ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BEAMCOLUMNS
by
CHENGHSIUNG CHEN
Diploma, Taipei
Institute of Technology,
1959
A MASTER' S REPORT
submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree
MASTER OF SCIENCE
Department of Civil Engineering
KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY Manhattan, Kansas
1967
Approved by
Major Professor
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION
METHODS OF ANALYSES
General Method
4 4
13 19
Energy Method
Numerical Method
Moment Distribution
DESIGN METHODS
29
38
.
Secant Formula Method
38
44 48
Interaction Formula Method
Example
CONCLUSION
.......
52
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
NOTATION
54
55
BIBLIOGRAPHY
57
SYNOPSIS
An "exact" method and three approximate methods for the analysis of the
behavior of members subjected to bending moments and axial compression are
reviewed on the basis of elastic theory.
Sample problems that are frequently
The effects of lateral and
encountered in steel structures are treated.
torsional buckling are not included.
Two design methods that are adopted in
the AISC (14) and AASHO (15) Specifications are described and a design
example is worked in order to illustrate the design procedure according to
the AISC Specifications (14).
INTRODUCTION
This paper contains a review of analysis and design procedures for
steel members subjected to combined bending and compression.
The bending
may arise from transverse forces and/or from known eccentricities of the
axial loads at one or both ends. These kinds of members are generally
referred to as beamcolumns.
Beamcolumns are commonly analyzed and
designed as isolated members, whereas in practice they are usually parts
of a frame.
In framed steel
structures, there are three categories of
individual members:
(1)
Beams.
Beams are members subjected to forces which predominantly
produce bending.
(2)
Columns.
Columns are members axially loaded predominantly in
compression.
(3)
Beamcolumns.
Beamcolumns are members whose loads are
combina
tion of the loads on beams and columns as stated above.
When the bending is small compared with the axial force,
the bending
can often be neglected and the member can be treated as a centrally loaded
column.
On the other hand, when the axial force is small compared with the
bending, the axial force may be negligible and the problem becomes that of
beam analysis.
The basic equation for analyzing a beamcolumn problem is based on the
relationship between the moment and the curvature of a beam, i.e., Ely"
and takes into account the compressive forces.
E,
I,
M,
In the
equation Ely"
M,
y"
and M are modulus of elasticity, moment of inertia, curvature, and
moment, respectively.
Professor
N.
M.
Newmark (1)
has developed a numeri
cal approach which provides a means for obtaining an approximate but satis
factory solution for beamcolumns.
The energy approach is also an approxi
mate solution, but it is a convenient method when the loadings are
complicated
Early solution of beamcolumn problems have been reviewed by Bleich
(2).
Ketter, Kaminsky, and Beedle (3) have presented a method for determin
ing the plastic behavior of laterally supported wideflange shapes under
combined axial forces and moments.
Galambos (4) and Ketter (5) have
presented numerically determined interaction curves for the maximum strength
of beamcolumns under various end conditions, including the effect of resid
ual stress.
The effect of end restraint on the eccentrically loaded column
Winter, Fisher and iMason (6).
has been explored by Bijaard,
Two approximate
B.
methods for estimating the strength of beamcolumns have been reviewed by
G.
Johnston (7), the first method is based on the concept that the load
which produces the initiation of yielding in the fiber subjected to the
Numbers in parentheses refer to the numbered references in the bibliography.
maximum stress provides
lower bound of the failure load, and the second
method is based upon the interaction equations.
METHODS OF ANALYSES
The purpose of the following analyses is to show the procedures for
finding the maximum deflection and maximum bending moment of a member subjected to moment and axial compression simultaneously.
is an "exact" method,
The general method
while the numerical method and the energy method are
approximate methods.
GENERAL METHOD
By neglecting the effects of shearing
deformations and axial shortening
of the beam the differential equation (8) of the axis of the beamcolumn as
shown in Fig.
can be expressed in the following alternate forms
Ely"
=
 M
=
=
(1)
(2)
Ely"
+ Py'
+
 V
q
Ely ,v/
Py"
(3)
The differential equations can be solved by use of the given boundary conditions, and consequently the deflections, bending moments, and end rotations
may be obtained.
Three examples of the use of this method are given in the
following sections.
The bending moments and forces shown in Fig.
1
are assumed to be posi
tive in the directions shown unless otherwise noted.
m
n
/q
rjn
dx
3*P^
J I
1
P X
x
MA
P
TO]
'i
riCJ
M+dM
V+dV
dx
Fig.
1.
Sign conventions
Beamcolumn with Uniform Lateral Loads
Fig.
2.
Beamcolumn with uniform lateral loads.
The governing differential equation for the behavior of a beam sub
jected to transverse and axial loads is
IV
El y
+ Py"
(3)
The general solution of this differential equation is
A cos kx +
B sin kx + C x +
D +
Q x *
2
,
(4)
in which
EI
(5)
The arbitrary constants A,
B,
C,
and D are evaluated from the boundary con
ditions of the beam.
Since the deflection and bending moment are zero at
the ends of the beam, the conditions are
y =
y" =
at
x =
and
x = L
From the two conditions at x
0,
we obtain
 D
= k
2
and the conditions at x
L give
_
,
q 1_
2__
 cos kL
_SJL
2P
sin kL
Substituting these values of the constants into Eq
4,
the equation for the
deflection curve is found to be
=
Elk
sin kx + sin k(Lx) sin kL
x ( Lx 2EIk'
(6)
Letting x=L/2 in Eq. 6, the deflection at the centerline of the beam is
found to be
A
=
(y)
J^k
x=L/2
u

384 EI
f,(u)
1
(7)
where
kL/2
(8)
2
)
and
f
x
(u)
12(2 sec u 4
 u
(9)
5u
6,
By taking the first derivative of Eq.
we obtain an equation for the slope
at any point on the beam.
Letting x=0 yields
3
9,
(y')_ n x=0
(u)
=
3
?7T7 24E1
f o<"> 2
(10)
where
f 2
(tan u  u)
u
3
(11)
The bending moment at the center of the beam is given by
M) " E1( *
x=L/2
qL 8
f,(u)
(12)
where
(u)
2(1  cos u)
u
(13)
cos u
The first factors on the righthand sides of Eqs. 7, 10, and 12 are the
values produced by
uniform load acting alone, and the second factors
f.(u), f(u), and f(u) represent the effects of the axial compression
forces.
Tables of these functions have been provided in the Appendix of Reference 8.
Beamcolumn with a Concentrated Lateral Load
Fig. 3.
