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# ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BEAM-COLUMNS

by

CHENG-HSIUNG CHEN

Diploma, Taipei

Institute of Technology,

1959

A MASTER' S REPORT

## requirements for the degree

MASTER OF SCIENCE

## KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY Manhattan, Kansas

1967

Approved by

Major Professor

SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION

METHODS OF ANALYSES
General Method

4 4
13 19

Energy Method
Numerical Method
Moment Distribution
DESIGN METHODS

29

38
.

38
44 48

## Interaction Formula Method

Example

CONCLUSION

.......

52

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
NOTATION

54
55

BIBLIOGRAPHY

57

SYNOPSIS

An "exact" method and three approximate methods for the analysis of the

## behavior of members subjected to bending moments and axial compression are

reviewed on the basis of elastic theory.
Sample problems that are frequently
The effects of lateral and

## encountered in steel structures are treated.

torsional buckling are not included.

## Two design methods that are adopted in

the AISC (14) and AASHO (15) Specifications are described and a design

## example is worked in order to illustrate the design procedure according to

the AISC Specifications (14).

INTRODUCTION

## This paper contains a review of analysis and design procedures for

steel members subjected to combined bending and compression.
The bending

may arise from transverse forces and/or from known eccentricities of the
axial loads at one or both ends. These kinds of members are generally

referred to as beam-columns.

of a frame.
In framed steel

## structures, there are three categories of

individual members:
(1)

Beams.

produce bending.
(2)

Columns.

compression.
(3)

Beam-columns.

combina-

## tion of the loads on beams and columns as stated above.

When the bending is small compared with the axial force,
the bending

can often be neglected and the member can be treated as a centrally loaded

column.

On the other hand, when the axial force is small compared with the

bending, the axial force may be negligible and the problem becomes that of

beam analysis.
The basic equation for analyzing a beam-column problem is based on the

relationship between the moment and the curvature of a beam, i.e., Ely"
and takes into account the compressive forces.
E,
I,

-M,

In the

equation Ely"

-M,

y"

## and M are modulus of elasticity, moment of inertia, curvature, and

moment, respectively.

Professor

N.

M.

Newmark (1)

## has developed a numeri-

cal approach which provides a means for obtaining an approximate but satis-

## mate solution, but it is a convenient method when the loadings are

complicated
Early solution of beam-column problems have been reviewed by Bleich
(2).

Ketter, Kaminsky, and Beedle (3) have presented a method for determin-

## presented numerically determined interaction curves for the maximum strength

of beam-columns under various end conditions, including the effect of resid-

ual stress.

## The effect of end restraint on the eccentrically loaded column

Winter, Fisher and iMason (6).

Two approximate
B.

## methods for estimating the strength of beam-columns have been reviewed by

G.

Johnston (7), the first method is based on the concept that the load

## method is based upon the interaction equations.

METHODS OF ANALYSES

## The purpose of the following analyses is to show the procedures for

finding the maximum deflection and maximum bending moment of a member subjected to moment and axial compression simultaneously.
is an "exact" method,

## while the numerical method and the energy method are

approximate methods.

GENERAL METHOD

## deformations and axial shortening

of the beam the differential equation (8) of the axis of the beam-column as

shown in Fig.

## can be expressed in the following alternate forms

Ely"
=

- M
=
=

(1)
(2)

Ely"

+ Py'
+

- V
q

Ely ,v/

Py"

(3)

The differential equations can be solved by use of the given boundary conditions, and consequently the deflections, bending moments, and end rotations

may be obtained.

## Three examples of the use of this method are given in the

following sections.
The bending moments and forces shown in Fig.
1

m
n
/-q

rj-n
dx

3*P^
J I
1

P X
x

MA
P

TO]
'i

r-iCJ

M+dM

V+dV
dx
Fig.
1.

Sign conventions

Fig.

2.

IV

El y

+ Py"

(3)

A cos kx +

B sin kx + C x +

D +

Q x *

2
,

(4)

in which

EI

(5)

B,

C,

y =

y" =

at

x =

and

x = L

0,

we obtain

- D

= k
2

L give

_
,

q 1_
2__

- cos kL

-_SJL
2P

sin kL

4,

=

Elk

x ( L-x 2EIk'

(6)

found to be
A
=

(y)

J^k
x=L/2
u
-

384 EI

f,(u)
1

(7)

where

kL/2

(8)
2
)

and

f
x

(u)

12(2 sec u 4

- u

(9)

5u
6,

3

9,

(y')_ n x=0
(u)
=
3

?7T7 24E1

f o<"> 2

(10)

where

f 2

(tan u - u)
u
3

(11)

## The bending moment at the center of the beam is given by

M) " E1( *

x=L/2

qL 8

f,(u)

(12)

where

(u)

2(1 - cos u)
u

(13)

cos u

The first factors on the right-hand sides of Eqs. 7, 10, and 12 are the

values produced by

## uniform load acting alone, and the second factors

f.(u), f(u), and f(u) represent the effects of the axial compression

forces.

Fig. 3.

