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1

INTRODUCTION
API 510 STUDY MATERIAL


HOW TO USE THESE BOOKS


These books can be used in a self-study or instructor led format. There are two volumes, the Text
and the Questions and Answers.

TEXTBOOK

The textbook table of contents follows the API 510 Body of Knowledge that was in effect at the
time of its writing. Each area can be studied as a stand alone module for those who do not intend to set for
the API 510 exam, but want to obtain a better understanding on a given Code subject.

The process found to most effective for general use is to study each subject of interest and
complete the quizzes at the end of that module. As regards calculations, after mastering the given material,
refer to the Advanced Material section to increase the depth of understanding. The Advanced Material
covers the calculations required for some actual circumstances that might be encountered in the field.

For those intending to sit for the API 510 examination, at this writing the exam candidate is
allowed to use the ASME Codes and the API books on the first portion of the test only. No reference
material is allowed for the second half of the test! You are also allowed to hand write notes in the
margins of the Code and API books used for the test.


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS BOOK



This portion contains questions from the API 510 Code and the Recommended Practices, titled
RPI 572 Inspection of Pressure Vessels, RPI 576 Pressure Relieving Devices and Chapter II -Conditions
Causing Deterioration and Failures. These questions are for memorization if the examination will be
taken!


Effective Publications for this Revision:

o API Standard 510, Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and
Alteration, 9th Edition, June 2006.
o API Recommended Practice 571, Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the
Refining Industry, 1st Edition, December 2003.
o API Recommended Practice 572, Inspection of Pressure Vessels, 3rd Edition, November 2009.
o API Recommended Practice 576, Inspection of Pressure-Relieving Devices,. 3rd Edition,
November 2009.
o API Recommended Practice 577 Welding Inspection and Metallurgy, 1st Edition, October
2004.
o Section V, Nondestructive Examination, Articles 1, 2, 6, 7 and 23 (Section SE-797 only)
o Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Division 1; Introduction (U), UG, UW,
UCS, UHT, Appendices 1-4, 6, 8 and 12
o Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications, Welding only

2

API 510 Module
Table of Contents

API CODES

API 510 Corrosion Rates and Inspection Intervals

Scope 5
Inspection Interval 9
Metal loss including corrosion averaging 13
Corrosion rates 13
Remaining Corrosion Allowance 13
Remaining Service Life 13
Quiz # 1 14

API 576 Pressure Relieving Devices

Scope 17
Types of pressure relieving devices 17
Reasons for Inspection 17
Causes of Improper Performance 17
Frequency and Time of Inspection 17
Quiz # 2 21
Quiz # 3 22

API 572 Inspection of Pressure Vessels

Scope 23
Reasons for Inspection 24
Causes of Deterioration 24
Methods of Repairs 27
Inspection Records and Reports 32
Quiz # 4 34
Quiz # 5 35
Quiz # 6 36
Quiz # 7 37
Quiz # 8 38

IRE Chapter 2

Coverage from the API 510 Body OF Knowledge 39
Quiz # 9 43
3
ASME Section VIII Div. 1

Joint Efficiencies

UW-3 Weld Categories 46
UW-51 RT Examination of Welded Joints 52
UW-52 Spot Examination of Welded Joints 53
UW-11 RT and UT Examinations 55
UW-12 Maximum Allowable Joint Efficiencies 65
Exercises UW s-3-11-12 ??,61,80
Postweld Heat Treatment

UW-40 Procedures for Postweld Heat Treatment 82
UCS-56 Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment 82

Vessels under Internal Pressure

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure 85
UG-32 Formulas and Rules for Using Formed Heads 96
UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers (Circular) 101

Exercises UG s-27-32-34 ?, ?, 103

Cylinder under External Pressure

UG-28 Thickness of Shells and Tubes (External Pressure) 107

Exercise UG-28 109

Pressure Testing

UG-20 Design Temperature 110
UG-22 Loading 111
UG-25 Corrosion 111
UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure 112
UG-99 Hydrostatic Test Pressure and Procedure 113
UG-100 Pneumatic Test Pressure and Procedure 116
UG-102 Test Gages 118
Exercises UG s 99-100-102 119

Minimum Requirements for Attachment Welds at Openings

UW-16 Weld Size Determination 120
Exercise UW-16 124

Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads

UG-36 Openings in Vessels 125
UG-37 Reinforcement of Openings 126
UG-40 Limits of Reinforcement 126
UG-41 Requirements for Strength of Reinforcement 126
UG-42 Reinforcement of Multiple Openings 128
Exercises UG s 40-41-42-45 129
Exercise Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads 136
4

Minimum Design Metal Temperature and Exemptions
From Impact Testing

UG-84 Charpy Impact Test Requirements 137
Exercise UG-84 139
UCS-66 Materials 140
UCS-67 Impact Testing of Welding Procedures 140
UCS-68 Design 140
Exercises UG 20 UCS 66 67 144

Practical Knowledge

UG-77 Material Identification 145
UG-93 Inspection of Materials 146
UG-116 Name Plate Markings 147
UG-119 Name Plates 148
UG-120 Data Reports 149

Section IX

Welding on Pressure Vessels (Section IX Overview)

Article I General Requirements 150
Article II Welding Procedure Qualifications 151
Article III Welding Performance Qualifications 152
Article IV Welding Data 153

Welding Documentation Review

Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) 154
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) 158
Practice WPS/PQR reviews 161


Advanced Material Example Problems

Static Head of Water 167
Corrosion 180
Cylinders Under Internal Pressure 183
Heads Under Internal Pressure 185
Charpy Impact Test Evaluation WPS/PQR 189
Quiz Static Head Pressure 178
Advanced Exercise Problems

Internal Pressure Shell Calculations 191
Internal Pressure Head Calculations 192
Solutions for Advanced Exercises 193

Appendix

Solutions to Text Module Exercises 193
Practice WPS and PQR forms 212
External Pressure Charts 220
5
API 510 Module
PRESSURE VESSEL INSPECTION CODE

Overview
Section 1
General

Scope:

The API 510 applies to pressure vessels in the petrochemical and refining industries after they have entered
service. The ASME Code applies to the new construction of vessels. While it applies only to new
construction it is often the Code to which a vessel is repaired. There are other construction Codes to which
a vessel can be constructed, for instance the Department of Transportation (DOT) provides rules for the
construction of and shipping of compressed gas cylinders. The Code for the construction of storage tanks
is API 653 and so forth.

The API 510 exempts certain vessels such as:

a. Vessels on moveable structures tank cars, etc.
b. All vessels exempted by Section VIII DIV. 1 of the ASME Code
c. Vessels that do not exceed a given volume or pressure.
d. Section 8 Alternative Rules for Natural Resource Vessels.

Section 2
References:

A listing of the standards, codes, and specifications cited in API 510.

Section 3

Definitions:

In this section the terms used in the API 510 Code are defined such as Alteration, ASME Code, API
Authorized Inspector, Construction Code, Maximum Allowable Working Pressure, Minimum Allowable
Shell Thickness and On-Stream Inspections just to mention a few. Study this section carefully as many
questions on the Exam often come from here.

Section 4

Owner-User Inspection Organization

This section lists in detail the responsibilities of the owneruser as regards the following:

1. Responsible for control of the pressure vessel inspection program.
2. Responsible for the function of an authorized inspection agency, in accordance with API 510
3. Responsible for activities relating to the maintenance, inspection, rating, repair, and alteration of these
pressure vessels.

Also listed are the educational and experience requirements for Authorized Pressure Vessel Inspectors and
the detailed listing of a required quality assurance inspection manual.

API Authorized Pressure Vessel Inspector Responsibilities are listed in 4.4.

Multiple questions over areas of responsibility are frequently included on the examination. A fair amount
of study on these issues is highly recommended.

6
Section 5
Inspection Practices
Preparatory Work:

Often questions are asked about what must be done before entry into a vessel. Isolation, draining, cleaning,
purging and gas testing also the warning of personnel in the area, both inside and outside the vessel, etc.
Checking of safety equipment is necessary as well as inspection tools.

Modes of Deterioration and Failure:

Some of the listed modes of deterioration are fatigue, creep, brittle fracture, general corrosion, stress
corrosion cracking, hydrogen attack, carburization, graphitization, and erosion. A general question may be
asked such as; list six modes of deterioration or a more specific question such as; what is creep dependent
upon.

Corrosion-Rate Determination:

One important aspect of vessel maintenance and operation is the determination of how frequently a vessel
needs to be inspected. This can be largely driven by the rate at which a vessel is corroding. There are
three methods recognized by API 510 for this determination.

a. A corrosion rate may be calculated from data collected by the owner/user on vessel providing
the same or similar service.
b. Corrosion rate may be estimated from published data or from the owner user's experience.
c. After 1,000 hours of service using corrosion tabs or, on-stream NDE measurements.

If the estimated rates are in error they must be adjusted to determine the next inspection date.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Determination:

The continued use of a pressure vessel must be based on calculations using the current edition of the
ASME Code or the edition the vessel was constructed to. A vessels MAWP may not be raised unless a
full rerating has been performed in accordance with section 5.3. In corrosive service the wall thickness
used in the calculations must be the actual thickness as determined by the inspection, but must not be
thicker than original thickness on the vessel's original material test report or Manufacturer's Data Report
minus twice the estimated corrosion loss before the next inspection.

Defect Inspection:

Careful visual examination is the most important and most universally accepted method of inspection.
Other methods that may be used to supplement visual inspection are magnetic particle, ultrasonics, eddy
current, radiographic, penetrant and hammer testing (when the vessel is not under pressure). Vessels shall
be checked visually for distortion. Internal surfaces should be prepared by an acceptable method of
cleaning, there is no hard and fast rule for cleaning. External surfaces may require the removal of parts of
the insulation in an area of suspected problems or to check the effectiveness of the insulating system.
Sometimes deposits inside a vessel act to protect its metal from attack. It can be necessary to clean
selected areas down to bare metal to inspect those areas if problems are suspected from past experience or
if some indication of a problem is present.
7
Inspection of Parts:

a. The surfaces of shells and heads should be checked for cracks, blistering, bulges, or other signs
of deterioration. With particular attention paid to knuckle regions of heads and support
attachments.

b. Inspect welded joints and their heat -affected zones for cracks or other defects. Rivets in
vessels shall be inspected for general corrosion, shank corrosion. If shank corrosion is
suspected hammer testing or angle radiography can be used.

c. Examine sealing surfaces of manways, nozzles and other openings for distortion, cracks and
other defects. Pay close attention to the welding used to make these attachments.

Corrosion and Minimum Thickness Evaluation:

Corrosion occurs in two ways, general (a fairly uniform wasting away of a surface area) or pitting (the
surface may have isolated or numerous pits, or may have a washboard like appearance in severe cases).
Uniform wasting may be difficult to detect visually and ultrasonic thickness measurements are normally
done for that reason. A pit may be deeper than it appears and should be investigated thoroughly to
determine its depth. The minimum actual thickness and maximum corrosion rate may be adjusted at any
inspection for any part of a vessel. When there is a doubt about the extent of corrosion the following
should be considered for adjusting the corrosion rates.

a. Nondestructive examination such ultrasonics or radiography. If after these examinations considerable
uncertainty still exists the drilling of test holes may be required.

b. If suitable openings exist readings may be taken through them.

c. The depth of corrosion can be gauged from uncorroded surfaces adjacent to the area of interest.

d. For an area of considerable size where circumferential stress governs the least thickness along the most
critical element of the area may be averaged over a length not exceeding the following:

1. For vessels with an inside diameter of 60 inches or less one-half the vessel diameter or
20 inches whichever is less.

2. For vessels with an inside diameter greater than 60 inches one third the vessel diameter
or 40 inches whichever is less.

e. Widely scattered pits may be ignored if the following are true:

1. No pit is greater than half the vessel wall thickness without adding corrosion
allowance into the wall thickness.

2. The total area of the pits does not exceed 7 square inches. in any 8 inch diameter
circle.

3. The sum of their dimensions along any straight line with in the circle does not exceed
2 inches.

f. As an alternative to the above the thinning components may be evaluated using the rules of Section VIII
Division 2 Appendix 4 of the ASME Code. If this approach is used consulting with a engineer
experienced in pressure vessel design is required.

g. When corrosion is located at a weld with a joint efficiency less than 1.0 and also in the area adjacent to
the weld special consideration must be given to the calculations for minimum thickness. Two sets of
calculations must be performed to determine the maximum allowable working pressure; one for the weld
using its joint efficiency and one for the remote area using E equals 1.0 . For purposes of these
calculations the surface at the weld includes one (1) inch on either side of the weld or twice the minimum
thickness whichever is greater.
8
h. When measuring a ellipsoidal or torispherical head the governing thickness may be as follows:

1. The thickness of the knuckle region with the head rating calculated using the
appropriate head formula.

2. The thickness of the central portion of the dished region, in which case the dished
region may be considered a spherical segment whose allowable pressure is calculated
using the Code formula for spherical shells.

The spherical segment of both ellipsoidal and torispherical heads shall be considered to be in an area
located entirely in with a circle whose center coincides with the center of the head and whose diameter is
equal to 80 percent of the shell diameter. The radius of the dish of torispherical heads is to be used as the
radius of the spherical segment. The radius of the spherical segment of ellipsoidal heads shall be
considered to be the equivalent spherical radius K
1
D, where D is the shell diameter (equal to the major
axis) and K
1
is as given in Table 1.

Section 6
Inspection and Testing of Pressure Vessels
And Pressure-Relieving Devices

General:

Section 6 requires that pressure vessels be inspected at the time of installation unless a Manufacturer's Data
Report is available. Further all pressure vessels must be inspected at frequencies provided in Section 4.
These inspections may be internal or external and may require any number of nondestructive techniques.

The inspection may be made while the vessel is in operation as long as all the necessary information can be
provided using that method.

Risk-Based Inspection:

Risk based inspection includes the assessment of the likelihood of failure along with consequences of
failure. When chosen, RBI must be assessed using a systematic evaluation of all forms of degradation that
could be reasonably be expected to affect a vessel in any particular service. After a complete and well-
documented assessment the results can be used to formulate an appropriate vessel inspection plan.

External Inspection:

The frequency for the external inspection of above the ground vessels shall be every 5 years or at the same
interval as the internal or on-stream inspection, whichever is less. This inspection should be performed
when the vessel is in service if possible.

Things to be checked shall include but are not limited to the following:

a. Exterior insulation
b. Supports
c. Allowance for expansion
d. General alignment
e. Signs of leakage

Buried vessels shall be monitored to determine their surrounding environmental condition. The frequency
of inspection must be based on corrosion rate information obtained on surrounding piping or vessels in
similar service.

Vessels known to have a remaining life in excess of 10 years or have a very tight insulation systems against
external corrosion do not need to have the insulation removed for inspection however the insulation should
be inspected for its condition at least every 5 years.
9

Internal and On-Stream Inspection Intervals:

The period between internal or on-stream inspections shall not exceed 10 years or one-half the estimated
remaining corrosion-rate life whichever is less. In cases where the remaining safe operating life is
estimated at less than 4 years the inspection may be the full remaining safe operating life up to a maximum
of 2 years. Internal inspection is the preferred method On Stream may be substituted if all of the following
are true.

When the corrosion rate is known to be less than 0.005 inch per year and the estimated remaining life is
greater than 10 years internal inspection of the vessel is unnecessary as long as the vessel remains in the
same service, complete external inspections are performed and all of the following are true:

The non-corrosive character of the contents has been proven over a five-year period. Nothing serious is
found during the externals. The operating temperature of the vessel does not exceed the lower temperature
limits for the creep-rupture range of the vessel metal. The vessel cannot be subject to accidental exposure
to corrosives. Size and configuration make internal inspection impossible. The vessel is not subject to
cracking or hydrogen damage. The vessel is not plate-lined or strip-lined.

Pressure Test:

Whenever a pressure test becomes necessary they are to be conducted in a manner in accordance with the
vessel's construction Code. The following concerns should be addressed when pressure testing a vessel.

a. The test temperature should be at least 30
o
F, above the minimum design metal temperature for
vessels greater than 2 inches thick and 10
o
F for vessels 2 inches in thickness or less, but not
greater than 120
o
F.

b. Pneumatic tests are permitted when hydrostatic testing is not possible.
The safety precautions of the ASME Code shall be used.

c. When the test pressure will exceed the set pressure of the lowest relief device, these devices
shall be protected by blinding, removal, or clamping (gags).

Pressure-Relieving Devices:

One of the major concerns for pressure relief devices is their repair. Pressure relief devices must be
repaired by qualified organizations having a fully documented written quality control system and repair
training program for repair personnel. No hard and fast rule is given for the testing of relief devices the
interval between tests is dependent on the service conditions of the device. There are minimum of 15 items
that should be addressed in the written quality control documentation. Such as a Title page, Revision log,
Contents Page, Statement of Authority, Organizational Chart, etc.

Records:

Pressure vessel owners and users must maintain permanent and progressive records on their pressure
vessels. Items that should be included are Manufacturer's Data Reports, vessel identification numbers, RV
information, results of inspection and any repairs or alterations performed.

10
Section 7
Repairs, Alterations and Rerating of Pressure Vessels

General:

Section 5 covers repairs and alterations to pressure vessels by welding and the requirements that must be
met when performing such work. These repairs and alterations must be performed to the edition of the
ASME Code that the vessel was built to.

Authorization:

Prior to starting any repairs or alterations the approval of the API 510 Inspector and in some cases an
engineer experienced in pressure vessels must be obtained. The API 510 Inspector may give approval to
any routine repairs if the Inspector has satisfied himself that the repairs will not require pressure tests.

Approval:

The API Inspector must approve all repairs after inspection and after witnessing any required pressure
tests.

Defect Repairs:

No crack may be repaired without prior approval of the API Inspector. If such repairs are required in a
weld or plate they may be performed using a U- or V-shaped grove to the full depth and length of the
crack. The U or V is then filled with weld metal. If the repair will be to an area that is subject to serious
stress concentrations an engineer experienced in pressure vessel must be consulted. Corroded areas may be
built up after proper removal of surface irregularities. All welding for repairs must comply with Section
5.2 of this Code. The amount of NDE and inspection shall be included in the repair procedure.

Welding:

All repair and alteration welding must be in accordance with the applicable requirements of the ASME
Code, except as permitted in 7.2.11.

Procedure and Qualifications:

The repair organizations must use qualified welders and welding procedures in accordance with applicable
requirements of Section IX of the ASME Code.

Qualification Records:

Qualification Records must be maintained for all welding operations and must be available for review by
the API Inspector prior to all welding operations.

Heat Treatment-Preheating:

Alterations and repairs can be performed on vessels that were originally postweld heat treated by using
only preheating within specific limitations. Postweld heat treatment in these cases would not then be
required. This alternative applies to only P-Nos. 1 and P-Nos. 3 materials of the ASME Code and should
be used only after considering the original intent of the postweld heat treatment. In some services the
heat treatment was required due to the corrosive nature of the contents of the vessel. In such cases this
type of procedure may not restore the metallurgical condition needed to combat corrosion.
For this reason consulting with an engineer experienced with pressure vessels is required. Two techniques
for these types of repairs or alterations are described in Section 5.2.3 and are very similar to those found in
paragraph UCS-56 of Section VIII Division 1 of the ASME Code. The major differences are the minimum
preheat temperature and the holding time and temperature after the completion of the welded repair or
alteration. Details and applicability of these procedures will be discussed in detail during the coverage of
paragraph UCS-56 of the ASME Code.

11
Temper-Bead Welding:

a. The weld area

shall be preheated and maintained at a minimum temperature of 350
o
F (175
o
C) during
welding. The maximum interpass temperature shall be 450
o
F (230
o
C).

b. The initial layer of weld metal shall be deposited over the entire area with 1/8 inch (3-millimeter)
maximum diameter electrodes. Approximately one-half the thickness of this layer shall be removed by
grinding before subsequent layers are deposited. Subsequent layers shall be deposited with 5/32-inch
(4-millimeter) maximum diameter electrodes in a manner to ensure tempering of the prior beads and
their heat-affected zones. The final temper-bead reinforcement layer shall be removed substantially
flush with the surface of the base material or the previous weld layer.

c. Heat input shall be controlled within a specified range of welding current and voltage.

d. The weld area shall be maintained at a temperature of 500
o
F +or 50
o
F (260
o
C +or 28
o
C) for a
minimum of 2 hours after completion of the weld repair.

e. The repair shall be witnessed by the A.I.

f. The weld shall made using the SMAW process. The maximum bead width shall not be more than four
core diameters.

g. This technique is restricted meet the exemptions found in ASME Section VIII Div.1 UCS-56(f) (1)
through (4).

Local Postweld Heat Treatment:

The API 510 Code permits postweld heat treatment to be applied locally, this means that the entire vessel
circumference may not be required to be included in the heat treatment. Just as in the alternative to
postweld heat treatment above consideration to applying this local treatment must be made with regards to
service. It does not apply to all situations the following four steps must be applied prior to using this type
of heat treatment.

a. A qualified engineer must review the application.

b. Suitability of this type of procedure is reviewed and consideration is given to such things as
base metal thickness, hardness, and thermal gradients.

c. A preheat of 300
o
F or higher is maintained during welding.

d. The distance included in postweld heat treatment temperature
on each side of the welded area shall be not less than two times the
base metal thickness as measured from the weld. At least two
thermocouples must be used. The shape and size of the area
will determine the size of the thermocouples required.

e. Heat must be applied to any nozzle or any attachment within the
local postweld heat treatment area.


Repairs to Stainless Steel Weld Overlay and Cladding:

Prior to the repair or replacement of corroded or missing clad material a repair procedure and must written.
Some of the concerns that must be addressed are as follows; out gassing of the base metals, hardening of
the base metal during repairs, preheating and interpass temperatures and postweld heat treatment.
12
Design:

The design of welded joints included in the API 510 are in compliance with those of the appropriate code.
All butt joints shall be full penetration and must have complete fusion. Fillet weld patches may be allowed
as temporary repairs and can be applied to the inside or outside of vessels but require special
considerations. The jurisdiction where the vessel is operating may for instance prohibit their use. Patches to
the overlay in vessels must have rounded corners; this also true of flush (insert) patches.

Material:

All materials for repairs must conform to the ASME Code. Carbon or alloy steels with a carbon content
which exceeds 0.35 percent may not be used in welded construction.

Inspection:

The acceptance of welded repairs or alterations should include NDE that is in agreement with the ASME
Codes that apply. If the ASME Code methods are not possible or practical, alternative NDE may be used.

Testing:

After repairs a pressure test must be applied if the API Inspector believes one is needed. Normally
pressure tests are required after an alteration. If jurisdictional approval is required and it has been obtained
NDE may be substituted for a pressure test. If an alteration has been performed a pressure vessel engineer
must be consulted prior to using NDE in place of pressure test.

Filler Metal

In general the filler metal used in repairs must have a specified minimum tensile strength equal to or
exceeding that of the base material. The following shall also be met.

a. The repair thickness shall not be more than 50 percent of the required base metal thickness, excluding
corrosion allowance.

b. The thickness of the repair weld shall be increased by a ratio of minimum specified tensile strength of
the base metal and minimum specified tensile of the filler metal used for the repair.


c. The increased thickness of the repair shall have rounded corners and shall be blended into the base metal
using a 3-to-1 taper.
d. The repair shall be made with a minimum of two passes

Rerating:

Rerating a pressure vessel by changing its temperature ratings or its maximum allowable working pressure
may be done only after meeting the requirements of API 510 given in this section. Calculations,
compliance to the current construction code, current inspection records indicating fitness, pressure testing
at some time for the proposed rerating and approval by the API Inspector are required. The rerating is only
complete when the Inspector has overseen the attachment of an additional nameplate with the required
information given in this section.
13
API 510 Module
CORROSION RATES AND INSPECTION INTERVAL

Examples

Metal loss equals the previous thickness minus the present thickness.