Beamcolumn with a concentrated load.
The bending moments in the left and righthand portions of the beam in
Fig.
3
are,
respectively,
9 x
Py
a
L
 sJ
(L _ X) + Py
Using Eq.
1,
we have
Ely"
x  Py
and
Eiy
Qih  c)
(L  x)
 Py
The general solutions of these equations are
Qc
A cos kx + B sin kx  rr x
and
(14)
Q (Lc)(Lx) C cos kx + D sin kx 
PL
(15)
By use of the end conditions y =
at x =
and at x = L, we obtain
 D tan
kL
Similarly, using the fact that the slopes and deflections of each segment
must be equal at the point of application of the load
y' = L
Q,
i.e.
and
y'
at x
L  c,
we obtain
Q sin kc Pk sin kL
'
Q sin k ( Lc Pk tan kL
"
Substituting these values of the constants into Eqs. 14 and 15, we obtain
the following equations for the two portions of the deflection curve:
Q sin kc Pk sin kL
*L
Qc ^"kx^x,
.
.
^ n ^ 0<x<Lc
.
,,,. (16)
'
SM^
 ^,
UiUl
Lc_< X
<L
By taking the first and second derivatives of Eqs.
16 and In the
17,
the expres
sions (8) for slope and curvature can be obtained.
particular case
of a load applied at the center of the beam, the maximum deflection, end
rotation, and the maximum bending moment are obtained by substituting c=L/2
and the appropriate values of x into Eq. 16. This procedure gives
3"x.l/2
Sn
_
2 2
(u)
(I8)
9,
(y) '
x=0
f^TT 16E1
=
f,
3
(u)
(19)
EKy")
r
x=l,/2
,.,
* ^"^ 4 u
(20)
Again, the second factors on the righthand sides of Eqs. 18 to 20,
(u),
f_(u), and (tan u)/u are the effects of the axial compression on the beam.
Beamcolumn with Couples
r^
M,
&K
\
*b
A
B
Li
)
:a^~
If B^P
Z*^fer
(a)
(b)
Fig.
4.
Beamcolumn with couples.
If
two couples M
and
M,
are applied at the ends A and B respectively,
the bending moment at any section in the beam is
~
M.
Py J
(21a)
Using Eq.
1,
we obtain
Ely"
 M
M  M *:
Li
x  Py
The general solution of this differential equation is
n A cos kx + B sin kx +
.
, i
M
a
 Mu
2
M
x 
(21b)
EIk L
By using the condition y =
Elk
we obtain
at x =
and x
L,
M A
=
a
'
Psin kL
(M,
 M
cos kL)
By substituting these values of A and
B into Eq.
21b, we obtain
sin k(Lx) sin kL
Lx
L
M,
sin kx sin k L
(22)
The bending moments M
and
M,
may arise from eccentrically applied
10
compressive forces P acting as shown in Fig. 4b.
and M L = P e L in Eq
b
.
By substituting M
P e
22,
we obtain
sin k( ~ Lx) Lx  ) + sin kL L
;
e,
sin (~
kx x,  r) sin kL L
(23)
The end rotations 9
and 9
in Fig. 4a are obtained by taking the first
derivative of Eq. 22 and letting x=0 and x=L, respectively.
may be expressed as
M L
9
=
The rotations
ML
f
y>x=0
y ,} x=L
3E1
M L
(u) +
biT
(U)
(24)
ML
(
6il
(u) +
3il
(U)
'
(25)
where
f f
s (u)
2u
u
1
A (
2u
 __1__. 7 )
tan 2u
(26)
fc
(u)
sin 2u
 2u
(27)
Again, the factors
f/(u) and f,(u) in Eqs.
26 and 27 are the results of the
In the case of two
effects of the axial compressive forces on the beam.
equal couples M
=
= M
we obtain from Eq. 22
ML 8EI
2ux, cos(u  ~ )  COS u
.
cos u
la
(28)
The deflection at the center of the beam is obtained by substituting
x=L/2 in Eq. 28; this gives
^x=L/2
ML t * (U) 8EI 3
c
(29)
Tables of these functions have been furnished in the Appendix of Reference 8.
11
The end rotations are obtained by taking the first derivative of Eq
28 and
substituting x=0; this yields
6
*h b
<y'>
n x=0
TFT 2E1
'
^^
u
'
(30)
The maximum bending moment is obtained by taking the second derivative of
Eq.
28 and substituting x=L/2,
from which
=
EKy")
x=L/2
sec u
(31)
From the examples given above, it may be seen that the deflections,
bending moments, and end rotations are linear functions of lateral loadings
or applied couples.
This indicates that the principle of superposition,
which is widely used when lateral loads act alone on a beam, can also be
applied in the case of the combined axial and lateral loads, but with the
restraint that the axial forces should act with lateral load superposed.
The center deflections under three conditions of loading (i.e. uniform
load, one concentrated load at the centerline, and two equal end moments)
are given in Eqs.
is equal
7,
18,
and 29 respectively.
In each case,
the deflection
to the product of two factors,
the first factor being the deflec
tion without axial load and the second factor being an amplification factor
which is the effect of the axial compression and thus depends on the value
of "P/P
f.(u),
f
".
An approximate expression (8) for the amplification factors
f
(u),
(u)
is
 P/P
cr
the critical
where P
load is
is
the critical
load.
For a simply supported beam,
12
2
TT
EI
cr
This approximate expression for the amplification factor can be used with
good accuracy, in place of
less than 0.6,
(u),
(u), and f(u).
2
For values of P/P
the error is less than
per cent (8).
13
ENERGY METHOD
The energy method is widely used in structural mechanics;
a
it
represents
unique mathematical application of the basic law of conservation of
In
energy.
applying this method to beamcolumn problems, it is necessary
the end
to assume a deflection curve for the beamcolumn which satisfies
conditions of the beam.
A deflection curve often used is expressed by
Z
n
sin
(32)
where the a
sine curves.
are the undetermined maximum amplitudes of the corresponding
Assuming a virtual deflection da
of the beam, the strain
energy of the beam will increase an amount equal to AU while the external
loads do work equal to AT.
Letting
AU
AT
(33)
where
^7* 2EI
f 2
(y")
dx
(34)
the coefficient a
can be determined, and consequently the deflections, end
The three examples given
rotations, and bending moments can be found.
before are treated by this method in the following sections.
14
Beamcolumn with Uniform Lateral Loads
dc
P A
II
KSI
II
Fig.
