing several sub-folders. Each sub-folder contains .mno files. These are the music notation files; and Docs folder, that contains .html program help files (the text you are currently reading). During program execution, JCarnatic creates additional files. For simplicity and ease of use, I would recommend that you create on your desktop a shortcut to the JCarnatic.jar file. This step is not essential for running the program. Installation of JCarnatic is now complete. Testing the installation After installation, test the installation by double clicking on the JCarnatic.jar file, or if you created the shortcut, double-click the shortcut. (If you have a Nokia mobile phone, and you use Nokia OVI Suite on this computer to connect your mobile phone to the computer, then double clicking JCarnatic.jar will bring up the Nokia OVI Suite window. The Java binary should actually
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be opening this file. If this happens to you, right click on the JCarnatic.jar file and select Open with Java Platform (TM) SE Binary). The program requires at least one user registered with the program. Create a user in the window that should show up and login.

You should see the main window of JCarnatic with a picture of the Trinity.

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Select File New to open a New dialog window. Enter S R G M P D N SU SU N D P M G R S in the area allocated and press the Play button. JCarnatic should play the first Sarali swaram.

Press Cancel button or the X button on the window to close it and go back to the main window.

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3.2

USING JCARNATIC We have installed JCarnatic and checked that its working. Now is the time to set your Sruthi (Refer section 3.2.9) and create some music. This section will explain all you need to know to start creating music with JCarnatic. Specifically, you will come to know about the features of JCarnatics notations. This will enable you to create music with notes of varying durations, octaves, pitch, ragas and instruments. All of this is explained in the subsequent sections. The information is presented in the following sections in an order that I felt was logical. A better ordering of the material is perhaps possible. I request you to please go through the entire section to see what JCarnatic needs to play music or how to make the best use of JCarnatic.

3.2.1 INTRODUCING CARNATIC MUSIC STRING The Carnatic Music String that you enter into the text windows is the same as that you find in the Carnatic Music books. Some of the examples are as follows: S R G M | P D | N SU || SU N D P | M G | R S || (Sarali swaram 01) SU , N D | N , | D P || D , P M | P , | P , || G M P D | N D | P M || G M P G | M G | R S || (Sarali swaram 11) S , , R G , P , D , SU , N , D , P , D P M G R S R S NL DL S , , , (Swarajathi Raravenu Gopabala)

Of course, the music notation books do not indicate an upper octave Sa as SU or a lower octave Ni with NL (In music books, the upper octave Sa is written as an S with a dot above it and the lower octave Ni is written as an N with a dot below it). The notation system used in JCarnatic is explained in Section 3.2.3. Please note that the string you enter is NOT case-sensitive.

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3.2.2 SWARAM (NOTE) The specification of a swaram begins with the swaram name, which is one of the following: S, R, G, M, P, D, or N. These represent Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, and Ni respectively (There is no need to enter Sa, Ga, etc. The first letter is sufficient). After specifying the note itself, you may then append an octave, note duration etc., all of which are described in the subsequent sections. One item to note in JCarnatic, though, is that EACH SWARAM YOU ENTER IS A QUARTER NOTE. 3.2.3 OCTAVE JCarnatic can play Carnatic Music in three octaves. Mandra Sthayi (lower octave); Madhya Sthayi (middle octave); and Tara Sthayi (upper octave). The default octave is the Madhya Sthayi (the middle octave). For specifying notes in the middle octave, no suffixes are necessary. However, if you want to play an upper octave note, enter the note and add U to it. For example, specifying SU plays Sa in the upper octave (Tara Sthayi). Similarly, to play a note in the lower octave (Mandra Sthayi), enter the note and add L to it. For example, specifying DL plays Da in the lower octave. U suffix stands for Upper and L for Lower octaves. Carnatic Music has two more octaves viz. the lower lower octave called Anumandra Sthayi and the upper upper octave called the Ati Tara Sthayi. As far as I know, their use is limited and JCarnatic does not make use of them. 3.2.4 INSTRUMENTS The music produced by JCarnatic uses MIDI to render audio that is played with instruments from the Java Sound soundbank. The MIDI specification describes 128 different instruments, and more may be supported with additional sound banks. Most MIDI devices use the same definitions for the first 128 instruments, although the quality of the sound varies by device and by soundbank. For example, MIDI instrument #0 often represents a piano, but the piano sound rendered by various MIDI devices may differ.

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Although the MIDI specification describes 128 different instruments, and JFugue supports all of those, JCarnatic uses only a few instruments out of those. The reason is simple. Carnatic Music played over many instruments, in my opinion, does not sound good (Please pardon me for this. My judgement on this could be wrong. There may be instruments, other than those included with JCarnatic that may produce better sounds for Carnatic Music). The instruments provided with JCarnatic are Piano (or Acoustic Grand piano); Electric Grand piano; Nylon String Guitar; Steel String Guitar; Electric Jazz Guitar; Violin; Clarinet; Flute; Recorder; Whistle; Sitar; and Shanai.

Quite honestly, only five of the 12 instruments listed are for Carnatic Music, the rest of them taken from the Western music. The three types of guitar in the list are because I am a guitar player (blatant partiality for it). The next version of the program will definitely see inclusion of a few more instruments, most possibly the best for Carnatic Music the Veena. To select an instrument, simply pick it from the drop down menus.

