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Calcium oxalate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_oxalate

Calcium oxalate
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Calcium oxalate (in archaic terminology, oxalate of lime) is a chemical compound that forms envelope-shaped crystals, known in plants as raphides. A major constituent of human kidney stones, the chemical is also found in beerstone, a scale that forms on containers used in breweries. Its chemical formula is CaC2O4 or Ca (COO)2.

Calcium oxalate

IUPAC name calcium ethanedioate

Contents
1 Occurrence 2 Morphology 3 Eects of ingestion 3.1 Treatment 4 Applications 5 References 6 See also
CAS number PubChem ChEBI Jmol-3D images

Identiers 25454-23-3 , (anhydrous) 5794-28-5 (monohydrate) 16212978 CHEBI:60579 Image 1 (http://chemapps.stolaf.edu /jmol/jmol.php?model=C %28%3DO%29%28C %28%3DO%29%5BO%5D%29 %5BO-%5D.%5BCa%2B2%5D)
SMILES InChI

ChemSpider 30549

Occurrence
Quantities of calcium oxalate are found in many tropical house plants. Calcium oxalate is a poisonous substance that can produce sores and numbing on ingestion and could even be fatal. The poisonous plant dumb cane (Dieenbachia) contains the substance and on ingestion can prevent speech and be suocating. It is also found in rhubarb (in large quantities in the leaves) and in species of Oxalis, Araceae, taro, kiwifruit, tea leaves, agaves, and Alocasia and in spinach in varying amounts. Insoluble calcium oxalate crystals are found in plant stems, roots, and leaves and produced in idioblasts. Kidney stone suerers should not eat plants high in oxalates. Calcium oxalate, as 'beerstone', is a brownish precipitate that tends to accumulate within vats, barrels and other containers used in the brewing of beer. If not completely removed in

Properties Molecular formula Molar mass 128.097 g/mol, anhydrous 146.112 g/mol, monohydrate Appearance white solid Density Melting point 2.12 g/cm 3, anhydrous 2.12 g/cm 3, monohydrate 200 C, decomposes (monohydrate) CaC 2O 4

Solubility in 6.7 mg/L (20 C) water

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Calcium oxalate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_oxalate

a cleaning process, beerstone will leave an (verify) (what is: / ?) unsanitary surface that can harbour Except where noted otherwise, data are [1] Beerstone is composed of microorganisms. given for materials in their standard state calcium and magnesium salts and various (at 25 C, 100 kPa) organic compounds left over from the Infobox references brewing process; it promotes the growth of unwanted microorganisms that can adversely aect or even ruin the avor of a batch of beer. Calcium oxalate crystals in the urine are the most common constituent of human kidney stones, and calcium oxalate crystal formation is also one of the toxic eects of ethylene glycol poisoning. Hydrated forms of the compound occur naturally as three mineral species: whewellite (monohydrate, known from some coal beds), weddellite (dihydrate) and a very rare trihydrate called caoxite.

Morphology
Most crystals look like a 6 sided prism and often look like a pointed Pickett from a wooden fence. More than 90% of the crystals in a urine sediment will have this type of morphology. These other shapes are less common than the 6 sided prism, however it is [2] important to be able to quickly identify them in case of emergency.

Urine microscopy showing calcium oxalate crystals in the urine. Of special interest is the 6 sided threedimensional morphology which appears as if viewing the top of a picket fence in this image.

Urine microscopy showing a calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal (dumbbell shaped) and a calcium oxalate dihydrate crystal (envelope shaped) along with several erythrocytes.

Urine microscopy showing several calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (dumbbell shaped, some of them clumped) and a calcium oxalate dihydrate crystal (envelope shaped) along with several erythrocytes.

Eects of ingestion

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Calcium oxalate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_oxalate

Even a small dose of calcium oxalate is enough to cause intense sensations of burning [3] In in the mouth and throat, swelling, and choking that could last for up to two weeks. greater doses it can cause severe digestive upset, breathing diculties, coma or even death. Recovery from severe oxalate poisoning is possible, but permanent liver and kidney damage may have occurred. The stalks of plants in the Dieenbachia genus produce the most severe oxalate reactions. The needle-like oxalate crystals produce pain and swelling when they contact lips, tongue, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, or skin. Edema primarily is due to direct trauma from the needle-like crystals and, to a lesser extent, by other plant toxins (e.g., bradykinins, enzymes). Depending on the plant ingested, mild (Elephant Ear Colocasia esculenta) to more severe (Jack in the Pulpit, Arisaema) can cause compromised airways. One bite on the Arisaema seed pod will result in immediate swelling and burning. It will take over 12 [citation needed] hours for the swelling to subside.

Treatment
Medication administered at the emergency room may include diphenhydramine, epinephrine, or famotidine, all intravenously. Although this most likely will be a localized reaction, it will be treated by the ER as an anaphylactic reaction.
[citation needed]

Applications
Calcium oxalate is used in the manufacture of ceramic glazes.[4]

References
1. ^ Johnson, Dana (23 March 1998). "Removing Beerstone" (http://www.birkocorp.com /Brewing/beerstone.html) . Modern Brewery Age. Birko Corporation R&D. http://www.birkocorp.com/Brewing/beerstone.html. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 2. ^ "Clinical Pathology of Ethylene Glycol Toxicosis" (http://web.archive.org /web/20120502123833/http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/Torres) . Archived from the original (http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/Torres/) on 02 May 2012. http://web.archive.org /web/20120502123833/http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/Torres. Retrieved 2012-05-17.. 3. ^ Outbreak of Food-borne Illness Associated with Plant Material Containing Raphides (http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/CLT-44721) . Informa Healthcare. 4. ^ "CALCIUM OXALATE HUMMEL CROTON" (http://www.hummelcroton.com /data/caox_d.html) . Hummel Croton Inc.. http://www.hummelcroton.com/data/caox_d.html. Retrieved 2012-05-02.

See also
Oxalic acid Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Calcium_oxalate&

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Calcium oxalate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_oxalate

oldid=537402441" Categories: Oxalates Calcium compounds Kidney This page was last modied on 9 February 2013 at 16:46. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot organization.

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