## Beam-column with a concentrated load.

The bending moments in the left- and right-hand portions of the beam in
Fig.
3

are,

respectively,

9 x

Py

a
L

- sJ

(L _ X) + Py

Using Eq.

1,

we have

Ely"

x - Py

and

Eiy-

Qih - c)

(L - x)

- Py

## The general solutions of these equations are

Qc

A cos kx + B sin kx - rr x

and

(14)

PL

(15)

## By use of the end conditions y =

at x =

and at x = L, we obtain

- D tan

kL

Similarly, using the fact that the slopes and deflections of each segment

## must be equal at the point of application of the load

y' = L

Q,

i.e.

and

y'

at x

L - c,

we obtain

Q sin kc Pk sin kL

'

## Q sin k ( L-c Pk tan kL

"

Substituting these values of the constants into Eqs. 14 and 15, we obtain
the following equations for the two portions of the deflection curve:
Q sin kc Pk sin kL

*L

Qc ^"kx-^x,
.
.

^ n ^ 0<x<L-c
.

,,,. (16)

'

SM^

- ^,

U-iU-l

L-c_< X

<L

16 and In the

17,

the expres-

## sions (8) for slope and curvature can be obtained.

particular case

of a load applied at the center of the beam, the maximum deflection, end

rotation, and the maximum bending moment are obtained by substituting c=L/2
and the appropriate values of x into Eq. 16. This procedure gives

3"x.l/2

Sn
_

2 2

(u)

(I8)

9,

(y) '

x=0

f^TT 16E1
=

f,
3

(u)

(19)

EKy")
r

x=l,/2

,.,

* ^"^ 4 u

(20)

## Again, the second factors on the right-hand sides of Eqs. 18 to 20,

(u),

f_(u), and (tan u)/u are the effects of the axial compression on the beam.

r^
M,

&K
\

*b
A
B

-Li

-)

:a^~

If B^P
-Z*^fer

(a)

(b)

Fig.

4.

If

two couples M

and

M,

-~

M.

Py J

(21a)

Using Eq.

1,

we obtain

Ely"

- M

M - M -*-:
Li

x - Py

## The general solution of this differential equation is

n A cos kx + B sin kx +
.
, i

M
a

- Mu
2

M
x -

(21b)

EIk L
By using the condition y =

Elk
we obtain

at x =

and x

L,

M A
=

a
'

Psin kL

(M,

- M

cos kL)

B into Eq.

21b, we obtain

L-x
L

M,

sin kx sin k L

(22)

and

M,

10

## compressive forces P acting as shown in Fig. 4b.

and M L = P e L in Eq
b
.

By substituting M

P e

22,

we obtain

## sin k( ~ L-x) L-x - ) + sin kL L

;

e,

sin (~

kx x, - r) sin kL L

(23)

and 9

## derivative of Eq. 22 and letting x=0 and x=L, respectively.

may be expressed as
M L
9
=

The rotations

ML
f

y>x=0
y ,} x=L

3E1
M L

(u) +

biT

(U)

(24)

ML

-(

6il

(u) +

3il

(U)
'

(25)

where

f f

s (u)

2u
u

1-

A (
2u

- __1__. 7 )

tan 2u

(26)

fc

(u)

sin 2u

- 2u

(27)

## 26 and 27 are the results of the

In the case of two

equal couples M
=

= M

ML 8EI

.

cos u

la

(28)

^x=L/2

ML t * (U) 8EI 3
c

(29)

11

28 and

6

*h b

<y'>

n x=0

TFT 2E1

'

^^
u

'

(30)

Eq.

## 28 and substituting x=L/2,

from which
=

EKy")

x=L/2

sec u

(31)

From the examples given above, it may be seen that the deflections,

or applied couples.

## This indicates that the principle of superposition,

which is widely used when lateral loads act alone on a beam, can also be
applied in the case of the combined axial and lateral loads, but with the
restraint that the axial forces should act with lateral load superposed.
load, one concentrated load at the center-line, and two equal end moments)

## are given in Eqs.

is equal

7,

18,

and 29 respectively.

In each case,

the deflection

## the first factor being the deflec-

tion without axial load and the second factor being an amplification factor

which is the effect of the axial compression and thus depends on the value
of "P/P
f.(u),
f

".

f

(u),

(u)

is

- P/P

cr
the critical

where P

is

the critical

## For a simply supported beam,

12

2
TT

EI

cr

This approximate expression for the amplification factor can be used with

less than 0.6,

(u),

2

13

ENERGY METHOD

a

it

represents

In

energy.

the end

Z
n

sin

(32)

where the a
sine curves.

## of the beam, the strain

energy of the beam will increase an amount equal to AU while the external
loads do work equal to AT.

Letting

AU

AT

(33)

where

^7* 2EI

f 2

(y")

dx

(34)

the coefficient a

## can be determined, and consequently the deflections, end

The three examples given

14

dc
P A
II

KSI

II

Fig.