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3.2.5 TEMPO The tempo indicates how quickly a song should be played. It is the first things to be selected, since it applies to all musical events in a song. Tempo represents beats per minute (BPM). The tempo token is a T, followed by an integer. You will notice that the tempo token figures as the first token in the music notes files (.mno files). The tempo number to be entered is the number of notes per minute. Entering a tempo of say 40 will play each note for 1.5 seconds. Based on the general time durations followed in a Carnatic Music class, the following tempo numbers are suggested. However, it should be noted that in Carnatic Music the note durations are not fixed and the singing speed generally depends upon the song itself and on the mood of the performer. Sarali swaram: 40 Janta swaram: 80 Dhatu swaram: 40 Upper Sthayi swaram: 40 and Alankaram: 40. The tempo values mentioned above are for the first speed. When JCarnatic processes the above song classification types, it plays the first speed swaras first and then automatically adjusts the tempo values for the second and third speeds. The other item to note is that no tempo values for other classification types (classification types as described in Section 2.6.1) have been indicated. These will need to be input depending upon ones taste. A tempo value of 100 for Geetham types and a value of 240 for later song classifications would be an ideal beginning point. 3.2.6 NOTE DURATION The Carnatic Music notation system follows combination of the actual swaram and commas and semicolons to indicate the length of a note. One comma indicates that the note immediately preceding it should be sung for double the duration. For example, G is one quarter note, while G , is one half note. G , , is three quarter notes, and so on. The semicolon symbol works in the similar manner. One semicolon is equivalent to two commas. Therefore R , , is the same R ;, for example.
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In JCarnatic, PLEASE USE SPACES BOTH BEFORE AND AFTER THE COMMAS AND SEMICOLONS. Otherwise, JCarnatic will assume that the comma or semicolon is part of the note. It wouldnt increase the note duration. The above is applicable if the note is longer than a quarter note. If the note is smaller than a quarter note (its rare in Carnatic Music but there would instances of this in the Kirthanas) then we would need to use the following method: If the duration of the note is half of a quarter note (note that each note in JCarnatic is a quarter note), then enter the note, add a U or L (if necessary to indicate upper or lower octave) then suffix this with the number 8. Examples are S8, NL8, D8 etc. If the duration is one quarter of a quarter note, then follow the above procedure for eighth notes, but add 16 instead of 8. Similar procedure is to be applied for notes of 1/32, 1/64 and 1/128 of a note. Examples are SU16, R32, NL128, etc. 3.2.7 RAAGAM IN JCARNATIC There are several combo boxes in the software that allow you to pick the raagam you want. Each combo box contains all 72 Melakartha ragas. Once you pick a raagam, JCarnatic automatically works out the correct Ri, Ga, Ma, Da, and Ni notes (the other two notes Sa and Pa have no variations).

Open a new dialog window (File New). Enter S R G M P D N SU SU N D P M G R S into the text area in the window. The default Raagam is
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Mayamalavagoula. Press the Play button to listen to the sequence. Close the player window and change raagam in the dialog window to Dheerasankarabharanam and press Play again. You will notice that JCarnatic plays the same notes, but with R, G, M, D, N changed to the selected raagam. JCarnatic also allows change of raagam within a song. This is required in Raaga Maalika (English for Raaga maalika: A garland of ragas). In the New dialog window select a raagam from the raagam combo box, say Mayamalavagoula. In the text area enter the following: S R G M P D N SU SU N D P M G R S Dheerasankarabharanam S R G M P D N SU SU N D P M G R S You will notice that JCarnatic plays the first set of swaras to Mayamalavagoula raagam, changes the raagam to Dheerasankarabharanam and then plays the next set of swaras to the change raagam (you can visually see the difference in the frequency curve that is displayed). Processing Janya ragas JCarnatic can process the Janya ragas (derived ragas) but not their names. Janya ragas inherit the same swara sthanas of the Melakaratha ragas from which they are derived. For example, the Janya raagam Hamsadhwani is derived from Dheerasankarabharanam. The notes in Dheerasankarabharanam are S, R2, G3, M1, P, D2, and N3. Hamsadhwani omits a few notes and the notes in this raagam are S, R2, G3, P and N3. JCarnatic cannot process the names of Janya ragas. Therefore, while selecting a raagam in JCarnatic, you must then select the parent raagam name. For example, you want to enter the song Vaathapi Ganapathim Bhaje ..., which is in Hamsadhwani raagam. When you pick the raagam for this Kirthana, you must pick Dheerasankarabharanam (the raagam Hamsadhwani is derived from), as the name Hamsadhwani does not exist in JCarnatic. 3.2.8 TAALAM IN JCARNATIC JCarnatic plays taalam sounds along with the song sequences. The following taalams are supported:

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Adi taalam; Ata taalam; Chaturasra Eka Taalam; Dhruva Taalam; Jhumpa Taalam; Matya Taalam; Rupaka Taalam; Sankeerna Eka Taalam; and Triputa Taalam.

There are many more taalams than those shown in the above list. Support for them will, hopefully, be added in the next version of the program.

If you have a song that needs to be played to a taalam other than that in the list, then select None of the above from the combo boxes provided. You will be able to play the song sequence, but the song will not be accompanied by taalam sounds. If you want to remove taalam sounds from a song in the Music Database, open the file in the Music Notes Editor (First select File Open and select the file, then select Edit Input file on the main JCarnatic window). Add the word notaalam or notalam at the end of the file (in fact, the first five letters of either word suffice). Refer to Section 3.3.1. When you pick the song in QuickPickup window, the taalam is shown at the appropriate place, but the when the Play button is pressed, the player only plays the song, but not the taalam sounds. The words added to the input file could be removed, if you later want the taalam sounds to be played.

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3.2.9 PITCH IN JCARNATIC JCarnatic supports the following pitches (Sruthis). F; F#; G; G#; A; and A#.

You have installed JCarnatic, created a user name, and tested the software installation as described in the earlier sections. This is the time for setting your Sruthi. Select Lessons Set Sruthi in the JCarnatic main window. You should see your name there.

Follow the instructions on screen to set your Sruthi. JCarnatic would save this information and later, whenever you login, will pick your sruthi from the saved information. You can change it later, of course, if you wish. Later, when you select a song sequence from the Quick Pickup item (under Lessons), JCarnatic would set up the song to your pitch so that it will be easy for you to modulate your voice. 3.2.10 SONG SEQUENCE CLASSIFICATION In JCarnatic, it is possible to define a sequence as one of the classification types defined in Section 2.6.1. JCarnatic then decides whether the sequence is

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to be played in three speeds, works out how the taalam beats are to be mixed into the sequence, builds a pattern and then plays it out. Experiment with the lessons in the Lessons Quick Pickup window. 3.2.11 PALLAVI, ANUPALLAVI AND CHARANAM English for the above words is Intro, Verse and Stanza respectively. In JCarnatic it is possible to enter these lines (from Geetham classification onwards only) to delineate different elements of a song. JCarnatic will play the pallavi line first and then repeats whatever is there under the pallavi line after anupallavi and after each of the charanams. One word of caution here. Some of the Keerthanas have multiple pallavis. For example, the Kirthana Vaathapi Ganapathim Bhaje has eight pallavis. Declaring Pallavi before the first one will play all eight pallavis after each charanam. As per what I know (which could be wrong), generally only the last one is repeated after every charanam. Exercise caution in using the Pallavi line. 3.2.12 MICROTONAL MUSIC (GAMAKAM) JCarnatic supports microtonal music. To enter a microtone, simply enclose it between << and >> symbols. Please use spaces both before and after the symbols. Presently the gamakam processing in JCarnatic is pretty basic, and could be downright wrong. These will be edited in the next version of the program. However, the good news is that, the music notation presented in the Reference books (Refer Section 1.7 of this document) splits the microtones into the required elements. Using the notation given in those references will automatically create the required gamakam. Using the symbols indicated here are then not required. Notwithstanding the above, the gamakam processing will be improved in the next version of this software.