5.
Beamcolumn with uniform lateral loads
Using Eq. 32, the strain energy of bending of a beam is
l
r
II
2
'
)2 dx
ei
2
r
 2 l. n
n
2
tt
sin
tt
12
dx
,
or
EITT r /T 3 4L
2
n
(35)
The strain energy increase due to the virtual change da
in a
is
AU
4^ Ba
n
da
=
n
EITT r .3 2L
B,
4
*
da
(36)
The horizontal displacement (9) of end
which is equal to the difference
between the length of the deflection curve and the length of the initial
straight form, is
i 
r
:
(y'
dx
774L
2
n
n n
(37)
The change in &
due to the virtual change of &
da
in
is
15
ds
r
da
da
7 2L
da
(38)
Work done by the axial force P is
AT,
1
ds
^72L
da
(39)
Work done by the uniform lateral load is
AT
2
=
v
(q
dcHAy)
x=c
^r
11
 da
n
for odd values of n.
(40)
Substituting the values of AU and AT (sum of AT
4
and AT
in Eq.
33 gives
7
TT
"T
n
for odd values of n,
(41)
EI
(n
where
ok
P/P
cr
Substituting this value of a
tion curve.
into Eq. 32, yields the equation for deflec
4qL t
TT
_
i*
3
n
1
Z
sin
o<
)
n x
tt
,
.
(42)
EI
n=odd
(n
Using only the first term of Eq
is
42,
the deflection at the center of a beam
(v) ^ y x=L/2
J EI ri
TT
^ql
4
1
(1
=
)
5.03 qL 384 EI
A
1
.,.
*
(1
o<
The bending moment at the center of the member is
A
(1
SL
8
2

^
pZ
flk! + 8
3.03 qL 384 EI
P 
'
16
Beamcolumn with a Concentrated Load
Fig. 6.
Beamcolumn with a concentrated load.
Assuming that the deflection curve is as expressed in Eq. 32, the
change in strain energy of the beam due to the change da
EITT
=
in a
is
AU
2L
da
(36)
Work done by the external forces P and Q due to the change da
in a
is
given by the following equation:
Pit
2L
we obtain
n it r c
AT
ds + Q
(Ay)
x=c
da
+ Q
sin
da
,
By use of the fact that AU = AT,
3
20L
n
TT
tt^t
El
2,2 (n n
sin
o(
)
n ttc
(45)
Substituting this value into Eq. 32 we obtain
2QL~ 4 TT El
3
*
n n
(n
sin
(X
)
ntr ~ c
Li
sin
~*j
nir x
Aj
(46)
The center deflection and center moment respectively are given by the following expressions:
om 2QL
y x=L/2
3 J
l 1
_4_. TT
=
EI
o<
QftA QL .986 or 48 EI
3 J
1 1
(47)
2L
4 *
QL
4
.986 QL 48 EI
(1
P 
(48)
cX
)
'
17
Beamcolumn with Couples
Mi
>
l_
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig.
7.
Beamcolumn with couples.
In
order to simplify the problem, we may divide the problem of Fig. 7a
into two problems as shown in Fig. 7b and 7c by applying the principle of
superposition.
In solving the problem of Fig.
7b, we use Eq. 32 as the
assumed deflection curve; then the change in strain energy due to the
virtual change
dain
is
the same as that given in Eq. 36.
Work done by
the axial force P and the applied couple M
in a
is expressed as r
due to the virtual change da
AT
ds
The term ds has been given in Eq. 38 and d9
to the virtual change da
in a
;
is
the angular displacement due
this may be expressed as
de
"*
da
x=0
nTT
(49)
n
from which the following equation is obtained
18
AT
Setting AU
=
~
L
nrr
2
"""
da
"
2L
da
(50)
AT, we obtain
2
2M L
a
n =
^ J
TT
EI
(n
f
(51)
o(
Using this value in Eq. 32, the following result is obtained
2M L
y
=
TT
a
J
r
v
EI
n n
(n
sin

nTT x
(52)
._..
The deflection curve of the beam in Fig. 6c is obtained by using (Lx)
instead of x and
M,
instead of M
in Eq. 54, which gives
b
J
z
TT
v Z
n
sin
n IT :( Lx
fc .
/c (53)
~.
EI
n (n
<X
By applying the principle of superposition,
the deflection curve of the beam
in Fig. 6a is found to be
2M L
y =
TT
a

sin
 cX)
nnx
v I
TT^EI n n(n
= ML = M
,
2M, L b 
2
1
,
sin
o<
nTT (Lx)
(54)
,_.
EI n n(n
For the case of two equal moments M
the deflection curve is
Q J
TT
4M L
EI
2 n=odd
sin
o<
)
nTT X
,rcw (55)
(n
Since the series is a rapidly converging one we can obtain reasonable
approximations to the center deflection and center moment by taking the
first terra of the series, as indicated in the following equations
_
4 M L o
2
X=L/2
1 "rT ^
=
"
1
1.03 M L
^
.
o_
8ei
r^^
(56)
>
M+PA o
M+ o
1.03
ML 2
"J
QC T 8E1
~
1
(57)
ctf
19
NUMERICAL METHOD
By
applying the conjugatebeam method, Newmark (1) has developed
numerical procedure for the determination of deflections and moments of a
beamcolumn with lateral load.
This procedure eliminates much of the
mathematics of the "exact" differential equation approach or the finite
difference approximations.
When the bar has a cross section which varies
a
along the span or has a complicated distributed loading,
dure of successive approximations is quite useful.
numerical proce
The purpose of this
section is to compute the deflections and the moments of a beamcolumn by
use of Newmark'
s
numerical procedure.
The relationship between the distributed load q, shear force V, moment
M,
slope 9, and deflection y of beams are well known.
They can be expressed
as follows:
dv dx
or
jqdx
r
dM
dx
or
vdx
(58)
m_
El
19 dx
dy_
=
J
EI
9dx
dx
'
dx
or
From the above equations, the shears, moments, slopes and deflections of a beam can be determined by successive numerical integration.
In
using this method, a beam is divided into segments and the distrib
uted loading is reduced to equivalent concentrated loads at each division point, or station along the beam.
The equivalent concentrated loads at
stations are equal and opposite to the reactions at the stations when the
20
segments of the beam between the stations are treated as simply supported
beams.
(1) (2)
The variation of the distributed load (10) can be assumed to be:
Linear between stations
A seconddegree Parabola
1
(Fig. 8a,
b)
(Fig. 8c, d).
to illustrate the application of New
An example is given in Table
mark's numerical method.
a
1.
