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Alexander Ganago Jason Lee Sleight

University of Michigan Ann Arbor

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 1 of 19

Learn about: The Fourier seriesa powerful tool for analysis of periodic signals The Fourier spectra of standard signalssine, square, triangular, ramp The application of Fourier analysis to building a power supply The necessity and role of a Low-Pass filter in addition to a rectifier in a power supply The effects of the load resistance and the filters capacitance on the amplitude of ripple voltages in the output of a power supply In the pre-lab: Calculate the amplitudes of Fourier spectra of standard signals Use Arbitrary Waveform Generator to create standard signalssine, square, triangular, ramp and negative rampas sums of sinusoids Simulate a half-wave rectifier circuit, its output waveforms and spectra for 3 casesno filter, a weak Low-Pass filter, and a strong Low-Pass filter In the lab: Measure the waveforms and Fourier spectra of standard signals Build a half-wave rectifier circuit without any filter and with a Low-Pass filter, with small and large capacitance Measure its output waveforms and spectra in 3 casesno filter, a weak Low-Pass filter, and a strong Low-Pass filter In the post-lab: Compare the simulated and measured waveforms and Fourier spectra of standard signals Compare the amplitudes of ripple voltages in the output of a power supply calculated from the approximate formula, obtained in simulations, and measured in the lab Explain the role of the filters capacitance on the amplitude of ripple voltages, based on your lab data Relate the time-domain analysis of the power supply output waveforms to the frequency-domain analysis of the power supply output spectra Optional goals: Explore the role of the load resistance and its effect on the amplitude of ripples in a power supply Measure the output waveforms and spectra of your power supply with a smaller load resistance Explain the role of the load resistance on the amplitude of ripple voltages, based on your lab data.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 2 of 19

Introduction

The Fourier series is a powerful technique for analysis of periodic signals, which complements their description as time-dependent voltages or currents (waveforms) with an equally complete description of signals as spectra (intensity versus frequency). In this lab, you will use the Fourier series both ways: 1. For the creation of signals as sums of sine waves (in the pre-lab), and 2. For decomposition, or analysis, of a signal into the sum of sine waves (in the pre-lab and in the lab). In the beginning, you will work with standard waveformssquare, triangular, and ramp; then, you will apply the Fourier analysis to a very practical job of building a good power supply that converts AC voltage into DC voltage. This application helps you bring together the two views on the same signal the time-dependent voltage, or waveform, and the Fourier spectrum, or intensity as function of frequency; it will also encourage you to refresh the knowledge of filters.

According to the Fourier theorem, a periodic signal vs (t ) can be represented as the following sum, or series:

vs (t ) = a0 + an cos(2 n f 0 t ) + bn sin(2 n f 0 t )

n =1 n =1

Here, a0 is the constant term, independent of frequency (it can be very important, like in the case of your power supply model, as explained below); f 0 is the frequency (in Hz) of the periodic signal under study (it is also called the fundamental frequency); n is the number of the cosinusoidal or sinusoidal component of the original signal; an is the peak amplitude of the nth cosinusoidal component, and bn is the peak amplitude of the nth sinusoidal component. An alternative form of the Fourier series involves phase shifts: vs (t) = a0 + Cn cos(2 n f0 t + n )

n=1

Here, n is the phase shift of the nth cosinusoidal component. Note that, due to the presence of phase shifts, sinusoidal components are not needed in this sum.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 3 of 19

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis According to the Fourier theorem, all sine (and cosine) waves in the series have either the fundamental frequency f 0 or its multiple frequencies n f 0 ; the waves at multiple frequencies are called the harmonics. A familiar example is the pure musical tone and its overtones. In particular cases, some of the Fourier components may vanish (if the signal is represented with an even or an odd function of time) or be suppressed by filtering. For instance, a signal at 125 Hz is expected to have the Fourier components: at zero frequency (the DC component), at 125 Hz (the fundamental), as well as the 2 nd harmonic at 250 Hz, the 3 rd harmonic at 375 Hz, etc., the 10 th harmonic at 1,250 Hz, and so forth. Depending on the waveform, amplitudes of some of those harmonics may vanish (see examples below). If this signal is passed through a filter that blocks everything above 1 kHz, then only the DC, the fundamental, and harmonics up to the 8 th will pass, while all the higher ones will be suppressed by the filter.