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3.3

JCARNATIC MENUS JCarnatic has the following menus: File Menu Items: New, Open, Close, Save, Save As, Print Notation, and Exit. Edit Menu Item: Input File Tools Menu Items: Change Raagam, Change Instrument, Change Pitch, Change Tempo Lessons Menu Items: Set Sruthi, Quick Pickup Play Menu Items: Play, Save as a MIDI Song Help Menu Items: About, Contents, Licence

Most of the above items are self-explanatory. Only the special features are described hereunder. 3.3.1 EDIT INPUT FILE When a music notes file is opened (files with the extension .mno) through File Open followed by Edit Input File, the music notation used is opened in an editor window. JCarnatic provides a simple editor that highlights the elements of the song. If you want to create a .mno file manually, it is easy. Select AutoGen Begin Auto-generation from the menu in the editor. A new window opens allowing you to simply choose the predefined items (tempo, instrument, etc.). Enter the music notation into the text area of the window and press Write. The selected predefined items together with the music notation entered will be written to the text area of the editor. Save the file with .mno extension for JCarnatic to pick it up later.

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3.3.2 QUICK PICKUP For the present, this window is one of the central pieces of the software. When selected, a window that has all the lessons available in the database appears. This window should show your login name and your reference pitch as well. Pick a lesson and a song sequence from the combo box. Press Play button to play the song sequence. After a lesson is picked and before pressing the Play button, you may change the instrument, tempo, raagam or taalam, if you wish. If you dont want taalam sounds, pick None of the above in the taalam combo box. Select a lesson and practice singing along with the computer sounds. Once you perfect it, including in all the relevant speeds, press the Completed button for JCarnatic to store that information. JCarnatic will remember it and highlight the completed items from the next time you login. The lessons are organised starting from Sarali Swaram to Kirthana, similar to how they generally are.

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3.3.3 PLAY When the play button is pressed (either from the main window or through one of the sub-windows), a player window appears. The player window shows the frequency curve of the song sequence that is being played. There are buttons to Pause or Stop the music.

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However, please note that the interface of the window is pretty basic. The slider that is shown on the window may not react so well to mouse click. The frequency curve may get distorted, if the slider is dragged forward or backwards. Modifying the player behaviour to make is more responsive and better is one of the items in my To do list. 3.3.4 SAVE AS A MIDI FILE As the name indicates, you can save a music notation file to MIDI format. The MIDI file created could be played back with Windows Media Player, Real Player, etc. However, as explained elsewhere in this documentation, the computer or the equipment characteristics can affect how a MIDI song is rendered. The next version of JCarnatic will see an option to save a sequence to .wave file, so that your uses will hear exactly what you hear. 3.3.5 SOUNDBANKS We have explained before that Java standard soundbank files should be used to produce sounds from the computer. In case you have purchased a
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commercially available soundbank (such as SONiVOX) and you want JCarnatic to use it to generate music, then the following modifications to the program are necessary: Download Gervill from https://gervill.dev.java.net, and include gervill.jar in your classpath (or, if you are using an IDE, add it to your Java Build Path). Open the file CarnaticMusicPlayer.java. Go to the private inner class PlayRunnable. You will see some commented lines with comments on what to uncomment and what lines to comment to use your soundbank.

3.4

MUSIC DATABASE JCarnatic comes with a music database. You will see several folders under this database. Each folder is named after the song classification types (defined in Section 2.6.1). For example, the Sarali folder has 16 sarali swarams, which you can play and practise. Similarly, the geetham folder contains several songs. If you would like to add, enter the desired sequence into the New window, pick the correct raagam, taalam, tempo, pitch and classification type. Save the sequence to the appropriate folder. When you open the Quick Pickup window later, that window should show the sequence you have saved.

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JCARNATIC INTERNALS
This section is for programmers who would like to use the classes available in JCarnatic program to develop further programs. If you are a learner of Carnatic Music and not a Java programmer, you may safely omit this section. Behind all the simplicity of JCarnatic, there is a substructure of well-designed classes. However, the credit is not mine. JCarnatic is built on top of JFugue. The parent software has been extended to produce the Carnatic Music. Some of the key features of JCarnatic are described in the next few sections. If you need information on JFugue, please go the website of JFugue.

4.1

CMUSICSTRINGPARSER.JAVA JFugue provides the main Parser and ParserListener classes. JCarnatic has a Carnatic Music String parser that extends the JFugues parser to produce music. The effort has been to translate the strings entered into music strings that JFugue can understand and play music. Class CMusicStringParser.java takes in a music string and splits it into several tokens. The first five tokens are reserved. These are (in order): Tempo (string T followed by the tempo number); Raagam (string; one of 72 raagam names; first five letters are sufficient); Instrument (could be either name such as Piano or a string I followed by a instrument number between 0 and 127); Pitch (one of F, F#, G, G#, A, A#); and Taalam.

In the next tokens, the following is performed: Check for recognized strings such as Pallavi, Anupallavi, Sarali, etc. If any of the recognized strings are found, then process those; Check if the token indicates a note. If a note is found, then the note is translated to the Western notation note; Check if the token indicates a duration element such as a comma or semicolon. Process it if found; Check if the token indicates beginning or ending of a microtone. Process if found.

As the parser reads the above, the parser fires the required music events. It also builds a music string in Western notation, and in a form that JFugue can
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understand. Once the parser finishes with the above works, it builds a song sequence (Pattern) from the input based on the given song classification type. The parser then adds the taalam sounds (if specified) to the Pattern and creates an overall song that could be played by CarnaticMusicPlayer class. Please note that when creation of the Pattern is requested, the translated string goes to the MusicStringParser class of JFugue, which also fires the requisite music event. One other work of the parser is to work out a table of sound frequencies and the duration for each of the frequencies. This frequency table is displayed as a graph in the CarnaticMusicPlayer window, with frequency on the vertical axis and the duration on the horizontal axis. 4.2 PARSERLISTENER.JAVA JCarnatic uses the ParserListener.java class of JFugue. However, the following methods have been added to the class to facilitate playing Carnatic Music. raagamEvent ( Raagam raagam ); pitchEvent ( Pitch pitch ); taalamEvent (Taalam taalam ); classificationEvent ( Classification classification ); and songElementEvent (SongElement songElement );

Please note that classes Raagam, Pitch, Taalam, Classification and SongElement extend JFugues JFugueElement class.