The steps for computing deflections and moments in
beamcolumn are as follows:
Compute deflections and moments due to lateral loads alone:
a.
b.
Obtain the values of moment at each station.
Compute the M/EI values which are the fictitious loadings in the
conjugate beam.
c.
Compute equivalent concentrated loads "R" at each division point
by using Fig.
8c and d.
d.
Calculate "Average Slopes" which are the fictitious shearing forces
in the conjugate beam.
Due to symmetry, the reaction at the left
support is equal to onehalf of the equivalent concentrated load
"R",
i.e.,
(6.84 + 8.54 + 7.42) +
(7.92)
26.76
e.
Compute deflections, "y
",
which are the fictitious moments in the
conjugate beam due to the lateral loads alone and are obtained by
the following equation:
M. = M.
.
V,
where
d
= =
segment length,
Fictitious shearing forces in conjugate beam
between station "j" and "jl", and
21
nra
mn
nra
7 (2a+b) o 7 (2b+a) o
(a)
7 (a+Ab+c)
6
mn
(b)
"1
d
U
\
nm
ran
nra
24
d
(7a+6bc)
7 Ca+lOb+c)
12
mn
24
(3a+10bc)
(c)
Id)
Fig. 8.
Equivalent concentrated load.
22
Station number.
Calculation of buckling load:
a.
The procedure is to estimate a reasonable trial deflected configura
tion and calculate the trial bending moments produced by the axial
load.
Due to symmetry, the values of y,
lc
selected in Table
are
ordinates to a sine curve.
The deflections produced by these bend1
ing moments are then computed (same procedures as stated in Step
above) and compared with the estimated trial deflections.
ratios of the assumed deflections y
y
The
to the computed deflections
must equal one for the stable configuration to exist (11).
Considering the maximum and minimum values of the ratios, we see
that the upper and lower limits for P r
cr
are
15.35 EI
L
b.
2
j <
17 EI
The results can be improved by repeating the cycle of calculations.
The second cycle begins with the deflections y
,
which are propor
tional to the deflections y
tions.
found from the first cycle of computa
These values can be multiplied by any constant factor in
In this
order to adjust the order of magnitude of the figures.
case, they are multiplied by 100/376 in order to give a
as the
deflection at the center.
the load P
The results of the second cycle show that
cr
is between the values
16.4 EI
L
2
/ ^ < Cr<
16.7 EI
L
2
'
To obtain a more accurate result, we can calculate average values as follows: (8) of the deflections y and y_ 2a 2c
23
3=
I
L
2a nv
Cy
{
L
r
2a
dx
ind
(60)
=
1
'^c'av
(y
2c
>
dx
Replacing the above equations by summations, we obtain
=
(y ) y 2a av
7 L L
(y
'2a
Ax
and
(y, ) 2c av
y f 2 (y_ L 2c
Ax
Since the segment length Ax is constant, we have
(y
2a av _ (y_ ) y 2c av
2(42 + 74 + 93) + 100 2(164 + 287 383 358)
EI
'
=
"
16.58 El
.2 L
Pd
.2
Equating the average values of y
2a
and y gives 2c
16.58 EI
"
'
'
For beams subjected to both lateral and axial loads, the deflections due to lateral load alone will be amplified in the case of axial
compression or reduced in the case of axial tension.
tion of the amplification factor (8,
1
An approxima
10,
11)
is given by
 P/P
'
cr
while the reduction factor is
1 1
T/P
'
cr
where T is axial tension.
3.
Calculation of total deflections and moments:
a.
Estimate total deflection y, and thus additional deflections ,y la
due to axial load, as shown in Table
1.
24
b.
Compute the additional deflections with the estimated ones from Step a.
due to axial load, and check
c.
If
the computed additional deflections .y
,
do not agree within an
allowable limit with the estimated ,y 1 a
then the computed deflecr
tions are used as estimated ones to repeat Step b until close agree
ment is reached.
d.
The total moments are equal to the sums of the moments due to
lateral loads alone and the moments due to axial forces with total
deflections.
2b
AJ
v>
o u
<SJ
H
II
o
ii
o
11
o
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u
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26
AJ
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to
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cd
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cd
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cd
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v.
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en CO
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41
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w
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29
MOMENT DISTRIBUTION
The axial compression in a slender member modifies the stiffness factors, carryover factors, and fixedend moments as used in the standard
moment distribution method.
in the analysis,
it
Wit
en the effect of axial force is considered
does not alter the basic procedures used in standard
moment distribution; all that is necessary is to replace the usual values
for the stiffness factors, carryover factors, and fixedend moment coeffi
cients by factors which have been determined for a beamcolumn.
For example,
a compressive force will reduce the rotational stiffness of a beam as com
pared to the same beam with no axial force.
As the compressive force
increases, the stiffness continues to decrease and when the axial force
reaches the buckling load the beam will have no resistance to rotation at
one end and the stiffness will have become zero.
Sign Convention
A special sign convention will be used in this section.
The bending
moments, end rotations, and axial forces shown in Fig.
are assumed to be
positive.
Fig.
9.
Sign convention.
30
Stiffness and Carryover Factors
Fig.
10.
Beamcolumn with far end fixed.
The stiffness K is defined as the value of the moment required to
rotate the near end of the beam through a unit angle when the far end is
fixed.
The "near end" of the member is the end of the member where the
joint is being balanced and the "far end" is the opposite end (12).
Eqs.
24 and 25 can be modified to suit the sign convention used in this
section by changing the signs of
3.
and M
cl
The modified equations are
M L 9 3E1
U)
"
ML Ml
+
V
f
U)
and
(61)
M L
9,
oilV u)
ML 3H
(u)
'
In
order to determine the stiffness factor for a beam with the far
10), all that is necessary is to substitute
.
end fixed (Fig.
9,
9=1
a.
and
into Eq. 61 and then solve for the moment M
,
b
,
This moment, which is
equal to the stiffness K
is given by the expression
4E1 ab
L 4
f
2
(u)
(Far end fixed)
 [f (u)]
5
2
(62)
4[f (u)J
Also, the ratio of the moment, M
at the fixed end to the moment, M
at
31
the near end gives the carryover factor
(u)
5
.
.
ab
1 
lu)
(For far end fixed)
(63)
Wh en the axial
force P becomes zero, the values of f,(u) and
4
(u) become
unity and the above two expressions for K
ab
and C
ab
reduce to 4E1/L and 1/2,
respectively.