P P P P P P P P

The formulas for calculations of Fourier series of standard signals, which you will be using in this lab, are well known and listed below. For simplicity, only a few periods of an endless waveform are shown (all waveforms are endless for truly periodic signals), and only a few components out of the endless series for each Fourier spectrum are shown (the only exception is the Fourier spectrum of a sine wave, which truly has one component).

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 4 of 19

The sine wave at frequency f and peak amplitude A , with zero average, has only one componentitself, which is exactly matching the fundamental.

Figure 11-1. A sketch of the Fourier spectrum of a sinusoidal waveform with zero average.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 5 of 19

The square wave at the frequency f , peak amplitude A and 50% duty cycle (which is an odd function with zero average), shown in Figure 11-3, has only odd-numbered spectral components, shown as a sketch in Figure 11-4.

Figure 11-3. A sketch of a square waveform with zero average and 50% duty cycle.

Figure 11-4. A sketch of the Fourier spectrum of a square waveform with zero average and 50% duty cycle.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 6 of 19

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis Notice that the spectral components (on the right sketch) are seen as sharp peaks (spikes) at discrete frequencies. Every sketch of a Fourier spectrum in this Introduction is very approximate: it shows the positions of the spectral components, but does not provide accurate information about their amplitudes. The Fourier series formula for a square wave is given below.

4A sin(2 3 f0 t) + + 3 4A sin(2 5 f0 t) + + 5 4A sin(2 7 f0 t) + ... + 7 Thus, in our example of a signal at 125 Hz passed through a Low-Pass filter with cutoff frequency of 1 kHz, for the square wave with zero average, we will obtain the following Fourier components: the fundamental at 125 Hz the 3 rd harmonic at 375 Hz the 5 th harmonic at 625 Hz the 7th harmonic at 875 Hz, and nothing else. In the pre-lab, you will construct the square wave from its Fourier components and observe how well the sum of components listed above represents the original signal.

P P P P

Note that, if the cutoff frequency of a Low-Pass filter were below 375 Hz, then the passed signal would be just a sine wave. This is no joke: in practice, when you need to ensure steep rising/falling edges of a digital signal (very similar to a square wave) at f GHz, your circuit should be able to pass at least the bandwidth of 5 f GHz so that the output signal looks has the edges steeper than those of a sine wave.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 7 of 19

The spectrum of a triangular wave at the frequency f and peak amplitude A (which is an even function with zero average) has only odd-numbered components. Figure 11-5 shows a triangular waveform, and Figure 11-6 shows a sketch of its Fourier spectrum.

Figure 11-6. A sketch of the Fourier spectrum of a triangular waveform with zero average.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 8 of 19

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis The Fourier series formula for a triangular wave is given below.

( )

8A + 2 cos(2 3 f0 t) + 9 8A cos(2 5 f0 t) + + 2 25 8A cos(2 7 f0 t) + ... + 2 49 Note the similarities and important distinction between the Fourier spectra of the square wave and the triangular wave. Both signals have only odd-numbered harmonics but the amplitudes of harmonics decrease much faster in the triangular wave spectrum: the harmonic number n is squared in the denominator.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 9 of 19

The spectrum of a saw-tooth wave at the frequency f and peak amplitude A (which has zero average) has both odd-numbered and even-numbered components. Figure 11-7 shows this signal as a waveform, and Figure 11-8 shows a sketch of its Fourier spectrum.

Figure 11-8. A sketch of the Fourier spectrum of a saw-tooth (ramp) with zero average. The Fourier series formula for a saw-tooth wave is given below.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 10 of 19

n = integer

(1)

= +

n+ 1

2A sin(2 n f0 t) = n

2A

sin(2 f0 t) +

2A sin(2 2 f0 t + 180o ) + 2 2A + sin(2 3 f0 t) + 3 2A + sin(2 4 f0 t + 180o ) + ... 4 The role of phase shifts is very important. In the pre-lab, you will simulate this signal with and without the phase shifts and observe a significant difference between their waveforms. Namely, without the phase shifts you will obtain the negative ramp waveform, as shown in Figure 11-9.