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THINGS TO DO
The following items will be attempted for the next version of the program and beyond. Better and more accurate processing of microtones. This will mean changes to the Parser class such that better music is produced; Making the player window more responsive and function better; Addition of a few more instruments to the instrument list. Need to experiment with the instruments provided in MIDI sound bank and the JFugue features such as attack and decay velocities to introduce Veena. Processing of music produced by flute to be improved; An option to save music in .wav file in addition to a MIDI sequence; Process the names of Janya ragas; The program will work out the Taalam sequence directly from the notes entered rather than the block processing as is done now; File Saver to be modified to save the entered sequence as per the taalam entered, rather than save up to 75 characters per line; Program Help window to have more buttons for example Back, Forward, Contents, Index, etc. and better processing of help requests; The player window will need to show the notes that are being played (and also possibly the lyrics along with the notes); The Music Notes Editor (or the AutoGen window) should facilitate specifying microtones. A simple methodology for this will need to be worked out; Program to be modified to work, in addition to Windows, on Linux operating system, and also on Apple McIntosh systems; At present, there appears to be a time delay between pressing the Play button and the actual song being played. This needs to be improved; Similarly, the slider bar on the Player window, the frequency table graph and the actual song do not appear to be synchronised. This behaviour should be changed; The program should save the name of the user/student who logged in last and should automatically start with that user/student (the behaviour that is seen on Chess Master game). The program now asks you to choose a user every time it is started; Requests from users for addition/deletion of features should be incorporated, to the extent possible;

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Appendices

APPENDIX A: NAMES OF NOTES

Names of each of the notes in Carnatic Music

Sa Ri (1) Ri (2) Ri (3) Ga (1) Ga (2) Ga (3) Ma (1) Ma (2) Pa Da (1) Da (2) Da (3) Ni (1) Ni (2) Ni (3)

Shadjamam Suddha Rishabham Chatusruthi Rishabham Satsruthi Rishabham Suddha Gandharam Sadharana Gandharam Antara Gandharam Suddha Madhyamam Prathi Madhyamam Panchamam Suddha Daivatam Chatusruthi Daivatam Satsruthi Daivatam Suddha Nishadam Kaisiki Nishadam Kakali Nishadam

Appendices

Appendices

APPENDIX B: LIST OF MELAKARTHA RAAGAS


This text is taken from www.nerur.com/music/ragalist.php. The following transliteration scheme for the raga names has been used: Sanskrit / Dravidian Language Transliteration Alphabet a A i I u U Ru RU e E ai o O ow am : k ch t th p K g G n' Ch j J N' T d D N Th dh Dh n ph b bh m zh r'

y r l v sh Sh s H ksh gny L (additional Dravidian letters)

This is, for the most part, very similar to the standard scheme used on various newsgroups. However, please note the significant deviations from the norm in this table (th, Th, dh, Dh, H especially). The list. The number is called the Katapayadi Sankhya (English for Katapayadi: Index and for Sankhya: Number). The index number has a special significance in Carnatic Music. If you know the raagam name, you can work out the index number.
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Name of raagam kanakAn'gi rathnAn'gi gAnamUrthi vanaspathi mAnavathi thAnarUpi sEnAvathi HanumathOdi DhEnukA nAtakapriya kOkilapriya rUpavathi Arohana (Ascending order) S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N1 S S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N2 S S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N3 S S R1 G1 M1 P D2 N2 S S R1 G1 M1 P D2 N3 S S R1 G1 M1 P D3 N3 S S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N1 S S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N3 S S R1 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S S R1 G2 M1 P D2 N3 S S R1 G2 M1 P D3 N3 S Avarohana (descending order) S N1 D1 P M1 G1 R1 S S N2 D1 P M1 G1 R1 S S N3 D1 P M1 G1 R1 S S N2 D2 P M1 G1 R1 S S N3 D2 P M1 G1 R1 S S N3 D3 P M1 G1 R1 S S N1 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S S N3 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R1 S S N3 D2 P M1 G2 R1 S S N3 D3 P M1 G2 R1 S
C

Appendices

No. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Name of raagam gAyakapriya vakulAbharaNam mAyAmALava gowLA chakravAkam sUryakAntam HAtakAmbari Jan'kAradhvani naTabhairavi kIravANi KaraHarapriya gowrimanOHari varuNapriya mAraranjani chArukeshi sarasAn'gi HarikAmbhOji DhIrashan'karAbharaNam nAgAnandhini yAgapriya rAgavarDhani gAn'geyabhushani vAgaDhIsvari shUlini chalanAta sAlagam jalArnavam JAlavarALi navanItham pAvani raGupriya gavAmbodhi bhavapriya shubhapanthuvarALi shadhvidha mArgiNi suvarNAn'gi dhivyAmaNi dhavalAmbari nAmanArAyaNi kAmavardhini rAmapriya gamanashrama

Arohana (Ascending order) S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N1 S S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S S R1 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N1 S S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N3 S S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N3 S S R2 G2 M1 P D3 N3 S S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N1 S S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S S R2 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N1 S S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S S R3 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R3 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S S R3 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N1 S S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N2 S S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N3 S S R1 G1 M2 P D2 N2 S S R1 G1 M2 P D2 N3 S S R1 G1 M2 P D3 N3 S S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N1 S S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N2 S S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N3 S S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N2 S S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N3 S S R1 G2 M2 P D3 N3 S S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N1 S S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N2 S S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N3 S S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N2 S S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S

Avarohana (descending order) S N1 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D3 P M1 G3 R1 S S N1 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S S N3 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N3 D3 P M1 G2 R2 S S N1 D1 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D3 P M1 G3 R2 S S N1 D1 P M1 G3 R3 S S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R3 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R3 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R3 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R3 S S N3 D3 P M1 G3 R3 S S N1 D1 P M2 G1 R1 S S N2 D1 P M2 G1 R1 S S N3 D1 P M2 G1 R1 S S N2 D2 P M2 G1 R1 S S N3 D2 P M2 G1 R1 S S N3 D3 P M2 G1 R1 S S N1 D1 P M2 G2 R1 S S N2 D1 P M2 G2 R1 S S N3 D1 P M2 G2 R1 S S N2 D2 P M2 G2 R1 S S N3 D2 P M2 G2 R1 S S N3 D3 P M2 G2 R1 S S N1 D1 P M2 G3 R1 S S N2 D1 P M2 G3 R1 S S N3 D1 P M2 G3 R1 S S N2 D2 P M2 G3 R1 S S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R1 S


D

Appendices

No. 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

Name of raagam vishvAmbhari shyAmaLAngi shanmuKapriya simHendra madhyamam HemAvathi DharmAvathi nIthimathi kAnthAmaNi rishabhapriya lathAngi vAchaspathi mEchakalyANi chithrAmbari sucharithra jyothisvarUpiNi dhAtuvardhani nAsika bhUshaNi kosalam rasikapriya