Problem #1

Determine the metal loss for a tower shell course which measured .600" in during its last internal
inspection in March of 1989. The present reading is .570" March 1993.

Metal loss = Previous thickness minus the present thickness .600" Previous
-.570" Present
.030"

Corrosion rate equals the metal loss per given unit of time, i.e., per year.

Problem #2

Using the data of Problem #1 calculate the corrosion rate of the tower.

Time
Loss Metal
= Rate Corrosion

Therefore: March 1993-March 1989 = 4 years

year in./per .0075
Yrs. 4
" .030
= Rate Corrosion =
Corrosion allowance equals the actual thickness minus the required thickness.

Problem #3

The tower shell course in Problem #1 has a minimum thickness required by Code of .500 in. Calculate the
corrosion allowance. The actual thickness is .570 in. as of March 1993.

.570" in actual thickness
-.500" required thickness
.070" corrosion allowance

Remaining service life equals the corrosion allowance divided by the corrosion rate.

Problem #4

Calculate the remaining service life of the tower of problem #1.

.070" corrosion allowance from Problem #3
.0075" corrosion rate from Problem #2

Yrs. 9.33 =
" 0075 .
" 070 .



Internal inspection equals half of the remaining service life, but not greater than ten (10) years.

Yrs. 4.6 =
2
Yrs. 33 . 9


14
API 510 Module
SECTIONS 1, 2, AND 3
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 510 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #1

1. What code covers maintenance inspection of petrochemical industry vessels?(1.1)


2. Define MAWP according to the API 510 Code.(3.9)


3. Define rerating.(3.17)


4. Which pressure vessels are exempt from API 510? (1.2.2)


5. Under what circumstances must an API 510 inspector re-certify?
(App. B Paragraph B.5)


6. In terms of creep, what must be considered? (5.2)


7. What is the most valuable method of vessel inspection? (5.5)


8. Describe the correct way to clean a vessel for inspection. (5.5)


9. What metals might be subject to brittle fracture even at ambient temperatures? (5.2)


10. Name five methods other than visual that might be used to inspect a vessel.(5.5)

11. When a new Code vessel is installed, must a first internal inspection be performed? (6.1)


12. A vessel was last inspected internally in July of 1983. During that inspection it was determined to have
a remaining life of 16 years. What is the latest date of the next internal inspection? (6.4)

15
API 510 Module
RP 576 INSPECTION OF PRESSURE RELIEVING DEVICES

Overview

Scope:

This recommended practice covers automatic pressure relieving devices commonly used in the
petrochemical and oil refining industries. The recommendations found in RP 576 are not intended to
replace and regulations that may exist in a jurisdiction.

Types of Pressure Relief Valves:

The three major types of pressure relief valves are the safety valve, relief valve and the safety relief valve.
Pressure relief valves are classed based on their construction, operation and applications.

Safety Valves

A safety valve is a spring-loaded device containing a seat and disk arrangement. It also has a part just
above the disk referred to as a huddling chamber. When the static pressure beneath the disk has risen to a
point where the force exerted on the disk begins to overcome the springs downward force the disk slowly
opens. As this happens the pressure beneath the disk is exposed to the huddling chamber. The huddling
chamber adds a much greater area exposed to pressure than the disk alone. This results in a sudden rapid
opening to the venting systems releasing the pressure to safe point at which time the valve will close.
Safety valves have an open spring and usually have a lifting lever.

Safety valves are used for steam boiler drums and superheaters. They may also be used for general air and
steam services. The discharge piping may contain vented drip pan elbow or a short piping stack vented to
the atmosphere.

Safety valves are not fit for service in corrosive service, where vent-piping runs are long, in any back
pressure service or any service where loss of the fluid cannot be tolerated. They should not be used as a
pressure control or bypass valve and are not suited for liquid service.

Relief Valve

A relief valve is a spring-loaded device that is intended for liquid service. This type of valve begins
opening when the pressure beneath its seat and disk reaches the set pressure of the valve. The valve
continues to open as the liquid pressure increases until it is fully open. The relief valve closes at a pressure
lower than its set pressure for opening. Relief valves capacities are rated for an overpressure from 10% to
25% depending on their use. For instance a relief valve set at 100 psi might allow the system it is
protecting to rise to an ultimate pressure of between 110 psi to 125 psi. This should be considered when
choosing the relief valve set pressure. These types of valves have closed bonnets and may or may not have
lifting levers.

Relief valves are normally used for incompressible fluids. Relief valves are not intended for use with
steam, air, gas or vapor service. They should not be used in services piped to a closed header unless the
effects of any constant or variable back pressure have been accounted for. They are also not fit for use as a
pressure control or bypass valve.
Safety Relief Valves

A safety relief valve is a direct spring-loaded pressure relief valve that may be used as either safety or relief
valve depending on the application. A safety relief valve is normally full open at 10% over pressure when
in gas or vapor service. When installed in liquid service, full lift will be achieved at approximately 10% or
25% overpressure, depending on trim type.
16
Conventional Safety Relief Valve

A conventional SRV is a direct spring loaded pressure relief valve whose operational characteristics
( opening pressure, closing pressure , and relieving capacity) are directly affected by changes in the back
pressure. A conventional has a bonnet that encloses the spring and forms a pressure-tight cavity. The
bonnet is cavity is vented to the discharge side of the valve.

Conventional SRVs should not be used in services where any built up back pressure exceeds the allowable
overpressure. Where the CDTP cannot be reduced to account for the effects of variable back pressure. On
ASME Section I steam boilers drums or ASME Section I superheaters. They should also not be used as
pressure control or bypass valves.

Balanced Safety Relief Valves

A balanced SRV is a direct spring-loaded pressure relief valve that incorporates a bellows or other means
for minimizing the effect of back pressure on the operating characteristics of the valve. Whether it is
pressure tight on its downstream depends on its design.

Balanced SRVs are used in flammable, hot and/or toxic services where high back pressures are present at
the valve discharge. Balanced SRVs are found in service for gas, vapor, steam, air or liquids. Balanced
SRVs are also utilized in corrosive service to isolate and protect the spring, bonnet cavity and discharge
side of the valve from process material. They are also used when the discharge must be piped to remote
locations. They should not be used on ASME Section I steam boiler drums or superheaters or as pressure
control/bypass valves.


Pilot-Operated Safety Relief Valves

A pilot operated safety relief valve (POSRV) is a pressure relief valve whose main relieving valve is
controlled by a small spring loaded (self-actuated) pressure relief valve (pilot valve). It is a control for the
larger valve and may be mounted with the main valve or remote from the main valve. The ASME Code
requires that the main valve be capable of operating at the set pressure and capacity even if the smaller
fails.

Pilot operated relief valves are used under conditions where any of the following are true; a large relief
valve is required, low differential exists between the normal operating pressure and the set pressure of the
valve, very short blown down (time between opening and closing) is required, back pressures on the outlet
of the valve are very high, process service where their use is economical, process conditions require
sensing at a remote location.

POSRVs are not suited for service with dirty, viscous (thick) fluids or fluids that might polymerize
(harden) in the valve. Any of these conditions might plug the small openings of the pilot system. If the
operating temperatures might exceed the safe limit of the diaphragms or seals or if the operating fluids
might chemically attack these soft parts of the valve.

Pressure and/or Vacuum Vent Valves

A pressure and/or vacuum vent valve (also known as a pressure and/or vacuum relief valve) is an
automatic pressure or vacuum-relieving device actuated by pressure or vacuum in the protected equipment.
These valves fall into three basic categories, weight loaded pallet vent, pilot operated vent valve, and
spring weight loaded vent valve.

Pressure and/or vacuum vent valves are normally used to protect atmospheric and low-pressure storage
tanks against large enough pressure to damage the tank. Single units composed of both pressure vent
valves and vacuum vent valves are also known as conservation vent valves, and are normally used on
atmospheric storage tanks containing materials with a flash point below 100
o
F. However, they may also
be used on tanks storing heavier oils. They are not normally used in applications requiring a set pressure
greater than 15 lbf/in
2
.
17
Rupture Disk Device

The combination of a rupture disk holder and rupture disk is known as a rupture disk device. A rupture
disk device is a non re-closing pressure relief device actuated by the static pressure differential pressure
between the inlet and outlet of the device and designed to function by the bursting of a rupture disk.

Rupture disks fall into the following basic design categories, Conventional (uses a pre-bulged solid metal
disk designed to rupture when over pressured on its concave side), Scored Tension-Loaded (designed to
open along pre-scored lines), Composite Rupture Disk ( is flat or domed metallic or nonmetallic multi-
piece construction) Reverse-Acting (opposite of the conventional as it is designed to rupture on its convex
side) and last the Graphite Rupture Disk (manufactured from graphite impregnated with a binder material
and designed to burst by bending or shearing).


Rupture disks devices are used to;

- Protect the upstream side of pressure relief valves against corrosion.
- Protect RVs from plugging or clogging by thick fluids or polymerization products.
- Instead of RVs when the protected system can tolerate process interruptions.
- In place of RVs when extremely fast response is required.
- As a secondary pressure-relieving device when differential pressure between the operating pressure
and the rupture pressure is large, depending on the type of rupture disk selected.
- To protect the downstream sides of pressure relief valves against downstream corrosion from header
or atmospheric corrosion.

Rupture disk devices are limited to;

- Use where pre-bulged disks are placed in systems that operate at 65 to 85% of the disks
predetermined rupture pressure, depending on the type of rupture disk.
- Where the usual service life of one year for a pre-bulged can be tolerated.

This has been a brief summary of pressure relieving devices.

18
API 510 Module
RP 576 SECTIONS 1 AND 2

Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 510/576 paragraphs at the end of the question.

Quiz #2

1. How often should a safety relief valve be tested? (API 510 6.6)


2. Welding is used to repair a vessel made of P No. 1 material one inch thick. The vessel was originally
postweld heat-treated. Describe the method used to avoid PWHT of the repair? (API 510 7.2.3.1)


3. What does the term Accumulation mean when referring to pressure relief devices? (RP 576 3.3.1)


4. Describe the types of pressure relief valves. (RP 576 4.1 to 4.8 and Section VIII UG-126)


5. You notice that a pressure relief device has a closed bonnet without a vent hole. What type of valve is
it? (RP 576 4.3)


6. While reviewing maintenance records you notice that bulged rupture disks in a unit are three years old.
Is this O.K.? (RP 576 4.9.3)


7. A pilot-operated safety valve has been installed in heavy crude service is this O.K. (RP 576 4.7.2)


19
API 510 Module
RP 576 SECTIONS 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8

Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 576 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #3

1. Describe a shop inspection of a relief device. (6.2)


2. Name three causes of improper performance of a pressure-relieving device. (RP 576 5.1 to 5.10)


3. The spring of a relief valve broke. What probably caused it to break? (RP 576 5.3)


4. The valve shop is setting safety relief valves using water is this acceptable? (RP 576 5.4)


5. You are asked to set a schedule for the inspection of relief devices; what will determine the time
between the setting of valves? (RP 576 6.4)


6. What should the operating history of a pressure relief device include? (RP 576 7.2)


7. You are asked to visually inspect an RV before it is taken to the shop. What should this inspection
cover? (6.2.9)


8. What are the applications of a pressure/vacuum vent valve on an atmospheric tank? (4.8.1)





20
API 510 Module
API RP 572 INSPECTION OF PRESSURE VESSELS

Overview
Section 1

General

Scope:

This recommended practice addresses the following items; description of types of vessels, construction,
maintenance, reason for and method of inspection, causes of deterioration, repair methods and
records/reports.

Section 2
Types of Pressure Vessels

The definition of a pressure vessel per API 572 is a container that falls within the scope of the ASME Code
Section VIII Division 1 and is subjected to an external or internal design pressure greater than 15 psi.
Section VIII Division 1 should be consulted for the exact definition and exemptions. The definition of a
pressure vessel is found in the ASME Code Section VIII Division 1, page 1 in the first paragraph.

Pressure vessels can have many different shapes, they may be spheres (balls), a cylinder with various heads
attached such as flat or hemispherical and may consist of inner and outer shells (jacketed). Many methods
of construction are used. The most common is the cylindrical shell made of rolled plate and welded with
heads that are attached by welding. Riveting was used prior to the development of welding. Vessels are no
longer made using riveting, but some riveted vessels are still in service today. Vessels are also made of the
hot forging and multi-layer (cylinders inside of cylinders) techniques. Multi-layer vessels are found
primarily in high pressure service.

The vast majority of vessels are made of carbon steels. For special services the carbon steel may be lined,
clad or weld metal surfaced with corrosion resistant materials such as stainless steels. Some vessels are
constructed entirely of various metals such as monel, nickel, titanium, or stainless steel. The material
chosen will be determined by the required service conditions. Temperature, pressure and the fluids to be
contained are the primary concerns in material selection. For reasons of economy different parts of a vessel
may be made of different materials using only the most expensive where needed. Many pressure vessels
are simply containers and do not have internal equipment; others have internals such as catalyst bed
supports, trays, baffles, or pipe coils.

Section 3
Construction Standards

The first unfired pressure vessels were constructed to the design of the user or manufacturer. This was true
until about 1930 after that time the API/ASME Code or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Code (ASME) was used. In 1956 the API/ASME Code was discontinued and the ASME Code was
adopted as the standard for the construction pressure vessels within its scope. Section VIII Divisions 1 and
2 of the ASME Code are the unfired pressure vessel Codes. Section VIII Division 1 is the Code the vast
majority of vessels are built to; Section VIII Division 2 used for vessels in high-pressure service or where
lower factors of safety is desired. Division 2 has more restrictions on construction, materials, inspection
and nondestructive examination than Division 1. These restrictions usually result in a vessel that would be
thinner than that required by Division 1 and the resulting cost savings could be significant is some
instances. Heat exchangers are built using both the ASME Code and the Standards of Tubular Exchanger
Manufacturers Association (TEMA).
21
Section 4

Maintenance Inspection

The basic rule for the maintenance of a vessel in service is to maintain it to the original design and the
edition of the Code it was constructed under. If the vessel is re-rated this is may done using the original or
latest edition of the Code. This implies that persons responsible should be familiar with the original
construction edition of the Code and the latest edition of the Code if a vessel has been re-rated. In addition
personnel responsible for these vessels must be familiar with any national, state, county or city regulations.
The ASME has minimum requirements for construction, inspection and testing of pressure vessels that will
be stamped with the Code Symbol however jurisdictions may have more restrictive requirements.
Compliance with ASME Code may not be enough to satisfy a jurisdiction's requirement.

Section 5
Reasons for Inspection

The main reason for inspection is to determine the physical condition of a vessel. With this information the
causes and rate of deterioration can be established and safe operations between shutdowns can be
determined. Correcting conditions causing deterioration and planning for repairs and replacement of
equipment can also be done using the inspection information. Scheduled shutdowns and internal
inspections can prevent emergency shutdowns and vessel failures. Periodic inspection allows the for the
forming of a well-planned maintenance program by using data such as corrosion rates to determine
replacement and repair needs. External visual inspections along with the thorough use of various
nondestructive examination techniques can reveal leaks, cracks, local thinning and unusual conditions.

Section 6
Causes of Deterioration

The causes of deterioration are many but fall into several general categories as follows: inorganic and
organic compounds, steam or contaminated water, atmospheric corrosion. These types of corrosive agents
fall into the class of chemical and electrochemical attack. Attack is also possible from erosion and, or
impingement. The attack could come from any combination of the above examples.

Corrosion is the prime cause of wear in pressure vessels. The most common internal corrodents are sulfur
and chloride compounds. Caustic, inorganic acids, organic acids and low pH water can also cause
corrosive attack in vessels.

Erosion is the wearing away of a surface that is being hit by solid particles or drops of liquid. It is similar
to sandblasting and is usually found where changes in direction or high-speed flow are present. It occurs in
such places as inlet nozzles and the vessel wall opposite the nozzle. Outlet nozzles are likely spots when
fast flowing products are in use. In some instances corrosion and erosion are found together.

Metallurgical and physical changes can occur when a vessel material is exposed to fluids the vessel
contains. Elevated operating temperatures also contribute to these problems. The changes that take place
may be severe enough to result in cracking, graphitization, hydrogen attack, carbide precipitation,
intergranular corrosion, embrittlement and other changes.

Mechanical forces such as thermal shock, cyclic temperature changes (higher to lower temperatures on a
frequent basis), vibrations, pressure surges, and external loads can cause sudden failures. Cracks, bulges
and torn internal components are often a result of mechanical forces.

Faulty materials can build in failure into a pressure vessel or one of its components. Bad materials can
result in leakage, blockage, cracks and even speed up corrosion in some cases. The selection of an
improper material for new construction of or for a repair to a vessel will often result in the same type of
failures as will proper materials that have manufacturing or fabrication defects.

Faulty fabrication includes poor welding, improper or lack of heat treatment, tolerances outside those
permitted by Codes and improper installation of internal equipment such as trays and the like. Any of these
22
types of faulty fabrications may result in failures due to cracks or high stress concentrations, etc., in
vessels.
23
Section 7

Frequency and Time of Inspection

Many things determine the frequency of inspection for pressure vessels. Chief among the reasons is
corrosion rates that are determined by the service environment. Unless there are insurance or legal reasons,
the frequency of inspection should be based on information from the first inspection performed, using
either on stream or internal methods. Normally inspection planning will allow for the next inspection to
occur when at least half the original corrosion allowance remains. Other factors such as a need for frequent
cleaning may provide an opportunity to shorten the inspection frequency. If the process fluids or operating
conditions change, shorter inspection frequencies may be needed to determine what effects the new
conditions may have had.

Opportunities for inspections will require the input of all groups involved; process, mechanical, and
inspection personnel. The opportunity may have to be made if any laws require a frequency or the
insurance company has a requirement for it in the policy written on the equipment. A convenient time for
inspections, of course, is any time equipment is removed from service for cleaning. Also if a vessel or
exchanger was removed for operational reasons, an inspection might then become needed to insure the
integrity of the equipment before returning it to service.

Another consideration for the inspection of vessels is the review of the in service operational records to
look for pressure drops and out of the ordinary conditions that might indicate a problem.

Section 8
Methods of Inspection and Limits

To perform a proper inspection it is important to know the history of the vessels to be inspected. Knowing
what repairs have been required in the past and inspecting the repair after it has been in service may help to
develop better repair methods. It may also help to locate similar problems. In every case, careful visual
inspection is a requirement. Knowing the service conditions of a vessel allows the concentration of efforts
in areas known to have problems in a particular service.

Safety precautions before entering a vessel are of the utmost importance. Vessels have small openings and
often many internal obstructions that make getting out of one quickly nearly impossible. The bottom line
is: make sure it is safe to enter a vessel. Such things as isolation of lines by blinding, purging and cleaning
along with gas testing prior to entry cannot be overlooked. In some cases protective clothing and air
supply systems are called for if entry is desired before cleaning to look at the vessel's existing conditions
for indications of problems. Always inform personnel inside and outside a vessel that inspection personnel
are entering the vessel. Loud noises made by inspection or maintenance might scare others, causing
injury.Preparatory work needed for vessel inspection should include checking in advance to make sure all
equipment is present and is in usable condition.

External inspections should start with ladders, stairways, platforms and walkways connected to the vessel.
Loose nuts, broken parts and corroded materials may be searched for by visual inspection and hammer
testing for tightness. Since corrosion is most likely to occur where water can collect, these areas should be
inspected carefully, using a pick or similar object. Slipping hazards such as slick treads should be looked
for and noted on the inspection report. Foundations and supports must be inspected for the condition of the
fireproofing. The settling of foundations, Spalling (flaking) and cracking of the fireproofing are always a
concern. In cases where equipment is supported by cradles, moisture between the cradle support and the
vessel may cause corrosion. If the area where a vessel and a cradle join has been sealed with a mastic
compound, the mastic seal should be checked gently with a pick to check its water tightness. Some settling
of any foundation is to be expected. However, if the settling is noticeable, the extent must be determined
for future reference.

Anchor bolts can be examined by scraping away and looking for corrosion. The soundness can be
determined with blow of a hammer to the side of the bolt or its nut. Checking the nuts for tightness and the
bolts with ultrasonics for breaks is sometimes appropriate. Any distortion of the bolts may indicate serious
foundation settlement.

24
Concrete supports are inspected with same concerns as concrete foundations. Close attention to any seals
and the possibility of trapping moisture because of faulty seals should be investigated.

Steel supports should be examined for corrosion, distortion, and cracking. If corrosion is severe, actual
measurements of the remaining thickness should be performed and a corrosion rate established just as in a
vessel. Wire brushing, picking and tapping with a hammer is a frequently used inspection technique. Most
of the time corrosion can be slowed or prevented by proper painting alone. Sometimes protective barriers
such as galvanizing are required. As part of steel support inspection, vessel lugs should be examined using
the same methods of wire brushing, etc., described above. Welds used to attach lugs can develop cracks
and some cracks can then run into the vessel's walls. If a vessel's steel supports are insulated and an
indication of leakage is present, the insulation must be removed to determine if corrosion under insulation
has occurred.

Guy wires are cables that stretch from different points of a vessel to the ground where they are anchored to
underground concrete piers (dead men). Inspection of these guy wires must include checking the
connections for tightness and the cables for the correct tensions. The connections consist of turnbuckles
used for tightening and U bolt clips for securing. All connectors must be checked for proper installation
and the presence of corrosion. The cable must be checked for corrosion and for broken strands.

Nozzles and adjacent areas are subject to distortion if the vessel foundation has moved due to settling.
Excessive thermal expansion, internal explosions, earthquakes, and fires can cause damage to piping
connections. Flange faces should be checked for squareness to reveal any distortion. If evidence of
distortion is found cracks should be inspected for, using non-destructive examination. All inspections
should be external and internal whenever possible. Visible gasket seating surfaces must be inspected for
distortion and cuts in the metal seating surfaces. Wall thickness readings must also be taken on nozzles and
internal or external corrosion monitored.

Grounding connections must be inspected for proper electrical contact. The cable connections should be
tight and properly connected to the equipment and the grounding system. All grounding systems should be
checked for continuity (no breaks) and resistance to electrical flow. Continuity checks are usually made
using electrical test equipment such as an Ohm meter. The resistance readings are recommended to be
between 5 and 25 Ohms.

Auxiliary equipment such as gauge connections, sight glasses, and safety valves may be visually inspected
while the vessel is still in service. Inspection while a vessel is in service allows the presence of excessive
vibrations to be detected and noted. If excessive vibrations exist, engineering can determine if any
additional measures are required to prevent fatigue failures.

Protective coatings and insulation should be inspected for their condition. Rust spots or blistering are
common problems associated with paint and are easily found by visual inspection. Scraping away a loose
coating film will often reveal corrosion pits. These pits should be measured for depth and appropriate
action taken. Insulation can usually be effectively visually inspected. If an area of insulation is suspected,
samples may cut out and examined for its condition. Insulation supporting clips, angles, bands, and wires
should be examined.