Figure 11-9. A sketch of a negative ramp waveform with zero average. Note that, if your spectrum analyzer measures only the amplitudes but does not measure the phase shifts, the results of spectral analysis of both waveforms will be identical.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 11 of 19

On the sketches shown in Figures 11-2, 11-4, and 11-6, you could have noticed that the vertical scale is not in volts but in dBV, which stands for decibel-Volts. This is a logarithmic measure of amplitudes, widely used because it allows us to accurately show on the same plot the peaks whose intensities differ by several orders of magnitudes. According to the definition, the amplitude in dBV equals:

For a sinusoidal signal with peak amplitude of VS , peak (volts peak), the amplitude VS , RMS in volts RMS (root-mean square) can be found from the simple relationship: VS , peak VS , RMS = . Note that, in the lab, you often measure peak-to-peak amplitudes, which 2 are, for sine waves with zero average, twice as large as their peak amplitudes. Here is an example of calculations. Consider a sine wave whose peak-to-peak amplitude equals 30 Vpp (volts peak-to-peak). Its peak amplitude equals 15 Vp (volts peak), and its 15V peak = 10.61VRMS . The same amplitude expressed in dBV can RMS amplitude equals 2 10.61VRMS = 20 log10 (10.61) = 20 1.026 = 20.52 dBV be found as: 20 log10 1VRMS Note the convenience of using the logarithmic scale: two signals whose peak amplitudes differ by a factor of 10 have the amplitudes different by 20 dB. It means that a plot with a logarithmic vertical scale that has 8 divisions 10 dB each (typical in the lab) can accurately display signals whose amplitudes differ by 60 dB or more, in other words, the ratios of peak amplitudes at or above a factor of 1,000an impossible feat for a plot with a linear scale. In practice, the logarithmic scale is very convenient for measurements of signal-to-noise ratios, which are therefore expressed in dB.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 12 of 19

Application of Fourier Analysis: How to get DC Output Voltage from AC Input Voltage

As you know, our power distribution grid uses AC voltages (Figure 11-10) because this minimizes losses in transmission lines. At the same time, electronic appliances need DC voltages (Figure 11-11). Thus we have to obtain DC out of the AC input voltages. Devices that do this job are called power supplies. In this lab you will study a model of a power supply.

Figure 11-10. Sinusoidal voltage is the input for a power supply circuit.

Figure 11-11. The output voltage of a perfect power supply is constant, or DC.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 13 of 19

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis If you apply a sinusoidal input voltage to the circuit with a semiconductor diode such as shown in Figure 11-12, the output voltage will be always positive, as shown in Figure 11-13, because the diode conducts large currents only when the voltage across it is positive. This circuit is called a half-wave rectifier, because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output.

Figure 11-13. The output voltage of a half-wave rectifier. From comparison of Figures 11-8 and 11-10, it becomes clear that a rectifier alone is not enough to obtain real DC output. The waveform in Figure 11-10 does indeed have positive average but its amplitude varies from zero to V M (for simplicity, here we neglect the voltage drop across the diode).

B B

Let us consider the spectra of waveforms shown in Figures 11-11 and 11-13.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 14 of 19

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis Figure 11-14 shows a sketch of the Fourier spectrum of a perfect DC voltage, the desired output of a power supply. For comparison, Figure 11-15 shows a sketch of the Fourier spectrum of a half-wave rectifiers output voltage.

Figure 11-14. Output of a perfect power supply has only one spectral componentthe DC.

Figure 11-15. Output of a half-wave rectifier has many spectral componentsthe DC, the fundamental, and all harmonics. Comparison of Figures 11-14 and 11-15 clearly shows the solution for our problem: we need to keep the DC voltage but get rid of the fundamental and all harmonics.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 15 of 19

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis Fortunately, we already know what circuit can do the job: its a Low-Pass filter. Recall that one of the key parameters of a Low-Pass filter is its cutoff frequency fC (Figure 11-16).

Figure 11-16. A sketch of the transfer function of a Low-Pass filter. Basically, we change the block diagram of the power supply to include a Low-Pass filter in addition to the rectifier (Figure 11-17). The rectifier input is sinusoidal AC voltage whose polarity changes twice every period; out of this input, the rectifier creates voltage of constant polarity, but it is the Low-Pass filter that creates the output voltage of (nearly) constant amplitude.