Arohana (Ascending order) S R1 G3 M2 P D3 N3 S S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N1 S S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N2 S S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N3 S S R2 G2 M2 P D2 N2 S S R2 G2 M2 P D2 N3 S S R2 G2 M2 P D3 N3 S S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N1 S S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N2 S S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N3 S S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N2 S S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S S R2 G3 M2 P D3 N3 S S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N1 S S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N2 S S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N3 S S R3 G3 M2 P D2 N2 S S R3 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S S R3 G3 M2 P D3 N3 S

Avarohana (descending order) S N3 D3 P M2 G3 R1 S S N1 D1 P M2 G2 R2 S S N2 D1 P M2 G2 R2 S S N3 D1 P M2 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M2 G2 R2 S S N3 D2 P M2 G2 R2 S S N3 D3 P M2 G2 R2 S S N1 D1 P M2 G3 R2 S S N2 D1 P M2 G3 R2 S S N3 D1 P M2 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M2 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R2 S S N3 D3 P M2 G3 R2 S S N1 D1 P M2 G3 R3 S S N2 D1 P M2 G3 R3 S S N3 D1 P M2 G3 R3 S S N2 D2 P M2 G3 R3 S S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R3 S S N3 D3 P M2 G3 R3 S

Appendices

Appendices

APPENDIX C: JANYA RAAGAS


Characteristics of a Janya (child or derived) raaga A janya raaga originates from a Janaka or a parent raaga. Each parent raaga can have several child raagas originating from them. Therefore, the child raaga uses the same scale as the parent. That is, it takes the same swaras that the parent uses. However, unlike the Janaka or parent raaga, a Janya raaga may not use the same seven swaras in both ascending and descending order. For example, it can use one type of a swara (e.g. Suddha Rishabam) in the arohanam while a different type of the same swara (e.g. Chatussruti Rishabam) in the avarohanam. For example, Bhairavi: . srgmpdns . sndpmgrs

Similarly, a Janya raaga need not use all the seven notes of the parent. It may use all seven notes in the ascending order while it can use six notes in the descending order or even use other combinations. For example, the raaga Saramathi has the following swara sequence: . srgmpdn s . sndmgs Also, unlike the parent, a Janya raaga can repeat a swara. For example, the raaga Sahana has the following sequence: . SrgmpmDn s . sndpmGmRgrs Sometimes, a janya raaga can take one or two swaras not present in the parent raaga.

Varja Raagam (English for Varja: Omitted)

Appendices

Is a characteristic of Janya raagas. Either in the arohanam or in the avarohanam, one or two swaras may be omitted. These omitted swaras are called varja swarams. When a raaga has only six of the seven notes of the parent in both avarohanam and the arohanam, it is called Shadava. For example, Sriranjani raaga: . srgmdn s . sndmgrs When a raaga takes only five of the seven notes of the parent, it is called audava. For example, Mohana: . srgpds . sdpgrs Other combinations include, seven swaras in arohanam and six on the avarohanam (Sampoorna shadava); six in the arohanam and five in the avarohanam (Shadava audava) etc.

Vakra Raagam (English for Vakra: Distorted) When one or two swaras, either in arohanam or the avarohanam occur out of order or in an irregular manner, it is called a vakra raagam. For example, Sriraagam, where the avarohanm is vakram or not in the order of swaras. . srmpns . snpdnpmrg rs In non-vakra raagas, notes go up and down in a regular order In vakra raaga, a prior note could repeat itself (e.g. n and r in the above example). However, this is not always true (e.g, Mukhari). There are three kinds of vakra raagams. i. Raagas in which only the arohanam has vakra swarams (irregular order). Example: Anandhabhairavi. ii. Raagas in which only avarohanam has vakra swarams (irregular order). Example: Sriraagam iii. Raagas in which vakra swaras (irregular order) occur both in arohanam and avarohanam (e.g. Sahana).
H

Appendices

Upanga and Bhashanga Raagas A upanga raaga is a janya raaga that only takes swaras belonging to its parent (e.g. Mohanam (child of Harikamboji which has the swaras Sa, Ri (chatusruthi), Ga (Antara), Ma (Suddha), Pa, Da (Chatusruthi), and Ni (Kaisiki) s n d p m g r s) . srgpds . sdpgrs A bhashanga raaga is a janya raaga that takes both swaras belonging to its parent and also one or two foreign swaras - e.g. Kambhoj. (also a child of Harikamboji which has the swaras Sa, Ri (chatusruthi), Ga (Antara), Ma (Suddha), Pa, Da (Chatusruthi), and Ni (Kaisiki) s n d p m g r s)). . srgmpds . sndpmgrs

Gana Raagas The characteristics or true nature of a Gana raaga is revealed by singing the thanam (Ghanam); also, known as the Madhyama Kalam. Examples of Ghana raaga include: Nattai, Gowlai, Arabhi, Varali, and Sri in which Sri Thyagaraja has composed the pancharathnas. It also includes the raagas Kedaram, Narayanagowlai, Saranganata, Bauli, and Ritigowla.

Appendices

Appendices

APPENDIX D: LIST OF JANYA RAAGAS

janya rAgAs

8 | HanumathOdi AHiri asAvEri bhUpALam dhanyAsi punnAgavarALi S R1 S G3 M1 P D1 N2 S S R1 M1 P D1 S S R1 G2 P D1 S S G2 M1 P N2 S N2 , S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S SN2SPD1M1PR1G2R1S S D1 P G2 R1 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S N2 ,

10 | nAtakapriya sindhu bhairavi S R2 G2 M1 G2 P D1 N2 S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S N2 S

13 | gAyakapriya kalagada S R1 G3 P D1 N1 S S N1 D1 P G3 R1 S

14 | vakulAbharaNam vasanthabhairavi S R1 G3 M1 D1 N2 S S N2 D1 M1 P M1 G3 R1 S

15 | mAyAmALava gowLA ardhradhesi bowLi gowLa gowLipanthu gowri gujjari gumma kAmbhoji gundhakriya jaganmOhini kannadaban'gALa kRushNaveNi lalithA malaHari mallikA vasantham mangaLakaishiki mEchabowLi S R1 G3 M1 P D1 S N3 S S R1 G3 P D1 S S R1 M1 P N3 S S R1 M1 P N3 S S R1 M1 P N3 S S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S S R1 G3 P D1 N3 D1 S S R1 M1 P N3 S S G3 M1 P N3 S S R1 M1 G3 M1 P D1 S S R1 G3 M1 P N3 S S R1 G3 M1 D2 N3 S S R1 M1 P D1 S S G3 M1 P N3 S S M1 G3 M1 P M1 D1 N3 S S R1 G3 P D1 S S D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D1 P G3 R1 S S N3 P M1 R1 G3 M1 R1 S SN3D1PM1D1M1G3R1S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S D1 N3 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 P D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 P M1 G3 R1 S S D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D2 M1 G3 R1 S S D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S D1 P M1 G3 R1 S
K

