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A COMPLETE LIST OF OLYMPIAN GODS & GODDESSES AGLAEA (Aglaia) The goddess of beauty and adornment.

She was one of the three Charites and the wife of the god Hephaestus. AEGLE (Aigle) The goddess of the radiant glow of good health. She was a daughter of the medicine-god Asclepius. AKESO The goddess of curing illness. She was one of the daughters of Asclepius. ALEXIARES A son of the god Heracles, who with his brother Anicetus guarded the gates of Olympus. His name means "the unconquerable." ANICITUS (Aniketos) A son of the god Heraces, named "he-who-wards off war." He was one of the gate-keepers of Olympus. APHRODITE One of the ruling twelve great Olympians. She was the goddess of love, beauty and procreation. Alongside Zeus and Hera, she was also the leader of the Theoi Gamelioi or gods of marriage. APOLLO (Apollon) One of the twelve great Olympian gods. He was the god of music, prophecy and healing, and the leader of both the Theoi Mousikoi (gods of music) and Theoi Mantikoi (gods of prophecy). ARES The great Olympian god of war and conflict. He was the leader of the Theoi Polemikoi or gods of war. ARIADNE The wife of the god Dionysos. She was granted a seat beside her husband amongst the gods of heavens. ARTEMIS One of the twelve ruling Olympians, Artemis was the goddess of hunting, wild animals, childbirth and children. She was also a death-dealing goddess who brought sudden death to women with her arrows. Alongside her brother Apollo she was a leader of the Theoi Mousikoi or gods of music, presiding over maiden song and dance. ASCLEPIUS The god of medicine and healing. He was originally a mortal man who was destroyed by Zeus for the crime of restoring the dead to life. Afterwards he was welcomed into Olympus as a god. ATHENA One of the twelve great Olympians, Athena was the goddess of war, fortifications and the defence of towns, and of good counsel and heroic endeavour. She was also a patron goddess of craftsmen, presiding over the arts of weaving, pottery, carpentry and the manufacture of oil.

BIA The goddess of force. She was one of four winged daemones who stood attendant on the throne of Zeus. CALLIOPE (Kalliope) The leader of the nine Muses, and goddess of epic poetry. She also bestowed the gift of eloquence upon kings and princes. CHARITES (Kharites) The goddesses of joy, pleasure, mirth, beauty, dancing, feasts and banquets. The three Graces were handmaidens of the goddesses Hera and Aphrodite, and attendants of Dionysus. They were numbered amongst the Theoi Gamelioi (gods of marriage) and Theoi Datioi (gods of the banquet). CLYMENE (Klymene) The Titan goddess of fame and renown. She was a handmaiden of the goddess Hera. CLIO (Kleio) The Muse of historical writings. CRATUS The god of strength and power. He was one of four winged Daemones who stood attendant by the throne of Zeus. DEIMUS (Deimos) The god of fear. He was a son of Ares who accompanied his father on the battlefield. DEMETER One of the twelve great Olympian gods, Demeter was the goddess of agriculture : from the ploughing of the earth, to the milling of grain for flour. DIKE The goddess of justice, who reported the misdemeanors of man to her father Zeus. She was one of the three Horae, goddesses of the seasons and heavenly order. DIONE The Titaness mother of the goddess Aphrodite. She was a prophetic goddess, associated with the great oracle of Zeus at Dodona. DIONYSUS (Dionysos) One of the twelve great Olympian gods. He was the god of wine, viticulture, and wild vegetation. DIOSCURI (Dioskouroi) The gods of horsemen and gymnasia, patron gods of the Games, and protectors of sailors. Castor and Polydeuces, the Dioscuri twins, were originally a pair of mortal heroes. When Polydeuces was offered immortality by his father Zeus he insisted on sharing the benefaction with his brother. As a result the pair spent alternating days in heaven and the netherworld. EILEITHYIA The goddess of childbirth and the pains of labour. She was a daughter of Zeus and Hera. EIRENE The goddess of peace. She was one of the three Horae, goddesses of the heavenly order and the seasons.

ENYO The goddess of war, a companion of Ares. EPIONE The goddess of the soothing of pain. She was the wife of the medicine-god Asclepius. ERATO The Muse of love poetry and mimicry. ERIS The goddess of strife. She was a sister and companion of the god Ares. EROS The god of love and sexual desire. He was the son and divine minion of the goddess Aphrodite. EROTES Thewinged gods of love. A flock of these or three (Himerus, Pothos and Eros) accompanied the goddess Aphrodite. EUNOMIA The goddess of good order. She was one of the three Horae and an attendant of Aphrodite who was numbered amongst the Theoi Gamelioi or gods of marriage. EUPHROSYNE The goddess of merriment and good cheer. She was one of the three sister Charites. EURYNOME The goddess of flowery pastures. Eurynome was mother of the Charites and a handmaiden of the goddess Hera. EUTERPE One of the nine Muses. She presided over lyric poetry. GANYMEDES The cupbearer of Zeus who served nectar at the feasts of the gods. He was originally a Trojan prince whose beauty caught the eye of Zeus. HARMONIA The goddess of harmony. As a daughter of Ares and Aphrodite she was both a goddess of war (one of the Theoi Polemikoi) and of marriage (one of the Theoi Gamelioi). Harmonia represented unity and harmonious action. HEBE The goddess of youth. She was one of the Theoi Gamelioi or gods of marriage, a daughter of Zeus and Hera, and wife of Heracles. HEPHAESTUS (Hephaistos) One of the twelve ruling gods of Olympus. Hephaestus was the craftsman's god presiding over metalworking, building, sculpture, and artistry. HERA The Queen of the gods, and wife of Zeus. Hera was the goddess of women, and the leader of the Theoi Gamelioi or gods of marriage. She was also a goddess of the sky and stars.

HERACLES The greatest of the Greek heroes. Upon his death he was welcomed into Olympus, becoming the gatekeeper of heaven, and the god of strength and heroic endeavour and the averter of evil. HERMES One of the twelve great Olympian gods. He was the herald of Zeus, and thegod of herds and flocks, the country arts, travel, trade, merchants, and thievery. HESTIA The goddess of the hearth. With Zeus she was the leader of the gods of house and home, who also presided over the feast and the altar flame. Like Artemis and Athena she was a maiden goddess. HIMERUS (Himeros) The god of sexual desire. The Erotes Himerus, Pothus and Eros were minions of the goddess Aphrodite. HORAE The goddesses of the seasons and the ordering of heaven. Individually they presided over peace (Eirene), justice (Dike) and good order (Eunomia). The Horae were also guardians of the gates of heaven and handmaidens of the goddess Hera. HYGEIA The goddess of good health, one of the many daughters of Asclepius. HYMENAEUS (Hymenaios) The god of the weddings and the marriage hymn. He was a winged minion of the goddess Aphrodite, numbered amongst the gods of marriage. IASO The goddess of cures and remedies, a daughter of the medicine-god Asclepius. IRIS The goddess of the rainbow and messenger of the gods. She was the personal handmaiden of the goddess Hera. LETO The Titan goddess of motherhood and womanly demure. She was the mother of the twin Olympians Apollo and Artemis. LEUCIPPIDES (Leukippides) The goddess wives of the Dioscuri twins. They were originally mortal princesses who were carried up to heaven by the gods. LITAE (Litai) The elderly goddesses of prayer who delivered the prayers of men to the gods in heaven. MELPOMENE The goddess muse of tragedy plays. MOIRAI (Moirae) The three goddesses of fate who spun the thread of human destiny. They were attendants of Zeus Moiragete ("Leader of the Fates"). MUSES (Mousai) Nine sister goddesses of music, song, dance and the other arts. They were minions of the god Apollo Musagete ("Leader of the Muses"), and sang as a choir at the feasts of the gods.

NIKE The goddess of victory. She was one of four winged siblings who guarded the throne of Zeus, the others being Bia, Cratus and Zelus. Nike was also Zeus' personal charioteer. OCEANIDES (Okeanides) Goddess and nymph daughters of the great earth-encircling river Oceanus. Many of these were handmaidens of the Olympian gods, including Artemis' troupe, Demeter's entourage, Hera's Clymene and Aphrodite's Peitho. PAEON (Paion) The physician of the Olympian gods. He was perhaps the same as Asclepius. PANACEIA (Panakeia) The goddess of curatives, literally named "All-Cure." She was one of the daughters of the medicine god Asclepius. PEITHO The goddess of persuasion and seductive speech. She was a handmaiden of Aphrodite and one of the Theoi Gamelioi (gods of marriage). PHOBUS (Phobos) The god of panic. He was one of the Theoi Polemikoi (gods of war), a minion of his father Ares. POLYHYMNIA The goddess muse of religious hymns. She was also known as Polymnia POSEIDON The King of the sea and one of the twelve ruling gods of Olympus. He weas also the lord of rivers, lakes and other sources of fresh-water, and the god of horses and chariots. Unlike the other Olympian gods he had his residence in the sea rather than heaven, although he still attended all the councils and feasts of the heavenly gods. POTHUS (Pothos) The god of sexual yearning. He was a winged Erote (Love-God) in the service of Aphrodite. PSYCHE (Psykhe) The goddess of the soul and wife of the god Eros. TERPSICHORE (Terpsikhore) The Muse of choral dance and song. THALIA (1) (Thalia) The Muse of comedy drama and idyllic poetry. THALIA (2) The goddess of banquets and festivities. She was one of the three Graces (Charites). THEMIS The Titan goddess of divine law and order, custom and tradition. She was also a prophetic goddess, the leader of the assembly, and the personal councillor of Zeus. THYONE The mother of the god Dionysus. Thyone is the divine name of Semele, who was brought to Olympus by her son subsequent to her death.

TYCHE (Tykhe) The goddess of good fortune. She was sometimes represented as a handmaiden of the goddess Hera. URANIA (Ourania) The goddess Muse of astronomy and astronomical writings. ZELUS (Zelos) The god of rivalry and competition. He was one of four winged Daemones who guarded the throne of Zeus. ZEUS The great King of the Gods, ruler of Olympos and the Heavens, and leader of the Twelve. He was the god of the sky, weather, kings, fate, law and order.

A COMPLETE LIST OF TITANS & TITANESSES ADANUS (Adanos) An alternate name for one of the elder Titan sons of Uranus. ANDES An alternate name for one of the elder Titan sons of Uranus. He was perhaps the same as Hyperion. ANCHIALE (Ankhiale) A younger Titan goddess who perhaps represented the warmth of fire. She was the wife of Hecaterus and hte mother of the metal-working Dactyli. ANYTUS (Anytos) One of the younger Titans or Curetes. Anytus was an attendant of the goddess Demeter who fostered her Arcadian daughter Despoine. ASTERIA A younger Titan goddess whose name and genealogy suggest presided over the night, stars and nocturnal prophecy. She was the mother of the goddess Hecate. After the fall of the Titans Asteria was pursued by Zeus and but leapt into the sea to escape him where she was transformed into the island of Delos. ASTRAEUS (Astraios) The younger Titan god of the stars, the winds, and the art of astrology. He was the father of the four directional winds and the five wandering stars (the Planeta) by his wife Eos, the goddess of the dawn. ATLAS The younger Titan god of astronomy and the revolution of the heavnely constellations. He was arrested by Zeus and condemned to bear the heavens upon his shoulders. Homer suggests he was later released from this torment and appointed guardian of the pillars of heaven. AURA The younger Titanis-goddess of the breezes. She was a virgin huntress raped by the god Dionysos. CLYMENE (Klymene) The younger Titanis-goddess of fame and renown. She was the wife of Iapetos and mother of Prometheus. COEUS (Koios) The Titan god of the intellect as his name would suggest. He was also known as Polus (the pole) and probably presided over the axis of heaven in the north around which the constellations revolve. Coeus was one of the four Titan-brothers who conspired with Cronus in the ambush and castration of Uranus. At the end of the TitanWar, he was confined by Zeus in the Tartarean pit. Coeus was sometimes described as leader of the Gigantes, who rebelled against Zeus. CRIUS (Kreios) The Titan god of the heavenly constellations and the measure of the year. He was probably associated with the constellation Aries, the heavenly ram (which the Greeks called Crius). Its spring rising marked the start of the new year, andthe other constellations were said to follow in its wake. Crius was one of the four Titan brothers who conspired with Cronus in the castration of Uranus. He was later cast into