5.

l
r

II
2

'

)2 dx

ei
2

r
- 2 l. n
n

2
tt

sin

tt

12
dx
,

or

EITT r /T 3 4L

2
n

(35)

in a

is

AU

4^ Ba
n

da

=
n

EITT r .3 2L
B,

4
*

da

(36)

## which is equal to the difference

between the length of the deflection curve and the length of the initial
straight form, is

i -

r
:

(y'

dx

774L

2
n

n n

(37)

da

in

is

15

ds

-r

da

da

7 2L

da

(38)

AT,
1

ds

^72L

da

(39)

AT
2

=
v

(q

dcHAy)

x=c

^r
11

- da
n

(40)

4

and AT

in Eq.

33 gives

7
TT

"T
n

(41)

EI

(n

where

ok

P/P

cr

tion curve.

4qL t
TT

_
i*

-3
n

1
-Z

sin
o<
)

n x
-tt

,
.

(42)

EI

n=odd

(n

is

42,

(v) ^ y x=L/2

J EI ri
TT

^ql

4
1

(1

=
)

5.03 qL 384 EI

A
1

.,-.
*

(1

o<

A
(1

SL
8

2
-

^
pZ

flk! + 8

3.03 qL 384 EI

P -

'

16

Fig. 6.

## Assuming that the deflection curve is as expressed in Eq. 32, the

change in strain energy of the beam due to the change da
EITT
=

in a

is

AU

2L

da

(36)

in a

is

Pit
2L
we obtain
n it r c

AT

ds + Q

(Ay)

x=c

da

+ Q

sin

da
,

3

20L
n
TT

tt-^t

El

2,2 (n n

sin
o(
)

n ttc

(45)

## Substituting this value into Eq. 32 we obtain

2QL~ 4 TT El
3

*
n n

(n

sin
(X
)

ntr ~ c
Li

sin

~*j

nir x
A-j

(46)

The center deflection and center moment respectively are given by the following expressions:

om 2QL
y x=L/2

3 J
l 1

_4_. TT
=

EI

o<

QftA QL .986 or 48 EI

3 J
1 1

(47)

2L
4 *

QL
4

.986 QL 48 EI

(1

P -

(48)
cX
)
'

17

Mi

>

l_

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.

7.

In

superposition.

## 7b, we use Eq. 32 as the

assumed deflection curve; then the change in strain energy due to the
virtual change

dain

is

Work done by

## the axial force P and the applied couple M

in a
is expressed as r

AT

ds

## The term ds has been given in Eq. 38 and d9

to the virtual change da
in a
;

is

de

"*

da
x=0

nTT

(49)
n

18

AT
Setting AU
=

-~
L

n-rr

2
"""

da

"

2L

da

(50)

AT, we obtain
2

2M L
a
n =

-^ J
TT

EI

(n

f-

(51)

o(

2M L
y
=
TT

a
J
r

v
EI
n n
(n

sin
-

nTT x

(52)

._..

M,

b
J
z
TT

v Z
n

sin

n IT :( L-x

fc .

/c (53)

~.

EI

n (n

<X

## the deflection curve of the beam

in Fig. 6a is found to be

2M L
y =
TT

a
-

sin
- cX)

nnx

v I
TT^EI n n(n
= ML = M
,

2M, L b -

2
1
,

sin
o<

nTT (L-x)

(54)

,_.

EI n n(n

Q J
TT

4M L

EI

2 n=odd

sin
o<
)

nTT X

,rcw (55)

(n

## approximations to the center deflection and center moment by taking the

first terra of the series, as indicated in the following equations
_
4 M L o
2

X=L/2

1 "rT ^
=

"
1

1.03 M L

^
.

o_

8ei

r^^

(56)

>

M+P-A o

M+ o

1.03

ML 2
"J

QC T 8E1

~
1

(57)

ctf

19

NUMERICAL METHOD

By

## mathematics of the "exact" differential equation approach or the finite

difference approximations.
When the bar has a cross section which varies
a

dure of successive approximations is quite useful.

numerical proce-

## section is to compute the deflections and the moments of a beam-column by

use of Newmark'
s

numerical procedure.

M,

## They can be expressed

as follows:

dv dx

or

jqdx
r

dM
dx

or

vdx

(58)

m_
El

19 dx
dy_

=
J

EI
9dx

dx

'

dx

or

From the above equations, the shears, moments, slopes and deflections of a beam can be determined by successive numerical integration.
In

using this method, a beam is divided into segments and the distrib-

uted loading is reduced to equivalent concentrated loads at each division point, or station along the beam.

stations are equal and opposite to the reactions at the stations when the

20

segments of the beam between the stations are treated as simply supported
beams.
(1) (2)

## Linear between stations

A second-degree Parabola
1

(Fig. 8a,

b)

## (Fig. 8c, d).

to illustrate the application of New-

a
1.

## beam-column are as follows:

Compute deflections and moments due to lateral loads alone:
a.
b.

conjugate beam.
c.

by using Fig.

8c and d.

d.

## Calculate "Average Slopes" which are the fictitious shearing forces

in the conjugate beam.

"R",

i.e.,

(7.92)

26.76

e.

",

## which are the fictitious moments in the

conjugate beam due to the lateral loads alone and are obtained by
the following equation:
M. = M.
.