Figure 11-17. Block diagram of a power supply includes a Low-Pass filter in addition to the rectifier.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 16 of 19

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis An arbitrary Low-Pass filter will pass the DC component of the rectified voltage and suppress its higher harmonics but it may pass the fundamental and lower harmonics, as shown in Figure 11-18, where the 2 nd and 3 rd harmonics are barely suppressed. This is a poor filter whose output is not perfect DC voltage.

P P P P

Figure 11-18. An example of a poor filter that passes the fundamental and several harmonics of the rectified voltage. A much more desirable case is shown in Figure 11-19, where the filter cuts off the fundamental and all harmonics. In this case the Low-Pass filter is excellent and we may expect the perfect DC output.

Figure 11-19. An example of an excellent filter that passes only the DC component of the rectified voltage and suppresses the fundamental and several harmonics.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 17 of 19

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis Many real-world power supplies fall in-between the extreme cases shown in Figures 11-18 and 11-19; their output voltages have ripples, as shown in Figure 11-20.

Figure 11-20. A sketch of the power supplys output voltage with ripples. Of course, we wish to minimize the ripples, and Fourier analysisalong with our knowledge of filter circuitscan help us find the way to do so. First of all, let us consider the Low-Pass filter circuit, similar to what you already studied. Probably, the simplest filter is a capacitor connected in parallel with the load resistor, as shown in Figure 11-21.

Figure 11-21. A simple Low-Pass filter in the power supply circuit. The cutoff frequency of this filter equals fC =

1 . 2 RLOAD C

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 18 of 19

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis In order to achieve perfect filtering (Figure 11-19), we need to reduce this frequency; in other words, increase the product of load resistance and capacitance. Clearly, larger capacitances lead to better filtering. A disadvantage is easy to foresee: really large capacitors can get really bulky. Note that larger load resistances mean lower power, because PowerLOAD = V2 . RLOAD In other words, it is easier to build a good filter for loads that consume less power. As an Exploration for extra credit in this Lab, you will be offered an opportunity to study the effect of the load resistance on the output voltage. Of course, you can recall what you learned about filters in Lab 9 and foresee that higherorder filters would ensure better suppression of the fundamental and harmonics and thus reduce the ripples. Finally, let us consider a simple formula for the amplitude of ripple voltages sketched in Figure 11-20. This formula is derived for a half-wave rectifier with the first-order filter shown in Figure 11-21.

VRIPPLES VPEAK T RLOAD C = VPEAK 1 f 0 RLOAD C

Here, T is the period of the input sine wave, f 0 is its frequency, and VPEAK is the peak output voltage of a half-wave rectifier. This formula is approximate but conservative. It means that the calculated ripple voltages will be larger than those obtained in a real circuit; in other words, your power supply will actually work better than you could expect from calculations.

2010 A. Ganago

Introduction Page 19 of 19

A. Complete the following table for a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK sine wave:

B B

Frequency (Hz)

B B

Amplitude (V RMS )

B B

Amplitude (V PK )

B B

B. Complete the following table for a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK square wave:

B B

P P

Frequency (Hz)

B B

Amplitude (V RMS )

B B

Amplitude (V PK )

B B

3 rd Harmonic

P P

4 th Harmonic

P P

5 th Harmonic

P P

C. Complete the following table for a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK triangle wave:

B B

P P

Frequency (Hz)

B B

Amplitude (V RMS )

B B

Amplitude (V PK )

B B

3 rd Harmonic

P P

4 th Harmonic

P P

5 th Harmonic

P P

2010 A. Ganago

Pre-Lab Page 1 of 7

D. Complete the following table for a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK ramp wave:

B B

P P

Frequency (Hz)

B B

Amplitude (V RMS )

B B

Amplitude (V PK )

B B

3 rd Harmonic

P P

4 th Harmonic

P P

5 th Harmonic

P P

E. Use the NI ELVISmx Arbitrary Waveform generator to explore how sine waves can be

added to create the following 100 Hz, 5 V PPK signals:

B B

Square wave (up to first 5 non-zero frequency components) (Pre-Lab Printout #1) Triangle wave (up to first 5 non-zero frequency components) (Pre-Lab Printout #2) Negative ramp (up to first 5 non-zero frequency components) (Pre-Lab Printout #3). In order to create this plot, disregard all phase shifts. Positive ramp (up to first 5 non-zero frequency components) (Pre-Lab Printout #4). In order to create this plot, include the phase shift as shown in the Introduction.