the Tartarean pit by Zeus. Crius was sometimes named as a leader of the Gigantes who rebelled against the rule of Zeus. CRONUS (Kronos) The King of the Titanes, and the god of destructive time--time which devours all. He led his brothers in the ambush and castration of their father Uranus, but was himself deposed and cast into the pit of Tartaros by his own son Zeus. Some say the old Titan was later released by Zeus and appointed King of Islands of the Blessed, home of the favoured dead. CURETES (Kouretes) A group of shield clashing Daemones or Titan gods who came to the aid of Rhea to act as guardians of her son Zeus. They were sometimes called Gigantes, and were probably the same as those which Hesiod described as being born from the castration of Uranus. Their sisters, the Meliae, were Zeus' nurses. DIONE A prophetic Titan-goddess who presided over the Oracle at Dodona alongside Zeus. According to some she was the mother of the goddess Aphrodite. EOS The younger Titan-goddess of the dawn. She was the mother of the wandering stars (that is, the planets) and the four directional winds by the Titan Astraeus. EPIMETHEUS The Titan god of afterthought. He was appointed with the task of creating the beasts of the earth, while his brother Prometheus was busy with the crafting of man. Epimetheus was tricked by Zeus into receiving Pandora, the first woman, and her jar of evils into the house of man. EURYBIA A Titan goddess of the power of the sea. She was the wife of the Uranid Crius. EURYNOME (1) The younger Titan-goddess of earth's flowery meadows. She was the mother of the three lovely Graces by Zeus. EURYNOME (2) The younger Titan-goddess of the earth's meadows. She was the wife of the first Titan-King Ophion. The couple were cast from heaven by Cronus and Rhea who wrestled them for the throne. This Eurynome may have been the same as Tethys. GIGANTES The War of the Giants and its combatants the Gigantes were frequently confounded by the ancients with the Titans and the Titan War. Sometimes the Gigantes were represented as soldiers in the army of the Titan-gods, or as rebellious supporters of the deposed Titan Cronus. HECATE (Hekate) The younger Titan-goddess of the ghosts, witchcraft and necromancy. She supported Zeus in the Titan war and so retained all of her privileges. HELIUS (Helios) The Titan god of the sun who rode across the sky in a chariot drawn by four fiery, winged steeds. He was an ally of Zeus in the Titan-War.

HOPLODAMUS (Hoplodamos) A Titan, Giant or Curete who with his brothers came to the aid of the Titaness Rhea after Cronus learnt of her deceptions surrounding the birth of Zeus. HYPERION The Titan god of light, and of the cycles of time measured by the lights of heaven -- the sun, the moon and the dawn. Hyperion was one of the four brother Titans who held Uranus fast while Cronus castrated him with the sickle. At the end of the Titan War he was cast into the pit of Tartarus by Zeus. IAPETUS (Iapetos) The Titan god of mortality and the allotment of the mortal life-span. His sons Prometheus and Epimetheus were the creators of animals and men. Iapetus was one of the four brother-Titans who held Uranus fast while Cronus castrated him with the sickle. As punishment he was cast into the Tartarean pit by Zeus at the end of the Titan War. LELANTOS The Titan god of the breezes of the air. His name means "the unnoticed" or "unseen one". LETO The younger Titan-goddess of motherhood, light, and womanly demure. She was the mother of the twin gods Apollo and Artemis by Zeus. MEGAMEDES Another name for the Titan Crios, meaning "the great lord." MELISSEUS The Titan or Curete god of honey. He was one of the protectors of the infant Zeus. His daughters were the god's nurses. MENOETIUS (Menoitios) The Titan god of violent anger and rash action as his name would suggest. Zeus blasted him into Erebus with a thunderbolt, where he became a bondsman of King Hades. METIS The younger Titan-goddess of good counsel. She was an ally of Zeus in the Titan War who fed Cronus an elixir which forced him to disgorge his five devoured children. Later she was swallowed whole by Zeus who had learned that a son born of their union was destined to depose him. Their only child was instead a daughter, Athena, who sprang fully grown from her father's head. MNEMOSYNE The elder Titanis-goddess of memory, words and language. She was the mother of the nine Muses by Zeus. Mnemosyne was also a prophetic goddess associated with the oracle of Trophonius in Lebadeia. MUSES ELDER (Mousai) Three Titan goddesses of music and song. One of them, Mneme (Memory), was the mother of the nine younger Muses by Zeus.

MYLINUS (Mylinos) A Titan or Giant of the island of Crete who was destroyed by Zeus. His name means "he of the grinding millstone," and he was perhaps the same as Cronus "time." OCEANUS (Okeanos) The Titan god of the earth-encircling, fresh-water river Oceanus. As a Titan god he presided over the rising and setting of the heavenly bodies : the sun, the moon, the stars, and the dawn. His ever-flowing waters, encircling the edges of the cosmos were associated with the neverending flow of time. Oceanus was the only one of the brother Uranides not to participate in the castration of their father Uranus. In the Titan-War he remained neutral, giving his tacit support to Zeus. OLYMBRUS (Olymbros) An alternate name for one of the elder Titan. He may be the same as Olympus the Cretan mentor of Zeus. OLYMPUS (Olympus) A Cretan Titan or Giant who mentored Zeusin his youth. He later roused his kin in an uprisal against the god but was destroyed. Olympos (whose name may derive from a word meaning eternal time) was perhaps the same as Cronus or Olymbrus. OPHION The eldest of the Titan gods whose brother Cronus wrestled him for the throne of heaven and cast him down into the Ocean-stream. He was probably the same as Oceanus, or perhaps Uranus. OSTASUS An alternative name for one of the Titan sons of Uranus. PALLAS The Titan god of warcraft and the military campaign season. Some say Athena defeated him in battle and crafted her aegis-cape from his goatish skin. PERSES The Titan god of destruction, and perhaps of summer droughts whose name means "the destroyer." Like his daughter Hecate, he was probably associated with the dog-sta r: the source of scorching heat of mid-summer. PHOEBE (Phoibe) The elder Titan-goddess of intellect and prophetic goddess of the great Oracle of Delphi. She was the grandmother of the god Apollo. PHORCYS (Phorkys) The old man of the sea was sometimes named as one of the six Titan sons of Uranus. POLUS (Polos) The Titan god of the axis of heaven ("polos"). He was usually called Coeus. PROMETHEUS The Titan god of forethought and the creator and benefactor of man. He defied Zeus on several occasions, including tricking the gods out of the best share of the sacrificial meat, and stealing fire from heaven for the benefit of mankind. Zeus was furious, and had Prometheus chained to Mount Caucasus, where an eagle was set to

devour his ever-regenerating liver. The Titan was eventually released from his tortures by Heracles. RHEA (Rheia) The Queen of the Titans and goddess of female fertility and the mountain wilds. She saved her son Zeus from the maw of Cronus by substituting the child for a stone wrapped in swaddling cloth. The Titan had devoured her other five children, but these were later freed from his beely by Zeus. SELENE The younger Titan-goddess of the moon. STYX The younger Titan-goddess of oaths of allegiance and of the deadly, netherworld River Styx. She brought her children Victory, Rivalry, Force and Power to the side of Zeus at the start of the Titan-War. SYCEUS (Sykeus) A Titan or giant who fled from Zeus in the course of their war against the gods. He was hidden by his mother in the earth in the guise of a fig tree or its sprouting seed. TETHYS The elder Titan-goddess of the sources of fresh-water. She was known as the great nurse ("tethis") of life, and was sometimes equated with Thesis, the goddess "creation." Tethys spawned the Rivers, Clouds and Springs. THEIA The elder Titanis goddess of sight and the shining light of heaven ("aither"). She was the mother of Sun, Moon and Dawn. Her name is also connected with words meaning "foresight" and "prophecy". THEMIS The elder Titan-goddess of the natural order, divine law and tradition. She was also a goddess of the oracles of Dodona and Delphi. By Zeus she was the mother of the goddess Fates and of the Seasons, and had a seat by his side on Olympus as advisor. TITAN A Titan god who instructed mankind in the observation of the stars and establishment of the natural or farming calendar. He was perhaps the same as Atlas.

A COMPLETE LIST OF PRIMEVAL GODS OR PROTOGENOI AETHER (Aither) The Protogenos of the mists of light which fill the upper zones of air. His element lay beneath the arch of heaven's dome, but high above the airs of the mortal realm. ANANKE The Protogeonos of inevitability, compulsion and necessity. She was the mate of Chronus (Time) and like him was an incorporeal, serpentine being who twisted circling around the whole of creation. CHAOS (Khaos) The Protogenos of the lower air. She filled the gap between the bright mists of the heavenly aither and the floor of the earth. From Chaos were descended the other airs: Erebus (darkness), Nyx (night), Aether (light), Hemera (day); as well as the birds. Only late classical writers describe Khaos as a primeval mixture of the elements. CHRONOS (Khronos) The Protogenos of time was the very first being to emerge at creation self-formed. He was a three-headed, incorporeal being with serpentine tail, who circled the whole of creation, entwined with his consort Ananke. EREBUS (Erebos) The Protogenos of the mists of darkness. His dark element was sunk into the hollows of the earth, and encircled the dismal realm of the underworld. EROS The Protegonos of generation. He was known as Phanes or Protogonos, distinguishing him from the younger Eros, Aphrodite's son. He was one of the first beings to emerge at creation, and caused the universe to procreate. GAEA (Gaia) The Protogenos of the earth. Mother Earth emerged at the beginning of creation to form the foundation of the universe. Gaea was one of the few Protogenoi to be depicted in anthropomorphic form, however even as such she was shown as a woman partially risen from the ground, inseperable from her native form. HEMERA The Protogenos of the day, rose up from the ends of the earth to scatter the dark mists of night, spread across the heavens by her mother Nyx, and reveal to the earth below the bright shining blue of the Aether, her protogenic consort. HYDROS The Protogenos of water. Together with the earth he formed the primeval Mud. Hydros was usually equated with the earth-encircling, fresh-water Titan Oceanus. NESOI The Protogenoi of the islands. Their rocky forms were broken from the earth by Poseidon and cast into the sea. NYX The Protogenos of night, Nyx drew the dark mists of her consort, Erebus, across the heavens at night, cloaking the bright light of the heavenly aether. Her anthropomorphic form was of a woman clothed in star-spangled mantle.

OCEANUS (Okeanos) The Protogenos of the great earth-encircling, fresh-water river Oceanus. From his flow every river, spring and rain-bearing cloud was sprung. His anthropomorphic form was that of a horned man with the tail of a serpentine fish in place of legs. OUREA The Protogenoi of the mountains. Their rocky forms were born of Gaea the Earth. PHANES The Protogenos of generation, the creator-god. He was sprung from a silver egg, the seed of creation, at the beginning of time, and set the universe in order. Phanes was also named Eros or simply Protogonos (the First Born). According to some Zeus swallowed him whole o gain supremacy over the universe. PHUSIS The Protogenos of nature. "Mother Nature" was one of the first beings to emerge at creation. She was related to both Gaea and Tethys. PONTUS (Pontos) The Protogenos of the sea. He sprung from Gaea the Earth at the beginning of creation, when the elements of the universe were set in their proper order. TARTARUS (Tartaros) The Protogenos of the great stormy pit which lay beneath the roots of the earth. He was the anti-heaven: just as the dome of heaven arched high above the earth, Tartarus arched beneath her. The Titans were imprisoned in his depths. TETHYS The Protogenos of the flow of fresh-water. She was an aspect of all-nourishing Mother Nature. From Tethys and her husband Oceanus the rivers, springs and clouds drew their waters. THALASSA The Protogenos of the sea or sea's surface. She was born of Aether (light) and Hemera (day). Mixing with the deep waters of Pontus (sea) Thalassa spawned the schools of fish. THESIS The Protogenos of creation. She was similar to Tethys, Mother Nature's great nurse. URANUS (Ouranos) The Protogenos of the solid dome of heaven, whose form stretched from one horizon to the other. He sprung forth from Gaea the Earth at the beginning of creation. Later his son Cronus, seized and castrated him, as he descended to consort with Mother Earth.