Appendices

mEGaranjani nAdhanAmakriya pAdi pharaz pUrvi rEvagupthi sAran'ganAtha sAvEri sindhu rAmakriya thakka (a) thakka (b)

S R1 G3 M1 N3 S S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S R1 M1 P N3 S S G3 M1 P D1 N3 S S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3 D1 S S R1 G3 P D1 S S R1 M1 P D1 S S R1 M1 P D1 S S G3 M1 P D1 N3 S S R1 S M1 G3 M1 D1 N3 S S G3 M1 P M1 D1 N3 S

S N3 M1 G3 R1 S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S N3 S N3 P D1 P M1 R1 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S SN3D1PM1D1M1G3R1S S D1 P G3 R1 S S N3 S D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 P D1 P M1 G3 S S N3 P M1 G 3 M1 P R1 G3 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S

16 | chakravAkam bindhumAlini kalAvathi malayamArutham valachi vegavAHini S G3 R1 G3 M1 P N2 S S R1 M1 P D2 S S R1 G3 P D2 N2 S S G3 P D2 N2 S S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N2 D2 S S N2 S D2 P G3 R1 S S D2 P M1 G3 S R1 S S N2 D2 P G3 R1 S S N2 D2 P G3 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R1 S

17 | sUryakAntam bhairavam sowrAshtram supradhIpam vasanthA S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S S R1 G3 M1 P M1 D2 N3 S S R1 M1 P D2 S S M1 G3 M1 D2 N3 S S D2 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D2 N2 D2 P M1 G3 R1 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 M1 R1 S S N3 D2 M1 G3 R1 S

19 | Jan'kAradhvani pUrnalalitha S G2 R2 M1 P S S N1 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S

20 | naTabhairavi amrithavAHini Anandhabhairavi bhairavi Gantha gopikavasantham HindhoLam jayanthashrI jingla mAnji mArgaHindhoLam pUrNashajja S R2 M1 P D1 N2 S SG2R2G2M1PD2PN2S S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S SG2R2G2M1PD2PN2D2N2S S M1 P N2 D1 N2 D1 S S G2 M1 D1 N2 S S G2 M1 D1 N2 S SR2G2M1PD1N2D1PS S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G2 M1 N2 N2 S S N2 D1 M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 S S N2 D1 M1 G2 S S N2 D1 M1 P M1 G2 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 M1 G2 S S N2 P M1 G2 R2 S

Appendices

sAramathi sudhdha dhanyAsi sudhdha dhesi

S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S S G2 M1 P N2 S S R2 M1 P D1 N2 S

S N2 D1 M1 G2 S S N2 P M1 G2 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S

21 | kIravANi kiraNAvaLi kalyANa vasantham S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N3 S S G2 M1 D1 N3 S S P M1 G2 R2 S S N3 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S

22 | KaraHarapriya AbhEri abhOgi AndhOLika bAgEshrI brindhAvanasAran'ga chiththaranjani dharbAru dhEvAmRuthavarshiNi dhEvakriya dhEvamanOHari dhilipakam HindhoLavasantha HindhusthAni kApi HusEni jayamanOHari jayanArAyaNi jayanthasEna kAnadA kalAniDhi kannadagowLa kApijingla karnAtaka kApi mAlavashrI madhyamAvathi maNirangu manjari manOHari muKAri nAdhachinthAmaNi * nAdhatharan'gini nAyaki phalamanjari panchama rAga pUrnashadjam pushpalathika rIthigowLa S G2 M1 P N2 S S R2 G2 M1 D2 S S R2 M1 P N2 S S G2 M1 D2 N2 S S R2 M1 P N3 S S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S R2 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G2 M1 N2 D2 N2 S S R2 M1 P N2 S S R2 M1 P D2 N2 S SR2G2R2M1PN2D2N2PD2N2S S G2 M1 P D2 N2 D2 S S R2 M1 P N3 S S R2 G2 M1 P N2 D2 N2 S S R2 G2 M1 D2 S S R2 G2 M1 P D2 S S G2 M1 P D2 S S R2 G2 M1 D N2 S SR2G2M1SPM1D2N2S S R2 G2 M1 P N2 S S N2 S R2 G2 M1 SR2G2M1R2PM1PD2N2S SG2M1PN2D2N2PD2N2S S R2 M1 P N2 S S R2 M1 P N2 S SG2R2G2M1PN2D2N2S S G2 R2 G2 M1 P D2 S S R2 M1 P N2 D2 S S G2 M1 P N2 D2 N2 S S P M1 R2 G2 R2 S S R2 M1 P D2 N2 D2 P S S G2 M1 D2 S S R2 D2 P N2 S S R2 G2 M1 N2 S S R2 G2 M1 P N2 S SG2R2G2M1N2D2M1N2N2S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S D2 M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 M1 R2 S S N2 D2 M1 P D2 G2 M1 R2 S S N2 P M1 R2 G2 S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S N2. R2SN2SD2PM1R2G2G2R2S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 N2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 N2 P M1 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 D2 M1 G2 S S N2 D2 N2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 P M1 G2 S S N2 P M1 G2 M1 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 S M1 G2 R2 S N2 D2 N2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 M1 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 S S N2 P M1 R2 S S N2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 G2 S S P N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 R2 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 M1 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 P M1 G2 R2 S SN2D2M1G2M1PM1G2R2S
M

Appendices

rudhrapriya sAlakabhairavi saindhavi sidhdhasEna shrIrAga shrIranjani sudhdha ban'gALa sudhdha dhanyAsi svarabhUshani

S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 M1 P D2 S N2D2N2SR2G2M1PD2N2 S G2 R2 G2 M1 P D2 S S R2 M1 P N2 S S R2 G2 M1 D2 N2 S S R2 M1 P D2 S S G2 M1 P N2 S S G2 M1 P D2 N2 S

S N2 P M1 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S D2PM1G2R2SN2D2N2S SN2D2M1PM1R2G2R2S SN2PD2N2PM1R2G2R2S S N2 D2 M1 G2 R2 S S D2 P M1 R2 G2 R2 S S N2 P M1 G2 S S N2 D2 P M1 R2 S