Set the duration of the segment to be 30 ms. Create a new component for the segment. Set the amplitude and frequency to the fundamental component amplitude and frequency. One at a time, create 4 more components. Each component will correspond to a frequency component of the waveform (notice how the 2 nd 5 th components display as +Sine, this illustrates that they are being added together). Set the frequency, amplitude, and phase shift before adding the next component. You should gradually see the correct waveform take shape. Once you have all 5 non-zero frequency components, create a screenshot of your waveform (Pre-Lab Printouts #14 as listed above). Repeat this process for the other waveforms.

P P P P

F. Use Multisim to simulate the frequency spectrum analysis of a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK sine

B B

wave from the FGEN. Use the NI ELVISmx Dynamic Signal Analyzer (DSA) to obtain the frequency analysis. On the DSA, set the frequency span to be 700 and the 2010 A. Ganago Pre-Lab Page 2 of 7

Lab 11: Fourier Analysis Window to be Hanning. Allow the VI to run for a while to allow the output to stabilize. Create a printout of the DSA output. (Pre-Lab Printout #5). Qualitatively discuss the agreement/disagreement between your theoretical expectations and your simulation results.

G. Use Multisim to simulate the frequency spectrum analysis of a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK square

B B

wave from the FGEN. Use the NI ELVISmx Dynamic Signal Analyzer (DSA) to obtain the frequency analysis. On the DSA, set the frequency span to be 700 and the Window to be Hanning. Allow the VI to run for a while to allow the output to stabilize. Create a printout of the DSA output. (Pre-Lab Printout #6). Qualitatively discuss the agreement/disagreement between your theoretical expectations and your simulation results.

H. Use Multisim to simulate the frequency spectrum analysis of a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK triangle

B B

wave from the FGEN. Use the NI ELVISmx Dynamic Signal Analyzer (DSA) to obtain the frequency analysis. On the DSA, set the frequency span to be 700 and the Window to be Hanning. Allow the VI to run for a while to allow the output to stabilize. Create a printout of the DSA output. (Pre-Lab Printout #7). Qualitatively discuss the agreement/disagreement between your theoretical expectations and your simulation results.

2010 A. Ganago

Pre-Lab Page 3 of 7

Begin with the following circuit (without any capacitor):

For this part, you will use the following circuit: Where R LOAD = 5 k Use a 1N4933 diode Use a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK sine wave as the input signal For each problem, use Multisim to simulate the circuit. Create two printouts for each problem. First, use the OSCOPE to view the input and output waveforms in the time domain. Second, use the DSA to view the output waveform in the frequency domain (use a 700 Hz frequency span and a Hanning window).

B B B B

Approximate the dBV RMS at each of the frequencies to complete the table on the next page.

B B

2010 A. Ganago

Pre-Lab Page 4 of 7

Frequency (Hz) DC 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 DSA plot Pre-Lab Printout #9 Amplitude (dbV RMS )

B B

2010 A. Ganago

Pre-Lab Page 5 of 7

J. As discussed in the Introduction, a rectifier itself does not produce DC output. Improve the

circuit by adding a capacitor in parallel with the load resistor.

Use C = 4.7 F OSCOPE plot Pre-Lab Printout #10 DSA plot Pre-Lab Printout #11 Frequency Amplitude (Hz) (dbV RMS )

B B

2010 A. Ganago

Pre-Lab Page 6 of 7

K.

Keep using the same circuit but change the capacitance 100-fold.

Use C = 470 F OSCOPE plot Pre-Lab Printout #12 DSA plot Pre-Lab Printout #13 Frequency Amplitude (Hz) (dbV RMS )

B B

L. Discuss what changes in the output as the result of using a larger capacitor. M. Calculate the ripple voltage using the formula given in the Introduction for both 4.7 F and 470 F capacitors; compare the results of calculations with the results of Multisim simulations.