A COMPLETE LIST OF GREEK UNDERWORLD GODS & GODDESSES AEACUS (Aiakos) One of the three judges of the dead in the Underworld. He was originally a king of the island of Aegina who obtained his position as a reward from the gods. ACHERON (Akheron) The god of the underworld river of pain whose brackish stream guarded the borders of Hades. Charon ferried the souls of the dead across his waters. AMPHIARAUS The prophetic Daemon of a subterranean oracle at Oropus in Boeotia. ARAE (Arai) The underworld Daemones of curses. ASCALAPHUS (Askalaphos) An underworld Daemon who tended the orchards of Hades. He was transformed into a screech owl by Demeter as punishment for reporting that Persephone had tasted the pomegranate seed. CACODAEMONES (Kakodaimones) Evil spirits which issued forth from the underworld to cause harm. CERBERUS (Kerberos) The mighty, three-headed, serpent-maned hound of Hades who guarded the entrance to underworld. CEUTHONYMUS (Keuthonymos) A mysterious underworld Daemon. He was the father of Hades cattleman Menoetes. CHARON (Kharon) An underworld Daemon who ferried the souls of the dead across the streams of Acheron into Hades. His fee was a single coin which was placed beneath the tongue of the dead. COCYTUS (Kokytos) The god of the underworld river of tears and wailing. CORE (Kore) "The maiden," another name for Persephone. CRONUS (Kronos) The old king of the Titans. He was appointed king of the islands of the blessed, the home of the favoured dead, by Zeus after his release him from the prison-house of Tartarus. DAEIRA An underworld Nymph and companion of the goddess Persephone. She was connected with the Eleusinian Mysteries. EMPUSA (Empousa) A monstrous underworld Daemon with flaming hair, the leg of a goat and a leg of bronze. She was the bogey-monster in Greek fable.

EPIALES The underworld Daemon of nightmares. He was related to the Oneiri or dream-spirits. EREBUS (Erebos) The primeval god of darkness. Like the other protogenoi he was elemental, being the substance of darkness, rather than a man-shaped god. His mists encircled the underworld and filled the hollows of the earth. ERINYES The three goddesses of vengeance and retribution. They were called forth from the underworld to inflict suffering and madness upon the evil-doer, to bring drought and famine to nations, and punish the souls of the damned in Hades. EURYNOMUS (Eurynomos) An underworld Daemon who stripped the flesh from the corpses of the dead. He was described with blue-black skin and was possibly imagined with a vulture's head. GORGYRA An underworld Nymph. She was the wife of the River-God Acheron. HADES (Haides, Aidoneus) The grim King of the Underworld, the ruler of the dead. He received his dark domain when the three sons of Cronus drew lots for the division of the universe. HECATE (Hekate) The goddess of magic, necromancy and the haunting ghosts of the dead. She who issued forth from the underworld with a train of torch-bearing Lampades, demonic Lamiae, ghosts and hell-hounds. Hecate was the minister of Persephone. HERMES CHTHONIUS (Khthonios) The guide of the dead who led the ghosts to their final resting place in Hades. HYPNUS (Hypnos) The god of sleep who dwelt in a silent realm on the borders of Hades. He issued forth from the underworld with his mother Nyx the Night. KERES Monstrous she-Daemones of violent death and disease. They presided over the battlefield carnage, driving the weapons of death and tearing free the souls from the dying. LAMIAE (Lamiai) Underworld Daimones in the train of the goddess Hekate. They were vampiric monsters who assumed the forms of beautiful women to seduce and devour young men. LAMPADES Torch-bearing underworld nymphs in the train of the goddess Hecate. They may have guided the spirits of the blessed dead (initiates of the Eleusinian Mysteries) to their final resting place in Elysium.

LETHE The goddess of the underworld river of oblivion. The souls of the dead tasted her waters to forget their former lives. LEUCE (Leuke) A Nymph abducted by teh god Hades to the Eleusinian fields where she was transformed into a white poplar. MACARIA (Makaria) The goddess of blessed death or else the leader of the blessed dead (i.e. initiates of the Eleusinian Mysteries). She was a daughter of Hades and Persephone. MELINOE A frightful underworld Daemon who led ghosts forth from the underworld to haunt the earth. One side of her body was coloured pitch black, the other was stark white. She was probably identical to Hekate. MENOETES (Menoites) An underworld Daemon who herded the black-skinned cattle of Hades. He was wrestled by Heracles who cracked his ribs. MINOS One of the three Judges of the Dead. He was originally a king of Crete, who was awarded his position in Hades as a reward for the establishment of laws on earth. MINTHE An underworld nymph loved by the god Hades. She was turned to dust by Persephone, and these remains into a mint plant by Hades. MOIRAE (Moirai) The three goddesses of fate. They were sometimes portrayed as ministers attendant on the throne of Hades. MORMOLYCEIA (Mormolykeia) Underworld Daemones in the train of Hekate. They were the similar to the Lamiae. NYX The primeval goddess of the night. She issued forth from her home in the underworld trailing her dark mists across the sky. ONEIRI (Oneiroi) The Daemones of dreams. They issued forth from the underworld at night through one of two gates : those who passed through the gate of horn brought false, lying dreams ; while those who passed through the ivory were messengers of truth. ORPHNE An underworld nymph, the wife of the river Acheron. PERSEPHONE The goddess Queen of the Underworld. She was abducted to the underworld by Hades to become his bride. But her mother Demeter, secured her partial release, allowing her to return to the earth for six months of the year. Her annual return marked the coming of spring, whilst her descent in Hades brought on the barren months of winter.

PYRIPHLEGETHON The god of the infernal river of fire. RHADAMANTHYS One of the three Judges of the Dead and king of the Elysian Fields, home of the favoured dead. He was a famously just lawmaker who was appointed this position as a reward after death. STYX The goddess of the underworld river of hate, whose streams encircled the entire realm of the dead. The gods swore their most solemn oaths by her pitch-black waters. TARTARUS (Tartaros) The primeval god of the dark, stormy pit which lay beneath the foundations of the earth and beneath even the realm of Hades. Tartarus himself was the pit, rather than a man-shaped god. His realm was the prison of the ancient Titan gods, sealed on all sides with walls of bronze, and guarded by the hundred-handed Hekatoncheires. THANATUS (Thanatos) The winged Daemon of death. He was the minister of Hades. TROPHONIUS (Trophonios) The Daemon of the subterranean oracle of Lebadea in Boeotia.

A COMPLETE LIST OF GREEK SEA GODS & GODDESSES AEGAEUS (Aigaios) A god of violent sea-storms. He was an ally of the Titans. AEOLUS (Aiolos) The king of the winds. He kept the storm-winds, squalls and tempests locked away in the hollows of the floating island of Aiolia, to be released at the command of the gods. ACHEILUS (Akheilos) A shark-formed sea Daemon. ALCYONE & CEYX (Alkyone & Keyx) The former king and queen of the realm of Trachis were transformed into a pair of kingfishers. The birds presided over the halcyon days, a period of calm seas good for sailing. AMPHITRITE The goddess queen of the sea, wife of Lord Poseidon. Amphitrite was the goddess who spawned the sea's rich bounty--fish and shellfish--as well as dolphins, seals and whales. APHROS One of the Ichthyocentaurs or fish-tailed centaurs. Aphros was the god of the sea-foam who, along with his brother Bythos, carried Aphrodite ashore at her birth. APHRODITE The goddess of love and beauty. She was born from the foam of the se, when the castrated genitals of Ouranos were cast down from heaven. Although Aphrodite was a heavenly goddess she retained a close kinship with the sea. ARGYRA One of the sea nymphs whose name means the "Silvery One." She loved an Achaean man named Selemnus who was transformed into a river. BENTHESICYME (Benthesikyme) One of the sea nymphs, a daughter of the god Poseidon. Her name means "deep wave" and she was the wife an Ethiopian king named Enalos "the man of the sea." BRIAREUS (Briareos) The god of violent sea-storms. He was one of the Hecatoncheires, three hundred-handed, fifty-headed giants, and a son-in-law of Poseidon who made his home on the floor of the Aegean sea. BYTHOS One of the Ickhthyocentaurs or fish-tailed sea-centaurs. He and his brother Aphros brought the goddess Aphrodite to shore following her sea-birth. His name means "sea-depths". CABEIRO (Kabeiro) A sea nymph native to the shores of the island of Lemnos. She was a goddess of the Samothracian Mysteries, and the mother by Hephaestus of the Cabiri. CALLISTE (Kalliste) The sea nymph of the Island of Calliste.

CAPHEIRA (Kapheira) The sea nymph nurse of the god Poseidon. CARCINUS (Karkinos) A gigantic crab who allied itself with the Hydra against in a battle against Heracles. It was crushed beneath the hero's foot and placed amongst the stars as the constellation Cancer. CETEA (Ketea) The monsters of the sea's depths. One, sent by Poseidon to ravage Troy, was slain by Heracles, another sent to punish the Ethiopians which was destroyed by Perseus. CETO (Keto) An ancient sea-goddess. She was the goddess of the monsters and dangers of the deep. Her name means "whale" or "sea-monster." CHARYBDIS (Kharybdis) The monstrous Daemon of whirlpools and the tides. She was chained to the sea-bed where her inhallation caused the seas to rise and fall. CYMOPOLEIA (Kymopoleia) A sea-nymph of high storm waves. She was the wife of the Aegean storm-giant Briareus. DELPHIN The leader of the dolphins. He aided Poseidon in the wooing of Amphitrite, and as a reward was placed amongst the stars as the constellation Delphin. DORIS One of the Oceanides, the wife of Nereus and mother of the fifty Nereides. She may have presided over the mingling of fresh water with the brine as her name suggests. EIDOTHEA A prophetic sea-nymph. She was the daughter of the seal-herder god Proteus. ECHIDNA (Ekhidna) A monstrous she-dragon, half serpent and half fair Nymph. She was born of the scum of the sea or the sea-gods Phorcys and Ceto, and was associated with slime, sea-rot, fetid salt-marshes, eels and lampreys. By the storm-giant Typhoeus she became the mother of many a foul beast. ELECTRA (Elektra) One of the Oceanides, the wife of the sea-god Thaumas and mother of the Rainbow (Iris) and the Storm-Gusts (Harpyiae). She probably presided over her namesake "amber"-coloured clouds often seen accompanying the rainbow. EROTES The winged gods of love. Like Aphrodite they were regarded as minor seadeities and frequently appear in maritime scenes depicted in Roman mosaic. EURYBIA An ancient sea-goddess with power over the shifts of the sea. Her descendants included the Winds and the Stars.

GALATEA (Galateia) One of the fifty Nereides. She probably presided over her the "milkwhite" swirls in the brine as her name suggests. GALENE One of the fifty Nereides, she was the goddess of calm seas. GLAUCUS (Glaukos) The fisherman's sea-god. Glaukos was originally a fisherman who was turned into a fish-tailed god after eating a magical herb. GORGONS (Gorgones) Three monstrous sea Daemones with snaky locks, bronze claws, wings, and wide grinning tusked mouths. As daughters of the sea gods Phorcys and Ceto they probably represented dangers of the sea, such as submerged rocks and reefs. GRAEAE (Graiai) Three grey-haired, prematurely old sea Daemones, who shared but one tooth and one eye between them. They probably presided over the froth of seafoam. HALIA A sea nymph of the brine, mother of the Daemones of Rhodes. When she was raped by her sons she leapt into the sea for shame. HALIAE (Haliai) The nymphs of the sea. They included not only the Nereides, but also the daughters of Poseidon and the other sea gods. HARPIES (Harpyiai) A pair, or three, winged sea Daemones, daughters of the sea-god Thaumas. They were spirits of whirlwinds, water spouts, and violent storm gusts. HELLE The goddess nymph of the Hellespont sea. She was the sister of the boy Phrixus who fell sea from the back of the flying Golden Ram during her escape from Greece. Poseidon rescued and transformed her into a sea-goddess. HIPPOCAMPS (Hippokampoi) The fish-tailed horses of the sea, four of whom drew the chariot of Poseidon. ICHTHYES (Ikhthyes) A pair of divine fish who brought Aphrodite ashore following her sea-birth. As reward they were placed amongst the stars as the constellation Pisces. ICHTHYOCENTAURS (Ikhthyokentauroi) Twin sea-centaurs, Aphros (Foam) and Bythos (Depths), who carried Aphrodite to shore in a cockle shell following her sea birth. INO Another name for Leukothea. LADON A monstrous, hundred-headed sea-serpent, son of the sea-gods Phorcys and Ceto. He guarded the western reaches of the sea, and the island and golden apples of the Hesperides.