V,

where
d
= =

segment length,

## between station "j" and "j-l", and

21

nra

mn

nra

7 (2a+b) o 7 (2b+a) o
(a)

7 (a+Ab+c)
6

mn

(b)

"1
d

U
\

nm

ran

nra

24
d

(7a+6b-c)

7- Ca+lOb+c)
12

mn

24

(3a+10b-c)

(c)

Id)

Fig. 8.

22

Station number.

a.

## The procedure is to estimate a reasonable trial deflected configura-

tion and calculate the trial bending moments produced by the axial

## Due to symmetry, the values of y,

lc

selected in Table

are

## above) and compared with the estimated trial deflections.

ratios of the assumed deflections y
y

The

## Considering the maximum and minimum values of the ratios, we see

that the upper and lower limits for P r
cr

are

15.35 EI
L
b.
2

j <

17 EI

## The results can be improved by repeating the cycle of calculations.

The second cycle begins with the deflections y
,

tions.

In this

## order to adjust the order of magnitude of the figures.

case, they are multiplied by 100/376 in order to give a

as the

cr

## is between the values

16.4 EI
L
2

/ ^ < Cr<

16.7 EI
L
2
'

To obtain a more accurate result, we can calculate average values as follows: (8) of the deflections y and y_ 2a 2c

23

3=

I
L

2a nv

Cy

{
L
r

2a

dx

ind

(60)
=
1

'^c'av

(y

2c

>

dx

=

(y ) y 2a av

7 L L

(y

'2a

Ax

and

(y, ) 2c av

y f 2 (y_ L 2c

Ax

## Since the segment length Ax is constant, we have

(y

2a av _ (y_ ) y 2c av

EI
'

=
"

16.58 El
.2 L

Pd

.2

## Equating the average values of y

2a

and y gives 2c

16.58 EI

"

'

'

For beams subjected to both lateral and axial loads, the deflections due to lateral load alone will be amplified in the case of axial

## compression or reduced in the case of axial tension.

tion of the amplification factor (8,
1

An approxima-

10,

11)

is given by

- P/P

'

cr

1 1

T/P

'

cr

3.

a.

## Estimate total deflection y, and thus additional deflections ,y la

due to axial load, as shown in Table
1.

24

b.

Compute the additional deflections with the estimated ones from Step a.

c.

If

,

## then the computed deflecr

tions are used as estimated ones to repeat Step b until close agree-

ment is reached.
d.

The total moments are equal to the sums of the moments due to

lateral loads alone and the moments due to axial forces with total

deflections.

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c o

CM

vO ON CO

o
CX>

co

r co

>*

-*

UJ

00

o V
<0

at

in vD

C
sO
-J-

3
c o
t-t

0)

s
(0 U)

>
CM

>

V
u o
CM <r

CM

a.

<

u
c o u
<D

Q0

c
a)

o
it

00 CO
CO vj 01

0)

a.

iJ

CO

CO

E D C

II

a> o >

> c o

<

28

00 CM

CO CM

w
<u

u c

o
CM

o
CM

J-

CO
CO

m co

0}

a
1

CO

<r r^ CO
CM co

<r ON CO

.*

co
x>
t

en
CM

vO
CT\

V D

CO

u
CO

c o

o
o
on

m
CM

x>

H
CM
CM
cr>

CO

o o
CO CM

M3

-t

CO

CO

U
0)

JJ

c
<u

o
CD

*J

c
(1)

u
CJ

e o

u
M
I

>
CO

-o

c O U
-i
<o 0)

o u
ai

X
a
<0

JB
(J

en

H
U
CO
II

to

e c

0)

>> CM

>% CM

jC

CO

29

MOMENT DISTRIBUTION

The axial compression in a slender member modifies the stiffness factors, carry-over factors, and fixed-end moments as used in the standard

in the analysis,
it

Wit

## moment distribution; all that is necessary is to replace the usual values

for the stiffness factors, carry-over factors, and fixed-end moment coeffi-

For example,

## As the compressive force

increases, the stiffness continues to decrease and when the axial force

reaches the buckling load the beam will have no resistance to rotation at

Sign Convention

The bending

## moments, end rotations, and axial forces shown in Fig.

are assumed to be

positive.

Fig.

9.

Sign convention.

30

Fig.

10.

## The stiffness K is defined as the value of the moment required to

rotate the near end of the beam through a unit angle when the far end is
fixed.

The "near end" of the member is the end of the member where the

joint is being balanced and the "far end" is the opposite end (12).
Eqs.

3.

and M
cl

## The modified equations are

M L 9 3E1

U)

"

ML Ml
+

V
f

U)

and
(61)

M L
9,

oilV u)

ML 3H

(u)
'

In

order to determine the stiffness factor for a beam with the far
10), all that is necessary is to substitute
.

9,

9=1
a.

and

,

b
,

4E1 ab
L 4

f
2

(u)

- [f (u)]
5
2

(62)

4[f (u)J

at

31

(u)
5
.
.

ab

1 -

lu)

(63)

Wh en the axial

4

(u) become

ab

and C

ab

respectively.