24 | varuNapriya vasantha varALi 1 vasantha varALi 2 vIravasantham S R2 M1 P D3 N3 S R2 M1 P D3 N3 S G2 R2 M1 P S N3 D3 P G2 R2 S N3 N3 D3 P M G1 R S N S N3 D3 P M1 G2 R2 S

27 | sarasAn'gi kamalAmanOHari naLinakAnthi S G3 M1 P N3 S S G3 R2 M1 P N3 S S N3 D1 P M1 G3 S S N3 P M1 G3 R2 S

28 | HarikAmbhOji baHudhAri balaHamsa ChAyAtharan'giNi dhvijAvanthi HaridhAsapriya * IshamanOHari janjUti jujAHuli kAmbhOji kApinArAyaNi kamAs karnAtaka bEHAg kedhAragowLa kOkilaDhvani kunthalavarALi mAlavi mOHana nAgasvarAvaLi nArAyaNagowLa nArAyani nAtakuraN~ji navarasa kalAnidhi * S G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 M1 P D2 S S R2 M1 G3 M1 P N2 S S R2 M1 G3 M1 P D2 S S P M1 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S M1 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 S S R2 M1 P D2 N2 S S M1 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 M1 P N2 S S R2 G3 M1 D2 N2 D2 S S M1 P D2 N2 D2 S SR2G3M1PN2M1D2N2S S R2 G3 P D2 S S G3 M1 P D2 S S R2 M1 P N2 D2 N2 S S R2 M1 P D2 S SR2G3M1N2D2N2PD2N2S S R2 M1 P S N2 S S N2 P M1 G3 S S N2 D2 P M1 R2 M1 G3 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 G2 R2 S S N2 D2 N2 P M1 G3 R2 S SN2D2PM1R2M1G3R2S N2D2PM1G3R2SN2.D2.P.D2.S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 S SN2D2PM1G3R2SN3.P.D2.S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S SN2D2N2PD2M1G3R2G3R2 S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 N2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 S SN2D2N2PM1G3M1R2S S D2 P G3 R2 S S D2 P M1 G3 S S N2 P M1 G3 R2 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 R2 S S N2 D2 M1 G3 M1 P G3 R2 S S D2 P M1 G3 R2 S

Appendices

navarasa kannada prathApa varALi pravAlajothi rAgapanjaram ravichandhrika sAma saHAna sarasvathi manOHari sindhu kannada sudhdha tharan'gini supOshini surati svarAvaLi svaravEdhi * thilan'g umAbharaNam vINA vAdhini vivardhini yadhukulakAmbhOji

S G3 M1 P S S R2 M1 P D2 P S S R2 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 M1 P D2 N2 D2 S S R2 G3 M1 D2 N2 D2 S S R2 M1 P D2 S S R2 G3 M1 P M1 D2 N2 S S R2 G3 M1 D2 S SM1G3M1R2G3M1PD2PS SR2G3M1R2M1PD2N2D2S S R2 S M1 P N2 D2 S S R2 M1 P N2 S S M1 G3 M1 P N2 D2 N2 S S M1 G3 M1 P N2 D2 N2 S S G3 M1 P N3 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S R2 G3 P N2 S S R2 M1 P S S R2 M1 P D2 S

S N2 D2 M1 G3 R2 S S D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 N2 P M1 G3 G3 S N2 D2 M1 R2 S S N2 D2 M1 G3 R2 S S D2 P M1 G3 R2 S SN2SD2N2D2PM1G3M1R2G3R2S S D2 N2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S D2 N2 P M1 R2 M1 S SN2D2PM1G3PM1R2S S N2 P D2 M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 N2 P M1 G3 S N2 P M1 G3 S S N2 P M1 R2 G3 M1 R2 S S N2 P G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S

29 | DhIrashan'karAbharaNam Arabhi atAna ban'gALa begada bEHAg bilaHari dhesAkshi dhEvagAndhAri garudaDhvani HamsaDhvani HindhusthAni bEHAg janaranjani kadhana kuthUHalam kannada kEdhAram koiAHalam kuraN~ji kuthUHalam mAnd navaroj nIlAmbari pUrNachandhrika sindhu mandhAri sudhdha sAvEri S R2 M1 P D2 S S R2 M1 P N3 S S R2 G3 M1 P M1 R2 P S SG3R2G3M1PD2N2D2PS S G3 M1 P N3 D2 N3 S S R2 G3 P D2 S S R2 G3 P D2 S S R2 M1 P D2 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S S R2 G3 P N3 S S G3 M1 P N3 D2 N3 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 P N3 S S R2 M1 D2 N3 G3 P S S G3 M1 P M1 D2 N3 S S M1 G3 M1 P N3 S S P M1 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S S N3 S R2 G3 M1 P D2 S R2 M1 N3 D2 P N3 S S G3 M1 P D2 S P D2 N3 S R2 G3 M1 P S R2 G3 M1 P D2 P N3 S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 P S S R2 G3 M1 P D2 P S S R2 M1 P D2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 P G3 R2 S S N3 P M1 R2 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S D2 P G3 R2 S S N3 P G3 R2 S SN3D2PM2G3M1G3R2S S D2 P M1 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S D2 P M1 G3 M1 R2 N3. S S N3 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S D2 P M1 G3 R2 S N3 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S M1 G3 R2 S N3 D2 P S N3 P M1 G3 R2 G3 S S N3 P M1 R2 G3 M1 R2 S SN3D2PG3M1D2PM1R2S S D2 P M1 R2 S

Appendices

34 | vAgathIsvari ChAyAnAta gAnavAridhi S R3 G3 M1 P M1 P S S M1 R3 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S S N2 D2 N2 P M1 R3 S S D2 N2 P M1 R3 S

36 | chalanAta gambhiranAta nAta S G3 M1 P N3 S S R3 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S S N3 P M1 G3 S S N3 P M1 R3 S

39 | JAlavarALi JinAvaLi varALi SG1R1G1M2PD1N3D1S S G1 R1 G1 M2 P D1 N3 S S N3 D1 P M2 G1 R1 S S N3 D1 P M2 G1 R1 S

40 | navanItham nabhOmaNi S R1 G1 R1 M2 P S S N2 D2 P M2 G1 R1 S

41 | pAvani chandhrajyothi vijayashrI S R1 G1 M2 P D2 S S G1 R1 G1 M2 P N3 S S D2 P M2 G1 R1 S S N3 P M2 G1 R1 S

46 | shadhvidha mArgini thivravAHini S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N2 S SN2D2PM2G2R1G2M2R1S