LAMIA A monstrous shark-shaped sea Daemon. She was a devourer of men. LEUCOTHEA (Leukothea) The goddess of the Ionian sea, a protector of sailors and fishermen. She was originally a princess named Ino who was entrusted with the nursing of Dionysus. Hera drove her husband mad, and fleeing his anger she leapt with her son Melicertes into the sea, where the gods transformed the pair into marine-deities. MELICERTES (Melikertes) Another name for the child sea-god Palaemon. NEREIDS (Nereides) A band of fifty goddess nymphs. They were providers of the sea's rich bounty of fish and protectors of sailors. NEREUS An ancient fish-tailed sea-god. He and his fifty Nereid daughters presided over the sea's rich bounty of fish and salt. NERITES A sea Daemon who was transformed into a shell-fish by the goddess Aphrodite. OCEANUS (Okeanos) The Titan god of the earth-encircling, fresh-water river Oceanus. In late classical times he was re-imagined as a god of the briny sea. OEOLYCA (Oiolyka) A sea nymph daughter of the stormy sea-gods Briareus and Cymopoleia. She probably presided over storm surges and flooding waves. Her name means "the Lone Wolf." PALAEMON (Palaimon) A sea-god protector of sailors and fishermen who was depicted as a boy riding dolphin-back. He was originally the boy Melicertes, child of Ino of Thebes. His father was driven mad by Hera, and Ino, fleeing his wrath, leapt into the sea with the child where the two were transformed into marine divinities. PALLAS A warrior sea nymph, friend and companion of Athena. PHORCYS (Phorkys) An ancient sea god who presided over the many dangers of the sea. His name is connected with the Greek word for seal. PONTUS (Pontos) The Protogenos or primeval god of the sea. Pontos was little the liquid form of the sea itself rather than an anthropomorphic god. POSEIDON The king of the seas and lord of the sea-gods. Poseidon received his domain when the three sons of Kronos drew lots for division of the universe. He dwelt in a golden palace on the sea bed with his queen Amphitrite and son Triton. PROSEOOUS DAEMONES Evil sea Daemones which haunted the dark caverns of the island of Rhodes. They were imprisoned beneath the island by their father Poseidon for their crimes.

PROTEUS An old shape-shifting, prophetic sea-god. He was the herder of Poseidon's seals. PSAMATHE One of the fifty Nereids. She was the goddess of sandy beaches. RHODE A sea-nymph daughter of the god Poseidon. She was the goddess of the island of Rhodes. SIRENS (Seirenes) Three dangerous sea Daemones with the heads of women and the bodies of birds. They lured sailors to their deaths with their irresistable siren-song. Some say they leapt into the sea in despair when Odysseus sailed past unharmed. SCYLLA (Skylla) A monstrous sea Daemon who preyed on passing sailors. She had the upper body of a nymph, the tail of a fish, and a ring of six ravening dog-heads circling her waste. Some say she was slain by Heracles but restored to life by her father the sea-god Phorcys with flaming torches. TELCHINES (Telkhines) Sea Daemones native to the island of Rhodes. They were practitioners of fell magic, bringing forth storms and drought, and killing men with the power of the evil eye. The gods buried them in the depths of the sea. TETHYS A Titan goddess associated with the sources of fresh-water who was later imagined as a sea-goddess similar to Thalassa. THALASSA The Protogenos or primeval goddess of the sea. She was the mother of the fishes by her male counterpart Pontus. THAUMAS An ancient sea god. He presided over the wonders of the sea. By Electra he was the father of Iris (rainbow) and the Harpyiae (storm gusts). THETIS The leader of the fifty Nereids. She presided over the spawning of marine life in the sea. THOOSA A sea nymph, the mother of the Cyclops Polyphemus by Poseidon. She may have presided over "swift" currents and sea rips, as her name suggests. Her parents and siblings represented other dangers of the sea. TRITEIA A militant sea nymph of the Achaean coast. She was a companion of the god Ares. TRITONIS The goddess nymph of the Libyan salt-lake Tritonis. TRITON The herald of the god Poseidon. A blow of his conch-shell horn calmed the waves.

TRITONES Fish-tailed Daemones of the sea, the male counterparts of the sea nymphs. They belonged to the train of Poseidon.

A COMPLETE LIST OF GREEK SKY GODS & GODDESSES AEOLUS (Aiolos) The king of the winds. He was appointed by Zeus to guard the storm winds which he kept locked away inside the floating island of Aeolia, releasing them at the request of the gods to wreak their havoc. AETHER (Aither) The primeval god of the shining light of the blue sky. He was conceived of as the substance of light, a layer of bright mist which lay between the dome of heaven and the lower air which surrounded the earth. ANEMI (1) (Anemoi) The gods of the four directional winds and the heralds of the four seasons. Boreas the north wind was the lord of winter, Zephyros the west was the bringer of spring, Euros the east was the god of autumn, and Notos the south of summer. ANEMOI (2) The Daemones of the violent storm-winds. They were sons of the monster Typhoeus kept locked away inside Tartarus or the floating island of Aeolus to be released only at the command of the gods. ARCE (Arke) The messenger of the Titans. She was the sister of Iris and the goddess of the lost second rainbow. At the end of the Titan-war she was stripped of her wings and locked away inside the pit of Tartarus. ASTRAEUS (Astraios) The Titan god of the stars. He was father of the planets and the four seasonal winds by Eos the dawn. ASTRA PLANETI (Astra Planetoi) The gods of the five wandering-stars or planets. The leader of these was bright Eosphoros, the god of the dawn-star Venus. The other four were Pyroeis (star Mars), Phaenon (star Saturn), Phaethon (star Jupiter) and Stilbon (star Mercury). ASTROTHESIAE (Astrothesiai) The spirits or living forms of the heavenly constellations. They were mostly heroes and creatures who were placed amongst the stars by the gods as reward for some service or, in a handful of cases, as a memorial of their crimes. ATLAS A Titan condemned by Zeus to hold the sky aloft upon his shoulders and turn it upon its axis. Homer in the Odyssey seems to suggest that he was released from this labour and appointed keeper of the pillars of heaven, presumably the ones erected by Heracles at the ends of the earth. AURA The Titan goddess of the breeze. AURAE (Aurai) The nymphs of the breezes.

BOREAS The god of the north wind whose wintry breath brought the cold of winter. He dwelt in a cave in the mountains of the far northern land of Thrace. CHAOS (Khaos) The primeval goddess of the gap between heaven and earth. She was the air which men breathed. Below Chaos her lay the flat body of the earth, and above the shining mists of the protogenos Aether. Chaos was the mother of Darkness and Night and of the birds. CHIONE (Khione) The goddess of snow. She was daughter a daughter of Boreas, god of the wintry north wind. CHRONOS The old god of time who turned the wheel of the heavenly constellations. He was sometimes equated with Cronus, the father of Zeus. CYCLOPES (Kyklopes) Three giant sons of Uranus (Heaven) who forged the lightning and thunder of Zeus. Their three brothers, the Hecatoncheires, were the gods of violent storms. EOS The winged goddess of the dawn. She heralded the rising of the sun with her rosy brilliance. EOSPHORUS (Eosphoros) The god of the dawn-star (the star Venus) seen in the morning skies. He was originally regarded as being distinct from Hesperus, the god of the evening star. EURUS (Euros) The god of the east wind and herald of the autumn season. HARPYIAE (Harpyiai) Daemones of whirlwinds and storm gusts. They were known as the hounds of Zeus and blamed for the dissappearance of people without a trace. HECATONCHEIRES (Hekatonkheires) Three hundred-armed, fifty-headed giants. They were the gods of violent storms which they released from the gates of Tartarus. HELIUS (Helios) The god of the sun whose orb was he wore upon his head as a bright aureole crown. Helios drove a fiery chariot drawn by four winged steeds. HEMERA The primeval goddess of the day. In the early morn she scattered the mists of her mother Nyx (Lady Night), to reveal the shining light of Aether, the blue sky. HERA The Queen of Heaven and goddess of the air and starry constellations. The Milky Way was spilt from her breast and most of the other constellations placed in the heavens at her command. HERSE The goddess of the morning dew.

HESPERIDES The goddesses of sunsets. The three Hesperides tended the tree of the golden apples on Erythea, the Red Isle, in the western stream of the river Oceanus. The apples were a wedding present from Gaea to the sky-gods Zeus and Hera. They were the source of the golden light of sunset, created to celebrate the nuptials of the skygods. HESPERUS (Hesperos) The god of the evening star (the planet Venus). He was originally distinct from his stellar counterpart Eosphorus, the dawn-star. HORAE (1) (Horai) Three goddesses of the seasons and the ordering of time named Eirene, Eunomia and Dike. They directed the constellations and guiding the Sun in his heavenly course. HORAE (2) (Horai) The goddesses of the twelve hours of the day. They were originally the same as the first three mentioned above. HYADES Nymphs of the five stars of the constellation Hyades. They were daughters of the Titan Atlas. Their rising marked the start of the rainy month of spring. IRIS The goddess of the rainbow. She was the divine messenger of the Olympian gods. MENAE The nymphs of the fifty new moons of the Olympiad (a period of four years). Fifty moons were significant because this number marked the conjunction of solar and lunar calendars. The goddesses themselves were daughters of the moon-goddess Selene. NEPHELAE (Nephelai) The nymphs of the clouds. They were daughters of the earthencircling, river Oceanus from whose waters they drew the rain. NOTUS (Notos) The god of the wet and stormy south wind who heralded the month of summer. NYX The primeval goddess of night. In the evening Nyx drew her curtain of dark mists across the sky, cloaking the light of her son Aether, the shining blue sky. In the morn, her daughter Hemera (the goddess Day) lifted the dark mantle. OCEANIDES (Okeanides)The daughters of the earth-encircling river Oceanus. Some of these were nymphs of clouds (Nephelae) and moistening breezes (Aurae). OREITHYIA The goddess of cold, gusty mountain winds. She was the wife of Boreas, the wintry north wind, and the mother of Chione, snow. PLEIADES The nymphs of the seven stars of the constellation Pleiades. They were daughters of the Titan Atlas whose rising and setting were of key importance in the agricultural calendar.

SELENE The goddess of the moon. She rode across the sky on the back of a bull, an ass, or in chariot drawn by winged horses. The moon itself was her crown or billowing veil. URANUS (Ouranos) The primeval god whose body formed the solid dome of heaven. The Greeks imagined him as a bronze-bodied, star-spangled god whose hands rested upon the earth in the farthest east and feet in the farthest west. He was similar in form to the Egyptian goddess Nut whose starry arching form is common in art. Uranus was a eunuch god, having been castrated by Cronus at the beginning of time. ZEPHRYUS (Zephyros) The god of the gentle west wind and the herald of spring. He was the husband of Chloris, the goddess of flowers, and the father of Carpus, fruits. ZEUS The King of the Gods and the ruler of the heavens. He was the god of clouds, rain, thunder and lightning. ZODIAC (Zodiakos) The spirits of the twelve constellations of the zodiac circled heaven measuring the seasons of the year.

A COMPLETE LIST OF GREEK RUSTIC GODS, GODDESSES & SPIRITS AEGIPAN (Aigipan) One of the goatish Panes. He came to the aid of Zeus when the god was disabled by the monster Typhoeus and as a reward for his help placed amongst the stars as the constellation Capricorn. AIX The "goat" nymph wife of the god Pan. AMPELUS (Ampelos) A satyricus (young satyr) loved by the god Dionysus. After his premature death he was transformed into a vine. ANYTUS (Anytos) The Curete guardian of the Arcadian goddess Despoene. ARIADNE The wife of the god Dionysus. She was originally a Cretan princess who assisted Theseus in his quest to slay the Minotaur. Later when he abandoned her on the island of Naxos she was discovered and wed by Dionysus. ARISTAEUS (Aristaios) The rustic god of bee-keeping, cheese-making, herding, olivegrowing and hunting. He was a companion of the god Dionysus. ARTEMIS The great Olympian goddess of wild animals, birds and fresh-water fish, and of hunting, fishing and fowling. She wandered the mountains with her band of attendant hunting nymphs. ATTIS The eunuch attendant and consort of the goddess Rhea-Cybele. He drove her lion-drawn chariot across the mountains. AURA The Titan goddess of the cooling breeze. She was a virgin huntress who was violated by Dionysus in her sleep. AUTONOE The wife of the god Aristaeus and a nurse of the god Dionysus. She was a Bacchante in the retinue of the god. BACCHANTES (Bakkhantes) Thyrsus-wielding women and nymphs in the train of the god Dionysus. They were inspired with the Bacchic frenzy, dancing to the tune of clashing cymbals, rattling tambourines, flutes and drums. BASSARIDES Another name for the Bacchantes, the frenzied female companions of the god Dionysos. BRITOMARTIS The Cretan goddess of the nets used in hunting, fishing and fowling. She was a virgin goddess like her mainland counterpart Artemis.