## Theoretically, when the axial force P reaches the critical

buckling value for a beam column with one end fixed and the other end simply

supported (Fig. 10), the stiffness factor becomes zero and the carry-over
factor approaches infinity (12).
If

= 0.

M L
=

*a

5il

u)

'

and
M L 9
= b

(64)

"

off

u)

'

1

for M

3E1
L
f

ab

(u)
1
;

## (Far end simply supported) r

(65)

When the axial force is zero (u = 0) the stiffness is 3EI/L and when it is

equal to the critical buckling load for a beam-column with simply supported

ends (u =

"FT

/2)

## the stiffness is zero.

32

Fixed-end Moments

(a)

(c)

9,

(d)

Fig.

11.

## The fixed-end moments can be obtained by superposing the solutions of

the problems shown in Fig.
lib,
c,

and d.

In

In Fig.

lie, a

moment M

'

## is applied at the left end to rotate the axis of the member to rr

the horizontal and the right end of the member is assumed to be held against

M
=

M,

'

-K .9 ab a

and
M,
'

'

ab

-K .C .9 ab ab a

'

In

Fig.

lid,

## the left end of the member is held against rotation and a

moment N

is applied at the
n

i

This gives

ba b

and
M
"

M.

"

C,

ba

-K u C L 9

'

ba ba b

lib,

c,

## and d, the fixed-end moments are

'

"

-K .9 '-K.C.

9 abababab

'

and
M,

(66)
=
M,
'

+ M."
b

-K.

9 '-K C 9 babababa

If the

## member is assumed to have constant cross-section, the stiffness and

carry-over factors at each end of the member will be the same and the above
expressions can be written as (12)
M
=

-K

ab

(9

'

ab b
i

&.

'

and
(67)

M,

-K

ab

(9,

9 ab a
,

## For the case of a fixed-ended beam-column with a uniform load the

angles of rotation of the ends must be found for the simply supported beamcolumn as shown in Fig.
2

and Eq.

10.

## These angles are

3

-e.

--ffer 24E1

Mu) 2

(68)

34

Substituting Eqs. 62, 63 and 68 into Eq. 67, the fixed-end moments (12) are

A
=

?T

(u)
'

(69)

where
f,(u)
6

~
u
2

(1

r-^ tan u

(70)

## beam-column are (refer to Eq. 19)

2

QL 16EI

Using Eqs. 62, 63, 71 and 67, the fixed-end moments become (12)

\
where

'

-\

"

(U)

<72>

(u ,

1=E2S_U)
sin u

(73)

35

(a)

Fig.

12.

## By using the same procedures as in deriving "Fixed-end Moments" dis-

cussed above, the fixed-end moments due to joint translation shown in Fig.
12a can be obtained by superposing the results of Fig.
12b, c, and d.

The

ab I A
ba L

'

ab ab L A
ba ba L

"

'

36

and

+ M

"

a
"

(K

ab

K,

ba ba

C,

7 L 7 L

(74)
M.

M,

M.

(K.

ba

K UC ab ab

If

MQ

Mk
b

"

K k (1 ab

ab

7 L

(75)

## After substitution of the relationships given in Eqs

stiffness and carry-over factors, Eq. 75 becomes
6EIA
Li

## 62 and 63 for the

M M a

"

m M

~T
2

(u)

where
sin u 3(sin u - u cos u)
u

. c , f Q (u)

t-,c\ (76)

## modified to make use of the superposition method, can be used in analyzing a

structure with sidesway.
Following the superposition technique of analysis, the moments in the
frames shown in Fig.
13a and b are determined first.

to the same

i

translation.

## sidering the beam-column effect in the members.

Therefore, it is necessary

37

J_J

LAr4-

i
R

i-*'

i r/

T*TTT"

TTTTrf

rhrrt

///*

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.

13.

## This estimate, which can be made by an approximate analysis of the original

structure, gives a value of the factor "kL" for each member of the frame,
and the factor "kL" is held constant throughout the analyses of the frames

c.

R - aR

=0

(77)

M
=

M u + aM

(78)

## determines the moments M in the original structure, assuming that M and M

represent moments in the frames of Fig. 13b and c, respectively.

After

determining the moments in the original frame, the values of the axial
forces in the members are revised to more accurate values and the entire

## process repeated if necessary.

38

DESIGN METHODS

Two simple approximate methods have been developed for estimating the

strength of beam-columns.

## The first method, generally referred to as the

secant formula method, is based upon the concept that the load which pro-

## The second method is to consider

the member as a cross between a beam under pure bending and a column under

## SECANT FORMULA METHOD

As stated above, the secant formula method specifies that the maximum
stress in the beam-column, modified by a factor of safety, may not exceed
the yield stress of the material.

## The formulas developed for this procedure

apply only to members that fail by bending in the plane of the applied

## The procedure applies best for material having a linear elastic

stress-strain relationship.

1J

X
1

^"F
p
(a)

P
(b)

Fig.

14.

39

## The first step in developing the secant formula is the analysis of

maximum combined stress produced by axial load, applied bending moment, and
bending moment due to deflection.

14b,

23.

;

e.