Theoretically, when the axial force P reaches the critical
buckling value for a beam column with one end fixed and the other end simply
supported (Fig. 10), the stiffness factor becomes zero and the carryover
factor approaches infinity (12).
If
the far end of the beamcolumn is simply supported instead of fixed,
= 0.
the end rotations can be obtained by letting M
Then Eq. 61 gives
M L
=
*a
5il
u)
'
and
M L 9
= b
(64)
"
off
u)
'
The stiffness factor can be obtained by setting 9
1
in Eq. 64 and solving
for M
which gives &
3E1
L
f
ab
(u)
1
;
(Far end simply supported) r
(65)
When the axial force is zero (u = 0) the stiffness is 3EI/L and when it is
equal to the critical buckling load for a beamcolumn with simply supported
ends (u =
"FT
/2)
the stiffness is zero.
32
Fixedend Moments
(a)
(c)
9,
(d)
Fig.
11.
Fixedend beam with axial load.
The fixedend moments can be obtained by superposing the solutions of
the problems shown in Fig.
lib,
c,
and d.
In
order to cancel the effects of
In Fig.
the end rotations, moments must be applied at the ends.
lie, a
moment M
'
is applied at the left end to rotate the axis of the member to rr
the horizontal and the right end of the member is assumed to be held against
rotation thus, inducing a moment
M
=
M,
'
These two moments can be expressed as
K .9 ab a
and
M,
'
'
ab
K .C .9 ab ab a
'
In
Fig.
lid,
the left end of the member is held against rotation and a
moment N
is applied at the
n
right end to remove the angle 9
i
This gives
ba b
and
M
"
M.
"
C,
ba
K u C L 9
'
ba ba b
By superposing the results of Fig.
lib,
c,
and d, the fixedend moments are
'
"
K .9 'K.C.
9 abababab
'
and
M,
(66)
=
M,
'
+ M."
b
K.
9 'K C 9 babababa
If the
member is assumed to have constant crosssection, the stiffness and
carryover factors at each end of the member will be the same and the above
expressions can be written as (12)
M
=
K
ab
(9
'
ab b
i
&.
'
and
(67)
M,
K
ab
(9,
9 ab a
,
Uniform Load
For the case of a fixedended beamcolumn with a uniform load the
angles of rotation of the ends must be found for the simply supported beamcolumn as shown in Fig.
2
and Eq.
10.
These angles are
3
e.
ffer 24E1
Mu) 2
(68)
34
Substituting Eqs. 62, 63 and 68 into Eq. 67, the fixedend moments (12) are
A
=
?T
(u)
'
(69)
where
f,(u)
6
~
u
2
(1
r^ tan u
(70)
Concentrated Load at Center of Beamcolumn
In the case of this loading,
the end rotations of the simply supported
beamcolumn are (refer to Eq. 19)
2
QL 16EI
Using Eqs. 62, 63, 71 and 67, the fixedend moments become (12)
\
where
'
\
"
(U)
<72>
(u ,
1=E2S_U)
sin u
(73)
35
Fixedend Moments Due to Joint Translation
(a)
Fig.
12.
Fixedend moments due to joint translation.
By using the same procedures as in deriving "Fixedend Moments" dis
cussed above, the fixedend moments due to joint translation shown in Fig.
12a can be obtained by superposing the results of Fig.
12b, c, and d.
The
equations, which are necessary for this case, can be expressed as
ab I A
ba L
'
ab ab L A
ba ba L
"
'
36
and
+ M
"
a
"
(K
ab
K,
ba ba
C,
7 L 7 L
(74)
M.
M,
M.
(K.
ba
K UC ab ab
If
the member is of constant crosssection, the stiffness and carryover
factors are the same at each end, and Eq. 74 is reduced to
MQ
Mk
b
"
K k (1 ab
ab
7 L
(75)
After substitution of the relationships given in Eqs
stiffness and carryover factors, Eq. 75 becomes
6EIA
Li
62 and 63 for the
M M a
"
m M
~T
2
(u)
where
sin u 3(sin u  u cos u)
u
. c , f Q (u)
t,c\ (76)
The same general procedure as for standard moment distribution, but
modified to make use of the superposition method, can be used in analyzing a
structure with sidesway.
Following the superposition technique of analysis, the moments in the
frames shown in Fig.
13a and b are determined first.
The frame in Fig. 13b
to the same
is supported against joint translation and subjected
loads as
acting on the original frame.
The frame in Fig. 13c is subjected to an
i
arbitrary horizontal displacement A
translation.
and then held against further joint
Both of these frames are analyzed by moment distribution con
sidering the beamcolumn effect in the members.
Therefore, it is necessary
to make an initial estimate of the axial forces in each member.
37
J_J
LAr4
i
R
i*'
i r/
T*TTT"
TTTTrf
rhrrt
///*
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig.
13.
Rigid frame with sidesway.
This estimate, which can be made by an approximate analysis of the original
structure, gives a value of the factor "kL" for each member of the frame,
and the factor "kL" is held constant throughout the analyses of the frames
shown in Fig. 13b and
c.
The superposition equations to be used are the For the notations
same as in the standard moment distribution calculations.
shown in Fig. 13, the equation
R  aR
=0
(77)
determines the constant of proportionality "a" and the equation
M
=
M u + aM
(78)
determines the moments M in the original structure, assuming that M and M
represent moments in the frames of Fig. 13b and c, respectively.
After
determining the moments in the original frame, the values of the axial
forces in the members are revised to more accurate values and the entire
process repeated if necessary.
38
DESIGN METHODS
Two simple approximate methods have been developed for estimating the
strength of beamcolumns.
The first method, generally referred to as the
secant formula method, is based upon the concept that the load which pro
duces initiation of yielding in the fibers subjected to maximum stress
provides a lower bound to the failure load.
The second method is to consider
the member as a cross between a beam under pure bending and a column under
pure axial load, its two limiting cases (13).
SECANT FORMULA METHOD
As stated above, the secant formula method specifies that the maximum
stress in the beamcolumn, modified by a factor of safety, may not exceed
the yield stress of the material.
The formulas developed for this procedure
apply only to members that fail by bending in the plane of the applied
loads.
The procedure applies best for material having a linear elastic
stressstrain relationship.
1J
X
1
^"F
p
(a)
P
(b)
Fig.
14.
Notation for eccentrically loaded members
39
The first step in developing the secant formula is the analysis of
maximum combined stress produced by axial load, applied bending moment, and
bending moment due to deflection.