2010 A. Ganago

Pre-Lab Page 7 of 7

In-Lab Work

Part 1: Standard Waveform Frequency Analysis

Part 1.1 Sine Wave

Turn on the NI ELVIS II. Open the NI ELVISmx Instrument Launcher. Launch the FGEN and Dynamic Signal Analyzer (DSA) VIs. Connect the output from the FGEN directly to AI 0 (along with ground to the terminal). Power on the PB. On the FGEN, create a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK sine wave. Run the FGEN VI.

B B

On the DSA VI, set the source channel to be AI 0, the voltage range to be +/ 5V, the frequency span to be 700 Hz, and the window to be Hanning. Leave the other settings unchanged. Run the DSA VI to obtain the frequency analysis (you should allow the DSA VI to run for several seconds in order to allow the output to stabilize). Stop the DSA VI. Approximate the dBV RMS at each of the following frequencies:

B B

B B

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 1 of 13

On the FGEN, create a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK square wave. Run the FGEN VI.

B B

Run the DSA VI to obtain the frequency analysis (you should allow the DSA VI to run for several seconds in order to allow the output to stabilize). Stop the DSA VI. Approximate the dBV RMS at each of the following frequencies:

B B

B B

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 2 of 13

On the FGEN, create a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK triangle wave. Run the FGEN VI.

B B

Run the DSA VI to obtain the frequency analysis (you should allow the DSA VI to run for several seconds in order to allow the output to stabilize). Stop the DSA VI. Approximate the dBV RMS at each of the following frequencies:

B B

B B

Create a printout of the DSA output. (In-Lab Printout #3). Power off the PB.

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 3 of 13

Part 2.1 No Filter

On the FGEN, create a 100 Hz, 5 V PPK sine wave. Run the FGEN VI.

B B

Here the input voltage source is the function generator. Use R = 5 k Use a 1N4933 diode. Wire V IN and V OUT to AI 0 and 1 respectively.

B B B B

Launch the OSCOPE VI. Use the OSCOPE to view the input and output waveforms. Adjust the OSCOPE parameters so that you can clearly view both waveforms. Create a printout which clearly displays the waveforms. (In-Lab Printout #4) On the DSA VI, set the Source Channel to be AI 1. Run the DSA VI to obtain the frequency analysis (you should allow the DSA VI to run for several seconds in order to allow the output to stabilize).

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 4 of 13

B B

B B

Create a printout of the DSA output. (In-Lab Printout #5). Power off the PB.

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 5 of 13

Add a 4.7 F capacitor to the circuit from Part 2.1. This capacitor, in parallel with the load resistor, will act as a Low-Pass filter for your output voltage.

Use the OSCOPE to view the input and output waveforms. Adjust the OSCOPE parameters so that you can clearly view both waveforms. Create a printout which clearly displays the waveforms. (In-Lab Printout #6) Run the DSA VI to obtain the frequency analysis (you should allow the DSA VI to run for several seconds in order to allow the output to stabilize).

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 6 of 13

B B

B B

Create a printout of the DSA output. (In-Lab Printout #7). Power off the PB.

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 7 of 13

Continue to use the circuit from Part 2.2, except replace the 4.7 F capacitor with a 470 F capacitor. Use the OSCOPE to view the input and output waveforms. Adjust the OSCOPE parameters so that you can clearly view both waveforms. Create a printout which clearly displays the waveforms. (In-Lab Printout #8) Run the DSA VI to obtain the frequency analysis (you should allow the DSA VI to run for several seconds in order to allow the output to stabilize). Approximate the dBV RMS at each of the following frequencies:

B B

B B

Create a printout of the DSA output. (In-Lab Printout #9). Power off the PB. If you wish to do Explorations, for extra credit, continue with the assignment on the next page. If you do not wish to do Explorations, this is the end of In-Lab work. Turn off all instruments and clean your workplace.

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 8 of 13

Part 3.1 No Filter; A Different Load Resistance

Remove the capacitor from your circuit, as shown below.