(" - ~) sin kL L

s_i_n_kx

(23)

in which e
By letting

t

eb

ea

## the deflection curve is reduced to

y J

.t-coskL ~
:

sin kL

sin kx + cos kx

1-t ~
L

x - 1)

,,

,__. (79)

Substituting Eq. 79 into Eq. 21a, we find that the expression for bending moment at any section in the member, after some rearrangement, is
P e
t

r
I

cos kL sin kL
;

,

/on (80)

## Taking the first derivative of M with respect to x and setting dM/dx

find the location of the maximum moment as
- cos kL
;

we

r
k

arc tan

sin kL

Substituting this back into Eq. 80, after some manipulation we obtain the

maximum moment,

M max

P e

1^
C
(

sin f kL

kL +

L
)
.

(81)

40

p _

max
1

max

mnx

f a.* A

2
r

Vt2

- 2t c

kL

sin :r kL

^
to

<62>

where

It

pression. stress
f

,

thus

y
2

fy_

f
r 2

//t

- 2t cos kL ._l

sin kL

(83)

fit

replacing P
for F
a
,

## with nF A (where n is the factor of safety) and then solving

thus
f /n

Y a
1

(84)

/~~2 2 - 2t e c/r // t

cos kL +

esc kL

f f s
1

(0.25 + e c/r a

S
/n

p
)

B cosec 6 T

"

(85)

- 2t cos kL +

and

<}>

replaces kL.
2

a

is to

nonhomogeneity

## and residual stress.

Equations 84 and 85 are quite difficult to use for design, and their

41

## main use is in plotting column curves such ns those in Appendix C of the

AASHO Specifications.

## and error design of beam columns.

For the particular case in which the eccentricity of the load is a con-

1,

## reduces to the well-known secant formula:

P

c f

max

[1 +

-r
2

ec
r

sec

J 2
J

kL-,

, ,

(86)

_,

and the corresponding expression for allowable stress for design use is
/n
.

a
1

r*

(87)

(ec/r

sec (kL/2)

## The secant formula suggested by Column Research Council

(7)

is

e
f

max

7 A

[1 +

(^ 2
r

+ -^r-) 2 r

sec - /fr] 2r n AE J

(88)

:
1

2
+

Jt
+
'o

(ec/r

e c/r

V
/n
)

sec (L/2r)

JnV

/E

where e

is

## the assumed equivalent eccentricity representing the effects of

all defects.
A good approximation for the maximum moment in a beam-column can be found from the following equation:

PA
M

max

- P/P

^~~
cr

(90)

where M

and A

42

## to the added moment caused by deflection.

Eq.

90 can conveniently be

written as:
+

vj;

P/P

max

cr
) ,

1-

P/P

(91)

cr

in which,

F
*
=

El

"

M L
o

If

M
'

I
max
where
o<

l
f

+ *<X 1 - 0(

o
1

(92)

P/P

cr
o

## are available in handbooks, Eq. 92 greatly simplifies calculation of maximum

stress in beam-columns.
Several values of ^

2.

Table

2.

Parameter

<\j

in Eqs.

91 and 92.

Constant moment

+ 0.233

- 0.178
+ 0.028

7*

2 is

43

If Eq.

## 92 is used for the same design case as that of Eq.

-

90 (equal

eccentricities e, M

Pe, and

+ 0.233),

## the allowable stress becomes

/n
^

1
(

+
1

0.233ntx
- nC*

ec 2
r

(93)
*

This equation gives results in close agreement with those obtained from Eq
89.

ncx

IV.

for nc*

0.8 <

< 0.95

(7).

44

## subjected to strong-direction bending provided that they are adequately

braced against lateral buckling.

## are convenient to use, and have a wide scope of application.

Allowable

stresses determined from interaction formulas vary continuously and in a smooth transition from stresses for concentrically loaded columns at one
limit to stresses for beams at the other.

## used in AISC Specifications are based on this method.

The strength of members subjected to bending combined with compression

the ratios P/P
P
P =
=

and M/M

where

## compression forces at actual failure,

ultimate load for the centrally loaded column for buckling in the plane of the applied moment,

M M
u

## maximum bending moment at actual failure, and

ultimate bending moment in the absence of axial load,

The following equation is the basis for several such interaction formulas:

--
u
In

i.

## for beam-columns subjected to combined bending and compression producing

maximum moment at or near the center of the member may be obtained from Eq.
91 by setting
ty

= 0.

45

M M
=

max

(P/P

'

(95)

cr

where P
P

elastic critical load for buckling in the plane of applied moment, and

maximum applied moment, not including contribution of axial load interacting with deflections.

M
P u

1-

(P/P

(96)

cr )J

## For eccentrically loaded columns having equal end eccentricities e at both

ends, Eq. 96 may be expressed as
P + P
u

M
u

P e

[1 - (P/P

(97)

cr )J

Gal am bos and Ketter (4) presented dimensionless interaction curves for the ultimate strength of typical wide-flange beam-columns bent in the strong

direction and having (a) equal axial-load eccentricities at both ends, and
(b)

and M/M
y
U

M A *B
P

P C(

2
)

(98)

where A,

B,

## and C are empirical coefficients that are functions of L/r and

is the column axial

condition (P
y

A f
y

).