Consider the case of two eccentrically
applied compressive forces P with unequal eccentricities as shown in Fig.
14b,
the deflection curve has been derived in Eq.
23.
sin k(Lx) Lx ~  sin kL L
;
e.
("  ~) sin kL L
s_i_n_kx
(23)
in which e
By letting
denotes the larger eccentricity and
t
the smaller one.
eb
ea
the deflection curve is reduced to
y J
.tcoskL ~
:
sin kL
sin kx + cos kx
1t ~
L
x  1)
,,
,__. (79)
Substituting Eq. 79 into Eq. 21a, we find that the expression for bending moment at any section in the member, after some rearrangement, is
P e
t
r
I
cos kL sin kL
;
,i sin kx + cos kxj J
,
/on (80)
Taking the first derivative of M with respect to x and setting dM/dx
find the location of the maximum moment as
 cos kL
;
we
r
k
arc tan
sin kL
Substituting this back into Eq. 80, after some manipulation we obtain the
maximum moment,
M max
P e
1^
C
(
sin f kL
kL +
L
)
.
(81)
The maximum fiber stress in the member is equal to
40
p _
max
1
max
mnx
f a.* A
2
r
Vt2
 2t c
kL
sin :r kL
^
to
<62>
where
i6 the distance from the neutral axis
It
to the extreme fiber in com
pression. stress
f
is this stress which is to be set equal
,
the yield point
to determine the yield point load P y
thus
y
2
fy_
f
r 2
//t
 2t cos kL ._l
sin kL
(83)
The limiting average stress F
fit
for design use can be obtained from Eq. 83 by
replacing P
for F
a
,
with nF A (where n is the factor of safety) and then solving
thus
f /n
Y a
1
(84)
/~~2 2  2t e c/r // t
cos kL +
esc kL
In Appendix C of the AASHO Specifications
(1965 edition) we find formula A,
which is almost identical with Eq. 84
f f s
1
(0.25 + e c/r a
S
/n
p
)
B cosec 6 T
"
(85)
where B is the factor similar to r/t
 2t cos kL +
and
<}>
replaces kL.
2
The term 0.25 which is added to the nondimensional factor e c/r
a
is to
account for the effects of all imperfections, such as initial crookedness,
nonhomogeneity
and residual stress.
Equations 84 and 85 are quite difficult to use for design, and their
41
main use is in plotting column curves such ns those in Appendix C of the
AASHO Specifications.
Such curves ore reasonably easy to use for the trial
and error design of beam columns.
For the particular case in which the eccentricity of the load is a con
stant value e, we set
1,
and after some slight manipulation Eq. 82
reduces to the wellknown secant formula:
P
c f
max
[1 +
r
2
ec
r
sec
J 2
J
kL,
, ,
(86)
_,
and the corresponding expression for allowable stress for design use is
/n
.
a
1
r*
(87)
(ec/r
sec (kL/2)
The secant formula suggested by Column Research Council
(7)
is
e
f
max
7 A
[1 +
(^ 2
r
+ ^r) 2 r
sec  /fr] 2r n AE J
(88)
and the corresponding expression for allowable stress is
:
1
2
+
Jt
+
'o
(ec/r
e c/r
V
/n
)
sec (L/2r)
JnV
/E
where e
is
the assumed equivalent eccentricity representing the effects of
all defects.
A good approximation for the maximum moment in a beamcolumn can be found from the following equation:
PA
M
max
 P/P
^~~
cr
(90)
where M
and A
are the moment and deflection, respectively, without regard
42
to the added moment caused by deflection.
Eq.
90 can conveniently be
written as:
+
vj;
P/P
max
cr
) ,
1
P/P
(91)
cr
in which,
for a simply supported constantsection member,
F
*
=
El
"
M L
o
If
the approximate maximum moment given by Eq.
91 is used to determine the
maximum combined stress in a beamcolumn, the following formula is obtained
M
'
I
max
where
o<
l
f
+ *<X 1  0(
o
1
(92)
P/P
cr
o
Since formulas for lateral deflection A
under different loading conditions
are available in handbooks, Eq. 92 greatly simplifies calculation of maximum
stress in beamcolumns.
Several values of ^
for various conditions are
given (7) in Table
2.
Table
2.
Parameter
<\j
in Eqs.
91 and 92.
Loading condition
Constant moment
+ 0.233
Concentrated lateral load at midspan
Uniform lateral load
 0.178
+ 0.028
7*
Each loading condition shown in Table with axial compression forces.
2 is
assumed to act simultaneously
43
If Eq.
92 is used for the same design case as that of Eq.

90 (equal
eccentricities e, M
Pe, and
+ 0.233),
the allowable stress becomes
/n
^
1
(
+
1
0.233ntx
 nC*
ec 2
r
(93)
*
This equation gives results in close agreement with those obtained from Eq
89.
The results are within
ncx
IV.
for nc*
less then 0.8, and within 2.5/, for
0.8 <
< 0.95
(7).
44
INTERACTION FORMULA METHOD
This method is based on the use of interaction formulas for beam
columns subjected to bending in the weak direction, and for beamcolumns
subjected to strongdirection bending provided that they are adequately
braced against lateral buckling.
Interaction formulas have a simple form,
are convenient to use, and have a wide scope of application.
Allowable
stresses determined from interaction formulas vary continuously and in a smooth transition from stresses for concentrically loaded columns at one
limit to stresses for beams at the other.
Formulas for combined stresses
used in AISC Specifications are based on this method.
The strength of members subjected to bending combined with compression
forces can be expressed conveniently by interaction formulas in terms of
the ratios P/P
P
P =
=
and M/M
where
compression forces at actual failure,
ultimate load for the centrally loaded column for buckling in the plane of the applied moment,
M M
u
maximum bending moment at actual failure, and
ultimate bending moment in the absence of axial load,
The following equation is the basis for several such interaction formulas:

u
In
i.
the elastic range, an approximation of the maximum bending moment
for beamcolumns subjected to combined bending and compression producing
maximum moment at or near the center of the member may be obtained from Eq.
91 by setting
ty
= 0.
45
M M
=
max
(P/P
'
(95)
cr
where P
P
applied axial load,
elastic critical load for buckling in the plane of applied moment, and
maximum applied moment, not including contribution of axial load interacting with deflections.