Replace your load resistor with R = 100 Use the OSCOPE to view the input and output waveforms. Adjust the OSCOPE parameters so that you can clearly view both waveforms. Create a printout which clearly displays the waveforms. (In-Lab Printout #10) Run the DSA VI to obtain the frequency analysis (you should allow the DSA VI to run for several seconds in order to allow the output to stabilize).

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 9 of 13

B B

B B

Create a printout of the DSA output. (In-Lab Printout #11). Power off the PB.

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 10 of 13

Explorations (continued)

Part 3.2 Weak Filter (C = 4.7 F); A Different Load Resistance

Add a 4.7 F capacitor to your circuit, as shown below. Note that, due to the different load resistor, the parameters of your Low-Pass filter will be different from what you observed in Part 2.2.

Continue to use 100 load resistor. Use the OSCOPE to view the input and output waveforms. Adjust the OSCOPE parameters so that you can clearly view both waveforms. Create a printout which clearly displays the waveforms. (In-Lab Printout #12) Run the DSA VI to obtain the frequency analysis (you should allow the DSA VI to run for several seconds in order to allow the output to stabilize).

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 11 of 13

B B

B B

Create a printout of the DSA output. (In-Lab Printout #13). Power off the PB.

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 12 of 13

Explorations (continued)

Part 3.3 Strong Filter (C = 470 F); A Different Load Resistance

Replace the 4.7 F capacitor in your circuit with a 470 F capacitor. Continue to use 100 load resistor. Use the OSCOPE to view the input and output waveforms. Adjust the OSCOPE parameters so that you can clearly view both waveforms. Create a printout which clearly displays the waveforms. (In-Lab Printout #14) Run the DSA VI to obtain the frequency analysis (you should allow the DSA VI to run for several seconds in order to allow the output to stabilize). Approximate the dBV RMS at each of the following frequencies:

B B

B B

Create a printout of the DSA output. (In-Lab Printout #15). Power off the PB. This is the end of lab work. Turn off all instruments and clean your workplace.

2010 A. Ganago

In-Lab Page 13 of 13

A. Discuss the role of phase shifts for the positive/negative ramp waveforms which

you created in Pre-Lab Part 1.E.

frequency spectrum (Pre-Lab Printout #5) and your experimental sine wave frequency spectrum (In-Lab Printout #1).

frequency spectrum (Pre-Lab Printout #6) and your experimental square wave frequency spectrum (In-Lab Printout #2).

wave frequency spectrum (Pre-Lab Printout #7) and your experimental triangular frequency spectrum (In-Lab Printout #3).

2. Rectified Waveforms

A. Discuss the agreement/disagreement between your simulation of the no-capacitor

half wave rectifier (Pre-Lab Printouts #89) to your experimental results of the no-capacitor half wave rectifier (In-Lab Printouts #45).

capacitor half wave rectifier (Pre-Lab Printouts #1011) to your experimental results of the 4.7F capacitor half wave rectifier (In-Lab Printouts #67).

capacitor half wave rectifier (Pre-Lab Printouts #1213) to your experimental results of the 470 F capacitor half wave rectifier (In-Lab Printouts #89).

D. Discuss the role of the capacitor and the role it has in determining the output of

the rectifier.

E. For each of your half wave rectifier experiments (no capacitor, 4.7F capacitor,

and 470F capacitor), calculate the average power of the output in two ways: first using the dBV measurements from the DSA (In-Lab Printouts #4,6,8), second using the time domain measurements from the OSCOPE (In-Lab Printouts #5,7,9). Discuss the agreement/disagreement between the two methods for each experiment.

2010 A. Ganago

Post-Lab Page 1 of 2

F. Discuss the amplitude of ripples in the 4.7 F and 470 F experiments from two

standpoints: time-domain (for how long the capacitor is discharged, etc.) and frequency-domain (which frequency components are passed by the filter, etc.).

A. Compare your results for the 100 resistor experiments to the respective 5 k

resistor experiment in Part 2 (for each of the three experiments). What are the similarities/disparities between the results?

B. Explain the effect the resistor has on the output waveform from two standpoints:

time-domain (for how long the capacitor is discharged, etc.) and frequencydomain (which frequency components are passed by the filter, etc.).

2010 A. Ganago

Post-Lab Page 2 of 2

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