CABIRI (Kabeiroi) Two daemones who presided over the Mysteries of the islands of Lemnos and Samothrace. They were rustic, orgiastic, metalworking gods similar to the Curetes. CADMILUS (Kadmilos) A rustic god. According ot some he was the father of the Cabiri. CEDALION (Kedalion) One of the Cabiri. He guided the blind giant Orion to the rising place of the sun to have his sight restored. CENTAURI (1) THESSALIAN (Kentauroi) A tribe of half-horse men who inhabited the mountain-wilds of hessalian Magnesia. They were primitive and brutal tribe, who armed themselves with rocks and branches. Most were slain at the wedding of Pirithous and Hippodameia when they attempted to carry off the female guests. CENTAURI (2) PELOPONNESIAN (Kentauroi) Centaurs native to the lands of Arcadia and Sparta. They were a tribe of horse-bodied men who fought with Heracles over the wine of their brother Pholus. CENTAURI (3) CYPRIAN (Kentauroi) Centaurs native to the island of Cyprus. They were devotees of the goddess Aphrodite. CERCOPES (Kerkopes) A pair of thievish monkey-like demi-gods. They were once captured by Heracles, but earned their release by entertaining him with jokes. CHARICLO (Khariklo) The wife of the wise old Centaur Chiron. She was a daughter of Apollo or a sister of Hecate. CHIRON (Kheiron) A wise, immortal centaur who made his home on Mount Pelion in Thessaly. He was a famous teacher who mentored many of the great heroes including Asclepius, Peleus, Jason and Achilles. COMUS (Komos) The god of festivities. He was the satyriscus cup-bearer of the god Dionysus. CONISALUS (Konisalos) A satyr-like Daemon of garden fertility. CORYBANTES (1) PHRYGIAN (Korybantes) Shield-clashing, orgiastic Daemones in the service of the Cybele, the Mother of the Gods. CORYBANTES (2) SAMOTHRAKIAN (Korybantes) Orgiastic, shield-clashing daemones associated with the Mysteries of the island of Samothrace. CORYBANTES (3) EUBOIAN (Korybantes) Old rustic gods native to the island of Euboea.

CORYMBUS (Korymbos) A rustic demi-god associated with the fruit of the ivy (the meaning of his name). He was a companion of the god Dionysus. CURETES (Kouretes) Mountain-dwelling Daemones native to the island of Crete. They guarded the infant god Zeus in a sacred cave, drowing out the sounds of his cries with a dance of clashing spear and shield. CYBELE (Kybele) A Phrygian mountain goddess identified by the Greeks with Rhea. She drove a team of lions and was worshipped with orgiastic rites. DACTYLS (Daktyloi) Five mountain-dwellling Daemones who discovered the arts of smelting ore and working metal. They were closely related to, if not the same as, the Curetes. DIONYSUS (Dionysos) The god of wine, drunken orgies and wild vegetation. He wandered through the wild lands accompanied by a train of drunken Satyrs, Bacchante Nymphs, and rustic gods. DRYADS (Dryades) Nymphs of the trees and forests. The life spirit of the Hamadryad was bound to that of her sacred tree. ECHO (Ekho) The nymph of echoes. She was cursed by Hera to forever repeat the words of others, and faded away to a bodiless spirit after she was spurned by Narcissus. EPIMELIDES The nymphs of meadows and pastures. These white-haired maidens were guardians of sheep flocks and fruit-trees. GAEA (Gaia) The primeval goddess of the earth. Her body was the earth itself. Gaea's realm was shared by Demeter (the fertile plains) and Rhea (the mountain wilds). HAMADRYADS (Hamadryades) Nymphs of the trees. They were a type of Dryad whose life force was bound to a tree. HECAERGE (Hekaerge) The goddess nymph of archery. She was one of the Hyperborean companions of the goddess Artemis. HECATERIDES (Hekaterides) Nymphs of the high-stepping country dance. They were mothers of the Satyrs, Curetes and Oread nymphs. HECATERUS (Hekateros) An old rustic god. He was the grandfather of Satyrs, Curetes, and mountain Nymphs.

HEPHAESTUS (Hephaistos) The god of metalworking. He was a friend of the god Dionysus who rode through the wilds on the back of a donkey accompanied by drunken Satyrs. HERMES The god of herds and flocks, of roads and boundary stones. He consorted with Nymphs in the mountain glades, fathering Satyrs, Sileni and Panes. LOXO An archery nymph. She was one of the Hyperborean companions of the goddess Artemis. MAENADS (Mainades) The "frenzied ones," also known as Bacchantes, were the orgiastic female companions of the god Dionysus. MELIAE (Meliai) Rustic nymphs of the mountain ash-tree, of bees and honey. They nursed the first races of men. MELISSEUS The old rustic god or Curete of honey and bee-keeping. METHE The goddess nymph of drunkness. She was a companion of the god Dionysus. NAIADS (Naiades) Nymphs of fresh water : lakes, rivers, springs, marshes, fountains. They were daughters of Oceanus and the Potami. NESI (Nesoi) The primeval gods of islands. NYMPHS (Nymphai) Female nature spirits. Dryads and Oreads had trees and forests in their care, Epimelides flocks and pastures, and Naiads springs, rivers and fountains. NYSIADS (Nysiades) The Nymph nurses of the god Dionysus. They became the first Bacchantes in his train. NYSUS (Nysos) The god of Mount Nysa, guardian of the infant Dionysus. He was probably the same as Silenus. OCEANIDS (Okeanides) Fresh-water nymphs, the sisters of the River-Gods. They were nurses and protectors of the natural world, who had the young in their keeping. The Oceanides were mainly Naiads, Nephelae and Aurae. (A few late classical authors describe them as sea-nymphs, but only after the earth-encircling, fresh-water stream of Okeanos was re-imagined as a briny sea.) OCEANIDS OF ARTEMIS Sixty young Nymphs in the train of the goddess Artemis. OREADS (Oreiades) Nymphs of mountain-growing pine trees. The life of an Oread was bound to her tree.

ORTHANNES A satyr-like fertility Daemon. OUREA The primeval gods of the mountains. Each mountain was a living god. OXYLUS (Oxylos) An old rustic god of mountain forests, father of the first of the Hamadryades. He was similar to Hecaterus. PALICI (Palikoi) Daemones of thermal springs and geysers on the island of Sicily. PAN The Arcadian god of shepherds and flocks. Men travelling through the lonely places of the wilds were struck with irrational panic by the god. Pan was depicted as a goatlegged, horned god. PANES Spirits of the wild with goat-legs, horns and tails, and sometimes goatish faces. They were a multiplication of the god Pan. Some called them his sons. PHALES The satyr god of the processional phallus. He was a fertility Daemon in the retinue of Dionsyus. PHAUNUS (Phaunos) A rustic Italian god. Phaunos was the Greek form of the Latin Faunus. PHERES LAMIAN A tribe of ox-horned, beastly Daemones who were guardians of the infant god Dionysos. They remained members of his train. POTAMI (Potamoi) The gods of the rivers. Each river and stream had its own resident god. They were depicted as man-headed bulls or fish-tailed men. PRIAPUS (Priapos) The god of garden fertility. He was an ugly, lascivious deity, depicted with oversized genitals. PYRRHICHUS (Pyrrhikhos) The god of the rustic dance. He was one of the Curetes who was sometimes identified with Silenus. RHEA The great mother of the gods, queen of the mountain wilds. She drove a chariot drawn by lions accompanied by a band of spear-clashing Corybantes. SATYRS (Satyroi) Lascivious rustic spirits, Daemones of wilderness fertility. They were man-like creatures with horse's-tails, puck-noses and ass's ears. Drunken Satyrs formed the train of the god Dionysos. They chased Bacchantes and Nymphs through the mountain wilds. SATYRS HERMEIDES (Satyroi) Three satyr sons of Hermes, messengers of the god Dionysus.

SILENS (Seilenoi) Elderly drunken Satry companions of the god Dionysus. They were a multiplication of the god Silenus who were sometimes described as his sons. SILENUS (Seilenos) An elderly, drunken god. He was the nurse of the infant Dionysus who became a permanent fixture in the god's retinue. Silenus was depicted as a balding old man covered in fur-like, white hair. SOCUS (Sokos) An old rustic god native to the island of Euboea. TELETE The goddess of initiation into the Bacchic orgies. THRIAE (Thriai) Goddess nymphs of the rustic art of divination by pebbles. They were minions of the god Hermes who were sometimes represented as women with the bodies of bees. THYONE The mother of the god Dionysus and a goddess of the Bacchic orgies. She was originally the mortal princess Semele, who was consumed by the lightning of Zeus after Hera tricked her into demanding the god visit her in his full glory. Dionysus later fetched her from the underworld and made her a god. THYSA The goddess nymph of the Bacchic frenzy, one of the companions of the god Dionysus. TITYRI (Tityroi) Flute playing satyrs in the retinue of Dionysus. TYCHON (Tykhon) A rustic fertility god similar to the Satyrs. UPIS (Oupis) A Hyperborean archer nymph in the retinue of the goddess Artemis. ZAGREUS The first born Dionysus, son of Zeus and Persephone. As a child his father placed him on the throne of heaven, where he was seized and dismembered by the Titans. Zeus recovered his heart and fed it to Semele who rebirthed the god as Dionysus. The story belonged to the Orphic mysteries.

A COMPLETE LIST OF GREEK AGRICULTURAL GODS & GODDESSES BOOTES The agricultural demi-god inventor of the wagon and the plough. He was a son of the goddess Demeter. Both he and his wagon were placed amongst the stars as the constellations Bootes and Ursa as a memorial of his benefaction to mankind. CABIRI (Kabeiroi) A pair of metalworking gods associated with the Mysteries of Samothrace and Lemnos. They were the keepers of the sacred phallus of the dead god Zagreus. CABIRIDES (Kabeirides) Nymphs counterparts of the Cabiri. of the Samothracian Mysteries, the female

CADMILUS (Kadmilos) The father of the Cabiri gods of the Samothrakian Mysteries. CALLIGENEIA (Kalligeneia) The nurse of the Eleusinian Demeter or her daughter Persephone. She was one of the minor goddesses of the Mysteries. CARME (Karme) A Cretan goddess-nymph who probably presided over the harvest festival, her name meaning "to crop" or "shear." Her father Carmanor was the consort of Demeter in the local cult, and Carme was probably the goddess' daughter. CARMANOR (Karmanor) A Cretan harvest god whose name is derived from the word "to crop" or "shear." He was a consort of the goddess Demeter. CARPI (Karpoi) The gods of the fruits (including grain) of the earth. They were depicted as plump infants in the company of Demeter and Gaea. CHRYSOTHEMIS (Khrysothemis) A Cretan goddess, daughter of Carmanor "the shearer," whose own name means "golden custom." She was also known as Acacallis after the Cretan word for narcissus. She may have been a goddess of the cult hymns (like the Eleusinian Eumolpus) for a myth recounts that she won the first musical contest at Delphi. CORE (Koura) "The maiden", a cult name of the goddess Persephone. CYAMITES (Kyamites) The demi-god of the bean. He was one of the heroes of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The bean was for some reason a taboo foodstuff for initiates in the cult. DAEIRA A goddess nymph of the Eleusinian mysteries, connected with Persephone and the Underworld. She may have presided over the secret knowledge of the Mysteries since her name means "the knowing one."