Substituting Eq. 95 into Eq. 94 gives
M
P u
1
(P/P
(96)
cr )J
For eccentrically loaded columns having equal end eccentricities e at both
ends, Eq. 96 may be expressed as
P + P
u
M
u
P e
[1  (P/P
(97)
cr )J
Gal am bos and Ketter (4) presented dimensionless interaction curves for the ultimate strength of typical wideflange beamcolumns bent in the strong
direction and having (a) equal axialload eccentricities at both ends, and
(b)
eccentricity at one end only.
and M/M
y
U
The parameters used for the maximum,
strength formulas are P/P following form:
and the interaction formulas take the
M A *B
P
P C(
2
)
(98)
where A,
B,
and C are empirical coefficients that are functions of L/r and
is the column axial
of loading conditions, and P
load at the fully yielded
condition (P
y
A f
y
).
The A1SC Specifications (14) use a complete tabulation of the
46
GalambosKcttcr coefficients of Eq
in the preceding paragraph.
98 for beam columns loaded as described
For the case of strongdirection bending, where a beamcolumn is bent
in double curvature by moments producing plastic hinges at both ends,
the
A1SC recommends a strength formula that can be written as
M
p
y is the plastic moment
This equation is independent of L/r, and M
(M P = Z f
,
where Z is the plastic modulus).
For designing a beamcolumn subjected to unequal end moments, it may be
over conservative to use the maximum of these in an interaction formula for
design of the member, especially where the end moments are of opposite sign.
This is because the interaction formula assumes the maximum moment to be at
or near the center of the span.
The AISC Specifications present an approx
imate expression of "equivalent uniform moment," which can be expressed as
follows
M
ZT M
0.6 + 0.4 r* M a
0.4
(99)
where M
eq
is the equivalent uniform moment, and M, /M
b
is the ratio of the
smaller to larger moments at the ends of the member.
In
AISC specifications section 1.6.1. the interaction equations are in
the form
f+ a
(1 Kl
^
fK
*
F
b
(100)
~)
F'
Isi
and
f
*
O.o F
y
1,
(101)
where
ing,
F
and
and
f,
are the axial and bending stresses under the combined load
F,
are the allowable stresses for the axially loaded column and J
F'
beam,
respectively,
is the critical stress according to Euler's column
theory, and C
is a coefficient which is expressed as
0.6 + 0.4 (M./M
b
0.4
In the case of biaxial bending,
the design interaction equation is
written as
C
+
(1
f
_.
mx
a
fK
bx
)
C i\ bx
(1
 f /F'
ex
bY  f /F' a ey
my
fK
l
'
Fu
(102 ) ^ 1UZ;
by
where the subscripts, x and y, refer to the x and y axes.
The great usefulness and versatility of interaction formulas arises
from the possibility of including a variety of conditions in at least an
approximate manner.
For instance, if the danger of lateral buckling under
F,
applied moment exists, the allowable stress
can be reduced accordingly.
Interaction formulas also allow consideration of end effects such as
partial or complete fixity, or sideway.
A member with these end effects can
be designed safely by replacing the restrained beamcolumn by an equivalent,
hingedend beamcolumn having a length equal to the effective length of the
real, restrained beamcolumn, and analyzing this equivalent beamcolumn for
axial compression.
An example illustrating the interaction formula concept is presented in
the following section.
48
EXAMPLE
P ro b 1 em
A column in a steel building frame is, according to an analysis, sub
jected to an axial force of 300 kips and a moment of 200 kft at the lower
end,
150 kft at the upper end.
There is no moment about the other axis,
and the frame is braced against sidesway buckling in the plane of the loading and in the plane perpendicular to it.
Story height is 18 ft.
Use A36
steel and design the member according to AISC Specifications (14).
300 k.
18 ft
200 kft.
300 k.
Solution
For a quick estimate of the range of member size, consider the moment
of 200 kipft alone, and compute the required section modulus as
200 x 12 req
F.
22
109 in
3
,
Assume that, owing to the presence of axial force, twice this value
is reasonable and look for a member with section modulus of about 200 in
3
.
Entering the Tables on pages 112 (AISC), the 14 \F shapes are found to be
49
suitable for this size.
A
S
1
Accordingly, consider a 14 IF 127, for which
2
,
=
=
37.33 in
202.0 in
1476.6 in
4
,
r r
=6.29, and
=
3.76.
Since sidesway buckling is prevented, assume that the effective length
factor K to be 0.65 according to Table C. 1.8.2.
On the basis of these data calculate the slenderness ratios:
T x
18 x
12
"6T2T~
34 4
'
_.
7"
y
18 x
12
T^6~
e 57 5

Effective slenderness ratios:
0.65 x 34.4
23
0.65 x 57.5
38
Allowable axial stress:
(Table 136)
20.41
ax
ksi
ay
19.35
ksi
Axial stress:
300
A,
..
50
Reduction factor:
M
C
0.6 + 0.4
(^)
0.6 + 0.A (^)
0.3 < 0.4
use
0.4
Amplification factor:
23
281.88
ksi
F'
281.88
U,y/1
*
Allowable bending stress:
(sec.
1.5.1.4.5)
Fu b
!^/? Ld/A f
56 ksi
>
0.6 F
y
use
F,
=0.6
22 ksi
Bending stress:
M
c f
T"
max
_ "
200 x 12
"202
U
.
QO 88 kSl
. .
Check interaction formulas:
a F
8 04
1935
416>
' 13
use Formula
7).
Formula (7a)
8 19.35
^+
(1I 88 > 0.971 (22)
' 4
'
0.416*0.222
0.638< ^
Formula (7b)
8.04
22
11.88
22
0.366 + 0.54
0.906<
1.0
51
This is considerably less than unity and a smaller size is needed.
Following the same procedure shown above, further trials may be carried
out in tabular form.
From the above results in Formulas k7&> and l7b;,
(7a) controls the case.
vSo
,
it
is evident that Formula
accordingly, calculate
only the terms needed for Formula v7a) in the further trials.
Member
/22
f u /F u
Sum
14 \F
119 111
34.99
189.4
176.3
8.59
9.19
12.7
22 22
0.39
0.577
0.967
1.037
14 UF
32.65
13.6
0.418
0.619
From these results, it can be seen that 14 UF fore the column will be made of 14
VF"
111 is overstressed
There
119.
52
CONCLUSION
The foregoing material demonstrates the means of analysis and design of
beamcolumns.
In
addition to the four methods for the analysis of the
behavior of beamcolumns discussed above, there are many other methods for
solving a beamcolumn problem.
The general method which is derived on the basis of the differential
equations of beamcolumns gives a theoretical and "exact" solution of the
problem.