External surface corrosion appears in forms other than rust. Caustic embrittlement, hydrogen blistering and
soil corrosion are also found on the external surfaces of equipment. The area of a vessel that needs special
attention often depends on its contents. When caustic is stored or used in a vessel, the areas around
connections for internal heaters should be checked for caustic embrittlement. In caustic service, deposits of
white salts often are indications of leaks through a crack. Hydrogen blistering is normally found on the
inside of vessels, but can appear on the outside if a void in the vessel's material is close to the outer surface.
Unless readily visible, leaks in a vessel are best detected by pressure testing. Cracks in vessel are normally
associated with welding and can be found using close visual inspection. In some services nondestructive
testing to checks for cracks is justified and should be performed. Other concerns when performing external
inspection are bulges, gouges, and blistering. Hot spots when found in service should be monitored and
thoroughly evaluated by an engineer experienced in pressure vessels.
25

Internal inspections should be prepared for by assembling all necessary inspection equipment such as
tools, ladders, and lights.

Surface preparation will depend on the type of problems that a vessel may have in a given service.
Ordinarily the cleanliness required by operations is all that is needed for many inspections. If better
cleaning is required, the inspector can scrape or wire brush a small area. If serious conditions are
suspected, water washing and solvent cleaning may not be enough to reveal problems. In these instances,
power wire brushing, abrasive grit blasting, etc., may be required.

Preliminary visual inspection should be preceded by a review of reports of previous inspections.
Preliminary inspection usually involves seeking out known problem areas based on inspection experience
and service. Many vessels are subject to a specific type of attack such as cracking in areas such as upper
shell and heads. Preliminary inspection may reveal a need for additional cleaning for a proper detailed
inspection.

Detailed internal inspections should start at one end of a vessel and progress to the other end. A systematic
approach such as an item checklist will help to prevent overlooking hidden but important areas. All parts of
vessel should be inspected for corrosion, hydrogen blistering, deformation, and cracking. In areas where
metal loss is serious, detailed thickness readings should be taken and recorded. If only general metal loss is
present, one thickness reading on each head and shell may be enough. Larger vessels require more
measurements.

Pitting corrosion will require local examination by first scraping the surface and then and measuring the pit
depth. Pit gauges allow for measuring pit depth if an uncorroded area adjacent to the pit is available to
gauge from. In the case of large pits or grooves, a straight edge and steel rule often will allow measurement
by spanning the large area and lowering the steel rule into the pit and measuring the depth.

Hammer testing is often a good method of finding thin areas. Experience is needed to interpret the sounds
made by hammering. Usually a dull thud will indicate a loss of metal or thick deposits. Hammer testing
must never be used for inspecting vessels or components under pressure. If cracks are suspected or found
their extent may be determined by cleaning and nondestructive testing.

Welded seams deserve close attention when in services where amine, wet hydrogen sulfide, caustic,
ammonia, cyclic, high temperature and other services. Welds in high strength steel (above 70,000 psi
tensile) and coarse grain steels, and low chrome alloys should always be checked carefully for cracking.
All of the above conditions promote cracking in welds and adjacent base metals. Nozzles should be
checked for corrosion and their welds for cracking at the time of the vessels internal inspection. Normally
ultrasonic thickness readings will reveal any loss of metal in nozzles and other openings in a vessel.
Internal equipment such as trays and their supports are visually inspected accompanied by light tapping
with a hammer to expose thin areas or loose attachments. Conditions of trays must be determined to check
for excessive leakage caused by poor gasket surfaces or holes from corrosion. Excessive leakage can cause
operational problems and may lead to poor performance of a vessel or unscheduled shut downs.

Inspection of metallic linings must determine if the lining has been subjected to service corrosive attack,
that linings are properly installed, and that no cracks or holes are present in the lining. Most problems with
linings are found by careful visual inspections. Tapping the lining lightly with a hammer can reveal loose
lining or corrosion. Welds around nozzles deserve special attention due to cracks or holes that are often
found in these areas. If the surfaces of the lining are smooth, thickness measurements using ultrasonic
techniques may be performed. If required, small sections of lining can be cut out and measured for
thickness. A very useful method of tracking the corrosion rate of linings is by the welding of small tabs at
right angles to the lining when the lining is first installed. These tabs are made of the same material and
thickness as the lining and can be easily measured at the time of installation and at the next inspection to
determine the rate of corrosion taking place in the vessel. Remember that both sides of the tab are exposed
to the corrosion and the lining's loss must be determined by dividing the tab's loss by two. A bulge in a
liner can be caused by a leak in the liner permitting a pressure or a product build-up between the liner and
the protected base metal.
26

Nonmetallic liners are made of many different materials such as glass, plastic, rubber, ceramic, concrete,
refractory, and carbon block or brick liners. The primary purpose when inspecting these types of linings is
to insure that no breaks in the lining are present. These breaks are referred to as holidays. Bulging,
breaking, and chipping are all signs that a break is present in the lining. The spark tester method if very
effective in finding breaks in such nonmetallic linings as plastic, rubber, glass, and paint. The device uses a
high voltage with a low current to find openings in linings. The electrical circuit is grounded to the shell
and the positive lead is attached to a brush. As the brush is swept over the lining, if a break is present,
electricity is conducted and an alarm is sounded. A little warning: this is obviously not a device to be used
in a flammable or explosive atmosphere nor should the device have such a high voltage value that it can
penetrate through a sound lining. The spark tester is not useful for brick, concrete, tile, or refractory
linings. Remember linings can be damaged during a careless inspection; often just by dropping a tool.

Concrete and refractory linings often spall (flake away) or crack. This damage is readily detected during a
visual inspection. Minor cracks may take some gentle scraping to find. If bulging is obvious cracks may
also be present. If any break is present, fluid has probably leaked in between the lining and the outer shell
and may have caused corrosion. Light tapping with a hammer can reveal looseness that is normally
associated with leakage of linings.

Thickness measuring techniques such as ultrasonics, limited radiographic techniques, corrosion buttons,
and the drilling of test holes; are used to determine if any wall loss has occurred. The most common
technique is ultrasonics. Ultrasonics can detect flaws and determine thickness also. Its principle of
operation involves the sending of sound waves into the material and measuring the time it takes the sound
to return to the sending unit, referred to as a transducer. Sound travels through a given material at a known
speed, and when properly calibrated, the UT equipment uses the known speed and time of travel to
determine the thickness in the area being tested.

In thickness measurements using radiographs, the placement of a device such as step gage (a device of a
known material and thickness) in the radiographic image is compared to the image of the piping or vessel
wall and the thickness determined by measurement.

Corrosion buttons are made of a material that are not expected to corrode in a given service and then
installed in pairs at specific locations in the vessel. Measurements are taken by placing a straight edge
across the two buttons and then gauging the depth with a steel rule or some other measuring device. When
corroded surfaces are very rough, test holes through the vessel may be used to measure the wall thickness.
A variation on test holes is depth drilling. In this technique, small holes are drilled to a known depth (not
all the way through) in the new vessel wall, then plugged with corrosion resistant plugs to protect the
bottom of the hole from corrosion. During internal inspections the plugs are removed and depth readings
are taken. Any wall loss that has occurred is detected by the hole depth becoming more shallow than the
original reading.

Metallurgical change tests can be made using many of the same techniques described in mechanical
changes. Additional tests include hardness chemical spot, and magnetic tests. Portable harness testers
such as the Brinell will detect poor heat treatment, carburization and other problems that involve a change
in hardness. Chemical tests to a small portion of a metal will reveal the type of metal to determine if the
wrong metal has been installed possibly during a pervious repair. Magnetic tests are used to determine if a
material such as austenetic stainless steel; normally not magnetic, have become carburized, which will
allow the austenetic stainless to become attracted to a magnet.

Testing
Hammer testing used during visual inspection will reveal conditions such as; thin sections, tightness of
bolts and rivets, cracks in linings, lack of bond in refractory and concrete linings. The hammer is also used
to remove scale for spot inspection. Hammer testing is an art learned from experience and caution is
warranted whenever using this method. It is not smart to hammer on anything under pressure and
hammering on some piping systems can dislodge scale or debris and plug up a portion of the system such
as a catalyst bed.
27

Pressure and/or vacuum tests are performed when a vessel is first built and then applied after entering
service if any serious problem has been disclosed, which brings into question the integrity of the vessel.
After major repair work, a pressure test is normally required. Some jurisdictions and company's policies
require tests on a time basis even if no repair work has been done. These types of tests often involve
raising the internal pressure above normal operating pressure and the possibility of damage to the vessel
from the test exists. Pressure tests should applied carefully by qualified personnel using calibrated gages
with positive control of the test equipment. The object is to reveal any problems, not to create one. Most
of the time these tests use water or some other fluid (hydrostatic) permitted by the Codes. During
hydrostatic testing of a vessel, pressure drop, leaks and deformation (bulging) in the vessel may be
revealed. If the vessel's supports can not hold the weight of the fluid or the vessel cannot tolerate
contamination by the testing fluid, a gas test (pneumatic) may be used. Pneumatic testing, by its nature,
can be more dangerous than hydrostatic testing. Caution is always advisable during a pneumatic test, and it
is normally the last choice.

Vacuum tests are conducted by creating a vacuum inside the vessel and observing the vacuum gage for any
loss of vacuum that might occur. If the vacuum remains unchanged the assumption is made that no leak
exists.

Testing temperature can be very important with some pressure vessel materials due to the brittle
characteristics of these metals at low temperatures. The ASME recommends that the test temperature be at
least 30
o
F above the minimum design metal temperature to prevent the risk of brittle fracture. A brittle
fracture can be compared to glass breaking and shattering. For that reason every effort must be made to
prevent it. In combination with a pneumatic test and its stored energy; a brittle failure would be a
devastating bomb. For all materials, the general recommendation for test temperature is 70
o
F minimum
and 120
o
F maximum. For safety when conducting a pressure test, no unnecessary personnel should be
allowed in the area until the test is complete. Pneumatic tests must follow a procedure described in the
ASME Code that raises the pressure in small steps with short stops at each step.

Pressure testing of exchangers can be performed when they are first shut down and before bundle removal
in order detect any leaks that might have been present during recent service. If leaks are detected during
the initial test, partial disassembly can be performed and the test pressure reapplied to locate the source of
the leaks. Heat exchangers may also be disassembled and cleaned, inspected, repaired if needed, then
reassembled and tested. If a leak is detected in the exchanger after re-assembly, disassembly will again be
required to repair the leak. The method of testing an exchanger will depend on its design. Some can be
tested with their channel covers removed if of the fixed tube sheet design with the pressure applied to the
shell side. If a tube in the bundle is discovered to be leaking at other than the tube sheet roll, it may be
plugged with a tapered plug, which effectively removes that tube from service. If the leak is located where
the tube is rolled (expanded) into the tube sheet, an attempt to re-roll the tube is usually made and the test
pressure reapplied. Often tube bundles are tested out of their shells if of the floating head design. Leaks
are easily detected, but this approach requires a separate shell test. During pressure tests leaks in shells,
tubes, gasketed areas, and distortion are looked for in the exchanger parts.

Limits of thickness must be determined prior to inspection and must be known in order to perform an
effective inspection. The retiring thickness and the rate of deterioration are needed to determine the
appropriate action should a problem be uncovered during an inspection. The importance of inspection
records becomes obvious when it is required to make a decision whether to repair, replace, or just to
continue the operation of a vessel. If the retiring thickness is known prior to the inspection, a plan of
action in the event of excessive wall loss can be prearranged. Almost all vessels, when new, will contain
excess thicknesses above what are required by the Codes.
28

Methods of repair to vessels should be reviewed to insure that they comply with any Codes or standards
that may apply. Several jurisdictions recognize the minimum repair techniques of the API. Other
jurisdictions require that the repairs be made to the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Inspectors (NBBPVI), National Board Inspection Code-23 (NBIC) and that the repair concern holds a
valid R (Repair) Stamp from the NBBPVI. In addition to using a concern holding the R Stamp an NBBPVI
Repair form R-1 may also be required. In some instances, Insurance Carriers will require that the NBIC be
followed and that an NBIC Authorized Inspector in their employ approves the repair. Repairs made to
vessels by welding will require visual inspection as a minimum and may also involve various
nondestructive examinations (NDE) methods based on the severity of the repair and the original NDE used
in the construction Code. Unless the Inspector can accept a sound technical argument against requiring a
pressure test after a major repair, one should be applied. If the repair to a vessel involves cracks special
preparation of repair area is required. The major concern in crack repairs is the complete removal of the
crack. Cracks may be removed by chipping. flame, arc, or mechanical gouging. Any crack removal
technique that uses high heat input to the affected area can cause the crack to grow, so caution must be
used with those techniques. In cases where many cracks are present it is normally better to replace the
entire section of the material. Shallow cracks may be removed by grinding using a blending method if the
final thickness does not fall below the minimum required.

Inspection records and reports are important and are required by most Codes and jurisdictions such as the
State, API, and the NBBPVI NB-23. These reports are of three types: Basic Data, Field Notes, and
Continuous File. The basic data includes original manufacturer's drawings and data reports as well as
design information. Field notes are notes about and measurements of the equipment and may be written or
entered into a computer database. Usually field notes are in the form of rough records inspections and
repairs required. Continuous files include all information about a vessel's operating history, previous
inspection reports, corrosion rate tables (if any) and records of repairs and replacements. Copies of reports
containing the location, extent, and reasons for any repairs should be sent to all management groups such
as Engineering, Operations, and Maintenance departments.

Heat Exchangers are used to transfer heat from one gas or liquid to another gas or liquid without the two
fluids mixing. Heat exchangers fall into classes: condensers and coolers. A condenser has the effect of
changing a gas fluid to a liquid or partial liquid fluid and ordinarily uses water as the coolant. Coolers
lower the temperature of a fluid and may use water or another process fluid of a lower temperature as the
coolant. Sometimes air is used to lower the temperature of a fluid. The equipment is then referred to as an
air cooler.

Shell and Tube-Bundle exchangers are made in several types. The tubes are installed into a tube sheet by
rolling (expanding) them into the tube sheet holes. In heat exchangers, after rolling tubes, the ends are
sometimes welded to the tube sheet for sealing purposes. In some cases the tubes are inserted into the tube
sheet and packing rings are installed to seal the area around the tube ends. The method of construction used
is dependent on the service intended for the exchanger. There are four basic design types of shell and tube
heat exchangers. They are: One Fixed Tube Sheet with a Floating Head (the most common), Two Fixed
Tube Sheets, One Fixed Tube Sheet with U-Tubes, and Double Tube Sheet (used when even the slightest
leak cannot be allowed).

Reboilers and Evaporators perform the opposite function of the condenser or cooler. They do what their
names imply boil and evaporate. In general they use steam, or a hotter fluid from a process to boil or
evaporate another fluid. The Reboiler is normally used to boost heat back up to a desired level at some
intermediate step of a process stream.

Some Other types of heat exchangers include Exposed Bundle, Storage Tank Heaters, Pipe Coils (either
single or double pipe), Box-Type Heater Coils, and Plate-Type.

Inspection of Exchanger Bundles should start with the establishment of any general corrosion patterns.
Inspecting an exchanger bundle when it is first removed can reveal the type(s) and locations of corrosion
and deposits. Visual inspection techniques include light scraping and hammering testing with a light ball
peen hammer (4 to 8 oz) to locate corrosion and thinning. The inside of the tubes may be partially
inspected using borescopes, fiber optics, and specialized probes. Since only the outside of tubes in the
outer portion of a bundle can be seen, inner tubes must be inspected using NDE techniques.
29
API 510 Module
API RP 572 SECTIONS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #4

1. Name three shapes of pressure vessels. (572 2.1)


2. Describe multi-layer construction of a pressure vessel. (572 2.2)


3. When carbon steel will not resist corrosive fluids, what method of construction is normally used for
such a vessel? (572 2.3)


4. Name four types of internals found in pressure vessels. (572 2.4)


5. Prior to 1930, what specifications were unfired pressure vessels built to in refineries? (572 3.0)


6. Why is it important to have access to previous editions of the ASME Codes? (572 4.0)


7. Name three types of information gained from the inspection of a pressure vessel. (572 5.1)


8. List the basic forms of deterioration. Name the effects these basic forms have. (572
6.1,6.2,6.3,6.4,6.5,6.6,and 6.7)


9. What is the most important factor in determining the inspection frequency of a pressure vessel? (572
7.1)


10. Why are occasional checks of operating pressures while equipment is in operation important? (572
7.2)


30
API 510 Module
API RP 572 SECTIONS 8.1 to 8.4.4
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #5

1. What should an inspector be aware of before starting the inspection of a pressure vessel? (572 8.1)


2. Careful visual is important to determine what other types of inspections might be required. Name three
other types of inspection. (572 8.1)


3. Before an inspection starts in a vessel, who else besides the safety man should be informed? (572 8.2.1)


4. Name five tools an inspector should have to perform an inspection. (572 8.2.2)


5. List at least six items that should be inspected on the external of a pressure vessel. (572
8.3.2,.3,.4,.5,.6,.7,.8,.9,.10,.11,.12,.13)


6. Abrasive grit blasting, power wire brushing etc., are usually required under what conditions? (572
8.4.2)


7. If a vessel has had previous internal inspections, what should be done prior to your inspection? (572
8.4.3)


8. Where will most of cracks found in a pressure vessel be found? (572 8.4.3)


9. Why is a systematic procedure important when inspecting a pressure vessel? (572 8.4.4)


10. Under what operating conditions should weld seams in a pressure vessel be given special attention?
(572 8.4.4)

31
API 510 Module
API RP 572 SECTIONS 8.4.5 to 8.5.2
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #6

1. When examining linings, name the three most important conditions to check. (572 8.4.5)


2. Describe the spark tester method of inspecting nonmetallic linings. (572 8.4.6)


3. How may loose nonmetallic linings be found using a hammer? (572 8.4.6)


4. Where a corroded surface is very rough, what may be done to measure thickness? (572 8.4.7)


5. How may cracks be made to stand out from the surrounding areas being inspected? (572 8.4.8)


6. Who should make the decision to trepan metal from a vessel for metallurgical evaluation? (572 8.4.8)


7. How may carburized austenetic stainless steel sometimes be detected? (572 8.4.9)


8. What functions may an inspector's hammer serve? (572 8.5.1)


9. When testing a vessel pneumatically what should be on hand to aid in the visual examination? (572
8.5.2)


10. If it is possible to use internal pressure to test a vacuum vessel, what advantage does that method
offer? (572 8.5.2)

32
API 510 Module
API RP 572 SECTIONS 8.5.3 to 10.2
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #7

1. Why is it desirable to leak test an exchanger before disassembly? (572 8.5.3)


2. If a given exchanger begins leaking for the first time in its service life, what should be done? (572
8.5.3)


3. Before retiring a vessel, what should be consulted? (572 8.6)


4. Before taking credit for excess thickness found in a vessel when doing calculations for retirement or
rerating, what must also be considered? (572 8.6)


5. What documents should be consulted prior to any repair? (572 9.0)


6. When shall a pressure test be applied? (572 9.0)


7. Why should care be taken when arc gouging a crack before a welded repair? (572 9.0)


8. What must an inspector consider when recommending the filling of pits with an epoxy? (572 9.0)


9. What does the continuous file contain? (572 10.1)


10. Who should receive copies of all inspection reports? (572 10.2)


33
API 510 Module
API RP 572 APPENDIX A
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #8

1. Explain the difference between condensers, coolers and air coolers. (572 A.1)


2. Show by sketch what is meant by One Fixed Tube Sheet with a Floating Head, Two Fixed Tube
Sheets, One Fixed Tube Sheet with U Tubes. (572 A.2.2, 2.3, 2.4)


3. When are Double Tube Sheet Exchangers used? (572 A.2.5)


4. Name two types of water heaters. (572 A.2.7)


5. What principle of cooling is used with exposed tube bundles?(A.3.2, 3.3)


6. Name two types of Air-Cooled Exchangers. (572 A.5)


7. Describe the construction of Double-Pipe coils. (572 A.6.2)


8. Where are Flat-Type Heater Coils found? (572 A.6.3.4)


9. Why is it important to inspect exchanger bundles when they are first pulled from a shell? (572 A.9.1)


10. Name the likely locations for corrosion in exchangers. (572 A.9.2)







34
API 510 Module
API CHAPTER II
CONDITIONS CAUSING DETERIORATION OR FAILURES

Introduction

Chapter II is under revision at this time, it is to be replaced with API RP 571, Recognition of Conditions
Causing Deterioration or Failure at some future date. Accordingly our coverage of the subject will be
based on the present API 510 Authorized Pressure Vessel Inspector Body of Knowledge dated August
1994. Of the information contained in Chapter II, only knowledge that pertains to pressure vessels may be
included in the examination questions. This is per the published Body of Knowledge. The coverage of
Chapter II will be limited to the required information on the test.

Corrosion is a major source of expense in refinery and chemical plants. Many times a piece of equipment
will corrode its way into retirement as opposed to simply wearing out. The three major groups of corrosion
are corrosive products in crude oils, corrosion from chemicals used or processed, and environmental
corrosion.

Corrosive components found in crude oil that cause the most metal loss in pressure vessels are thought to
be one or more of the following: Hydrogen chlorides and inorganic and organic chlorides, Hydrogen
sulfide, mercaptans, and organic sulfur compounds, Carbon Dioxide, Organic acids, and Nitrogen
compounds. Most of the above mentioned components attack the front end of a process system.

Crude oils contain salt which can never be totally removed. The salt will generate various chemical
compounds when broken down in a processing systems. Some of the compounds are: Hydrogen chloride
and Organic and Inorganic chlorides. Such things as Magnesium and Calcium chloride, when dissolved in
water and heated, attack the metal in the form of Hydrochloric acid which is very corrosive. This process
is called hydrolysis.

Hydrogen sulfide is believed to be the most active of the sulfur compounds in causing corrosion. Some
hydrogen sulfide is present in the crude oil, and more may be generated during the refining process.
Outside of corrosion, the most serious problems caused by Hydrogen Sulfide are blistering and
embrittlement.

Carbon Dioxide, when combined with water, is corrosive. The water and carbon dioxide combine to form
carbonic acid. The water will usually be introduced from two sources: the decomposition of bicarbonates
in or added to crude oil or from steam used to aid in distillation of crude oil.

Organic Acids, while not very corrosive at low temperatures, can be very corrosive at their boiling
temperatures. When organic acids have corroded carbon steel, a very smooth surface is left and metal loss
is not readily apparent during visual inspection.

Nitrogen Compounds in crude oil alone will not cause corrosion; however, in catalytic cracking,
decomposition occurs and by-products of this decomposition form Ammonia and Cyanide. These two
chemicals, while not causing corrosion directly, contribute to it by breaking down a protective layer of
scale which has formed on the metal leaving the metal subject to Hydrogen Blistering and other problems
discussed in the above paragraphs. The Ammonia and Cyanide will directly cause pitting and worm-holing
type attack in copper and brasses.

Corrosive Materials added to the process add significantly to metal loss caused by corrodents already
present in the crude oil that is being refined. Chemicals commonly added in refining processes are Sulfuric
Acid and Hydrogen Fluoride, Phenol, Phosphoric Acid, Caustic (sodium hydroxide), Mercury, Ammonia,
Chlorine, and Aluminum.