DEMETER The great Olympian goddess of agriculture, its chief crops, maize and barley, and its products, flour and bread. She was the chief goddess of the Eleusinian Mysteries whose initiates were promised the path to a blessed afterlife. DESPOENE (Despoine) A daughter of the goddess Demeter who was worshipped in the mystery cult of Acacesium in Arcadia. She was similar to Persephone, but marginally regarded as a distinct goddess. DIONYSUS (Dionysos) The god of viticulture and wine, and chief god of a number of Mystery cults. In the Eleusinian mysteries Dionysus was a spring-time god closely associated with Persephone. DIOSCURI (Dioskouroi) A pair of Spartan demi-gods. When Zeus granted Polydeuces immortality, he insisted on sharing the gift with his twin brother Castor. As a result the pair divided their time between heaven and the underworld. The pair were closely associated with the Mysteries of Demeter and Dionysus. DYSAULES A demi-god of the Eleusinian Mysteries who was associated with the Field of Rharus where the first grain was sowed. ELEUSIS One of the Oceanid nymphs. She was the eponymous goddess of the city of Eleusis and a patron of its Mysteries. EUBOULEUS An Eleusinian demi-god connected with ploughing and the sowing of seed. EUMOLPUS An Eleusinian demi-god. He was the ancestor of the Eumolpides, the priests of the Eleusinian Mysteries. His name means "fine-song," which would seem to suggest he was the reputed author of the mystery's hymns. EUNOSTUS (Eunostos) The goddess protector of the flour mill and the grain silo. Her name means "she of the good yield." The name might simply be a cult epithet of the goddess Demeter. GAEA (Gaia) The primeval goddess of the earth. She was a passive goddess in the Mysteries, being superceded by the great Olympian goddess De-meter (Mother Earth), which whom she was closely identified. HADES (Haides) The King of the Underworld and god of the wealth of the earth, both its minerals and fertility. He was closely associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries as the god who abducted the grain-maiden Persephone to the underworld, and agreed to her return. He was often depicted pouring fertility from a cornucopia, or horn of plenty, signifying his role in the Mysteries as the god of earth's fecundity. HECATE (Hekate) The goddess of magic and leader of the ghosts. She was the minister of the goddess Persephone, and third of the great goddesses of the Eleusinian

Mysteries. She was particularly associated with nocturnal rites and was depicted holding a pair of torches. HERMES CHTHONIUS (Khthonios) The guide of the dead. The Chthonic Hermes led Persephone back from the underworld in spring. He was represented as a phallic god aroused by the sight of the goddess. HESTIA The maiden goddess of the hearth who presided over the baking of bread, mankind's stable food. She was closely associated with the grain-goddess Demeter, and the pair were often depicted seated side by side amongst the gods of Olympus. HORAE The goddesses of the seasons who ordered the heavenly cycles. They were spring-time companions of Persephone and Demeter. Individually they represented peace, justice and good order, prerequisites for farming prosperity. IACCHUS (Iakkhos) The god of the ritual cry "iacche iacche" of the Eleusinian processions. Holding a torch in his hand, he was represented leading Persephone forth from the underworld. The god was identified with the Chthonic Hermes and Bacchic Dionysus. IASION The consort of Demeter in teh Samothracian Mysteries. He lay with the goddess in a thrice-ploughed field and for this was struck down by a thunderbolt of Zeus. Like Persephone, he was probably represented returning to Demeter from the underworld in the spring. LAMPADES Torch-bearing nymphs of the underworld. They were attendants of the Eleusinian Hecate, and were probably imagined as guiding the ghosts of the Initiates to their blessed resting place in Hades. MACARIA (Makaria) The goddess of the "blessed" death. She was a daughter of Hades and Persephone who was probably connected with the favoured afterlife promised to the initiates of the Mysteries. OCEANIDES Goddess nymphs who presided over the earthly sources of fresh-water. They were the spring-time companions of the goddess Persephone. PERSEPHONE The queen of the underworld and goddess of the grain. Her return to the earth marked the onset of spring and the sprouting of the new grain. In the Mystery cult she presided over secret rites which ensured initiates the path to a blessed afterlife. PLUTUS (Ploutos) The blind god of agricultural wealth and bountiful harvests. He was a son of Demeter who was depicted as a boy holding a cornucopia (horn of plenty) sprouting with grain or the fruits of the earth.

POSEIDON The god of both the sea and the sources of fresh-water (rivers, springs and wells). By Demeter he was the father of the Mystery goddess Despoene. TRIPTOLEMUS (Triptolemos) The greatest of the Eleusinian demi-gods or heroes. He was despatched by Demeter and Persephone in a winged, serpent-drawn chariot to instruct the whole of mankind in the art of agriculture. His name means "he who pounds the husks", and he was probably associated in the Mysteries with the sacred threshing floor. TROCHILUS (Trokhilos) A demi-god of the Eleusinian Mysteries. His name means "he who turns," which suggests he was associated with the wheel used for the grinding of flour. ZAGREUS The mystic Dionysus. He was a son of Zeus and Persephone who was torn apart by the Titans when his father placed him on the throne of heaven. Only his heart was recovered which the god fed to Semele who rebirthed the child as the god Dionysus. ZEUS The king of the gods and god of rain. He was one of the major gods of agricuture alongside Demeter (Earth), Persephone (Grain), and Hades (Earth's Chthonic Fertility).

A COMPLETE LIST OF ABSTRACT PERSONIFICATIONS (GREEK) ACHOS (Akhos) Pain of Body, Pain of Mind, Grief, Distress (Latin Dolor) ADEPHAGIA Gluttony ADICIA (Adikia) Injustice, Wrong-doing AEDOS (Aidos) Reverence, Respect, Shame, Self-Respect, Modesty (Latin Pudicitia) AERGIA Idleness, Laziness, Do Nothing, Sloth (Latin Socordia, Ignavia) AESCHYNE (Aiskhyne) Shame, Sense of Shame, Modesty, Honour (Latin Pudicitia) AGLAEA (Aglaia) Beauty, Splendour, Glory, Magnificence, Adornment AGON Contest, Struggle ALALA War-Cry, Battle-Cry ALASTOR Blood Feud, Vengeance ALCE (Alke) Battle-Strength, Prowess, Courage ALETHEIA Truth, Truthfulness, Sincerity (Latin Veritas) ALGEA (plural) Pain of Body, Pain of Mind, Grief, Distress, Suffering (Latin Dolor) AMECHANIA (Amekhania) Helplessness, Want of Means AMPHILOGIAE (Amphilogiai) (plural) Disputes, Debate, Contention (Latin Altercatio) ANAIDEIA Ruthlessness, Shamelessness, Unforgivingness ANANCE (Ananke) Necessity, Compulsion (Latin Necessitas) ANDROCTASIAE (Androktasiai) (plural) Slaughter of Men in Battle ANGELIA Message, Tidings, Proclamation ANIA Grief, Sorrow, Distress, Trouble (Latin Dolor) ANTEROS Reciprocated Love APATE Trick, Fraud, Deceit, Guile, Treachery (Latin Dolus, Fraus)

APORIA Difficulty, Perplexity, Want of Means (Latin, Egestas) ARAE (Arai) (plural) Curses, Imprecations ARETE Virtue, Excellence, Goodness, Manliness, Valour (Latin Virtus) ATE Delusion, Infatuation, Folly, Reckless Impulse, Rash Action (Latin Nefas, Error) BIA Force, Power, Might, Bodily Strength, Compulsion (Latin Vis) CACIA (Kakia) Vice, Moral Badness CAERUS (Kairos) Opportunity, Critical Time, Advantage, Profit (Latin Occasio, Tempus) CALLEIS (Kalleis) Beauty CALOCAGATHIA (Kalokagathia) Nobility, Nobleness, Goodness CHARIS (Kharis) Beauty, Grace, Favour CHARITES (Kharites) (plural) Grace, Favour, Beauty (Latin Gratiae) COALEMUS (Koalemos) Stupidity, Foolishness CORUS (Koros) Satiety, Surfeit, Insolence, Disdain CRATUS (Kratos) Strength, Might, Power, Bodily Strength, Rule (Latin Potestas) CTESIUS (Ktesios) Home, House, Domestic Property CYDOIMUS (Kydoimos) Din of Battle, Confusion, Uproar, Hubbub DEIMUS (Deimos) Terror-Fear, Dread (Latin Pavor, Formido) DEMOCRACIA (Demokrakia) Democracy DICAIOSYNE (Dikaiosyne) Justice, Righteousness DIKE Justice, Rights by Custom & Law, Righteous Judgment (Latin Justitia) DOLUS (Dolos) Trickery, Cunning Deception, Craftiness, Guile, Treachery (Latin Dolus) DYSNOMIA Lawlessness, Bad Civil Constitution DYSSEBIA Impiety, Ungodliness (Latin Impietas)

EIRENE Peace (Latin Pax) ECECHEIRIA (Ekekheiria) Truce, Armistice, Cessation of Hostilities ELEUS (Eleos) Pity, Mercy, Compassion (Latin Misericordia, Clemencia) ELPIS Hope, Expectation (Latin Spes) EPIALES Nightmare EPIDOTES Ritual Purification EPIPHRON Prudence, Shrewdness, Carefulness, Thoughtfulness, Sagacity ERIS Strife, Discord, Quarrel, Contention, Rivalry, Battle-Strife (Latin Discordia) EROS Love, Sexual Passion (Latin Amor, Cupidos) EUCLEIA (Eukleia) Good Repute, Glory EUDAEMONIA (Eudaimonia) Happiness EUNOMIA Good Order, Civil Order, Good Laws, Lawful Behaviour EUPHEME Good Words, Praise, Acclamation, Applause EUPHROSYNE Good Cheer, Cheerfulness, Merriment, Joy, Mirth EUPRAXIA Good Conduct EUSEBIA Piety, Filial Respect, Loyalty (Latin Pietas) EUTHENIA Prosperity, Abundance, Plenty EUTHYMIA Good Cheer, Joy, Contentment EUTYCHIA (Eutykhia) Good Fortune, Luck, Prosperity, Success (Latin Fortuna) GELUS (Gelos) Laughter (Latin Risus) GERAS Old Age (Latin Senectus) HARMONIA Harmony, Marital Harmony, Concord, Union, Joining (Latin Concordia) HEBE Youth, Youthful Prime (Latin Juventas)

HEDONE Pleasure, Enjoyment, Delight, Sensual Pleasures (Latin Voluptas) HEDYLOGUS (Hedylogos) Sweet talk, Flatter HESYCHIA (Hesykhia) Quiet, Rest, Silence, Stillness (Latin Quies, Silentia) HIMERUS (Himeros) Sexual Desire, Longing, Yearning HOMADUS (Homados) Din of Battle, Battle-Noise, Tumult HOMONOEA (Homonoia) Concord, Unanimity, Oneness of Mind (Latin Concordia) HORCUS (Horkos) Oath, Punishment of Perjury (Latin Jusjurandum) HORMES Effort, Impulse to Do, Setting Oneself in Motion, Eagerness, Starting Action HYBRIS Insolence, Violence, Excessive Pride, Wantonness, Outrageous Behaviour (Latin Petulantia, Superbia) HYGEIA Good Health (Latin Salus) HYPNUS (Hypnos) Sleep, Sleepiness (Latin Somnus) HYSMINAE (Hysminai) (plural) Fighting, Fights, Fist-Fights, Combat (Latin Pugna) IOKE Onslaught, Battle-Tumult, Pursuit, Rout KERES (plural) Death, Doom of Death, Plague (Latin Letum, Tenebrae) LETHE Forgetfulness, Oblivion (Latin Oblivio, Letum) LIMUS (Limos) Hunger, Famine, Starvation (Latin Fames) LITAE (Litai) (plural) Prayer, Entreaty LUPE Pain of Body, Pain of Mind, Grief (Latin Dolor) LYSSA Rage, Martial Rage, Fury, Raging Madness, Frenzy, Rabies (Latin Ira, Furor, Rabies) MACHAE (Makhai) (plural) Battle, Combat MANIAE (Maniai) (plural) Madness, Crazed Frenzy, Insanity (Latin Insania) METHE Drunkenness, Inebriety