## The A1SC Specifications (14) use a complete tabulation of the

46

Galambos-Kcttcr coefficients of Eq
in the preceding paragraph.

## For the case of strong-direction bending, where a beam-column is bent

in double curvature by moments producing plastic hinges at both ends,

the

M
p

(M P = Z f
,

## over conservative to use the maximum of these in an interaction formula for

design of the member, especially where the end moments are of opposite sign.
This is because the interaction formula assumes the maximum moment to be at

follows

M
ZT M

0.6 + 0.4 r* M a

0.4

(99)

where M

eq

b

In

## AISC specifications section 1.6.1. the interaction equations are in

the form

f+ a
(1 Kl

^
fK

*
F
b

(100)

~)
F'

Isi

and
f

-*
O.o F
y
1,

(101)

where
ing,
F

and
and

f,

are the axial and bending stresses under the combined load-

F,

are the allowable stresses for the axially loaded column and J
F'

beam,

respectively,

theory, and C

b

0.4

written as
C
+
(1

f
_.

mx
a

fK

bx
)

C i\ bx
(1

- f /F'

ex

bY - f /F' a ey

my

fK

l
'

Fu

(102 ) ^ 1UZ;

by

## where the subscripts, x and y, refer to the x and y axes.

The great usefulness and versatility of interaction formulas arises
from the possibility of including a variety of conditions in at least an

approximate manner.

F,

## Interaction formulas also allow consideration of end effects such as

partial or complete fixity, or sideway.
A member with these end effects can

## hinged-end beam-column having a length equal to the effective length of the

real, restrained beam-column, and analyzing this equivalent beam-column for

axial compression.

## An example illustrating the interaction formula concept is presented in

the following section.

48

EXAMPLE

P ro b 1 em

## A column in a steel building frame is, according to an analysis, sub-

jected to an axial force of 300 kips and a moment of 200 k-ft at the lower
end,
150 k-ft at the upper end.

## There is no moment about the other axis,

and the frame is braced against sidesway buckling in the plane of the loading and in the plane perpendicular to it.

Use A-36

## steel and design the member according to AISC Specifications (14).

300 k.

18 ft

200 k-ft.

300 k.

Solution
For a quick estimate of the range of member size, consider the moment

## of 200 kip-ft alone, and compute the required section modulus as

200 x 12 req
F.

22

109 in

3
,

Assume that, owing to the presence of axial force, twice this value
is reasonable and look for a member with section modulus of about 200 in
3
.

Entering the Tables on pages 1-12 (AISC), the 14 \F shapes are found to be

49

A
S
1

2
,

=
=

37.33 in
202.0 in

1476.6 in

4
,

r r

=6.29, and
=

3.76.

## factor K to be 0.65 according to Table C. 1.8.2.

On the basis of these data calculate the slenderness ratios:

T x

18 x

12

"6T2T~

34 4
'

_.

7"
y

18 x

12

T^6~

e 57 5
-

0.65 x 34.4

23

0.65 x 57.5

38

## Allowable axial stress:

(Table 1-36)
20.41

ax

ksi

ay

19.35

ksi

Axial stress:
300

A,

..

50

Reduction factor:
M
C

0.6 + 0.4

(^)

## 0.3 < 0.4

use

0.4

Amplification factor:

23

281.88

ksi

F'

281.88

U,y/1
*

(sec.

1.5.1.4.5)

Fu b

!^/? Ld/A f

56 ksi

>

0.6 F
y

use

F,

=0.6

22 ksi

Bending stress:

M
c f

T"

max

_ "

200 x 12

"202

U
.

QO 88 kSl
. .

a F

8 04

1935

416>

' 13

use Formula

7).

Formula (7a)
-8 19.35

-^+

' 4
'

0.416*0.222

0.638< ^

Formula (7b)

8.04
22

11.88
22

0.366 + 0.54

0.906<

1.0

51

## This is considerably less than unity and a smaller size is needed.

Following the same procedure shown above, further trials may be carried
out in tabular form.
From the above results in Formulas k7&> and l7b;,
(7a) controls the case.
vSo
,

it

## is evident that Formula

accordingly, calculate

only the terms needed for Formula v7a) in the further trials.

Member

/22

f u /F u

Sum

14 \F

119 111

34.99

189.4
176.3

8.59
9.19

12.7

22 22

0.39

0.577

0.967
1.037

14 UF

32.65

13.6

0.418

0.619

From these results, it can be seen that 14 UF fore the column will be made of 14
VF"

111 is overstressed

There-

119.

52

CONCLUSION

beam-columns.

In

## addition to the four methods for the analysis of the

behavior of beam-columns discussed above, there are many other methods for
solving a beam-column problem.
The general method which is derived on the basis of the differential

## equations of beam-columns gives a theoretical and "exact" solution of the

problem.
From a practical viewpoint, a large number of laterally applied

## loads or changes in section leads to a solution by the general method which

is probably no more precise or applicable than the solution obtained by one

## of the approximate methods.

The energy method uses a single mathematical expression for the assumed

for the problem.