Alkylation Units utilize either Sulfuric Acid or Hydrofluoric Acid as a catalyst. Sulfuric Acid is the least
corrosive of the two chemicals and corrosion occurring in equipment using Sulfuric Acid may be very
erratic attacking particular points in the process stream. Sulfuric acid is generally less corrosive at high
concentrations of 85 % or more. Hydrofluoric Acid is very corrosive to steel unless it is kept at
concentrations above 65% Hydrogen Fluoride.
35

Phenol (carbolic acid) is used in the manufacture of lubricating oils and aromatic hydrocarbons. At
temperatures below 400
o
F and without water present, carbon steel is usually not severely corroded by
Phenol. Above 400
o
F, carbon steel may corrode rapidly in Phenol service.

Phosphoric Acid is used as a catalyst in polymerization units either in liquid or deposited as pentoxide on
clay pellets. Unless water concentrations are above a certain level, corrosion is rare from Phosphoric Acid.
When water is present in the required concentrations, Phosphoric Acid will attack carbon steel very
aggressively. Penetration of 1/4 in. carbon steel in 8 hours can occur.

Caustic is used primarily for neutralization of acids and grease manufacture. Caustic can be used and
stored in carbon steel vessels and is generally not corrosive as long as the vessel has been stress relieved
and temperatures are kept at a safe level. At temperatures above 200
o
F, it will cause general corrosion in
carbon steel.

Mercury is found in instrumentation and can enter vessel by mishap. If the mercury enters it will cause
stress corrosion attack in copper and monel.

Ammonia is used for refrigeration and neutralizing acids in plants. If Ammonia is allowed to contact
copper-based alloys in pH ranges of 8.0 and above, severe corrosion as general metal loss occurs, and
stress corrosion cracking then occurs. Blue salt deposits on equipment are a clear indication of general
corrosion by Ammonia.

Chlorine is used to treat water for cooling towers and to manufacture Sodium Hypochlorite for treating
oils. If water is not present, Chlorine corrosion of carbon steel is minor.

Aluminum Chloride, a catalyst, will not contribute to corrosion as long as water is not present. It will
hydrolyze in water and form Hydrochloric Acid and cause severe pitting corrosion in carbon steel.
Austenitic stainless steel under the above conditions will be subject to intergrannular corrosion and stress
corrosion cracking.

Environmental Corrosion in refineries most commonly affects carbon steel. The water and oxygen
present in the atmosphere will cause severe corrosion on unprotected carbon steel. This type of corrosion
is usually Galvanic and can be severe if water is allowed to penetrate insulation.

Important Corrosion types include Intergranular, Graphitic corrosion of cast iron, Stress Corrosion
Cracking, Polythionic Acid, Dezincification, Galvanic, Contact Corrosion, and Biological Corrosion. The
following paragraphs give a general definition to the various types of corrosion.

Intergranular Corrosion can occur in austenetic stainless steels when they are heated up to a range from
750
o
F to 1650
o
F and cooled down. In the temperature range mentioned above, complex carbides are
formed of chrome and other elements which then migrate to grain boundaries leaving those areas lacking
the chrome which is intended to help resist corrosion. This loss of chrome is followed by corrosive attack
around grain boundaries, and Intergranular Corrosion occurs.

Graphitic Corrosion is the low-temperature corrosion of gray cast iron in which metallic iron is converted
into corrosion products, leaving the graphite intact.

Stress Corrosion Cracking is the spontaneous cracking of metals under the combined action of stress and
corrosion.

Polythionic Corrosion is a result of iron sulfide scale reacting with oxygen and water. This normally
occurs at the time of shutdowns of vessels.

Dezincification is a corrosion that occurs when copper-zinc alloys containing less than 85% copper are
used in water service. It occurs in three forms: plug, layer , and intercrystalline.
36
Galvanic Corrosion occurs between metals in contact with each other having different electrical potentials.
It is the same type chemical exchange found in a common wet or dry cell battery. An electrolyte must be
present for this type of corrosion to occur, and normally the electrolyte is water or acids.

Biological Corrosion is related to the presence of organisms (bugs) in a contact with a metal. They can be
fairly large (macro) or very small (micro) organisms. An example of a macroorganism is a barnacle.
Examples of microorganisms are bacteria, slime, and fungi. One of the primary places that microorganism
biological corrosion is found is on underground piping in contact with soil. These organisms either
produce a corrosive, such as sulfuric acid from sulfur compounds, or they contribute to the formation of an
electrolyte solution which speeds up contact or crevice corrosion.

Erosion of metals is found frequently in vessels and piping of refineries and chemical plants. It amounts
to a wearing away by the abrasive action of a moving stream of a liquid or gas. If solids are contained in
the gas or liquid, the erosion will be accelerated and could be compared to blasting with a water and sand
mixture.

The Effects of High Temperature on Strength of a metal can result in the failure of the metal suddenly
(stress rupture) or slowly (creep).

Creep happens to metal held at high temperatures for long periods of time and is defined as the flow or
plastic deformation at stresses that would not cause metal flow at a lower temperature. It is based on time
at an elevated temperature and stress level.

Stress Rupture is a brittle failure that gives very little warning, with little if any deformation, and is related
to stress at high temperature. It can be considered the end result of creep in some metals.

37
API 510 Module
API CHAPTER II
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated Chapter II paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #9

1. Name the three major groups of corrosion types. (Chapter II 202)


2. Name six corrosive components of crude oil. (Chapter II 202.021)


3. What component do all crude oils contain? (Chapter II 202.022)


4. Where does Hydrogen Chloride evolve from in a process stream? (Chapter II 202.022)


5. What is the definition of pH? (Chapter II 202.022)


6. May Hydrogen Sulfide cause corrosion even at low temperature? If so, where can it be found? (202
Chapter II .023)


7. Where can Carbon Dioxide come from in process streams? (Chapter II 202.024)


8. Name the corrosive materials added to processes. (Chapter II 202.023)


9. Above what concentration is Sulfuric Acid not very corrosive? (Chapter II 202.032)


10. Describe the following types of corrosion: Intergranular, Polythionic Acid, Dezincification, Galvanic,
Crevice Corrosion and Biological.( Chapter II 202.06)
38
API 510 Module
ASME Section VIII Div.1
PART UW - WELDING


Objectives

Student should understand and be capable of applying the following concepts:

A. Joint restrictions based on Service.

B. Joint Categories.

C. Joint Types.

D. Butt Joint Radiography Requirements.

E. Butt Joint Efficiencies.

F. Requirements for Post Weld Heat Treatment.

G. Application of Welded Repairs.


39
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

Introduction

Section VIII Division 1 has a system of identification for welds in vessels and vessel parts. This system
assigns Types to welds; the form of weld (double welded, ect) determine its Type. The locations of welds
in a vessel or vessel part determine their Category. In some instances the Type will be mandatory based on
Category and Service. In other cases it will be optional; the designer makes a choice from the acceptable
Types. Radiography requirements also depend on Type, Service and Category.

The Code also assigns a way of measuring the quality of a butt joint, which is based on the Type, and
extent of radiography used.

Definitions

The following are definitions for use in Part UW. Doing calculations on shells, heads, nozzles and the like
will depend on knowing these definitions.

Welded Joints

1. Corner Welded Joint (called a fillet weld in Section IX)



2. Butt Welded Joint


Weld Types

3. Type is the description of a welded joint. For example, a single-welded butt joint with backing that
remains in place.



Weld Categories

4. Determination of Category for a joint depends on the location of the joint in a vessel or vessel part. As
an example the circumferential seam joining two shell courses is a Category of weld.

40
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

UW-2 Service Restrictions

Service restrictions apply to four classes of vessels.

- Lethal Service

- Service Below Certain Temperatures Given in UCS-68

- Unfired Steam Boilers Exceeding 50 psi

- Vessels or Parts Subject to Direct Firing


For determination of a Butt joint's service restrictions by Types (how made) and Categories (locations)
permitted in a vessel read UW-2.


Vessels used to contain lethal substances require that all major butt welded joints be fully radiographed
(with some exceptions for heat exchangers).


If they are Category A joints they must be of Type No. (1) of Table UW-12. If they are Category B joints
they must be of either Type No. (1) or Type No. (2). Similar restrictions apply to the other classes listed
above.

UW-3 Welded Joint Category

A quick reference system for specifying joint requirements is the assigning of categories by location; to
welds in a vessel. For instance for a vessel in lethal service the Code requires that butt joints be of a
specific Type based on their physical location in the vessel and that the butt welds be fully radiographed.

A statement like "All category A joints shall be Type No. (1)." is a short hand way of saying the following:

" All longitudinal welds within main shells, communicating chambers, transitions in diameter, or nozzles;
any welded joint within a sphere, within a formed head, or within the side plates of a flat sided vessel;
circumferential welded joints connecting hemispherical heads to main shells, to transitions in diameter, to
nozzles, or to communicating chambers shall be Type No. (1).".

As you read through the Code paragraphs think of how difficult it would be to restate a complete
description every time you find a specified requirement based on joint Category.

The best way to understand and thereby learn joint category is by the use of graphics. Fig. UW-3 of
Paragraph UW-3 provides a brief graphical representation. An expanded use of graphics for each Category
follows.

41
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

UW -3 Welded Joint Category
Case Study 1

The term "Category" as used here in defines the location of a joint in a vessel, but not the type of joint.

UW-3(a)(1) Category A. Longitudinal welded joints within the main shell, Communicating chambers,
transitions in diameter, or nozzles; any welded joint within a sphere, within a formed or flat head, or within
the side plates of a flat-sided vessel; circumferential welded joints connecting hemispherical heads to
main shells, to transitions in diameter, to nozzles, or to communicating chambers.




42
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

UW -3 Welded Joint Category
Case Study 2

The term "Category" as used here in defines the location of a joint in a vessel, but not the type of joint.

UW-3(a)(2) Category B. Circumferential welded joints within the main shell, communicating chambers,
nozzles, or transitions in diameter including joints between the transition and a cylinder at either the large
or small end; circumferential welded joints connecting formed heads other than hemispherical to main
shell, to transitions in diameter, to nozzles or to communicating chambers.







43
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

UW -3 Welded Joint Category
Case Study 3

The term "Category" as used here in defines the location of a joint in a vessel, but not the type of joint.


UW-3(a)(3) Category C. Welded joints connecting flanges, Van Stone laps, tubesheets, or flat heads to
main shell, to formed heads, to transitions in diameter, to nozzles, or communicating chambers; any welded
joint connecting one side plate to another side plate of a flat sided vessel.









44
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

UW -3 Welded Joint Category
Case Study 4

The term "Category" as used here in defines the location of a joint in a vessel, but not the type of joint.

UW-3(a)(3) Category D. Welded joints connecting communicating chambers or nozzles, to main shell, to
spheres, to transitions in diameter, to heads, or to flat sided vessels, and those joints connecting nozzles to
communicating chambers (for nozzles at the small end of a transition in diameter, see Category B).







45
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

UW -3 Welded Joint Category
Exercises

1. The category of a joint depends on:

a. What kind of weld was made: fillet or butt.
b. The process used to make the weld.
c. Whether it is vertical or horizontal in the vessel
d. None of the above.

2. A circumferential weld to attach a flange is what Category?

a. D
b. C
c. E
d. A

3. In the drawing below identify all of the joints by Category.




46
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

UW-51 Radiographic and Radioscopic Examination of Welded Joints
Overview

In UW-51 the requirements for radiographic examination are detailed.
When performing radiography to Section VIII Div. 1 of the Code your are directed to Article 2 of Section
V for the techniques to be used. The following are highlights of the requirements:

1. A complete set of radiographs shall be kept on file until the final acceptance of the inspector.

2. Personnel performing and evaluating radiographs shall be qualified using SNT-TC-1A as a guideline
for written practices used in their qualification.

3. That paragraph T-285 of Article 2 is a guide only and that final acceptance of radiographs is based on
the ability to see the correct penetrameter's image and the specified hole or wire size as applies.

4. How repairs of defects shall be made in accordance with UW-35 and the techniques for reinspecting the
weld after repair. The repair need not be radiographed if prior to the repair it has been demonstrated to
the inspector's satisfaction that Ultrasonic Testing can disclose the defect. In which case ultrasonics can
be use to examine the repair for acceptance.

5. That any indication on a radiographed characterized as a crack or zone of incomplete fusion or
penetration is unacceptable.

6. That the limits of elongated indications are based on the materials thickness.

7. Those unacceptable aligned indications are based on total length of a group and the material's thickness.

UW-51 contains the unacceptable indications for Full Radiography. Also definitions of nominal
thicknesses for welded joints and weld repairs. Details of Spot Radiography are covered in UW-52.


47
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

UW-52 Spot Examination of Welded Joints
Overview

Spot radiographs use the same techniques as those in UW-51, but of course are not for the full length of
the weld. The basis for selecting Spot radiography is the desire to use a joint efficiency that will come
from Column B of table UW-12. The small print note above the subparagraphs explains the Code's intent
for the use of spot radiography. The following are highlights of the requirements for Spot Radiography.

1. One spot radiograph for every 50 ft of weld or fraction thereof for a joint efficiency from column b of
Table UW-12.

2. A sufficient number of spots shall be radiographed to examine each welder or welding operator in the
50-ft increment. In the case where welders weld on opposite sides of the same weld one shot will serve
to examine both.

3. The inspector chooses the location of the spot radiography. If the inspector approves and cannot be
present the fabricator can then choose the location of the spot radiography. Notice that there is no
specific location; the welders should never be able to predict the inspector's choice of location.

4. The spot radiography used to pick a joint efficiency from column b of Table UW-12 will not satisfy the
requirements of other paragraph such as UW-11 (a)(5)(b); a spot radiograph required for the choosing
of a joint efficiency from column A of Table 12.

5. Spot radiographs must follow the same rules as full radiographs for techniques. The minimum length
of the spot examined must be 6 inches.

6. Indications described as cracks or zones of incomplete fusion or lack of penetration are unacceptable.

7. Slag inclusion or cavity evaluation is based on the thickness of the weld excluding any weld
reinforcement (cap). The thickness is based on thinner member if two different thickness that have
been joined by a butt weld. If a fillet is welded over a full penetration weld its throat must included in
the thickness (t). Indications in a line are described with acceptance standards.

8. Rounded indications are not a factor in the acceptability of welds and are not required to be fully
radiographed.

9. When a spot radiograph is acceptable the entire weld increment represented is accepted. For example if
a longitudinal weld has 65 feet of weld metal only the first 50 feet could be accepted by a single 6 inch
spot radiograph. The remaining 15 feet is represented in the next declared 50 feet increment.

10. If the first spot radiograph reveals welding that does not comply then two additional spots in the same
weld increment away from the first spot shall be radiographed (tracers). The choosing of the two spots
follows the same rule as the first spot radiograph.

11. If the tracers pass then repair and radiography is allowed for the area that was rejected in the first spot
radiograph.

12. If either of the tracers fail there are two options. Cut out the entire increment, reweld then apply spot
radiography again or apply full radiography and repair all defects found.

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The spot radiography described above is not applied to any specific Category of weld. In a given 50 feet of
weld increment there may be Category A, B, C, and D butt welds. The inspector will choose the exact
location of the spot radiograph. In cases where spot radiography is a specific requirement of another
paragraph of the Code the location for the spot radiograph is stated within that paragraph. The spot
radiography of UW-52 cannot serve double duty; it will not satisfy the spot radiography requirements of
any other paragraph. It allows the use of a joint efficiency from column B of Table UW-12 for all
categories of butt joints in that 50 feet increment. If the 50 feet increment were to stop in the middle of a
joint the efficiency of that joint could not come from column B until the next 50 feet increment was spot
radiographed.

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PART UW - WELDING

UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

The Code demands 100 % Quality Assurance for some butt-welds (Butt-Welds in Lethal Service are one
example). In other services, choices for level of Quality Assurance for butt-welded joints can range from
100 % down to 60 %.

The Quality of a butt-welded joint determines its Joint Efficiency in the Code. Joint Efficiency depends
on the Type of butt joint and the amount of radiography applied. There are other Types of joints besides
butt-welded allowed in the Code. However they cannot produce Code acceptable radiographs. The term
"Joint Efficiency" is a hold over from the days of riveted vessels. More will be said about this in the
coverage of UW-12.

There are three levels of radiography per Code. Full, Spot and None. The Code demands Full RT in some
cases and allows Full RT, Spot RT or None in others.

UW-11(a) Full Radiography specifies when Full Radiography must be performed. There are five
instances sited.

1. Butt welds in the shell and heads of vessels used to contain a lethal substance.

2. When the least nominal thickness at a butt weld exceeds a limiting thickness, which is based on the
type of material used in the vessel's welded construction.

3. Butt welds in the shells and heads of unfired steam boilers having an operating pressure greater than 50
psi.

4. Butt welds in nozzles, communicating chambers, etc. in (1) or (3) above attached to vessels sections or
heads that exceed certain limits on thickness or diameter.

5. Categories A&D butt joints. Where full radiography is not mandatory; but desired to obtain a joint
efficiency from column A of Table UW-12. Spot radiography must also be applied to Category B and C
butt joints.
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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

UW-11(b) Spot Radiography. The next option, if full radiography is not mandatory under 1 through 5
above, is spot radiography. This spot radiography can be applied to Category A, B, C, or D butt joints and
will allow a joint efficiency from Column B of Table UW-12.

UW-11(c) No Radiography. If radiography is not mandatory under any Code requirements it may be
omitted for butt-welded joints. If this is the case the joint efficiency must come from Column C of Table
UW-12.


UW-11 contains the when and where for radiography and ultrasonic examinations. The effect of the
degree of radiography is reflected in paragraph UW-12 with a resulting Joint Efficiency "E". The "E" will
be used in the thickness required or pressure allowed calculations for shells, heads etc. The following
pages contain graphical representations of the UW-11.

UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in a manner
prescribed in UW-51:

UW-11 (a)(1) All butt welds in the shells and heads of vessels used to contain lethal substances [see UW-
2(a)];

[UW-2(a) limits Category A butt welds to Type 1 and Category B to Type 1 or 2 of Table UW-12].




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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in a manner
prescribed in UW-51:

UW -11(a)(2) All butt welds in which the least nominal thickness at the welded joint exceeds 1 1/2 in. or
exceeds the lesser thickness prescribed in UCS-57. Category B and C butt welds in nozzles and
communicating chambers that neither exceed NPS 10 nor 1 1/8 in. wall thickness do not require any
radiographic examination;




RT will change based on the P No. of the material used in construction.
See UCS-57, UNF-57 etc. for mandatory Full RT based on thickness.


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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in a manner
prescribed in UW-51:

UW-11(a)(3) All butt welds in the shells and heads of unfired steam boilers having a design pressure
exceeding 50 psi. [see UW-2(c)];

[UW-2(c) limits Category A Butt Welds to Type 1 and Category B to Type 1 or 2 of Table UW-12].


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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in a manner
prescribed in UW-51:

UW-11 (a)(4) All butt welds in nozzles and communicating chambers, etc., attached to vessel sections or
heads that are required to be fully radiographed under (1) or(3) above; however, except as required by
UHT-57(a), Categories B and C butt welds in nozzles and communicating that neither exceed NPS 10 nor
1 1/8 in. wall thickness do not require any radiographic examination;





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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in a manner
prescribed in UW-51:

UW-11(a)(5) All Category A and D butt welds in vessel sections and heads where the design of the joint or
part is based on joint efficiency by UW-12(a), in which case:

(a) Category A and B butt welds connecting the vessel sections or heads shall be of Type No. 1 or
Type No. 2 of Table UW-12;

(b) Category B or C butt welds [but not including those in nozzles or communicating chambers
except as required in (2) above] which intersect the Category A butt welds in vessel sections or heads or
connect seamless vessel sections or heads shall, as a minimum, meet the requirements for spot
radiography in accordance with UW-52. Spot radiographs required by this paragraph shall not be used to
satisfy the spot radiography rules as applied to any other weld increment.

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UW-11
Exercises

1. For a vessel in lethal service what butt joints must be radiographed in addition to all butt joints in the
shell and heads?



2. A joint efficiency from Column A of Table UW-12 is desired for a Category A butt joint in a shell,
what extent of radiography must be applied to this Category A butt joint? What additional requirement
must be met?



3. If the least nominal thickness of a butt joint in a vessel exceeds a certain thickness based on the material
used in its construction what amount of radiography must be applied?



4. Full radiography is required by UW-11(a)(2) may it be assumed that all butt joints have been fully
radiographed? Why or why not?



5. A vessel shell contains a Category A butt welded longitudinal joint and a Category D butt welded joint.
Must both of these be fully radiographed to use a joint efficiency from Column A of Table UW-12?


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Allowable Stresses and Efficiencies
Overview

There is a relationship between efficiencies and stresses in the Code; that when understood, will allow
making calculations with more confidence. What is joint efficiency? What is stress?

STRESS

Stress as it relates to internal pressure on a vessel is a load in the vessel's material. Stress is measured in
pounds per square inch. Our examples use a material that will fail at 60,000 pounds per square inch.

Ultimate Stress is the stress value at which a material breaks (fails)

ULTIMATE STRESS

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Allowable Stresses and Efficiencies

The Code allows the working stress in a material to be only a fraction of its Ultimate Stress. The term used
is Maximum Allowable Stress. The Maximum Allowable Stress is about 28.5% of the Ultimate Stress for
a given material. In the first example above the material is loaded to only 28.5 % of the second example,
which failed at 60,000 pounds per square inch. The limiting of stress in the Code gives a safety factor of
about 3.5 to 1. This is under ideal conditions with no known flaws in the vessel's material. This of course
would be seamless material properly inspected or a welded material joined by a Code approved method
and fully radiographed as required in the Code. Most vessels are constructed using welding and welding
will introduce flaws into the vessel material. How many and how bad are the flaws? This is answered by
the use of nondestructive examination, primarily visual and radiographic.

If a large enough flaw is present in the base material or the weld, failure can occur at a much lower value
of stress.

In the Code formulas the Stress Allowed must be multiplied by the joint efficiency 'E'. So SE always
appear in the formulas. The reason for using E is to make an adjustment for how certain it is that the
welded joint is equal to a seamless piece of material. In the case of full radiography the conclusion that
the material is as strong as seamless is made and an Efficiency for a Type No. 1 joint can be 1.0 . For a
Type NO. 2 .90 can be used. Spot Radiography allows lower joint efficiencies and No Radiography still
lower.
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Allowable Stresses and Efficiencies

The previous examples showed heavy weights causing a stress in tension in one square inch of bar
material. In a pressure vessel the internal pressure causes the stress in tension. There will be a given
amount of pounds per square inch over an area that has the same total effect as the heavy weights and a
resulting stress is set up in the vessel's wall. This force wants to tear the vessel apart and must be resisted
by the cross sectional area of the vessel's wall.

The Code limits the amount of stress that can be applied to a vessel's material and this will limit the
pressure allowed or increase the thickness required. The stress in the material caused by the internal
pressure is given special concern when there is a welded joint present in the vessel's wall. The expected
strength of the material is known, but how sure can we be if there is a potential flaw contained in a weld or
its heat affected zone. Often the weld joint itself causes a change in the shape of what would otherwise be
a uniform cylinder; this will cause what is referred to as a stress raiser. It is safe to say any weld will
cause a stress riser to some extent.