MNEMOSYNE Memory (Latin Moneta) MOIRAE (Moirai) (plural) Fate, Destiny, Portion (Latin Parca, Parcae) MOMUS (Momos) Mockery, Ridicule, Blame, Reproach, Stinging Criticism (Latin Querella) MORUS (Moros) Fate, Destiny, Doom, Death (Latin Fatum) MUSICA (Mousika) Music NEICEA (Neikea) (plural) Quarrel, Feud, Grievance (Latin Altercatio) NEMESIS Righteous Indignation, Distribution of Dues, Jealousy, Wrath (Latin Invidia) NIKE Victory (Latin Victoria) NOMUS (Nomos) Law, Laws, Ordinances, Statutes NOSI (Nosoi) (plural) Sickness, Disease, Plague (Latin Morbus) OIZYS Woe, Misery (Latin Miseria, Tristitia) OLETHRUS (Olethros) Day of Doom, Destruction, Death ONEIRI (Oneiroi) (plural) Dream, Dreams (Latin Somnium, Somnia) OSSA Rumour (Latin Fama) PALIOXIS Backrush, Flight, Retreat in Battle PAREGOROS Comfort, Consolation, Soothing Words (Latin Consolatio) PEITHARCHIA (Peitharkhia) Obedience to Command PEITHO Persuasion, Suasion, Seduction (Latin Suadela) PENIA Poverty, Need, Penury PENTHUS (Penthos) Grief, Sorrow, Mourning, Misery (Latin Luctus) PHEME Rumour, Report, Common Talk, Gossip, Fame, Reputation (Latin Fama) PHILIA Affectionate Regard, Friendship (Latin Amicitia, Gratia)

PHILOPHROSYNE Friendliness, Kindliness, Welcome PHILOTES Friendship, Love, Affection, Sex (Latin Amicitia, Gratia) PHOBUS (Phobos) Panic-Fear, Flight, Rout (Latin Metus, Terror, Fuga) PHONI (Phonoi) (plural) Murder, Killing, Slaughter PHRICE (Phrike) Horror (Latin Horror) PHTHISIS Wasting Away, Perishing, Decay (Latin Tabes) PHTHONUS (Phthonos) Envy, Jealousy, Ill-Will, Malice (Latin Invidia) PHYGE Flight, Escape, Flight from Battle, Exile, Banishment (Latin Fuga) PISTIS Trust, Honesty, Faith, Trustworthiness (Latin Fides) PLUTUS (Ploutos) Wealth POINAE (Poinai) (plural) Retribution, Vengeance, Recompense, Punishment, Penalty, Bloodmoney (for murder and manslaughter) (Latin Ultio) POLEMUS (Polemos) War, Battle POMPE Religious Procession PONUS (Ponos) Hard Work, Toil, Labour (Latin Labor) PORUS (Poros) Expediency, Means of Accomplishing or Providing, Contivance, Device POTHUS (Pothos) Sexual Longing, Yearning PRAXIDICAE (Praxidikai) Exacting Justice PRAXIDIKE Exacting Justice, Exacting Penalties PROIOXIS Onrush, Pursuit in Battle PROPHASIS Excuse, Plea PSEUDOLOGI (Pseudologoi) (plural) Lies, Lying Words, Falsehood (Latin Mendacium) PTOCHEIA (Ptokheia) Beggary

SOPHIA Wisdom SOPHROSYNE Moderation, Temperence, Self-Control, Prudence, Discretion (Latin Continentia, Sobrietas) SOTER Safety, Deliverance & Preservation from Harm SOTERIA Safety, Deliverance & Preservation from Harm TECHNE (Tekhne) Art, Craft, Technical Skill TELETE Consecration, Initiation THALIA Festivity, Banquet THANATUS (Thanatos) Death (Latin Mors, Letus) THRASUS (Thrasos) Overboldness, Rashness, Insolence TYCHE (Tykhe) Fortune, Chance, Providence, Fate (Latin Fortuna) ZELUS (1) (Zelos) Rivalry, Zeal, Emulation, Ambition, Envy ZELUS (2) (Zelos) Jealousy, Envy

A COMPLETE LIST OF ABSTRACT PERSONIFICATIONS (LATIN) The following Latin personifications appear in the works of poets and writers such as Ovid, Virgil, Cicero, Statius, Seneca, Apuleius and Hyginus. ALTERCATIO Altercation, Dispute, Debate (Greek Amphilogia, Neicus) AMICITIA Friendship (Greek Philotes, Philia) AMOR Love (Greek Eros) ARDOR Ardour, Heat of Passion, Ardent Desire (Greek Pothus) BELLA War (Greek Enyo) BONUS EVENTUS Good Fortune, Success CLEMENCIA Clemency, Mercy (Greek Eleus) CONCORDIA Concord, Harmony, Agreeing Together (Greek Harmonia, Homonoia) CONSOLATIO Consolation, Comfort (Greek Paregoros) CONSUETUDO Habit, Custom CONTINENTIA Continence, Temperence, Moderation (Greek Sophrosyne) CURA Care, Worry DISCORDIA Discord, Strife, Dissension, Disagreement (Greek Eris) DOLOR Pain (of body and mind), Ache, Distress, Grief, Sorrow, Anguish, Trouble (Greek Algos, Ania, Achos) DOLUS Guile, Trickery, Cunning Deception (Greek Dolus) EGESTAS Want (Gree Aporia) ERROR Error (Greek Ate) FAMA Rumour, Report, Common Talk, Gossip, Fame, Infamy (Greek Pheme, Ossa) FAMES Hunger, Famine (Greek Limus) FATUM Fate, Destiny, Fated Death (Greek Morus)

FIDES Trust, Faith (Greek Pistis) FORTUNA, FORS Fortune, Chance, Luck, Fate (Greek Tyche) FRAUS Cheating, Deceit, Fraud (Greek Apate) FUGA Flight, Escape, Flight from Battle, Exile (Greek Phyge) FUROR Rage, Madness, Fury (Greek Lyssa) GRATIA Favour, Esteem, Regard, Liking, Love, Friendship (Greek Philotes, Charis) GRATIAE (plural) Grace, Favour, Regard, Friendship (Greek Charites) HORROR Horror, Shivering Fear, Trembling Fear (Greek Phrice) IGNAVIA Laziness, Idleness, Sloth (Greek Aergia) IMPETUS Attack, Assault, Violent Impulse, Rapid Motion, Impetus, Impulse IMPIETAS Impiety (Greek Dyssebia) INCESTUM (i) Religious Impurity, Uncleanliness, Pollution, Defilement (ii) Sexually Impure, Unchaste, Lewd, Lustful, Incestuous INSANIA Insanity, Madness, Frenzy (Greek Mania) INSIDIA Ambush INVIDIA Envy, Jealousy, Ill-Will (Greek Nemesis, Phthonus, Zelus) INVIDENTIA Envy, Jealousy, Ill-Will (Greek Nemesis) IRAE (plural) Anger, Wrath, Rage, Ire (Greek Lyssa) JUSJURANDUM Oath (Greek Horcus) JUSTITIA Justice, Equity, Righteousness (Greek Dike) JUVENTAS Youth (Greek Hebe) LABOR Labour, Toil, Exertion (Greek Ponus) LETUM Death, Destruction (Greek Ker)

LETUS Death (Greek Thanatus) LUCTUS Lamentation, Mourning, Grief, Sorrow (Greek Penthus) LUES Plague, Pestilence, Spreading Evil or Calamity (Greek Ker, Nosus) MACIES Wasting, Thinness, Leanness, Meagreness (Greek Ischnasia) MAJESTA Majesty MENDACIUM Lie, Untruth, Falsehood (Greek Pseudologus) METUS Fear, Dread, Terror, Apprehension, Anxiety (Greek Phobus) MISERIA Misery, Wretchedness, Unhappiness, Distress (Greek Oizys) MISERICORDIA Pity, Compassion, Mercy (Greek Eleus) MONETA Memory (Greek Mnemosyne) MORBUS Disease, Sickness, Plague, Illness, Malady (Greek Nosi) MORS Death (Greek Thanatus) NECESSITAS Necessity (Greek Anance) NEFAS Sin, Unlawfulness, Impiety, Criminality, Wickedness (Greek Cacia) OBLIVIO Forgetfulness, Oblivion (Greek Lethe) OCCASIO Opportunity, Occasion (Greek Caerus) OTIA Ease, Liesure (Greek Acratus) PARCAE (plural) Portion, Share, Fate, Destiny (Greek Moira, Moirae) PAVOR Fear, Dread, Anxiety, Panic (Greek Phobus) PAX Peace (Greek Eirene) PERTINACIA Obstinacy, Stubbornness, Pertinacity, Perserverence PESTIS Pestilence, Contagious Disease, Destruction, Ruin (Greek Olethrus, Ker)

PETULANTIA Impudence, Sauciness, Freakishness, Wantonness, Petulance (Greek Hybris) PIETAS Piety, Filial Respect, Duty, Loyalty (Greek Eusebia) POENA Penalty, Vengeance, Punishment, Expiation, Compensation (Greek Poine) POTESTAS Power, Rule, Dominion (Greek Cratus) PUDICITIA Modesty, Chastity, Virtue, Shame (Greek Aedus, Aischyne) PUDOR Shame (Greek Aedus) PUGNA Fight, Fist-Fight, Battle (Greek Hysmina) QUERELLA Complaint (Greek Momus) QUIES Quiet, Rest (Greek Hesychia) RABIES Rage, Madness, Anger, Fury, Frenzy, Rabies (Greek Lyssa) RISUS Laughter, Joke (Greek Gelus) SALUS Good Health (Greek Hygeia) SCELUS Crime SENECTUS Old Age (Greek Geras) SILENTIA Silence, Stillness (Greek Hesychia) SOBRIETAS Sobriety, Temperance, Moderation, Continence (Greek Sophrosyne) SOCORDIA Sloth, Laziness, Indolence, Inactivity, Carelessness, Negligence (Greek Aergia) SOLLICITATIO Vexation, Anxiety SOMNIA (plural) Dream, Dreams (Greek Oneirus, Oneiri) SOMNUS Sleep (Greek Hypnus) SOPOR Sleep (Greek Hypnus) SPES Hope (Greek Elpis)

SUADELA, SUADA Persuasion (Greek Peitho) SUPERBIA Pride, Arrogance, Loftiness, Haughtiness (Greek Hybris) TABES Wasting Away, Wasting Disease, Corruption, Putrefaction (Greek Phthisis) TEMPUS Temporary Time (Greek Caerus) TENEBRAE Darkness, Darkness-of-Death, Death-Shades (Greek Keres) TRISTITIA Sadness, Mournfulness, Sorrow, Dejection, Melancholy, Gloominess (Greek Oizys) ULTIO Vengeance, Revenge (Greek Poena) VERITAS Truth, Truthfulness, Verity, Integrity (Greek Aletheia) VETUSTAS Ancient Times, Antiquity VICTORIA Victory (Greek Nike) VIRTUS Virtue, Manliness, Courage, Bravery, Excellence (Greek Arete) VIS Force, Power, Hostile Strength (Greek Bia) VOLUPTAS Pleasure, Enjoyment, Delight (Greek Hedone)