## This method of analysis is especially useful in the case

of a member with simply supported ends, of a member with complicated loadings, and of a member with various cross-sections.

of accuracy.

## dure as described is almost unrestricted by the type of loading.

The basic principle of the general method may be extended to solve

## rigid frame problems by using the modified moment distribution method.

The expression for the secant formula is complicated in form and is

(15).

## is to plot column curves such as shown in the AASHO Specifications

53

Such curves are reasonably easy to use for the design of bcara-columna by
trial and error.
The interaction formula is easy to use for design and is applicable for

34

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

## The writer wishes to express his deepest appreciation and gratitude

to his major instructor,

Professor Vernon

H.

55

NOTATION

a,

b,

c,

## Numerical coefficients, distances

A
c
e
e

Cross-sectional area
Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber of beam

e,

Eccentricity J
iModulus of elasticity

E
f

(u),

(u)
1

## Amplification factors for beam-columns

Moment of inertia

## Stiffness factor, effective length factor

Length, span
Integers, numerical factors

L
m,
n

M M
,

M,

## Bending moments at end A and

Factor of safety
Axial force in beam-column

B,

respectively

cr
Q
q
r

Concentrated force

## Shearing force in conjugate beam Reactive force

Horizontal displacement, distance
Section modulus

o R

R
s

S
t

Numerical ratio
Work,

tension force

56

u
U

Strain energy

V
x,
y'

## Shearing force in beam

Rectangular coordinates
First derivative, second derivative, etc.

y"...
Z
c<

Plastic modulus

## Numerical factor, ratio

L
e

Deflection
End slopes, rotations r

e.

<\>

Numerical factor

57

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

"Numerical Procedure for Computing Deflections, Moments and Buckling Loads," N. M. Newmark, Trans ASCE Vol. 108 (1943), p. 1161.
.

2.

## Buckling Strength of Metal Structures

York,
1952.

F.

Bleich, McGraw-Hill,

New

3.

"Plastic Deformation of Wide-Flange Beam Columns," R. L. Ketter, E. L. Kaminsky, and L. S. Beedle, Trans ASCE Vol. 120 (1955), p. 1028.
.

4.

"Column Under Combined Bending and Thrust," T. Ketter, Trans ASCE Vol. 126 Part 1 (1961),
.

B.

Galambos and
1.

R.

L.

p.

5.

"Further Studies of the Strength of Beam-columns," ASCE Vol. 126 Part 2 (1961), p. 929.

R.

L.

Ketter, Trans

6.

"Eccentrically Loaded, End -res trained Columns," P. 0. Bijlaard, G. P. Fisher, G. Winter, and R. E. Mason, Trans ASCE Vol. 120 (1955),
.

p.
7.

1070.
,

Guide to Design Criteria for Metal Compression Members B. G. Johnston, Column Research Council, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1966.

8.

## Theory of Elastic Stabi lity Hill, New York, 1961.

Structural Mechanics
1960.
.

S.

P.

9.

S.

T.

6.

## Sons, New York,

10.

Numerical and Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics Wiley & Sons, New York, 1966.
Numerical Analysis of 3eam and Column Structures Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1965.
,

P.

C.

Wang, John

11.

W.

G.

Godden,

12.

Moment Distribution
1963.

J.

M.

Gere,

D.

13. 14.

K.

H.

1967.

1963.

15.

## Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges State Highway Officials, 1965.

American Association of

## ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BEAM-COLUMNS

by

CHENG-HSIUNG CHEN

## requirements for the degree

MASTER OF SCIENCE

1967

## Beam-columns arc members which are subjected to combined bending and

axial compression.
The bending may arise from lateral loads, couples

applied at any point on the beam, or from end moments caused by eccentricity
of the axial loads at one or both ends of the member.
The purposes of this paper are to review the appropriate methods for

## analyzing beam-column problems, namely, the general method, the energy

method, the numerical method, and the moment distribution and to discuss

## adequate procedures for designing steel beam-columns.

The general method or "exact" method is based on the relationship

## between moment and curvature of a beam, Ely"

the compressive forces.
By solving this

## boundary conditions, the maximum deflection and moment can be obtained.

The energy method is widely used in the field of structural mechanics, and represents a unique mathematical application of the basic law of con-

servation of energy.
y = L &

## sin(n~ x/L), the external work done by physically applied external

forces or moments may be set equal to the potential energy stored through
the action of the internal forces and the elastic strain mechanisms of the

beam-column.

"

## can be determined, and the maximum

moment obtained.
The numerical method was first presented by N. M. Newmark.
It

provides

## The theoretical principle of the general method can be extended to

calculate the modified stiffness and carry-over factors for use in the method
of modified moment distribution.
The modified moment distribution method

can then be used to solve rigid frame problems. Two approaches to the design of steel beam-columns are described in
this paper.

## Criteria for these methods are the CRC (Column Research

Three

Council) design guide (7), AASHO (15), and A1SC (14) Specifications.

sample problems are analyzed and one design example is given to illustrate
the design procedure according to the A1SC Specifications.