The Code deals with these stress raisers in two ways; by limiting the stress allowed in the material and by
assigning joint efficiencies to welded joints and seamless components. The basis for the efficiency of a
welded joint is its Type and the amount of radiography it has received. The basis for a seamless
component is the amount of radiography any intersecting welds have received.

The assigning of joint efficiencies has a definite effect on the thickness of a vessel or component. The
higher the efficiency allowed the thinner the material is required to be.
How Efficiency Affects the Construction of a Vessel

If a vessel material has an allowable stress of 15,000 pounds per square inch and has a joint that allows an
E of .85 ( Type No. 1 Spot RT) the resulting thickness required will be more than that of seamless material;
so the E of .85 is a stress multiplier and causes the allowable stress on the material to be lowered which
will then drive up the required thickness. More of the material is required because we are only 85% sure
that the welded material is as strong as seamless material or a Fully Radiographed Type No. 1 butt-welded
joint.



SE = 15,000 psi x .85 = 12,750 psi. The stress allowed in the calculation for thickness is now 12,750 psi
and will result in the need for a thicker material in the vessel's construction.

Welding is costly and the thicker the material the more costly both become. Radiography has a cost and a
benefit. The direct cost is the cost of performing radiography. The indirect cost is the cost of repairing the
rejectable conditions revealed by radiography. The benefit is the use of thinner material resulting in lower
material and welding cost. Under certain conditions Full Radiography is required and the costs will be
unavoidable.
THE RT AFFECTS THE E WHICH IN TURN AFFECTS THE t.

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UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

The term joint efficiency as used in the Code is a really a way of stating how close too in strength; after
joining; the joint is to an equivalent seamless piece. The best available weld joint obtained by the arc or
gas-welding process is a Type No. 1 that has been fully radiographed. A Type No. 1 fully radiographed
butt-welded joint results in a part with a joint efficiency of 1.0. It may be considered as being as strong as
a solid piece of the same material. Welded tension tests coupons normally fail in the base metal.

UW-12 states that the joint efficiency depends only on the type of joint and the degree of examination of
the joint. The resulting joint efficiency shall be as given in Table UW-12.

The term Joint Efficiency as used today is really a measure of the quality of a joint. The term dates back to
the days of riveted vessels and was a measure of how closely a particular riveted joint approached the
strength of a seamless piece. Some believe that the term Joint Efficiency should be replaced with the term
Quality Factor because it would be more reflective of what is really being determined by the modern
Codes. After debate the Code Committee decided to leave things, as they were in order not to create
confusion in industry. The following graphics will help in understanding the concept.




In the case of a riveted shell a true circle could never be accomplished due to the natural offset in
alignment. Still the term joint efficiency has hung on. Riveted construction was eliminated from the Code
after 1971. As before we will utilize graphics to help in understanding joint efficiencies. Modified Table
UW-12 which follows with its graphics will explain joint types and the limits of radiography.


60
MODIFIED TABLE UW-12
Type 1-Cat. A,B,C,&D


Butt Joints as attained by
double-welding or by other
means which will obtain the
same quality on the inside and
outside. Backing strip if used
must be removed after welding is
completed.
Col. A

Full RT

E = 1.0
Col. B

Spot RT

E = .85
Col. C

No RT

E = .70
Type 2-Cat. A,B,C,&D

Single-welded butt joint with
backing strip which remains in
place after welding is completed.
Limitations apply see table UW-
12.



E = .90



E = .80



E = .65
Type 3. Cat. A,B,&C

Single-welded butt joint without
the use of a backing strip.
Limitations apply see table UW-
12.


RT
Not
Applicable


RT
Not
Applicable



E = .60
Type 4. Cat. A

Double- full fillet lap joint.
Limitations apply see table UW-
12.

RT
Not
Applicable

RT
Not
Applicable



E = .55
Type 5. Cat. B&C

Single-full fillet lap joint with
plug welds.
Limitations apply see table UW-
12.

RT
Not
Applicable

RT
Not
Applicable



E = .50
Type 6. Cat. A&B

Single full fillet lap joint
without plug welds. Limitations
apply see table UW-12.

RT
Not
Applicable

RT
Not
Applicable



E = .45
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UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

Table UW-12 lists the joint efficiencies E to be used in the formulas when calculating the required
thickness or allowed pressure on vessel components such as heads or shells. Paragraph UW-12 must be
understood to correctly apply Table UW-12.

UW-12(a): A value of E not greater than that given in column (a) of Table UW-12 shall be used in the
design calculations for fully radiographed butt joints, except that when the requirements of UW-11(a)(5)
are not met the a value of E not greater than in column (b) of table UW- 12 shall be used.

Translation: Category A, B, C and D butt joints in shells or heads; must be fully radiographed in order to
take an E of 1.0 for Type 1 or .90 for Type 2 joints when doing calculations. For Category A&D in shells;
the additional Spot RT described in UW-11 (a)(5)(b) must be applied to intersecting category B and C
butt joints. This means; if a longitudinal butt joint (Category A) in a shell has had Full RT you cannot
take a joint E from Column A until you perform Spot RT on the Category A (Hemi heads only), B or C
girth joints (as applies) following the rules of UW-52.

UW-52 states that at least one 6" shot will be performed every 50' of weld metal and will inspect the work
of every welder in that increment. More than one 6" shot will be required if all welders are not checked in
the one radiograph.


If the Spot RT were not performed the long joint's E would come from Column B (.85 for a Type 1 or
.80 for a Type 2). The E used in calculations for the seamless elliptical head above is addressed in UW-
12(d).


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UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12(b): A value of E not greater than that given in column (b) of Table UW-12 shall be used in the
design calculations for spot radiographed butt welded joints [see UW-11(b)].

Translation: If a joint efficiency from column b can be lived with and the Code does not require Full
radiography, Spot RT can be used. Spot RT can be specified for the entire vessel per UW-11(b), if it is,
the rules of UW-52 must be followed. This means one 6 inch radiograph every 50 feet of weld metal;
which must show the work of every welder or welding operator who has welded in the 50 foot increment.
If two welders weld for instance; on opposite sides of a 50 foot weld one shot will do to prove both
welders.

Notice this Spot RT differs from that of UW-11(a)(5)(b). UW-11(a)(5)(b) is applied to circumferential
joints only (B, C or an A that joins a Hemi hd). This RT may be applied to either longitudinal or
circumferential joints or their intersections if so chosen by the inspector per UW-52(b)(3).




The above example has 100 feet of weld total. All the welders are in the radiographs. Everybody got their
picture taken. This vessel would be marked RT 3. Individual joints can be chosen for Spot RT and a joint
efficiency from column b used for that component or joint. If that is done the marking becomes RT 4. All
of this assumes Full RT is not mandatory.
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UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12(c): A value of E not greater than that given in column (c) of Table UW-12 shall be used in design
calculations for welded joints that are neither fully radiographed nor spot radiographed [ see UW-11(c) ].

Translation: If no radiography is performed all joint efficiencies come straight from Table UW-12 column
(c) based on the type of joint used.
Of course this is not an option if Full RT is required by Code.


The seamless elliptical head calculations in the above example would require an E of .85. This is per UW-
12(d). As you will see in UW-12(d) seamless components are special cases.


UW-12(d): Seamless vessel sections and heads shall be considered equivalent to welded parts of the same
geometry in which all Category A welds are Type No. 1. For calculations involving circumferential stress
in seamless vessel sections or for thickness of seamless heads E = 1.0 when the spot radiography
requirements of UW-11(a)(5)(b) are met. E = .85 when the spot radiography requirements are not met, or
when the Category A or B welds connecting seamless vessel sections or heads are Type No. 3, 4, 5, or 6 of
Table UW-12.

Type No. 3, 4, 5 and 6 joints will not produce interpretable radiographs per the ASME Code. Therefore
the E used to calculate a seamless component using one of these Types must be taken as .85 by default.
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UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

Translation: UW-12 (d) requires the same action as UW-12(a) except that the shell or head does not have
Category A joints. The exception is a seamless hemispherical head without a flange. When welded on a
shell it will have a Category A joint and therefore can never be seamless. In the part of UW-12(d) that says
"shall be considered equivalent to welded parts of the same geometry in which all Category A welds are
Type No. 1" what it is implied but not directly stated, is that full radiography of the Category A Type 1
welds is required to make the two equals.



When any of the above examples is joined to another component by a Type 1 or 2 joint then the Spot RT of
UW-11(a)(5)(b) must be performed to allow an E of 1.0 in their calculations. Examples: Categories, A
(Hemi head) or B (head with skirt) or When any of the above examples is joined to another component by
a Type C (weld neck ).

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PART UW - WELDING

Determination Of Joint Efficiencies

The most confusing part of doing Code calculation is the picking of a joint efficiency. The temptation to
go straight to Table UW-12 and use one of the efficiencies listed there is automatic. That is a hit and miss
proposition and will only on occasion yield the proper Joint E. First of all, the E has a double meaning that
is not readily apparent. E in one sense applies to the welded joints and in the second it applies to a
seamless component such as a seamless head or shell. There are three main types of stresses acting on a
pressure vessel that are of concern.

1. The Circumferential Stress on shells (also called Hoop Stress).

2. The Longitudinal Stress on shells.

3. Stress In heads.


Circumferential stress applies stress in a shell along its length. This stress acts to split a shell along its
length and is often referred to as Hoop Stress. The shell may be seamless or may contain longitudinal
seams. In either case failure in the circumference will usually occur similar to that shown in the drawing
above. A Code calculation is required to determine the thickness required or pressure allowed on the shell
for circumferential stress.

There are two possible cases for a vessel's circumferential stress calculation with a single shell course. The
shell is seamless or it has a longitudinal seam. The UG-27 circumferential formulas are used for
calculation of thickness required or pressure allowed in both cases. The difference between the two
conditions is in how the E is picked for use in the calculation. We will examine the two separately.

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Circumferential Stress / Seamless Shell

E = 1.0 when the spot radiography of UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied to the circumferential joint. This
is per UW-12(d).

E = .85 when the spot radiography of UW-11(a)(5)(b) has not been applied to the circumferential joint.
This is per UW-12(d).

For a seamless shell course there are only two possibilities for the E when doing Hoop Stress Calculations.

E = 1.0
or
E = .85







The E used for the calculation of a vessel with a butt welded longitudinal joint (seam) depends on several
factors.

1. What type of butt joint has been used to make the long joint?
(Per Table UW-12 limitations only two are allowed)
a. Type No. 1
or
b. Type No. 2

2. What is the extent of radiography on the long joint?
a. Full
b. Spot
c. None

3. Has the spot radiography of UW-11(a)(5)(b) been applied to
any intersecting Category A, B or C welds?

There are many combinations which can be made from the factors above, all resulting in different joint
efficiencies. Examples of a few problems should help in the understanding of the other situations. In the
following examples all vessels have less than 50 linear feet of welds total and were made by the same
welder.
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Shells

Example A: Shell course with a Type No. 1 longitudinal seam that has been fully radiographed. The
vessel has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied.


Fully radiographing the Type No. 1 Category A longitudinal seam and performing the Spot RT of UW-
11(a)(5)(b) allows the use of an E from column A of Table UW-12. The E from Column A , for a Type
No. 1 is 1.0 This is in agreement with Paragraph UW-12(a).


Example B: Shell course with a Type No. 2 longitudinal seam that has been fully radiographed. The
vessel has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied.


Fully radiographing the Type No. 2 Category A longitudinal seam and performing the Spot RT of UW-
11(a)(5)(b) allows the use of an E from column A of Table UW-12. The E from Column A , for a Type
No. 2 is .90. This is also in agreement with Paragraph UW-12(a).

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Shells

Example C: Shell course with a Type No. 1 longitudinal seam that has been fully radiographed. The
vessel has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-11(a)(5)(b) has not been applied.


Fully radiographing the Type No. 1 Category A longitudinal seam but not performing the Spot RT of
UW-11(a)(5)(b) requires the use of an E from column B of Table UW-12. The E from Column B , for a
Type No. 1 is .85. This is in agreement with Paragraph UW-12(a).

Example D: Shell course with a Type No. 2 longitudinal seam that has been fully radiographed. The
vessel has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-11(a)(5)(b) has not been applied.


Fully radiographing the Type No. 2 Category A longitudinal seam but not performing the Spot RT of
UW-11(a)(5)(b) requires the use of an E from column B of Table UW-12. The E from Column B , for a
Type No. 2 is .80. This is also in agreement with Paragraph UW-12(a).

The conclusion drawn from examples C and D above is that applying full radiography to the longitudinal
joint offers no benefit unless accompanied by the Spot RT of UW-11(a)(5)(b). The Type No.1 joint E of
example C is the same as if it was only Spot Radiographed since it's E must come from Column B of Table
UW-12. This is also the case for the Type No. 2 of example D. These joints would have the same joint E
if they had been spot radiographed. Full Radiography was a waste. The Code does this to discourage more
than one level of radiography between butt welded joints. It is unlikely you will ever see actual cases like
examples C and D.

LONGITUDINAL STRESS / CIRCUMFERENTIAL JOINTS

At this point we will begin discussing the Longitudinal Stress that causes stress around vessel walls and in
Circumferential Joints. Commonly referred to as the girth.

Longitudinal stresses tend to tear the vessel into two pieces, separate shell courses or pop off the head.
This is the second calculation required for a shell.

For our examples we will use a vessel with two shell courses and ellipsoidal heads on both ends. Keep in
mind that we are calculating the stresses on Circumferential Joints (Girth Joints) ; those which are
affected by longitudinal stress. Longitudinal stress rarely determines the required thickness or allowed
pressure on a shell. The reason is ; the stress created by internal pressure in the longitudinal direction is
only half that of in the circumferential direction. Normally circumferential stress governs and determines
the required thickness or pressure allowed for a shell. The Joint Efficiency for these Categories of butt
welds may be taken directly from Table UW-12 based on their Type. Radiography applies when they are
of Type No. 1 or Type No. 2. RT does not apply to Types 3, 4, 5 and 6.
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Shells

Example A: Two seamless shell courses closed with ellipsoidal heads without radiography applied to
circumferential Type No.1 butt joints. The E used for longitudinal stress calculations of both shell courses
is .70.



Example B: Two seamless shell courses closed with ellipsoidal heads with spot radiography applied to
circumferential Type No.1 butt joints. The E used for the calculations of both the shell courses is .85.



Example C: Two seamless shell courses closed with ellipsoidal heads with full radiography applied to
circumferential Type No.1 butt joints. The E used for the calculations of both the shell courses is 1.0 .



If the above vessels had been made using Type No. 2 joints the joint efficiencies would be .65, .80 and .90
respectively based on the same radiography.

70
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

Stress In Heads

The last E to consider is the one used to calculate thickness required or pressure allowed for formed and
forged heads. Internal pressure creates stress that acts to rupture the walls of heads.

Each kind of head has a Code formula for its calculations. Two classes of heads are joined to vessels by
circumferential joints. One class is joined to the shell with a Category B or C circumferential butt joint;
these are heads that have a flange. Some examples are Torispherical, Ellipsoidal and forged Flat heads.
Forged Flat heads are joined by Category C circumferential joints and are treated the same for determining
their E as the other two. The other class is joined to the shell with a Category A butt joint; it is a
Hemispherical head with out a flange.

The first examples have ellipsoidal heads that may be joined to the shell using a Type No. 1 or Type No. 2
joint. It is also representative of a torispherical head since both have a flange (skirt). The ellipsoidal head
forms a Category B joint with the shell and is seamless.

The second examples have formed hemispherical heads without a flange. The joint formed by the
attachment of the hemispherical head to the shell is a circumferential Category A. Hemispherical heads
may be joined using either a Type No. 1 or a Type No. 2 joint provided no service restriction from UW-2
applies. If a service restriction applies the Category A butt joint must be of Type No. 1. The shell used in
all examples is over 24 inches in O.D. and over 5/8 inch thick. Per Table UW-12 only Type No.1 or Type
No. 2 joints are allowed for these conditions. When seamless heads, that have a flange (skirt), are attached
to shells a Category B joint is created. This Category B joint will have a joint efficiency based on its Type
and the amount of radiography that was applied.

Stress In Heads

This joint efficiency will not be used in the calculation of the head's required thickness or its pressure
allowed. This E is used in the longitudinal stress calculations for the shell. The Category B joint may be
thought of as belonging to the shell. For a seamless head which is joined by a Category B butt joint there
are only two possibilities for the E used in the head calculations. The E used will either be 1.0 or .85. The
E is determined based on the requirements of UW-12(d). The question then becomes has Spot RT been
applied to the Category B butt joint. If it has the E is 1.0. If it has not the E is .85.

Example A: Category B butt joint of Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 has not received Spot RT. E = .85 for the
head's thickness or pressure calculation. The shell's longitudinal stress calculation E will be .70 or .65
depending on which Type of joint was used.

Example B: Category B butt joint of Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 has received Spot RT. E = 1.0 for the
head's thickness or pressure calculation. The shell's longitudinal stress calculation E will be .85 or .80
depending on which Type of joint was used.

71
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

Heads

The last case to consider for seamless heads that form a Category B or C joint with a shell is when the joint
is of Type No.3, 4, 5 or 6 of Table UW-12. Since these types are not considered radiographicable by the
Code the Spot RT cannot be applied. UW-12(d) states that the head under this condition shall always be
calculated using E = .85. The shell's longitudinal calculations would use an E based on the Type No. of the
joint and this E would then come directly from Table UW-12.

The most common mistake in the calculation of seamless heads attached by Category B joints is the
use of the E found in table UW-12 based on the type of joint.

That E belongs in Longitudinal shell calculations. The E used for the seamless head is based only on the
application of Spot RT. If Spot RT has not or cannot be performed ( as is the case for Types 3, 4, 5, or 6)
an E of .85 shall be used. If it can and has E = 1.0. END OF STORY. Until they change the Code again!

The last formed head of concern is the Hemispherical. A hemispherical head formed from a solid piece of
plate without a flange is only seamless as long as it is lying on the shop floor; when welded to another
component such as a shell it now has a Category A joint. Read UW-3(a)(1) again to confirm this
statement. The Category A joint formed after welding to a shell belongs to the hemispherical head. The
rules regarding seamless shells and heads in UW-12(d) specify that the spot radiography of UW-
11(a)(5)(b) must be applied to use an E of 1.0 for a seamless head's thickness or a shell's circumferential
stress calculation. Since our hemispherical head will always have a Category A joint (seam) the conditions
of UW-12(d) do not apply. The bottom line is; that a formed hemispherical head without a flange can
never be seamless. Spot radiography on the Category A joint does have a use if the hemispherical head is
welded to a seamless shell or to a shell in which all Category A&D butt joints have been fully
radiographed.. The shell's circumferential stress could then be calculated using an E of 1.0 .

ATTENTION - ATTENTION
HEMISPHERICAL HEADS ONLY CONTAIN CATEGORY A JOINTS.
72
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

Heads

The following examples will use a formed hemispherical head and a seamless shell.

Example A: Seamless shell course with a hemispherical head. Spot RT has not been applied. The
Category A joint may be a Type No.1 or a Type No. 2 of Table UW-12. E = .65 or .70 .

Example B: Seamless shell course with a hemispherical head. Spot RT has been applied. The Category
A joint may be a Type No.1 or a Type No. 2 of Table UW-12. E = .80 or .85 .

Example C: Seamless shell course with a hemispherical head. Full RT has been applied. The Category A
joint may be a Type No.1 or a Type No. 2 of Table UW-12. E = .90 or 1.0 .

73
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

Summary Of Part UW

The main points of Part UW for the API Exam are the following:

1. Service Restrictions apply only to certain vessels.

2. Joint category is based on where in a vessel a joint is located.

3. Type of joint is based on how the joint was fabricated.

4. There are three different applications for Efficiency

A. Longitudinal Joint E, the only Joint E used for calculations
in the Exam.

B. Circumferential Joint E, not used for calculations in the
Exam but often mistakenly used with seamless components.

C. Seamless Component E (Heads, Shells and Nozzles).
or their equivalent components which have had full RT applied
to all of their Category A and D Type No. 1 butt joints.


The Spot RT described in UW-11(a)(5)(b) is used for Seamless or equivalent components. This spot
radiography is different than applying spot radiography to the entire vessel. Typically Exam problems will
be stated in this manner 'A seamless torispherical head is being replaced due to corrosion. The head has
an O.D. of 60 inches and is joined by a Type No. 1 joint . UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied '. The
statement that UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied will be the only thing you need to determine the E to use
in the head's calculation. This can also be stated as the vessel's Data plate is stamped RT 2. RT markings
and their meanings will be explained in the coverage of Paragraph UG-116 REQUIRED MARKING. This
will also serve as a review of paragraphs UW-11 and UW-12.
74
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

Exercises UW-12

Determine the efficiencies for calculation of the following vessel parts.



1. Seamless Shell Circ. Stress Calculations E =
2. Seamless Shell Long. Stress Calculations E =
3. Hemispherical Head Calculations E =
4. Seamless Ellipsoidal Head Calculations E =
5. Seamless Torispherical Head Calculations E =
6. Seamless Communicating Chamber Circ. Stress Calculations E =
7. Seamless Communicating Chamber Long. Stress Calculations E =

75
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

Exercises UW-12





1. Seamed Shell Circ. Stress Calculations E =
2. Seamed Shell Long. Stress Calculations E =
3. Hemispherical Head Calculations E =
4. Seamless Ellipsoidal Head Calculations E =
5. Seamless Torispherical Head Calculations E =
6. Seamless Communicating Chamber Circ. Stress Calculations E =
7. Seamless Communicating Chamber Long. Stress Calculations E =
76
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

UW -40 Procedures for Postweld Heat Treatment

Paragraph UW-40 gives the particulars of postweld heat treatment required in the applicable part in Sub-
section C. This paragraph lists the methods that are acceptable to the Code. For instance, UW-40 (a)(1)
says that heating the vessel as a whole in an enclosed furnace is preferable and should be used if practical.

Heating the vessel in more than one heat in a furnace can be done, but an overlap of the heated sections
shall be at least five (5) feet. Also, the portion outside the furnace shall be shielded. Vessels can be heat
treated as sections, joined then locally heat treated at the circumferential joints.

Heat can be applied internally and the vessel externally insulated as long as the given considerations are
met. The minimum temperatures for post-weld heat treatments are given in Table UCS-56.

It must be remembered that this paragraph applies to the vessel in a shop new construction setting. The
banding described here must be applied all the way around the vessel and include any nozzle's welds and
the like.

The API 510 allows the use of Local Post Weld Heat Treatment that does not require the entire
circumference of the vessel be included in the heat treatment. This of course is aimed at field repairs. In
the API 510 Code the procedure is required to be reviewed by a qualified engineer. There should be
preheat applied in accordance with the material of construction. A distance of not less than two times the
base metal thickness on each side of a welded repair is required to be locally post weld heat treated; it
must include any nozzles or attachment welds in the local postweld heat treatment area. A suitable number
of thermocouples (at least two) shall be used to monitor the temperature during treatment.

UCS-56 Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment

In the beginning of this paragraph it is stipulated that before applying the content of the paragraph
satisfactory weld procedure qualifications of the procedures to be used shall be performed in accordance
with Section IX. Included are the requirements for the condition of postweld heat treatment or lack there
of, in the weld procedure.

The exemption given in tables UCS-56 and UCS-56.1 are not permitted under some circumstances. If post
weld heat treatment is a service requirement as set forth in UCS-68 or welding is being done on ferritic
materials greater than 1/8" thick by the electron beam process are two examples.