From a practical viewpoint, a large number of laterally applied
loads or changes in section leads to a solution by the general method which
is probably no more precise or applicable than the solution obtained by one
of the approximate methods.
The energy method uses a single mathematical expression for the assumed
deflection which holds for the entire length of the beam.
With this method
it is not necessary to discuss separately each portion of the deflection
curve between consecutive loads, yet it gives a good approximate solution
for the problem.
This method of analysis is especially useful in the case
of a member with simply supported ends, of a member with complicated loadings, and of a member with various crosssections.
The numerical method is also an approximate method with a high degree
of accuracy.
The problem that can be solved by using the numerical proce
dure as described is almost unrestricted by the type of loading.
The basic principle of the general method may be extended to solve
rigid frame problems by using the modified moment distribution method.
The expression for the secant formula is complicated in form and is
quite difficult to use for design.
The main purpose of the secant formula
(15).
is to plot column curves such as shown in the AASHO Specifications
53
Such curves are reasonably easy to use for the design of bcaracolumna by
trial and error.
The interaction formula is easy to use for design and is applicable for
a variety of loading conditions.
34
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The writer wishes to express his deepest appreciation and gratitude
to his major instructor,
Professor Vernon
H.
Rosebraugh, whose guidance,
criticism, and most helpful suggestions in regard to the technical problems
involved rendered this report possible.
55
NOTATION
a,
b,
c,
Numerical coefficients, distances
A
c
e
e
Crosssectional area
Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber of beam
e,
Eccentricity J
iModulus of elasticity
E
f
(u),
(u)
1
Amplification factors for beamcolumns
Moment of inertia
Axial load factor for beamcolumn
Stiffness factor, effective length factor
Length, span
Integers, numerical factors
L
m,
n
M M
,
Bending moment, couple
M,
Bending moments at end A and
Factor of safety
Axial force in beamcolumn
B,
respectively
cr
Q
q
r
Critical buckling load 6
Concentrated force
Intensity of distributed load
Radius of gyration
Shearing force in conjugate beam Reactive force
Horizontal displacement, distance
Section modulus
o R
R
s
S
t
Numerical ratio
Work,
tension force
56
u
U
Axial load factor for beamcolumns (u = kL/2)
Strain energy
V
x,
y'
Shearing force in beam
Rectangular coordinates
First derivative, second derivative, etc.
y"...
Z
c<
Plastic modulus
Numerical factor, ratio
L
e
Deflection
End slopes, rotations r
e.
<\>
Numerical factor
57
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.
"Numerical Procedure for Computing Deflections, Moments and Buckling Loads," N. M. Newmark, Trans ASCE Vol. 108 (1943), p. 1161.
.
2.
Buckling Strength of Metal Structures
York,
1952.
F.
Bleich, McGrawHill,
New
3.
"Plastic Deformation of WideFlange Beam Columns," R. L. Ketter, E. L. Kaminsky, and L. S. Beedle, Trans ASCE Vol. 120 (1955), p. 1028.
.
4.
"Column Under Combined Bending and Thrust," T. Ketter, Trans ASCE Vol. 126 Part 1 (1961),
.
B.
Galambos and
1.
R.
L.
p.
5.
"Further Studies of the Strength of Beamcolumns," ASCE Vol. 126 Part 2 (1961), p. 929.
R.
L.
Ketter, Trans
6.
"Eccentrically Loaded, End res trained Columns," P. 0. Bijlaard, G. P. Fisher, G. Winter, and R. E. Mason, Trans ASCE Vol. 120 (1955),
.
p.
7.
1070.
,
Guide to Design Criteria for Metal Compression Members B. G. Johnston, Column Research Council, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1966.
8.
Theory of Elastic Stabi lity Hill, New York, 1961.
Structural Mechanics
1960.
.
S.
P.
Timoshenko, and J. M. Gere, McGraw
9.
S.
T.
Carpenter, John Wiley
6.
Sons, New York,
10.
Numerical and Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics Wiley & Sons, New York, 1966.
Numerical Analysis of 3eam and Column Structures PrenticeHall, New Jersey, 1965.
,
P.
C.
Wang, John
11.
W.
G.
Godden,
12.
Moment Distribution
1963.
J.
M.
Gere,
D.
Van Nostrand Company, New Jersey,
13. 14.
Basic Structural Design
K.
H.
Gerstle, McGrawHill, New York,
1967.
Manual of Steel Construction
1963.
American Institute of Steel Construction,
15.
Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges State Highway Officials, 1965.
American Association of
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BEAMCOLUMNS
by
CHENGHSIUNG CHEN
Diploma, Taipei Institute of Technology, 1959
AN ABSTRACT OF A MASTER' S REPORT
submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree
MASTER OF SCIENCE
Department of Civil Engineering
KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY Manhattan, Kansas
1967
Beamcolumns arc members which are subjected to combined bending and
axial compression.
The bending may arise from lateral loads, couples
applied at any point on the beam, or from end moments caused by eccentricity
of the axial loads at one or both ends of the member.
The purposes of this paper are to review the appropriate methods for
analyzing beamcolumn problems, namely, the general method, the energy
method, the numerical method, and the moment distribution and to discuss
adequate procedures for designing steel beamcolumns.
The general method or "exact" method is based on the relationship
between moment and curvature of a beam, Ely"
the compressive forces.
By solving this
M, and takes into account
differential equation with known
boundary conditions, the maximum deflection and moment can be obtained.
The energy method is widely used in the field of structural mechanics, and represents a unique mathematical application of the basic law of con
servation of energy.
y = L &
By assuming the elastic curve to be described by,
sin(n~ x/L), the external work done by physically applied external
forces or moments may be set equal to the potential energy stored through
the action of the internal forces and the elastic strain mechanisms of the
beamcolumn.
The coefficients "a
"
can be determined, and the maximum
moment obtained.
The numerical method was first presented by N. M. Newmark.
It
provides
a means of obtaining an approximate solution for beamcolumns with complex
loading.
The theoretical principle of the general method can be extended to
calculate the modified stiffness and carryover factors for use in the method
of modified moment distribution.
The modified moment distribution method
can then be used to solve rigid frame problems. Two approaches to the design of steel beamcolumns are described in
this paper.
Criteria for these methods are the CRC (Column Research
Three
Council) design guide (7), AASHO (15), and A1SC (14) Specifications.
sample problems are analyzed and one design example is given to illustrate
the design procedure according to the A1SC Specifications.
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