51 | kAmavardhini dhipaka mandhAri S G3 M2 P D1 P S S R1 G3 M2 P N3 S S N3 D1 N3 P M2 G3 R1 S S N3 P M2 G3 R1 S

52 | rAmapriya rAma manOHari S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N2 D2 S S N2 D2 P M2 G3 R1 S

53 | gamanashrama gamakakriya S R1 G3 M2 P D2 P S S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R1 S

Appendices

gamanakriya HamsAnandhi mEchakAn'gi pUrvikalyANi

S R1 M2 P D2 N3 S S R1 G3 M2 D2 N3 S S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S S R1 G3 M2 P D2 P S

S N3 D2 P M2 G3 M2 R1 S S N3 D2 M2 G3 R1 S S N3 P D2 P M2 G3 R1 S S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R1 S

54 | vishvAmbhari vijayavasantha S M2 P D3 N3 S S N3 P M2 G3 R1 S

56 | shanmuKapriya chinthAmaNi S R2 P M2 P D2 N2 S S P D1 P M2 G2 R2 S

57 | simHendra madhyamam sudhdha rAga S R2 G2 M2 P N3 S S N3 P M2 G2 R2 S

58 | HemAvathi vijayanAgari S R2 G2 M2 P D2 S S D2 P M2 G2 R2 S

59 | DharmAvathi madhuvanthi ranjani S G2 M2 P N3 S S R2 G2 M2 D2 S S N3 D2 P M2 G2 R2 S S N3 D2 M2 G2 S R2 G2 S

60 | nIthimathi amarasenapriya HamsanAdham kaikavAsi S R2 M2 P N3 S S R2 M2 P N3 S S R2 G2 M2 P D3 N3 S S N3 P M2 R2 G2 R2 S S N3 P M2 R2 S S N3 P M2 G2 R2 S

61 | kAnthAmaNi shruthiranjani S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N1 N1 D1 P M2 G3 S R2 S

62 | rishabhapriya gopriya S R2 G3 M2 D1 N2 S S N2 D1 M2 G3 R2 S

Appendices

64 | vAchaspathi bhUshavaLi sarasvathi S R2 G3 M2 P D2 S S R2 M2 P D2 S S N2 D2 P M2 G3 R2 S S N2 D2 P M2 R2 S

65 | mechakalyANi HamirkalyANi mOHanakalyANi sAran'ga yamunAkalyANi S P M2 P D2 N3 S S R2 G3 P D2 S S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S S R2 G3 P M2 P D2 S SN3D2PM2M1G3PM1R2S S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R2 S SN3D2PM2R2G3M1R2S S D2 P M2 P G3 R2 S

66 | chithrAmbari amRuthavarshiNi S G3 M2 P N3 S S N3 P M2 G3 S

janya rAgA index janya rAgA AbhEri abhOgi AHiri amarasenapriya amrithavAHini amRuthavarshiNi Anandhabhairavi AndhOLika Arabhi Ardhradhesi asAvEri atAna bAgEshrI baHudhAri balaHamsa ban'gALa begada bEHAg bhairavam bhairavi bhUpALam bhUshavaLi bilaHari bindhumAlini mElakartha 22 22 8 60 20 66 20 22 29 15 8 29 22 28 28 29 29 29 17 20 8 64 29 16

Appendices

bowLi brindhAvanasAran'ga chandhrajyothi ChAyAnAta ChAyAtharan'giNi chinthAmaNi chiththaranjani dhanyAsi dharbAru dhesAkshi dhEvagAndhAri dhEvakriya dhEvamanOHari dhEvAmRuthavarshiNi dhilipakam dhipaka dhvijAvanthi gamakakriya gamanakriya gambhiranAta gAnavAridhi Gantha garudaDhvani gopikavasantham gopriya gowLa gowLipanthu gowri gujjari gumma kAmbhoji gundhakriya HamirkalyANi HamsaDhvani HamsanAdham HamsAnandhi HaridhAsapriya * HindhoLam HindhoLavasantha HindhusthAni bEHAg HindhusthAni kApi HusEni

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IshamanOHari jaganmOhini janaranjani

28 15 29
S

Appendices

janjUti jayamanOHari jayanArAyaNi jayanthasEna jayanthashrI JinAvaLi jingla jujAHuli kadhana kuthUHalam kaikavAsi kalagada kalAniDhi kalAvathi kalyANa vasantham kamalAmanOHari kamAs kAmbhOji kAnadA kannada kannadaban'gALa kannadagowLa kApijingla kApinArAyaNi karnAtaka bEHAg karnAtaka kApi kedhAragowLa kEdhAram kiraNAvaLi koiAHalam kOkilaDhvani kRushNaveNi kunthalavarALi kuraN~ji kuthUHalam lalithA madhuvanthi madhyamAvathi malaHari mAlavashrI mAlavi malayamArutham mallikA vasantham mAnd mandhAri mangaLakaishiki maNirangu manjari mAnji

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T

Appendices

manOHari mArgaHindhoLam mEchabowLi mEchakAn'gi mEGaranjani mOHana mOHanakalyANi muKAri nabhOmaNi nAdhachinthAmaNi * nAdhanAmakriya nAdhatharan'gini nAgasvarAvaLi naLinakAnthi nArAyaNagowLa nArAyani nAta nAtakuraN~ji navarasa kalAnidhi * navarasa kannada navaroj nAyaki nIlAmbari pAdi panchama rAga phalamanjari pharaz prathApa varALi pravAlajothi punnAgavarALi pUrNachandhrika pUrnalalitha pUrnashadjam pUrNashajja pUrvi pUrvikalyANi pushpalathika rAgapanjaram rAma manOHari ranjani ravichandhrika rEvagupthi rIthigowLa rudhrapriya saHAna saindhavi sAlakabhairavi

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Appendices

sAma sAramathi sAran'ga sAran'ganAtha sarasvathi sarasvathi manOHari sAvEri shrIrAga shrIranjani shruthiranjani sidhdhasEna sindhu bhairavi sindhu kannada sindhu mandhAri sindhu rAmakriya sowrAshtram sudhdha ban'gALa sudhdha dhanyAsi sudhdha dhanyAsi sudhdha dhesi sudhdha rAga sudhdha sAvEri sudhdha tharan'gini supOshini supradhIpam surati svarabhUshani svarAvaLi svaravEdhi * thakka (a) thakka (b) thilan'g thivravAHini umAbharaNam valachi varALi vasanthA vasanthabhairavi vegavAHini vijayanAgari vijayashrI vijayavasantha vINA vAdhini vIravasantham vivardhini yadhukulakAmbhOji yamunAkalyANi

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