Maximum furnace temperature at the time vessel or part is placed in it shall not exceed 800
o
F. The rate at
which the heating shall be increased is specified. Variation in the part temperature shall be held at or
above the specified temperature for the period of time given in Table UCS-56 or UCS-56.1. The furnace
design cannot allow the flames to touch the part or vessel. The furnace must be cooled at a given rate.

The next important aspect is welded repairs. Here repairs performed on P-NO 1 Groups Nos., 1, 2, and 3
materials and P-No 3 Groups Nos., 1, 2, and 3 materials and weld metals used to join these materials may
be made after final PWHT, but prior to final hydrostatic test, without additional PWHT, provided PWHT is
not a service requirement.

The depth of the repair based on the material P-number is restricted, non-destructive testing after removal
of the defect is required. An approved welding procedure is required and the repair must be made using
the shielded metal arc process with low hydrogen electrodes. The electrodes must be properly handled and
the weave bead used is restricted to four electrode core diameters. There are two repair techniques
described. One method for P-1 materials. The second method can be used for P-No 1 or P-No 3 materials
restricted to the stated group Nos. P-No 3 materials can only be repaired using the Half Bead weld repair
and Weld Temper Bead reinforcement technique. The description of this procedure is almost identical to
the one in the API 510 Code. Preheats temperatures and preheat maintenance times are some what
different.

77
78




















PART UG
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

79
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Objectives

Student should understand and be capable of applying the following concepts.

A. Calculate the required thickness or pressure allowed on cylindrical shells using formulas based on
inside or outside radius (Part MAWP).

B. Calculate the thickness required or pressure allowed for 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal, Standard Torispherical and
Hemispherical heads (Part MAWP).

C. Calculate the thickness required for Circular Unstayed Flat heads (Part MAWP).

D. Calculate the Thickness of Shells and Tubes Under External Pressure.

E. Determine Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for a Vessel.

F. Calculate Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Test pressures. Describe Procedures for Tests.

G. Size Fillet Welds at Openings.

H. Determine if Reinforcement of an Openings is required.

I. Requirements for Name Plates and their markings.

J. Requirements for Material Identification and Inspection.

K. Types of Data Reports. Information contained in Data Reports.


80
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

PROOF OF THE FORMULAS BEING EQUIVALENT

Example 1. Given a cylindrical vessel shell with the following variables, solve for pressure allowed in the
cylinder using both formulas.

P = ?
t = 0.500"
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R = 18.0"
R
o = 18.5"

psi
t R
SEt
8 . 409
18.3
7500
=
0.500) x (0.6 + 18.0
x0.500 1.0 x 15,000
=
6 . 0
P 27(c)(1) - UG =
+
=



psi 8 . 409
3 . 18
7500
0.500) x (0.4 - 5 . 18
0.500 x 1.0 x 000 , 15
0.4t - R
SEt
= P 1) - (1 1 App
o
= = =


If calculations for a thickness required are being made the same approach may be taken. The next step in
this instruction will be to apply cases where this is an appropriate option. Our next example will deal with
corrosion.

Example 2. A cylindrical vessel shell has been found to have a minimum thickness of .353". Its original
thickness was .375". May this vessel remain in service given the following variables?

P = 300 psi
t = 0.353"
S = 13,800 psi
E = .85
R = 12.0" + (.375-.353) = 12.022 This adjusts is for the corroded inside radius
R
o
= 12.0" + 0.375 (orig. t) =12.375" This finds the original outside radius

81
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Case 1. Inside Radius for pressure allowed using UG-27(c)(1).

psi
t R
SEt
46 . 338
12.2338
4140.69
=
.353) x (0.6 + 12.022
.353 x .85 x 13,800
=
6 . 0
P 27(c)(1) - UG =
+
=


Case 2. Outside Radius for pressure allowed using App: 1 (1-1)

psi 46 . 338
2338 . 12
69 . 4140
.353) x (0.4 - 375 . 12
.353 x .85 x 800 , 13
0.4t - R
SEt
= P 1) - (1 1 App
o
= = =


ANSWER: YES
338.46 psi > 300 psi


Important adjustments must be made for both approaches. The case of inside radius requires an increase
of the inside radius due to corrosion. If the outside radius is not given, the original thickness must be
added to the original inside radius to determine the outside radius; but the thickness used in the pressure
allowed calculation of App:1 (1-1) must be the existing thickness given in the stated problem. As can be
seen from the above examples either method yields the same results as long as the rules are followed
properly. The method you use is a matter of personal preference. These adjustments, along with others
such as static head, add to the difficulty of otherwise simple arithmetic. In every case, careful work is a
requirement for successful calculations.

As a check on the calculations for pressure allowed, calculations for thickness required can be performed.
Our next examples are used to determine if the vessel may operate at the 300 psi desired and be in
compliance with the Code.

82
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Example 3. Using the same variables as Example 2. above, calculate the thickness required for the shell
using 300 psi.

Case 1. Inside Radius for thickness required using UG-27(c)(1).

" 3122 .
11550
3606.6
=
300) x 6 . 0 ( .85 x 13,800
12.022 x 300
=
6 . 0
t 27(c)(1) - UG =

=
P SE
PR


Case 2. Outside Radius for thickness using App: 1 (1-1)

.3132
850 , 11
5 . 3712
300) x (0.4 + .85 x 800 , 13
12.375 x 300
0.4P + SE
PR
= t 1) - (1 : 1 App
o
= = =


ANSWER:

.3122" < .353"
or
.3132" < .353"

The slight difference in the thickness required has to do with the inside radius increasing to 12.022 inches
from the original 12.0 inches due to corrosion. Both of the above answers are correct using 300 psi. By
increasing the pressure used in the thickness calculations to 338.46, the thickness required are identical for
both formulas.

For the next part of our instruction we will begin doing some simple shell calculations using UG-27
Thickness of Shells under Internal Pressure.

In this paragraph, formulas are given for the calculation of minimum thickness and maximum pressure for
cylindrical and spherical shells. Special attention must be paid to circumferential stress within the
cylindrical shell. This stress category normally will determine the minimum thickness or maximum
working pressure of the vessel.
83

Let's do a simple shell calculation now. We will use a shell, which is seamless. You may find the
following approach helpful in keeping track of the data. As the problems become more difficult, it
becomes harder to track the variables if you are not organized.

1. Make a simple drawing of the vessel or head you are calculating values for. This helps to identify the
variables in the next step.

2. List what is required to know. We will call these givens. These will come from the stated problem.

3. State all the code paragraphs that apply, i.e., UG-27, UG-22, etc.


Drawing:





Givens:
t=
P=
R=
S=
E=
etc.

Code Paragraph UG-27 (c) (1)

t 0.6 + R
SEt
= P Etc.
84
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Problem # 1

Find the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) of a 12 inch inside diameter shell. This vessel
will be subjected to an internal pressure and will operate at a temperature of 700 degrees F. This shell is
seamless carbon steel and has an allowable stress value of 16,600 psi. Its wall thickness is .406 . No
corrosion is expected. Circumferential welds are not considered in this problem. This is a demonstration
of formula UG-27(c)(1) and does not reflect the choosing of a joint efficiency.

Drawing:



Givens:
P = ?
t = .406 *
R = 6.0 Remember this formula uses Radius not Diameter.
S = 16,600 psi
E = 1.0

From UG-27 (c) (1) Circumferential Stress

t 0.6 + R
SEt
= P

psi 44 . 1079
2436 . 6
6 . 6739
.406) x 0.6 ( + ) (6.0
x.406 1.0 x 16,600
= = = P

- Mill Under tolerance must be considered when designing a vessel shell using pipe. For most pipe, it is
12.5 % of the nominal thickness. This will usually require ordering the next schedule up to meet a
required thickness. The example above could arrive with a thickness of as little as .355".
85


API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Problem # 2

Find the minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell designed for a working pressure of 100 psi at
350 degrees F. The shell's inside radius is 2'-0". The longitudinal joint is category A (UW-3), type 1 (table
UW-12) - no radiography was performed. The shell is made of SA-515 grade 60 carbon steel rolled plate
with an allowable stress of 15,000 psi. The vessel is in water service. Again, circumferential welds are not
considered for the sake of simplicity.

Drawing:

Givens:

t= ?
P= 100 psi
R= 24"
S= 15000
E= .70 (Table UW-12)

From UG-27 (c) (1) Circumferential Stress


P 0.6 - SE
PR
= t

" .2298 =
10440
2400
=
100) x (0.6 - ) .70 x (15,000
24 x 100
= t


86
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

We have now calculated the pressure allowed on a seamless shell in Problem # 1. We have also found the
thickness required of a seamed, rolled plate shell in Problem #2. To this point we have not considered a
circumferential weld joint. The next problem will consider joining together two courses of seamed and
rolled plate to make one shell.

Problem # 3

Determine the minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell designed for an internal pressure of 50 psi
at a design temperature of 100 degrees F. No corrosion is expected. The shell is made of two courses butt
welded circumferentially using Type 1 welds which have been spot radiographed per UW- 11(a)(5)(b).
The shell long joints are butt welded also and are Type 1, Category A fully radiographed. The material is
SA-515 grade 70, stress allowable is 17,500 psi. The inside diameter is 10'-0". Both heads will later be
joined to the shell and will have Spot RT in accordance with UW-12(a) and UW-11(a)(5)

This problem will require us to consider two different cases in order to come to the solution. First we will
work the problem to solve for the thickness required to resist longitudinal stresses. Second to resist
circumferential stresses. Are you clear on the difference between the two? It's easy to be confused. The
Longitudinal Stress is the stress that acts to pull apart two shell courses or pop a head off of the end of a
vessel. It creates stress in the shell and welds around a vessel. Circumferential Stress can be thought of
as trying to split a shell along its length. It creates stress in the shell and welds along the length of the
vessel. Circumferential Stress is normally the controlling stress for thickness or pressure calculations.
UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Case Study 1

Circ Joint (Longitudinal Stress)

Drawing:

Givens:
t= ?
P= 50 psi
D= 10'-0"
R= 5'-0" = 60 "
S= 17500
E = .85 from table UW-12

UG-27 (C) (2)
P 0.4 + SE 2
PR
= t

.1007 =
29770
3000
=
50) x (0.4 + .85) x 17,500 x (2
60 x 50
= t

87
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Case Study 1

Circ Joint (Longitudinal Stress)

Drawing:

Givens:
t= ?
P= 50 psi
D= 10'-0"
R= 5'-0" = 60 "
S= 17500
E = .85 from table UW-12

UG-27 (C) (2)
P 0.4 + SE 2
PR
= t

.1007 =
29770
3000
=
50) x (0.4 + .85) x 17,500 x (2
60 x 50
= t
88
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Case Study 2

Long Joint (Circumferential Stress)

Drawing:




Givens:
t= ?
P= 50
R= 60"
S= 17500
E= 1.0 ( UW-12 (a) and UW-11(a)(5))

From UG-27 (c) (1)
P 0.6 - SE
PR
= t

" .1717 =
17470
3000
=
50) x (0.6 - ) 1.0 x (17,500
60 x 50
= t


89
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Exercises

Use the Overview portion of UG-27 starting on page 7 to determine formulas and use the Part UW section
to determine joint efficiencies.

1. Calculate the thickness required for a seamless shell made of SA-106 gr. B pipe. The O.D. is 12.75
inches. UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied.
The shell will operate at 500 psi. The stress allowed on the shell material is 15,000 psi.

Givens: Drawing:
t =
P =
S =
E =
R or R
outside
=

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):




2. What is the maximum allowed working pressure on a shell made of SA-515 gr.60? The shells inside
radius is 52 inches, and the shells thickness is .850 inches. The allowable stress for the shell's material is
15,000 psi at 500
o
F. The joint efficiency of the shell's Category A joints is 1.0 .

Givens: Drawing:
t =
P =
S =
E =
R or R
outside
=
State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):
90
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-32 Internal Pressure On Formed Heads
Overview

There are three types of calculations for formed heads listed in the API 510 Body of Knowledge:
Ellipsoidal, Torispherical and Hemispherical. The candidate is responsible for performing calculations for
thickness required and pressure allowed in all cases. The formulas that will used will all come from
paragraph UG-32. The variables change somewhat from type to type.

A sketch and the formulas for thickness of each kind are below.
P 0.2 - 2SE
PD
= t

0.1P - SE
0.885PL
= t


0.2P - 2SE
PL
= t

91
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side

There are five geometry's listed in UG-32. You will be responsible for the calculations of three:
Hemispherical, Ellipsoidal and Torispherical.

Givens: The same pressure and stress values will be used for all heads.

P= 100 psi
S= 17500 SA-515 Gr70 plate 650 degrees F.
E= .85 for spot RT of Hemispherical head joint to shell
E= 1.0 for seamless heads ( Ellipsoidal and Torispherical )
L= 48" for the inside spherical radius for the hemispherical head
L= 96" for the inside crown radius of the torispherical head
O.D. = 96" for the torispherical head
D= 96" inside diameter of the ellipsoidal and hemispherical heads
t= Required wall thickness, inches

Problem # 1

Given the above data find the required thickness of a seamless ellipsoidal head.

Drawing:

From UG-32 (d)


P 0.2 - 2SE
PD
= t

" .2744 =
34980
9600

100) x (0.2 - 1.0) x 17,500 x (2
96 x 100
= t
92
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side

Problem # 2

Using the same data, calculate the required thickness of a hemispherical head that does not have a straight
flange.


Drawing:



From UG-32 (f)
0.2P - 2SE
PL
= t


Solving for t:

" 1614 . 0
29730
4800
) 100 2 . 0 ( ) 85 . 0 500 , 17 2 (
48 100
= =

=
x x x
x
t


93
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side

Problem # 3

Determine the required "t "of this torispherical head. (These are also called ASME flanged and dished
heads, by the way). This head has an O.D. equal to its inside crown radius AND the knuckle radius is
equal to 6% of its inside crown radius.

Drawing:




From UG-32 (e)


0.1P - SE
0.885PL
= t

Solving for t:
" .4857 =
17490
8496
=
100) x (0.1 - 1.0) x (17,500
96 x 100 x 0.885
= t


94
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
UG-32
Exercises

Use the overview portions of UG-32 to determine the formulas and use Part UW to determine the joint
efficiencies.

1. Calculate the required thickness of a 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal head with an inside diameter of 48 inches. The
vessels will have a MAWP of 350 psi and will be in lethal service. The joint used to join the head to shell
will be a Type No. 2 from Table UW-12. The stress allowed on the head's material will be 15,000 psi.

Givens: Drawing:
t =
P =
S =
E =
D =

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):


2. A Torispherical head has corroded to a thickness of .353 " ; its inside crown radius is 56 inches. The
head's material has a stress allowable of 13,800 psi at 500
o
F. The shell is seamless and the spot
radiography of UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied to the vessel. Can this head remain in service at 100 psi
per Code?

Givens: Drawing:
t =
P =
S =
E =
L =

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):

3. A Hemispherical head is being considered as a replacement on a vessel with a MAWP of 200 psi. The
head's Inside diameter will be 64 inches. What would be its required thickness if the head's material has a
maximum allowable stress of 17,500 psi? The Category A type 1 joint that attaches the head will be spot
radiographed.

Givens: Drawing:
t =
P =
S =
E =
L =

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):

4. What would the required thickness for an Ellipsoidal head be given the same variables as used in
Problem # 3 above? The Category B weld that will attach this head would not have UW-11(a)(5)(b)
applied.

Givens: Drawing:
t =
P =
S =
E =
D =
State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):
95

API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)
Overview

Circular flat heads are the only kind of flat heads that are included in the API 510 Exam. These types of
heads are shown in Fig. UG-34. Only those attached by welding will be on the test. Only thickness
calculations are presently required per the API 510 Body of Knowledge. Some flat heads are attached by
fillet welds and some have a flange and are attached by butt welds. All attachment welds are of Category
C per UW-3.
The figures below represent only two of several allowed configurations.


Those attached by fillet welds and those attached by other than Types Nos. 1 or 2 are not radiographical by
the Code rules. Seamless circular flat heads which are butt welded must follow the rules for
circumferential butt welds contained in UW-11 and UW-12(d) when choosing the Efficiency for their
thickness calculations. These heads are treated in the same way as formed heads for their E used in
calculations. If a flat head is attached using fillet welds, it cannot be radiographed, and if the flat head is
seamless the E used to calculate its thickness will always be 1.0 .

If the Circular Unstayed Flat Head were constructed of two half moon pieces using a butt weld, the head
would then contain a Category A joint per UW-3. The Type of butt weld and the amount of radiography
would determine the E; the resulting E would be the joint efficiency used in the head's thickness
calculation.

The only formula that will be used for the calculations on the test is the one of UG-34 (c)(2) #1.
Thickness required will be the only type of problem asked according to the API 510 Body of Knowledge.

SE
CP
d = t
The definitions of the variables in the formula are shown in the figures of Fig. UG-34. The d is the inside
diameter of a head or shell as given in each figure; the C is a factor that depends on the method of
attachment, shell dimensions and other factors listed in UG-34 (d). The E was discussed above; t and P
are thickness and pressure. The C can get a little tricky in figures (e),(f), (g)and (b-2) of Fig. UG-34. In
these four figures there is a note that states: C = 0.33 x m; where in the other figures it is stated that C
will equal a specific value, 0.17 etc. also all figures list a minimum C value. Figures (e), (f),(g) and (b-
2) require an extra calculation to determine the C before the head's thickness can be calculated using the
formula above. Again that calculation is C = 0.33 x m.

The term m is defined in the nomenclature of UG-34 as being the thickness required of the shell divided by
the actual thickness of the shell.
s
r
t
t
= m

96
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)

Problem # 1

A Seamless Flat Unstayed Circular Head having a diameter of 10 inches is attached to a cylindrical shell
similar to Fig. UG-34 (e). The vessel will have a MAWP of 100 psi at 400 degrees F., the head and shell
are made of SA-515 Gr. 70 carbon steel with an allowable stress of 17500 psi. The shell's thickness is
.375." Corrosion is not expected. Find the minimum thickness of this head.

Drawing:

Givens:
Shell t = .375 "
Head t = ?
P = 100 psi
d = 10.0 in
S = 17500 @450
o
F
E = 1.0 For any seamless head attached by fillet welding.
C = 0.33 x m
From: UG-34(c)(2)
SE
CP
d = t


Step 1. Calculate the thickness required of the shell using the UG-27(c)(1)
circumferential stress formula.

P 0.6 - SE
PR
= t

" .02866 =
17,440
500
=
100) x (0.6 - ) 1.0 x (17,500
5 x 100
= t

Step 2. Calculate the value of m.
.076 =
.375
.02866

t
t
= m
s
r
=


Step 3. Calculate the value of C.

C = 0.33 x m

C = 0.33 x .076 = .025

Now since the minimum C can be per figs. (e) (f) and (g) is 0.20 use this in the calculation of the head
97
Step 4. Calculate the required thickness of the flat head using the formula of UG-34-(c) (2).

SE
CP
d = t


1.0 x 17,500
0.20x100
10 = t


17,500
20
10 = t

0011428 . 10 = t


t = 10 x .0338053 =.3380"

ANSWER: t = .338" minimum

98
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)

Problem # 2

A Forged Flat Circular Unstayed Head has been attached to a shell similar to fig. (b-1) of Fig. UG-34. The
circumferential weld attaching the head to the shell is a single welded butt joint with a backing strip which
remains in place. The Data Report for the vessel indicates that no radiography has been performed. The
heads inside diameter is 26 inches. The vessel's name plate indicates a MAWP of 150 psi. The allowable
stress of the forged heads material is 15,000 psi per the Data Report. Uniform corrosion has occurred to
this head leaving the flat part with a minimum thickness of 1.252". Can this vessel remain in service
without repair or replacement of the head?
Drawing:

Givens:
t = ?
P = 150 psi
d = 26"
S = 15,000 psi
E = .85 per UW-12(d).
C = 0.17 per fig. (b-1)
From UG-34(c)(2):
SE
CP
d = t

.85 x 15,000
150 x 0.17
26 = t

12,750
25.5
26 = t

002 . 26 = t

" 1.16275 = .0447213 x 26 = t

1.252" > 1.16275" ANSWER: YES
99
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)
Exercises

Use UG-27, UG-34 and part UW to determine the formulas and efficiencies.

1. A flat head similar to the one in fig. (b-2) of Fig. UG-34 is attached to a shell using a double welded
butt joint. The entire vessel meets the requirements of UW-11(a)(5)(b). The center portion of the flat head
has corroded down to an unacceptable thickness. What will be the head's thickness required after build up
by welding? The shell has a thickness of 1/2". The shell and head skirt have an inside diameter of 42
inches. The head's material has a maximum allowable stress of 13,800 psi and the shell's material has an
allowed maximum stress of 15,000 psi. The vessel's NamePlate is marked with a MAWP of 75 psi @ 350
o
F.

Givens: Drawing:

t(shell) =
t (head)=
P =
S(shell)
S(head) =
E(shell) =
E(head) =
d =

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):


100
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-28 Thickness Of Shells And Tubes Under External Pressure
Overview

External calculations depart significantly from internal calculations simply because under external pressure
the vessel is being crushed . Internal pressure wants to tear the vessel apart.

Because of the crushing or buckling load, the Length the Outside Diameter and the Thickness of the
vessel are important. External pressure problems are based on the thickness of the shell to the outside
diameter ratios. There are two types of external pressure calculations, the type we will use is when the O.D
to (D
o
)thickness ratio (t) is greater than 10 and the other type, not on the test, is when it is less than 10.

In order to solve these types of problems two charts will be required. The first chart is used to find a value
called Factor A and then Factor A is used to find a Factor B in the second chart. The value of Factor B
found is the number needed to solve the problem using the formula given in paragraph UG-28 (c)(1) step 6.
The charts will be supplied with the test question as they are not found in Section VIII Division 1.

The following is the step by step solution to the Pressure Allowed on an existing vessel of a known
thickness with a D
o
to t ratio greater than 10.

Problem: A vessel is operating under an external pressure of 250 psi. The operating temperature is 500
o
F. The outside diameter of the vessel is 40 inches. Its length is 70 inches. The vessel's wall is 1.25
inches thick and is of SA-515-70 plate. Its specified minimum yield is 38,000 psi. Does this thickness
meet Code requirements?

Givens:

P = 250 psi
Temp = 500
o
F
t = 1.25
L = 70 inches
D
o = 40 inches


From UG-28 (c)Cylindrical Shells and Tubes. The required minimum thickness of a shell or a tube under
external pressure, either seamless or with longitudinal butt joints, shall be determined by the following
procedure.

(1) Cylinders having 10 values
t
Do
>
Testing to see if this paragraph applies:


101
32 =
1.25
40
=
t
Do


Step 1. Our value of D
o
is 40 inches and L is 70 inches. We will use these to determine the ratio of:
1.75 =
40
70
=
o D
L


Step 2. Enter the Factor A chart at the value of 1.75 determined above.

Step 3. Then move across horizontally to the curve D
o/t
= 32. Then down from this point to find the
value of Factor A which is .0045 .

Step 4. Using our value of Factor A calculated in Step 3, enter the Factor B (CS-2) chart on the bottom.
Then vertically to the material temperature line given in the stated problem (in our case 500
o
F).

Step 5. Then across to find the value of Factor B. We find that Factor B is approximately 13000.