A COMPLETE LIST OF DEIFIED MEN AND WOMEN IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY AEACUS (Aiakos) A King of the Greek island of Aigina. After death he was appointed as a Judge of the Dead in the Underworld. AEOLUS (Aiolos) A King of Thessaly. He was made King of the Winds by Zeus, which he kept locked away inside the floating island of Aiolia. Some say the King and the god were different persons. ALABANDUS (Alabandos) A hero of the town of Alabandus (in Asia Minor) who became a god. AMPHIARAUS (Amphiaraos) An Argive Seer and one of the warriors of the Seven Against Thebes. When he fled the battle after the army's rout, the earth gaped open and swallowed him up. He was transformed into the prophetic spirit of a subterranean oracle. ARIADNE A Princess of Crete, who was abandoned by Theseus on the island of Naxos, where the god Dionysos discovered her and made her his wife. Ariadne was brought Olympos as the immortal spouse of the god. Some say he first had to recover her from Hades after her mortal death. ARISTAEUS (Aristaios) A rustic Thessalian hero who invented the art of bee-keeping, manufacture of olive-oil and hunting and herding techniques. He also summoned the Etesian winds to end the scorching heat of the midsummer months. As a reward for his benefactions Aristaeus was awarded immortality as a god in the retinue of Dionysus. ASCLEPIUS (Asklepios) A Thessalian physician whose exceptional skill allowed him to restore the dead. However, as this was contrary to the natural order of things, Zeus struck him down with a thunderbolt. He was later recovered by his father Apollo from the land of the dead and entered Olympus as a god. ATTIS A youth loved by the goddess Cybele. When he betrayed her love she caused him to castrate himself in a fit of madness. He was later granted immortality as her eunuch attendant.. AUTONOE The Theban wife of the rustic hero Aristaeus, and a nurse of the god Dionysus. She was granted immortality like her husband and sisters, Ino (Leukothea) and Semele (Thyone). BOLINA An Achaean woman loved by the god Apollo and granted immortality. BRITOMARTIS A Cretan nymph who leapt into the sea to escape the lustful pursuit of King Minos. When she reached the mainland Britomartis joined the company of Artemis

and was granted immortality by the goddess. (Some say Britomartis was immortal born.) DAEMONES GOLDEN (Daimones Khryseoi) The men of the Golden Age were transformed into good spirits which inhabited the air after death. They were apponited to watch over the actions of men, reporting injustices to Zeus. DAEMONES SILVER (Daimones Argyreoi) The men of the Silver Age were granted immortality after earth-dwelling fertility spirits after death. DIONYSUS (Dionysos) The god of wine was sometimes described as a mortal-born hero who underwent apotheosis. DIOSCURI (Dioskouroi) Twin Spartan heroes named Castor and Polydeuces. When Polydeuces was granted immortality by his father Zeus, he insisted on sharing the privelege with his mortal-sired twin brother Castor. The god agreed, but the pair had to divide their time between heaven and the underworld as a result. The Dioscuri were the patron gods of horsemen and the Games, and protectors of sailors who appeared at sea in the form of Saint Elmo's Fire. ENDYMION A King of Elis loved by the moon-goddess Selene. He was granted immortality as her consort, but for the price of eternal sleep. EPAPHUS (Epaphos) The Egyptian-born son of the nymph Io. He was stolen by the Titan-gods, but his mother eventually found him and secured the throne of Egypt for the boy. The pair were granted immortality as the Egyptian gods Isis and Osiris. EPIONE Wife of the physician Asclepius. She was granted immortality along with her husband and became the goddess of the soothing of pain. GANYMEDE (Ganymedes) A handsome, young Trojan prince caught up to Olympus by the god Zeus who admired him for his beauty. Ganymede was made the cup-bearer of the gods. GLAUCUS (Glaukos) A fisherman from the Boeotian town of Anthedon. After eating a magical herb he found growing on the sea-shore, Glaucus was transformed into a fishtailed sea-god. HECAERGE (Hekaerge) A Hyperborean companion of the goddess Artemis. She died prematurely, but was restored by the goddess and made immortal. HELEN (Helene) The queen of Sparta abducted by Paris of Troy. She and her husband Menelaus were granted immortality and transferred the paradisal realm of Elysium.

HELLE A Boeotian princess who escaped sacrifice with her brother on the back of a flying ram. She slipped from its back into the Hellespont sea where she was rescued and granted immortality by the god Poseidon. HEMITHEA An Aegean princess, known as Molpadia in life. She leapt into the sea to escape her angry father and was transformed into a maiden goddess by Apollo. HERACLES (Herakles) The greatest of the Greek heroes. As he was burning on the funeral pyre, the goddess Athena descended from heaven and caught him up in her chariot, transporting him to the company of the gods on Olympus. There he wed the goddess Hebe and was appointed guardian of heavenly gates.os. He was widely worshipped as a god throughout historic Greece. HYACINTHUS (Hyakinthos) A beautiful Spartan prince loved by the god Apollon. Some say, after his premature death, he was transported by the Fates to Olympus. IASION A Samothrakian prince loved by the goddess Demeter. Zeus slew him with a thunderbolt when he learned of the affiar, but the hero was (probably) restored by Persephone. IO An Argive princess loved by the god Zeus. She was tormented by Hera who forced her to wander the earth in the form of a heifer, pursued by a stinging gadfly. Upon reaching Egypt Zeus restored her human form and transformed her into the goddess Isis. Her son by the god was the sacred bull-god Apis. LEUCIPPIDES (Leukippides) Two Messenian princesses who were abducted by the Dioscuri twins. When their husbands were granted immortality they received the same privilege. LEUCOTHEA (Leukothea) A Theban princess, formerly known as Ino. She and her husband Athamas were foster-parents of the god Dionysus. When Hera learned of this, she drove Athamas into a murderous frenzy, and Ino ws forced to flee, leaping with her son Melicertes into the sea. The pair were transformed by Zeus into sea-gods. LOXO A Hyperborean maiden granted immortality by her mistress, the goddess Artemis. MINOS A King of the island of Crete. After death he was appointed as a Judge of the Dead in the Underworld, alongside Aeacus and Rhadamanthys. OREITHYIA An Athenian princess who was abducted to Thrace by the god of the north wind, Boreas, and there made his immortal wife. OUPIS A Hyperborean maiden made immortal by her mistress, the goddess Artemis.

PALAEMON (Palaimon) A Theban prince, formerly named Melicertes,. His father Athamas was driven into a murderous frenzy by the goddess Hera when she learned that Dionysus had been entrusted to his care. Melicertes' mother fled with the boy in her arms and leapt into the sea where the pair were tranformed into marine divnities by sympathetic gods. PARTHENOS An Aegean princes who leapt into the sea to escape the murderous wrath of her father. She and her sister were transformed into maiden goddesses by Apollo. PHAETHON A handsome young son of the dawn-goddess Eos. He was abducted by Aphrodite who transformed into an immortal daemon, the god of the star of Jupiter. PHYLONOE A Spartan princess granted immortality after her premature death whilst in the service of the goddess Artemis. POLYBOEA (Polyboia) A Spartan maiden who was carried up to heaven by the goddess Fates, along with her brother Hyacinthus. PSYKHE A princess loved by Eros, the god of love. Her stepmother, Aphrodite, imposed many difficult trials upon the girl, before she was accepted and welcomed amongst the gods as the wife of Eros. RHADAMANTHYS A Cretan lawmaker who was granted immortality as the King of Elysium, and Judge of the Dead. SISYPHUS A Corinthian king who tried to cheat death, first by escaping from the Underworld, and then by capturing the spirit of Death himself. The wicked man was eventually recaptured and sentenced to eternal torture in the Dungeons of the Damned. (N.B. Like Tantalus, he may have achieved his desired immortality, against the will of the gods.) TANTALUS A Lydian king who was favoured by the gods and invited to dine at their table. But after he stole ambrosia and nectar, he was condemned to spend eternity tortured in the Dungeons of the Damned. (N.B. The theft of ambrosia, literally "immortality," suggests he cheated death. Cf. Sisyphus.) TENNES A hero of the island of Tenedos who was elevated to godhood after his death. THYONE A Theban princess, originally named Semele. She was loved by the god Zeus, but destroyed by the god's lightning bolts when Hera tricked her into making the god promise to appear before her in his full glory. Her son, the god Dionysus, later recovered her from Hades and she was welcomed amongst the gods of Olympus.

TITHONUS (Tithonos) A handsome Trojan prince abducted by the goddess Eos. Zeus granted him immortality, but Eos forgot to request eternal youth and her husband quickly shrivelled up with old age. TRIPTOLEMUS (Triptolemos) An Eleusinian prince and attendant of the goddess Demeter who was appointed with the task of instructing mankind in the art of agriculture. He was afterwards granted immortality by the goddess as a deity of her Eleusinian Mysteries. TROPHONIUS (Trophonios) A Minyan hero who was swallowed up by the earth, and transformed into the immortal daemon (spirit) of a subterranean Boeotian oracle. He was similar to Amphiaraus (above).

I. CULT OF THE TWELVE OLYMPIAN GODS APHRODITE The goddess of love, marriage and procreation. She had shrines throughout Grreece, the most famous of which were those of Cythera, Corinth and Cyprus. APOLLO The god of music and prophecy. His chief shrines were the island of Delos and the Oracles of Delphi and Dindyma. ARES The god of war. Worshipped primarily in times of war, he also reputedly had important cults in Aetolia and Thesprotia in north-western Greece. ARTEMIS The goddess of the wilds, maidens and childbirth. Her main cult centre was perhaps Calydon in Aetolia, although she was honoured by huntsmen, girls and women throughout Greece. Artemis was also identified with the many-breasted Ephesian goddess of Asia Minor. ATHENA The goddess of war and the crafts. Most of the ancient acropoli or cityfortresses possessed a shrine dedicated to the goddess as protector of the city. She was also worshipped by craftsmen of all sorts. Her most celebrated cult was at Athens. DEMETER The goddess of agriculture. She was worshipped in Mysteries throughout the Greek world, the most famous of which were those of Eleusis. Harvest- and fertilityfestivals were also celebrated in her honour. DIONYSUS The god of wine. He had shrines throughout Greece and was celebrated with the grape-harvest and opening of the new wine. His orgiastic Mystery cult was also widely celebrated, and plays were written and performed in his honour. His most famous cult centres were Thebes and neighbouring Mount Cithaeron in Boeotia, and the island of Naxos. HEPHAESTUS The god of smiths, craftsmen and artisans. He was honoured by craftsmen throughout Greece and had many local festivals, but few large temples or shrines. His most important cult centre was the island of Lemnos, where he was represented as the national god. HERA The goddess of marriage and queen of the gods. She was the woman's goddess, worshipped throughout Greece. Her main cult centres were those of Argos and the island of Samos. At Olympia she was honoured beside Zeus. HERMES The god of shepherds, trade and athletics. He was widely worshipped in agora (marketplaces) throughout Greece, and in the Peloponnese by shepherds in the countryside. Fertility statues dedicated to the god called hermae were also erected along the roads. His main cult centre was on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia.

HESTIA The goddess of hearth and home. She was a domestic goddess worshipped at the fireplace. Unlike the other Olympian gods she possessed no great temples, festivals or cult centres, and was rarely representedi n Greek art. POSEIDON The god of the sea, rivers and horses. His most important cult centre was near Corinth on the Isthmus where the Isthmian games were celebrated in his honour. ZEUS The king of the gods, and the god of rain, rulership and civilisation in general. He was widely worshipped throughout Greece with numerous hill-top shrines where he was invoked as the rain-god. His main cult centres were Olympia and Nemea where Games were celebrated in his honour, and the Oracle of Dodona in the North. II. CULTS OF THE MAJOR SECONDARY GODS ASCLEPIUS The god of medicine and patron of the ancient guild of doctors. His main cult centre was at Epidaurus in the Peloponnese. CHARITES Goddesses of the graces. Their were widely worshipped in the Boeotian town of Orchomenus and on the island of Cos. DIOSCURI Twin gods of horsmen, gymnasia and the Games, as well as protectors of sailors. Their cult was centred in the region of Sparta. EILEITHYIA The goddess of childbirth. She was widely worshipped throughout Greece, with her chief cult centre at Amnisus in Crete. EROS The god of love. He had dedicated cults in the small towns of Thespiae and Parion on the Hellespont. HADES The god of the dead. He was usually only honoured at funerals, and indirectly in the Mystery cults. His most important dedicated shrine was the Oracle of the Dead in Thesprotia. HECATE The goddess of magic and the ghosts of the dead. She was one of the major goddesses of the Eleusinian mysteries, and also possessed small household shrines protecting the entranceways. HELIUS The god of the sun. His major cult centre was the island of Rhodes, famous for its colossal statue of the god. HERACLES The great hero of the Greeks. His cult was widespread in ancient Greece, one of the most important of which was the site of his apotheosis on Mount Oeta in northern Greece.

LETO The goddess of motherhood. She was widely worshipped in conjunction with her children Apollo and Artemis. MUSES The goddesses of music and the arts. Their main cult centres were located on Mount Helicon in Boeotia and Mount Pierus in Macedonia. PAN The god of shepherds. He possessed numerous shrines in the Arcadian mountains, the most important of which was by Mount Lycaeus. POTAMI The river-gods. Individual local rivers were worshipped throughout Greece and her colonies. RHEA CYBELE The mother of the gods. The main culs of the Greek goddess Rhea was near the Cretan town of Gortyn. She was identified with the Phrygian goddess Cybele whose cult was introduced into Greece from the Near East. TYCHE The goddess of fortune. She was popular goddess in the Greek colonies of Asia Minor where she was worshipped as the patron goddess of a city's good fortune. In art she was often depicted with the accroutements of a city : a turreted crown representing the town walls, a rudder for trade, and a cornucopia for economic prosperity.