Step. 6 Using this value of Factor B, calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure P
a

using the following formula:

)
t
D
3(
4B
= Pa
o


psi 541.66 =
96
52,000
=
3(32)
4x13,000
= P a


541.66 psi > 250 psi ANSWER: YES


102
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-28 Thickness Of Shells And Tubes Under External Pressure
Exercises

Use the previous instructions as a model to work these problems.

1. A vessel under external pressure has been found to a thickness of 1.123 ". The vessels is 8'-2" long and
operates at a temperature of 300
o
F. The vessels outside diameter is 54 inches. It is made of a material
with a minimum yield of 30,000 psi. Presently the external working pressure is 350 psi. May this vessel
continue to operate in accordance with the Code? Show all work and quote code paragraphs used.

Givens: Drawing:

P =
Temp.=
t =
L =
D
o
=






















103
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-20 Design Temperature

(a) Maximum

The maximum temperature used in design shall be not less than the mean metal temperature (through the
thickness) expected under operating conditions for the part considered [see 3-1(g)]. If necessary, the metal
temperature shall be determined by computation or by measurement from equipment in service under
equivalent operating conditions.

(b) Minimum

The minimum metal temperature used in design shall be the lowest expected in service except when lower
temperatures are permitted by the rules of this Division (see UCS-66). The minimum mean metal
temperature shall be determined by the principles described in (a) above. Consideration shall include the
lowest operating temperature, operational upsets, auto refrigeration, atmospheric temperature, and any
other sources of cooling [except as permitted in (f)(3) below].

(c) Design temperatures listed in excess of the maximum temperatures listed in the tables of Subsection C
are not permitted. In addition, design temperatures for vessels under external pressure shall not exceed
the maximum temperatures given on the external pressure charts.

(d) The design of zones with different metal temperatures may be based on their determined temperatures.

(e) Suggested methods for obtaining the operating temperature of vessel walls in service are given in
Appendix C.

(f) Impact testing per UG-84 is not mandatory for pressure vessel materials which satisfy all of the
following.

(1) The material shall be limited to P-No. 1, Gr. No. 1 or 2 and nominal thickness of:
(a) 1/2 inch for materials listed in Curve A of Figure UCS-66
(b) 1 inch for materials listed in Curve B, C, or D of Figure UCS-66

(2) The completed vessel shall be hydrostatically tested per UG-99(b), (c), or (k).

(3) Design temperature is no warmer than 650 degrees F and no colder than -20 degrees F.
Occasional operating temperatures colder than -20 degrees F are acceptable when due to
lower seasonal atmospheric temperature.

(4) The thermal or mechanical shock loadings are not a controlling design requirement.
(See UG-22)

(5) Cyclical loading is not a controlling design requirement.
(See UG-22)


104
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG- 22 Loadings

The loadings to be considered in designing a vessel shall include those from:

(a) internal or external design pressure (as defined in UG-21);

(b) weight of the vessel and normal contents under operating or test conditions (this includes
additional pressure due to static head of liquids);

(c) superimposed static reactions from weight of attached equipment, such as motors, machinery,
other vessels, piping, linings, and insulation;

(d) the attachment of:

(1) internals (see Appendix D);
(2) vessel supports, such as lugs, rings, skirts, saddles, and legs (see Appendix G);

(e) cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations, or from equipment
mounted on a vessel, and mechanical loadings;

(f) wind, snow, and seismic reactions, where required;

(g) impact reactions such as those due to fluid shock;

(h) temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion.


UG- 25 Corrosion

The user or his designated agent (design engineering firm) shall specify allowances other than those
allowed by the rules of this division. Any vessel subject to corrosion must have a suitable drain opening at
the lowest practical point in the vessel.
105

UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Overview

In the Code there are two types of Maximum Allowable Working Pressures (MAWP). One is for the
vessel itself; the one most think of and refer to all the time. The other is the one for each part of a vessel
referred to in UG-98 as the part MAWP. Think of it in this way: a vessel has a shell, heads, chambers,
nozzles, etc., and pressure allowed or thickness required calculations must be performed for each one to
determine the MAWP of the vessel. When doing these calculations, you cannot take credit for any extra
thickness designed into the vessel as a corrosion allowance. The weakest of the vessels parts, considering
loadings such as the static head of the contents, weight of insulation, wind, earthquakes, etc., will
determine the MAWP of the entire vessel. It is the weakest link in the chain. The pressure referred to
here can be internal or external.

The MAWP of a vessel is the pressure allowed in a vessel at its top in its normal operating position and
at its maximum operating temperature. The MAWP can be determined for more than one designated
operating temperature, using for each temperature the applicable allowable stress value.


Much More will be said about how to determine the vessel MAWP in the coverage of calculations for
Static Head in a vessel.


106
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-99 Standard Hydrostatic / UG-100 Pneumatic Test
Overview

The procedures for hydrostatic and pneumatic tests are contained in paragraphs UG-99 and UG-100.
These procedures have many similarities and some important differences. Both of these tests can be
applied to most vessels. The following are the highlights of each type of pressure test from the approach of
a welded repair to a vessel that been in service. These highlights are not meant to replace reading the
paragraphs.

Hydrostatic

1. If the test is required it shall be conducted after welded repairs.
2. The test pressure must at least be 1.3 times the MAWP
3. The test pressure shall be adjusted for lowest ratio of stresses.
4. Any non-hazardous fluid may be used if below its boiling point.
5. It is recommended that the metal temperature during hydro test be maintained at least 30
o
F
above MDMT to minimize the risk of brittle fracture. Testing fluid not to exceed 120
o
F
6. Following the application of hydro pressure a visual inspection shall
be performed at no less than the test pressure divided by 1.3.

Pneumatic
1. If the test is required it shall be conducted after welded repairs.
2. The welded repairs shall be subjected to the tests required by UW-50.
3. The test pressure must at least be 1.1 times the MAWP
4. The test pressure shall be adjusted for lowest ratio of stresses.
5. The metal must be maintained at least 30
o
F above MDMT.
6. The test pressure shall be raised at a gradual rate to not more than 1/2 the test pressure and then
raised by 1/10th of the test pressure until the test pressure is reached.
7. A visual inspection must be made at the test pressure divided by 1.1. The visual may be
waived if the requirements listed in UG-100 are met.

The following written procedures will help to clarify the process. The ratio of stresses adjusts for the
different strengths of materials at different temperatures. This will be explained during classroom
instruction.

107
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

API 510 4.4/UG-98/UG-99/UG-102

HYDROSTATIC TEST PROCEDURE

1. Calculate the test pressure using the rules of UG-98 and UG-99.

2. Any fluid in compliance with UG-99 may be used. The temperature of the testing fluid and the vessel
shell shall be as described in UG-99 and API 510.

3. Isolate openings as required by blinding.

4. Install a calibrated gage of the proper pressure range as described in UG-102 directly to the vessel. If
the gage is not readily visible to the operator controlling the applied pressure, an additional gage shall be
provided where it will be visible to the operator throughout the duration of the test.

5. If the test pressure will exceed the setting of lowest relief device, relief devices shall be removed ,
blinded or have test clamps installed.

6. Vents shall be provided at all high points to purge air while the vessel is being filled.

7. Before applying pressure, inspect all test equipment to insure it is tight and that low pressure filling lines
and other appurtenances that should not be subjected to the test pressure have been disconnected.

8. Warn all personnel in the area.

9. Slowly raise the vessel to the test pressure. Hold for an appropriate time based on vessel size.

10. Lower the vessel to the test pressure divided by 1.3 and make a visual inspection of all joints and
connections.


108
UG-99 Calculating Hydrostatic Test Pressure

Essentially when calculating the ratio of stresses you are determining the MAWP of the vessel in its cold
condition where the stress allowable is higher for its material of construction.

Problem: Calculate the required hydro test pressure for a vessel using the following conditions.

Material SA-516 Gr. 65
Design Temp. 700
o
F
Test Temp 85
o
F
MAWP 350 psi


Step 1: Determine the ratio of stresses for
SA-516 gr 65 for the test and design temperatures.

(a). From Table 1A Section II Part D.

Stress allowed at 700
o
F = 15,500 psi
Stress allowed at 85
o
F = 16,300 psi

(b) Per UG-99 the ratio equals
Temp. Design at Stress
Temp. Test at Stress


05 . 1
500 , 15
300 , 16
=

Step 2: Per UG-99(b) Test pressure equals

1.3 x MAWP x
Temp. Design at Stress
Temp. Test at Stress


1.3 x 350 psi x 1.05 = 477.75 psi

Answer 477.75 psi at the top of the vessel.

109
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

API 510 4.4/UG-98/UG-99/UG-102

PNEUMATIC TEST PROCEDURE

1. Prior to administering a pneumatic test, insure that the NDE of UW-50 for welded repairs has been
applied.

2. Calculate the test pressure using the rules of UG-98 and UG-100.

3. The metal temperature during pneumatic test shall be maintained at least 30
o
F above the minimum
design metal temperature to minimize the risk of brittle-fracture.

4. Isolate openings as required by blinding.

5. Install a calibrated gage of the proper pressure range as described in UG-102 directly to the vessel. If
the gage is not readily visible to the operator controlling the applied pressure, an additional gage shall be
provided where it will be visible to the operator throughout the duration of the test.

6. If the test pressure will exceed the setting of lowest relief device, relief devices shall be removed
,blinded or have test clamps installed.

7. Before applying pressure inspect all test equipment to insure it is tight and that low pressure filling lines
and other appurtenances that should not be subjected to the test pressure have been disconnected.

8. Warn all personnel in the area.

9. The pressure in the vessel shall be gradually raised to not more than one-half the test pressure.
Thereafter, the test pressure shall be increased in steps of approximately one-tenth of the test pressure until
the test pressure has been reached.

10. Lower the vessel to the test pressure divided by 1.1 and hold for a sufficient time to make a visual
inspection of all joints and connections.

110
UG-100 Calculating Pneumatic Test Pressure

Problem: Calculate the required pneumatic test pressure for a vessel using the following conditions.

Material SA-516 Gr. 65
Design Temp. 700
o
F
Test Temp 85
o
F
MAWP 350 psi


Step 1: Determine the ratio of stresses for
SA-516 gr. 65 for the test and design temperatures.

(a). From Table 1A Section II Part D.

Stress allowed at 700
o
F = 15,500 psi
Stress allowed at 85
o
F = 16,300 psi

(b) Per UG-100 the ratio equals

Temp. Design at Stress
Temp. Test at Stress


05 . 1
500 , 15
300 , 16
=

Step 2: Per UG-100(b) Test pressure equals

1.1 x MAWP x
Temp. Design at Stress
Temp. Test at Stress


1.1 x 350 psi x 1.05 = 404.25 psi


Finally apply the procedure given UG 100 for performing a pneumatic test!
111
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-100 Calculating Pneumatic Test Pressure

PROCEDURE FOR PNEUMATIC TEST

1. Slowly raise the pressure to approximately one-half 404.25 psi which equals 202.125

Next raise the pressure in steps of one-tenth of the test pressure.

2. 202.125 + 40.425 = 242.55 psi

3. 242.55 + 40.425= 282.975 psi

4. 282.975 + 40.425 = 323.40 psi

5. 323.40 + 40.425 = 363.825 psi

6. 363.825 + 40.425 = 404.25 psi

Last lower to the inspection pressure of 404.25/1.1 = 367.5 psi



UG-102 Test Gages
Overview

The Code has some definite requirements for the selection and uses of gages for the tests described in UG-
99 and UG-100. Directions for location, number of, range of and the calibration of the indicating gage(s)
is located in UG-102. The high points of UG-102 are below.

1. An indicating gage shall be connected directly to the vessel. If it is not readily visible to the operator of
the test equipment an additional gage shall be used which is visible to operator for the duration of the
test.

2. When doing large vessel pressure tests it is recommended to have a recording gage in addition to the
indicating gage.

3. Dial type indicating gages shall have a range of about double the maximum test pressure, but in no case
shall the range of the gage be less than 1 1/2 times nor more than 4 times the maximum test pressure.

4. Digital gages having a wider range may be used as long as they provide the same or greater accuracy of
the dial type.

5. All gages shall be calibrated against a standard deadweight tester or a calibrated master gage.

6. Gages must be calibrated any time their accuracy is in doubt.


112
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-99/100/102
Exercises

1. A vessel made of SA-240 304L plate is being hydrostatically tested after an alteration. The vessel's
MAWP is 225 psi at 400
o
F. The allowable stress at operating is 14,700 psi and 16,700 psi at the test
temperature.

Answer the following:

A. What is the required test pressure?
B. What is the least pressure the vessel can be inspected at?
C. In psi, what is the minimum and maximum range of the test gage?











2. A pneumatic test of a vessel will be conducted to a pressure of 310 psi. Describe the steps for raising
the vessel to the test pressure. At what pressure shall the visual examination take place?















113
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments At Openings

The fillet weld sizing of UW-16 can be solved in either of two ways. That is, you may determine if a fillet
weld leg size provides an adequate fillet weld throat size per Code or based on the thicknesses of the shell
and nozzle determine the minimum throat size required and convert that to leg size.

In the latter case, usually the leg size decimal value is rounded to the next fractional 1/16th inch.

In these examples we will work it both ways using the same shell and nozzle thicknesses. The examples
will be restricted to only Fig UW-16.1 (i).

Problem: A nozzle is being attached to a shell as shown in Fig. UW-16.1 (i) using two equal
size fillet welds. The shell's thickness is 7/8 in. and the nozzle's thickness is 1/2 inch. The fillet welds
are 3/8 inch in leg size. Does this meet Code?






114
Case 1.: Determine the minimum throat size

From Fig. UW-16.1(i) we are given that:

min 2 1 t
4
1
1 t + > t

And
min.
2 1
t .707 or
in.
4
1
of smaller the
than less not or t t




From the nomenclature of UW-16 we are given the following definitions:

t
min.
= the smaller of 3/4 in. or the thickness of the thinner of the two parts joined by a fillet weld.

t
1
and t
2
are the throat sizes of the welds as depicted in Fig. UW-16.1(i).



Step 1: Determine the throat size of a 3/8 in
leg size fillet weld.


Throat size equals .707 times leg size.
0.707 x 0.375 in. = .265 in. = t 1 or t2

Step 2: Determine t
min.


t
min.
= the smaller of 1/2 in or 3/4 in. So t
min.
= 1/2 in.

Step 3: Determine if min 2 1 t
4
1
1 t + > t

" 625 . .530"
.500" 25 . 1 .265" + " 265 .
>
> x


115
.530" is neither greater than or equal to .625". Therefore the first test fails and the throat size of the 3/8"
leg fillet weld is too small.

We could stop here and answer the question with a No! But let's
finish up with the second test of size required for an illustration of the
technique required.

Step 4: Test to see if:
min.
2 1
t .707 or
in.
4
1
of smaller the
than less not or t t


Not less than the smaller of .250 in. or .707 x 1/2 in. .

.707 x .500" = .265"

So not less than .250". Both t
1
and t
2
are .265".

.265 in. > .250 in. . Fillet welds are adequate in the second test. However a fillet weld size must pass both
tests!


Case 2.: Based on material thicknesses determine the minimum leg size of equal sized fillet welds to
the next 1/16th inch. In our problem thicknesses are 7/8 inch (shell) and 1/2 inch (nozzle). We have
already determined that 3/8 inch leg fillet welds are too small. So let's determine what size of equal
leg fillet welds are required rounded up to the next 1/16th inch.

116

This is a case where you are really coming in through the back door; that is to say, you are not checking to
see if an existing or proposed fillet weld leg size is large enough. You are in fact; determining the
minimum size for a thickness combination. The approach is to set up the formulas given in Fig. UW-
16.1(i) and determine the minimum values so as to make the shoe fit.

Step 1: Determine t
min.


t
min.
= the smaller of 1/2 in or 3/4 in.

So t
min.
= 1/2 in.

Step 2.: Determine .707 t min.

.707 x .500" = .353"

Step 3.: Determine 1 1/4 t
min.


1.25 x .500" = .625"

From Fig. UW-16.1(i) we are given that:
min 2 1 t
4
1
1 t + > t

And
min.
2 1
t .707 or
in.
4
1
of smaller the
than less not or t t


Let's stop and examine the formulas given above to make sure we understand what is being said. First, this
business of throat 1 plus throat 2. being greater than or at least equal to 1.25 times t min. . If that's the case,
then to figure out the minimum throat size of one equal sized fillet weld, we need only calculate 1.25 x t
min. and divide it by two. Next, what is really is being said in "t1 or t2 not less than the smaller of 1/4 in.
or .707 t min." is that the Code does not allow a fillet welds with a throat smaller than 1/4". This is to
prevent a very large fillet weld on one side and what amounts to a small seal weld on the other side. This
keeps the heat input balanced across the parts joined. A 1/4" throat requires a leg size of .353" about 3/8
inch..

A : .625/2 = .3125 So .3125 + .3125 = 1 1/4 t
min.


B : .3125 > .250 ( t1 or t2 minimum size is satisfied)

C : To convert throat to leg, divide the throat by .707
.3125/.707 = .4420 (Round up to the next 1/16 th inch).
6/16 th = .375 or 7/16 th = .4375 or 8/16 = .500
.4375 < .4420 < .500

Answer: minimum leg size is 1/2 inch.

117



API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UW-16 Weld Size Determination
Exercises

1. A fillet weld has a leg size of 1 1/8". What is its throat size?








2. A fillet weld has a throat size of .600". What is its leg size rounded up to the next fractional 1/16"?











118
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And Heads
Overview

UG-36 Openings in Pressure Vessels

The main things of interests in this paragraph to the API 510 inspector are the following:

All references to dimensions apply to the finished construction after deduction for material added as
corrosion allowance.

Openings not subject to rapid fluctuations in pressure do not require reinforcement other than that
inherent in the construction under the following conditions:

The finished opening is not larger than:

3 1/2"diameter in vessel shells or heads 3/8 in. or less in
thickness.

2 3/8 in. diameter in vessel shells or heads over 3/8 in. in
thickness.

No two isolated unreinforced openings, in accordance with the above shall have their centers closer to each
other than the sum of their diameters.

119
UG-37 Reinforcement Required for Openings in Shells and Formed Heads

For a good start on this paragraph you must become familiar with UG-37 (a) nomenclature. Read each of
the given symbols. Then compare the symbols with the drawing of Fig. 37.1, Nomenclature and Formulas
for Reinforced Openings. Classroom instructions if used, and example problems will address this lengthy
subject.

UG-40 Limits of Reinforcement

This paragraph tells the distance in any direction that can be count as reinforcement in your calculations.
This means that if a vessel wall has excess metal above that required by calculation, how far on each side
of the opening can you take credit for this extra metal as reinforcement? If a nozzle with excess thickness
is inserted into the hole, how much of the excess thickness in the inside projection can be counted as
helping add strength back to the vessel wall at the opening? Also considered is how much of the nozzle
excess thickness above the hole in the vessel can be counted as reinforcement for the opening.

UG-41 Strength of Reinforcement (This is informative only, you are not responsible for this on the exam)

Where the Code specifies that if you add reinforcement, such as a pad, that the pad must have a strength
that is equal to or greater than the material of the head or shell. If such metal is not available and a lower
strength material is used, a stress reduction must be taken during the calculations for reinforcement.

.857 =
psi 17,500 Vessel
psi 15,000 Repad
: Example Reduction Stress =
Stress Vessel
Stress Repad

After the above calculation, the stress reduction factor is multiplied times the actual area of the repad, and
the lesser area that is determined must be used in the calculations for reinforcement.

Example: Given: Reinforcement pad cross-sectional area equals 2 square inches and the stress reduction
factor equals .857. Find the area that may be used in reinforcement calculations.

.857 x 2 = 1.714 square inches

However, if the material used is stronger than the material being reinforced, no credit may be taken for the
higher strength material used as reinforcement. For the calculations you must use the strength of
reinforcement as being the same as the vessel or head being reinforced.
120
UG-42 Reinforcement of Multiple Openings

This paragraph addresses cases where the limits of reinforcement for more than one opening overlap each
other. Extra metal in a vessel above what is required to resist internal pressure can be counted toward
reinforcing an opening. The distance counted as reinforcement on each side of an opening (parallel to it) is
defined in UG-40. If two openings are close enough to each other that their limits overlap then special
consideration must be given to the reinforcement of both openings. If two openings are spaced closer than
two times their average diameters, it is not allowed to take double credit for extra wall thickness in the
overlapped area.




The extra wall thickness in the shaded area in the drawing above cannot be counted as helping reinforce
both the openings. It can be counted for one or the other but not both. The minimum spacing for the
openings above to avoid this situation is 4 in. . It must be divided between the two in proportion to the
ratio of the two opening's diameters. In this case, 50/50. If the openings where different diameters the
ratio of their openings would be calculated and the shade area split up accordingly.

The next situation involves more than two openings spaced closely together. In that configuration, the
minimum distance between any two of these openings shall be 1 1/3 times their average diameters and the
area of reinforcement between any two openings must be at least equal to 50% of the total area required for
the two openings. This means you are not allowed to set the openings too closely to each other and take
any credit for the shaded areas.

121
UG-42 Reinforcement of Multiple Openings

If the openings are closer together than permitted by UG-42(b), no credit is allowed for any of the metal
between the openings, and the reinforcement calculations must be performed as given in UG 42 (c) as
shown below. The nozzle wall thicknesses of the individual openings cannot be figured in as available
reinforcement. The calculation becomes one for a single larger hole. Again no credit is allowed for metal
between the individual openings or any of the nozzle thicknesses. Its just one big hole containing all the
other openings and its reinforcement will be the one calculated.

122
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-40/41/42/45
Exercises

1. A vessel opening is being reinforced with a pad. The pad has an allowable stress of 15,000 psi. The
vessel's wall has an allowable stress of 14,800 psi. What is the resulting ratio of stress to be used in the
pads area calculation?







2. A 6 in. nozzle is being added in a vessel wall next to an existing 4 in nozzle. What is the closest they
may be placed together with out overlapping their areas of reinforcement?







3. Three nozzles are to be installed such that they clustered so closely together that they are less than 1 1/3
their average diameters apart. How will the area of reinforcement be calculated?


123
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads

Openings that do not require reinforcement calculations are outlined in UG-36 (c) (3). All other openings
must have the rules of reinforcement applied. The rules of reinforcement are taken from paragraphs UG-
36 through UG-43. The limits where these rules apply are taken from UG-36 (b) (1).

The following is an outline for an approach to the understanding of reinforcement calculations. First, the
basic requirement is that around any opening in a vessel the vessel wall must be reinforced with an equal
amount of metal as was removed from the vessel wall required for pressure (thickness required).

This reinforcement may already exist in the form of excess wall thickness above that required to resist the
pressure. It may be found in the nozzle wall excess thickness or in the attachment welds. If it does not
meet the requirements considering the above mentioned excess thicknesses after corrosion allowance has
been removed then a reinforcement pad will be required.

At this point we are ready to begin applying all the rules which were given in the preceding paragraphs.
The following graphics depict the various areas that must be considered when performing reinforcement
calculations. Through this type of breakdown the concept can be better understood, this is of course an
oversimplification.

A. You may not need to replace all of the metal removed.

GIVEN AS A: The dark cross hatched area is the diameter of the finished opening multiplied times the
minimum thickness that is the required by the calculations of UG-27 for a shell or UG -32 if the opening is
in a head, etc.


B. The vessel and the nozzle walls usually have excess thickness above that required to resist pressure.
This excess thickness is counted toward reinforcement. Corrosion allowance cannot be included in areas
A1 or A2 below.

GIVEN AS A1 and A2. The shaded areas are the extra metal.



124
C. If the nozzle extends inside the shell, within certain limits this nozzle metal can be counted, less any
corrosion allowance. The API 510 exam body of knowledge has excluded inward projection from the test.

GIVEN AS A3


D. The welds used to attach the nozzle to the shell count as area available for reinforcement. Interior weld
area has been eliminated because the exam does not cover inward projections.

GIVEN AS A4 Out Side Fillet Only For Exam No Interior Projection on Exam!!!



E. The required cross-sectional area shall be the area of the shell or head required to resist pressure which
is given as A. If the sum of A1+A2+A4 is equal to or greater than A the opening is adequately reinforced
If not, more reinforcement must be added. Usually this will be in the form of a reinforcement pad. Its area
is found as follows.

A - (A1+A2+A4) = Area required for the repad.



This type of problem can get complicated very quickly because of the number of steps involved. However
the API 510 Exam Body of Knowledge has simplified this type of problem by doing this:

a. There will be no inward projection for the nozzle.

b. The nozzle will enter at 90 degrees to the shell or head.

c. The opening will not pass through a Category A weld.

d. Nozzles and shell will be of the same strength.

e. The required thicknesses of shells and nozzles will be given.

In the following example, the problem will be worked using those guidelines. Remember this type of
problem is worth no more than the simplest calculation possible on the exam. Plan your study time with
this in mind. The problem may not even be on the exam. Also, unless you are really comfortable with these
problems, it is best to do them last. They eat up a lot of time and you could find yourself rushing through
the remaining problems.
125
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And Heads

The API 510 Body of Knowledge has placed the following limits on reinforcement problems.

The inspector should:

a. Understand the key concepts of reinforcement.
Replacement of strength removed
Limits of reinforcement
Credit can be taken for extra metal in the shell and nozzle

b. Be able to calculate the required size of a reinforcement pad or
to assure a designed pad is large enough. To simplify the
problem:

1. All f
r
= 1.0
2. All F = 1.0
3. All E = 1.0
4. All required thicknesses are given
5. There will be no nozzle projecting inside the shell

The inspector should be able to compensate for corrosion allowance.
Weld strength calculations are excluded.

Although it has not been listed under reinforcement, sizing of the fillet
welds will probably be required since it is elsewhere in the material.

The best approach is to work a problem typical of what can be
expected and explain each aspect above as it is required to solve the
problem.

Problem:

A vessel made of SA-515-gr 70 rolled and welded plate is having a
6 inch NPS schedule 80 seamless nozzle added similar to Fig. UW-
16.1(a) with a fillet weld of 1/2" in leg dimension. The shell's actual
thickness is 7/8 inch. The nozzle's actual thickness is 0.432", and it has
an O.D. of 6.625". A corrosion allowance of .125" is required.
The following information has been provided by planning.
Does this design require a repad ? If so what is its required size?

Givens:
1. The required thickness of the shell is .690"
2. The required thickness of the nozzle is .033"
3. The nozzle will not pass through a vessel Cat A weld : E = 1.0
4. The nozzle will enter the vessel normal to the vessel wall : F = 1.0
5. The nozzle and shell are of the same strength or the nozzle has a greater strength: f
r
= 1.0
6. A corrosion allowance of .125" is required.
126

Drawing:


Step 1. Check the fillet weld throat size. The fillet weld throat in this
Figure of UW-16 is indicated as t
c.
In the nomenclature of
paragraph UW-16, t
c
is required to be not less than the smaller of 1/4"
or 0.707 t
min.
. Our t
min.
is the nozzle, which is .432".

.707 x .432" = .305" So t
c
can be no smaller than 1/4"(.250").

Since the throat size of a fillet weld is determined by multiplying
.707 times the leg size and our leg size is given as 1/2". We calculate
as follows.
.707 x .500" = .353". This is larger than .250", and the throat of
the fillet weld is adequate.

Step 2. Check to see if a corrosion allowance is specified. If so
it must be deducted from the actual thickness of the shell and
nozzle prior to calculations. Also the I.D of the nozzle must be
increase by two times the corrosion allowance. In our problem the
corrosion allowance is .125".

Shell actual t .875"
Corrosion - .125"
Shell t to be used .750" Adjusted for corrosion
Nozzle actual t .432"
Corrosion -.125"
Nozzle t to be used .307" Adjusted for corrosion

Nozzle I.D. = O.D.-2(wall t - c.a.)
Nozzle I.D. = 6.625-2(.432-.125)
Nozzle I.D. = 6.625-2(.307)
Nozzle I.D. = 6.625-.614 = 6.01" Adjusted for corrosion

Step 3. Set up the formulas of UG-37 using Fig. UG-37.1

A = d t
r
F +2t
n
t
r
F(1-fr
1
) Area required

= d(E
1
t-Ft
r
)-2t
n
(E
1
t-Ft
r
)(1-f
r1
)
A
1
OR Area available in shell; use larger
= 2(t+t
n
)(E
1
t-Ft
r
)-2t
n
(E1t-Ft
r
)(1-f
r1
)
127

= 5(t
n
-t
rn
)f
r2
t
A
2
OR Area available in the nozzle outward; use smaller
= 5(t
n
-t
rn
)f
r2
t
n

A
41 = Outward nozzle weld = (leg)
2
f
r2 Area of outward fillet


. reinforced adequately is Opening A A + A + A If 41 2 1 >


If the sum of all the areas are not equal to or greater than A; the area
required for the repad is found by subtracting the sum from A.

Repad of Area = ) A + A + A ( - A 41 2 1


Step 4. Make A Drawing:

Step 5. List Givens Adjusted for corrosion:

d = 6.01" diameter of the finished opening less corrosion
t = .750" actual thickness of the shell less corrosion
tr = .690" thickness required in the shell per UG-27(c)(1)
tn = .307" actual thickness of the nozzle less corrosion
trn =.033" thickness required in the nozzle per UG-27(c)(1)
E = 1.0 nozzle does not pass through any weld seam
F = 1.0 nozzle enters shell at 90 degrees to the shell
fr = 1.0 nozzle and shell stress allowables the same
Leg size = .500"

Step 6. Plug values into formulas and solve:

A = 6.01" x .690" x 1.0 + 2 x .307" x .690" x 1.0 x (1-1) Area required
A = 6.01" x .690" x 1.0 + 2 x .307" x .690" x 1.0 x (0) Area required
A = 6.01" x .690" x 1.0 + 0
A = 6.01" x .690" x 1.0 = 4.1469 square inches Area required

A
1
= 6.01"x (1.0 x .750"-1.0 x .690")-2t
n
(E
1
t-Ft
r
)(1-1) A
1
= 6.01"x (1.0 x .750"-1.0 x
.690")- 0
A
1
= 6.01"x (.750"- .690") = .3606 square inches
OR
A
1
= 2(.750"+.307")(1.0 x .750"-1.0 x .690")-2t
n
(E1t-Ft
r
)(1-1)
A
1
= 2(.750"+.307")(1.0 x .750"-1.0 x .690")-0
A
1
= 2(1.057")(.06) = .12684"
A
1
=Area available in shell; use larger = .3606 sq. inches
128

= 5(.307"- .033") 1.0 x .750"
= 5(.274") x .750" = 1.0275 square inches
A
2
= OR
= 5(.307"- .033") 1.0 x .307"
= 5(.274") x .307" = .42059 square inches

A
2
= Area available in the nozzle wall usr the lesser = .42059

A
41 = Outward nozzle welds = (.500)
2
x 1.0 = 0.250 Area of outward fillet.

A1+A2+A41 = .3606 + .42059 + .250 = 1.03119 < 4.1469 how large must the repad be?

4.1469 1.03119 = 3.1157 square inches.

129
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And Heads
Exercises

1. When calculating reinforcement, from what parts must a corrosion allowance be deducted (where)?







2. As regards reinforcement how is the area A found? State the formula.








3. How many points are reinforcement calculations worth on the exam? How many points is hydrostatic
test calculation worth on the exam?
130
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-84 Charpy Impact Tests

A major concern in vessel operations at low temperature is brittle failure of the material. This type of
failure is considered more serious than a ductile failure simply because it is sudden, giving little warning
(almost no bulging), and the material might shatter similar to broken glass. Impact testing is required to
determine if a material thickness at a given temperature is likely to fail in that manner. Put more directly,
the goal of impact tests is to prove it is unlikely to occur in the thickness/material combination being used
at a design pressure and minimum design metal temperature (MDMT). The term Low Temperature can be
misleading. When welded material thickness exceed 4 inches they are considered in low temperature
operation at a temperature below 120
o
F. Again the first conclusion drawn from UG-84 must be that the
tests are required.

For the API-510 candidate, impact testing applies to Part UCS Carbon and Low Alloy Steels of Sub-
Section C. These steels are susceptible to brittle fracture even at fairly high temperatures. It should be
concluded that impact tests are required on this material and their weldment. The only exemptions are
given in part UG-84 of the General Requirements and UCS-66, 67, 68 and in UG-20(f). The search for
exemptions for a given problem start in UG-20 (f) and then continue through paragraphs UCS-66, 67, and
68. This process will be covered in Part UCS of this course.

UG-84 states that impact test shall conform to the paragraphs of SA-370. This is a reference to a standard
listed at present on Table U-3 of Section VIII of Division I. Look up this table and read it; a question
could come from here. It outlines the test apparatus and procedures. The only kind of impact test
recognized by the Code is the Charpy V Notch type. The impact test specimens for a full size test are to be
as shown in Fig. UG-84.

The next consideration is that of the minimum absorbed energy for the impact test specimen. Figure UG-
84.1 is used to determine the value of absorbed energy required for a test specimen made of carbon and
low alloy steels. Notice it refers to those materials listed in Table UCS-23 and that the minimum specified
yield strength and thickness of material or weld in inches are crucial for determining impact absorbed
energy.

The impact testing of the parts of a vessel falls into two general categories, materials and welds. A general
statement can be made about these impact tests. If the base material being welded is required to be impact
tested, the weld metal and its weld heat affected zone probably will be required to be tested also. The weld
metal and heat affected zones are impact tested usually during the welding procedure qualification tests but
can be performed using a production impact plate ( an extension of a welded joint on part of the vessel cut
off to make the impact specimens).

The impact test specimen test plates must be subjected to same heat treatments as the vessel. The location
for removal of specimens from test plates is described in UG-84 (g). The thickness of a test plate
determines the number of test specimens required and also the location of their removal from the test plate.

For test plates 1 1/2 inch or less two sets of three (3) specimens must be taken. One set from the weld with
the notch located in the weld as shown in Fig. UG-84 and one set from the heat affected zone (HAZ) with
the notch located so that as much HAZ material as is possible is included in the resulting fracture.

For test plates over 1 1/2 inch three sets of three (3) are required. One set from the weld metal and one set
from the HAZ. A third set must be taken from the weld metal half way between the opposite side and the
center of the specimen. This places the second set of weld metal specimens about a quarter of the way in
from the opposite side of the first set.

The acceptance details for these impact tests are found in UG 84 (c)(5)(c)(6) and in the notes of Fig. UG-
84.1. Fig. UG-84.1 is used to determine the minimum acceptable absorbed energy for a set of test
specimens. To use Figure UG-84.1, the material thickness is found along the bottom of the chart. From
that point, move straight up to the line that represents the minimum yield of the material under
consideration, then left to the value of absorbed energy required to pass the test. This value is an average,
131
notes at the bottom of the chart require that no one specimen shall have an absorbed energy value less than
2/3 of the average required for all three.
132
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-84 Charpy Impact Tests
Exercises

1. What specification must impact testing procedures conform to?


2. What type of Impact Test does the Code recognize?


3. What are the dimensions of a standard Charpy Impact specimen?


4. How many specimens comprise a single set?


5. How many sets of specimens are required for a weld procedure test coupon 1 3/4 inches thick?

6. When welding a procedure test plate for impact testing what must the P No. and Group No. be? What
type of heat treatment must be applied to the test plate?


7. Name the two types of test specimens required for all welding procedures. Hint: Where do they come
from?


133
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UCS-66 Materials

Low temperature should always be a consideration when designing a vessel of carbon and low alloy steels
simply because low temperature is defined to be different temperatures for different metals and their
respective thicknesses. Example UCS-66 (3) states that if the governing thickness of a non-welded part
exceeds 6", and the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) is colder than 120 F, impact tested
materials shall be used. This example has been used to point out how relative the term low temperature is.
Turn your attention to figure UCS-66 Impact Test Exemption Curves. In this figure you will find a graph
and listing of carbon and low alloy steels. It is limited to 4 inches for welded construction. This is because
above 4 inches, welded construction must be impact tested. A good essay or multiple choice question
could be taken from this material. Understanding figure UCS-66 is essential.

Figure UCS-66.1, titled Reduction of Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT), without impact
testing allows for the reduction of the MDMT when a material in tension is being used below the
maximum allowable design stress of that material.

UCS-67 Impact Testing Of Welding Procedures

UCS-67 details three cases where impact tests shall be made on carbon and low alloy steel welds when
qualifying the a low temperature welding procedure. This is done if impact tests are required for the base
metal.

UCS-68 Design

Design rules for carbon and low alloy steels stipulate requirements as to how construction will be
performed. The main points are: mandatory joint types, required post weld heat treatments below -50 F
and their exemptions. Also notice a reduction of 30 F below that of Figure UCS-66 for P-1 materials if
post welded heat treatment is performed when it is not otherwise required.
134
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Impact Testing Exemptions
Overview

The first paragraph of UG-84 states that impact testing is required of all weldments, aterials, etc., that
required to be tested in Subsection C. From this point, the search begins to see if a material or weld is
required to be impact tested. The goal is to find an exemption. The search will begin in UG-20(f) and
progress through UCS 66, 67 and 68. If no exemption is found impact tests are required. The best
approach is to list these by steps.

UG-20
Step 1. UG-20(f)

UG-20(f) lists an exemption from impact testing for materials that meet
ALL of the following requirements.

1. Material is limited to P No. 1 Gr. No. 1 or 2 and the thicknesses don't exceed the
following:
(a) 1/2 in. for materials listed in Curve A of Fig. UCS-66;
(b) 1 in. for materials from Curve B, C or D of Fig. UCS-66.

2. The completed vessel shall be hydrostatically tested
(Pneumatic test is not permitted for this exemption)

3. Design temperature is no warmer than 650
o
F nor colder than
-20
o
F

4. The thermal or mechanical shock loadings are not controlling design

5. Cyclical loading is not a controlling design requirement.

UCS-66 Materials
Step 2. UCS-66 (a)

Turn your attention to Fig. UCS-66 Impact Test Exemption Curves and Table UCS-66. The
Graph and Table are used to determine the minimum temperature a material thickness can be operated at
without mandatory impact testing. The graph has four curves: A, B, C and D. In Fig. UCS-66 along with
the graph is a listing of carbon and low alloy steels. This listing of materials is used to determine the curve
on the Graph or in the Table for a given material. After finding the curve for the material, there are two
choices. Use the graph of Fig. UCS 66 or the Table UCS 66 to determine the minimum temperature for a
given thickness. It is recommended to use the Table. The Table and the Graph are the same. The Table is
a lot easier to use with accuracy. USE THE TABLE. If the material thickness is operated at or above the
temperature listed in Table UCS-66, impact tests are not required. If the material thickness is to operate
below the given minimum temperature, impact testing is required. The temperature found in the table is
the MDMT of that material thickness without Impact Testing being required.

Step 3. UCS-66(b)

When a material in tension is being used at some stress value below its allowable design stress at the
MDMT, a reduction in temperature is permitted This reduction is subtracted from the given temperature
for the material in Table UCS 66. If after taking the reduction, the resulting temperature is colder than the
minimum design metal temperature desired for the vessel, impact testing is not required. This is called the
coincident Ratio. When a material is operating at a relatively high temperature it has lower stress allowed
than at room temperature. Many vessels operate alternating between elevated and low temperatures. The
lower stress allowed at the elevated temperature will require thicker material than needed at the lowest
temperature.
135

The thicknesses required for the two temperatures can be different, and normally the thickness required for
the vessel is determined using the higher temperature stress allowed. So if at the lower temperature and
often lower pressure we have extra wall thickness we can take credit for. How much is determined by
calculating the coincident Ratio, then entering Fig. UCS-66.1 at the calculated Ratio? Normally on the
API 510 Exam, the Ratio is stated, and then all that is required is to apply the graph of Fig.UCS-66.1.

If the vessel is in a fixed stationary position and its coincident Ratio is below 1.0, the reduction allowed by
UCS-66(b) and Fig. UCS-66.1 may be taken only when the following is true.

(b)(1): The MDMT is - 50
o
F or warmer.
If the MDMT is colder than - 50
o
F.
(b)(2): Impact testing is required of all materials unless (b)(3) applies.
If the MDMT is colder than - 50
o
F but no colder than - 150
o
F and the coincident Ratio
of stress is equal to or less than 0.4.
(b)(3): Impact testing is not required.

UCS-68 Design
Step 4.

UCS-68(a) Design rules for carbon and low alloy steels stipulate requirements about construction of the
vessel or part. The main points are: mandatory joint types, required post weld heat treatments below -50 F
unless the vessel is installed in a fixed (stationary) location, and the coincident Ratio of stress is less than
0.4 .

UCS-68(b) Welded joints must be postweld heat treated when required buy other rules of this Division or
when the MDMT is colder than - 50
o
F and for vessel installed in a fixed (stationary) location the
coincident Ratio is 0.4 or greater.

UCS-68(c) Notice a reduction of 30
o
F below that of Figure UCS-66 for P-1 materials if post welded
heat treatment is performed when it is not otherwise required in the Code. This means that 30
o
F can be
subtracted from the temperature found in Table UCS-66. If the adjusted temperature is below that desire,
Impact Tests are not required. It is exempt. If a statement about heat treatment is made in a particular
problem the task becomes finding out if heat treatment was required or not. If it is not mentioned, it must
be concluded that it was not performed and therefore the exemption cannot be taken.

Givens:

Material SA-516-70 normalized PLATE
Thickness 2"
Min. Yield 38 KSI
MDMT -25F
coincident Ratio = .85

Step 1 Check for the exemptions of UG-20(f).

Our material applies to Curve D of Figure UCS-66 and exceeds the 1" limit for exemption. It also exceeds
the upper and lower temperature limits of 650
o
F and - 20
o
F.

Step 2 Checking Table UCS-66 and entering at our thickness on the left and moving across to
Curve D column, we find the MDMT of this thickness to be 4 F. This exemption does not apply.

136
Step 3 Check reduction or MDMT for coincident Ratio

Enter the Figure UCS-66.1 at 0.85 and across to the curve, then down to read a temperature reduction
permitted of 15F.

The reduction of MDMT is 15F.

- 4F
- 15F
- 19F

New MDMT allowed without impact tests is - 19
o
F. Our MDMT will need to be - 25F so we are not
exempted.

Step 4 Checking UCS-68, we find that we cannot take a reduction because PWHT is a
requirement of UCS-56 for this material's thickness.

Answer: Impact tests are required for the values of the MDMT of - 25F.


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API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-20/UCS-66/68
Exercises

1. Name four steps (paragraphs) when looking for exemptions from impact testing.





2. When are impact tests always mandatory for welded joints?





3. When are impact tests always mandatory for nonwelded parts?





4. What is the minimum design temperature allowed for a 1 1/2 in thick plate of SA-515 Gr. 70?



5. If the coincident Ratio is 0.6 for the plate of question number 4 what is it new minimum temperature
with out impact tests?


138
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-77 Material Identification
Overview

The material for pressure parts must be handled in a particular way per the Code. For instance, the Code
specifies that materials for parts of a vessel should be laid out and marked in such a way as to easily
maintain trace ability after the vessel is completed.

Several techniques for identification markings are allowed and are described in this paragraph. Stamping
is the preferred method of marking vessel parts; however, as built drawings and tabulation sheets are also
acceptable. The manufacturer must maintain trace ability to the original markings. For instance, when
cutting parts for the vessel from plate the heat number stamped on the piece of plate should be transferred
prior to cutting the plate. They may be transferred immediately after cutting if a provision for control of
such transfers has been made in the Manufacturer's Quality Control System. If a particular material should
not be die stamped, plates must be made and attached with the required markings. A record of these
markings must be maintained which will allow positive identification of the vessel parts after construction.

If a Code vessel manufacturer buys parts that are formed, such as heads, from another, the manufacturer of
the head shall transfer the markings as applies to the material specification that the part is made from. The
part manufacturer can use only materials allowed by the Code. In addition, the part Manufacturer must
supply a Partial Data Report. A Manufacturer's Partial Data Report is not required if the part was formed
or forged, etc., without the use of welding. The markings of the Part Manufacturer must be present on the
part.
139
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-93 Inspection of Materials
Overview

The highlights of this paragraph are as follows:

1. Plate is the only pressure vessel material that must always have a Mill Test Report (MTR)or Certificate
of Compliance (C of C) provided. The inspector shall examine these documents for compliance to the
material specification.

2. All other product forms must be marked in accordance with their material specification. For example,
pipe marked SA-106 gr. B.

3. All materials to be used in a vessel must be inspected before fabrication to find as best as is possible
defects, which would affect the safety of the vessel. The following describes the inspections required.

a. Cut edges of and parts made from rolled plate for serious laminations, shearing cracks, etc.

b. Materials, which will be impact tested, must be examined for surface cracks.

c. When forming a Category C corner joint as shown in fig. UW 13.2 with flat plate thicker than
1/2 in., the flat plate must be examined before welding by magnetic particle or dye penetrant
nondestructive examination. Exceptions from this NDE are given for certain joints of fig. UW-
13.2 .

d. The inspector must assure himself that thickness and other dimensions of the material comply
with the requirements of this Division.

e. The inspector must verify welded repairs to defects.

f. The inspector must verify that all required tests have been performed and are acceptable
(impact tests, NDE etc.).

g. The inspector must confirm material I.D.'s have been properly transferred.

h. The inspector must confirm that there are no dimensional or material defects, perform internal
and external inspections and witness pressure tests.
140
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-116 Required Marking
Overview

The marking applied to a vessel's nameplate or directly to its shell are described in this paragraph. It is
important information. Often a vessel's Data Report is lost and the only information that is available is that
found on the Name Plate or the shell itself. In some cases the Name Plate is missing or sand blasted and
not readable. The following is a listing of what is required by the Code to be present on the Name Plate.

1. The official Code U or UM symbol. If inspected by the Owner/User of the vessel the word USER shall
be marked on the vessel.
2. Name of the manufacturer preceded by the words "Certified by ".
3. Maximum allowable working pressure psi at
o
F.
4. Minimum design metal temperature
o
F at psi.
5. Manufacturer's serial number.
6. Year built.
7. The type of construction used for the vessel must be marked directly under the Code symbol by the use
of the appropriate letter as listed in the Code.
Type of Construction Letter(s)

Arc or gas welded W
Pressure welded (except resistance) P
Brazed B
Resistance welded RES

8. If a vessel is built using more than one type of construction all shall be indicated.
9. If a vessel is in a special service the lettering as shown below must be applied.
Lethal Service L
Unfired Steam Boiler UB
Direct Firing DF
Non-stationary Pressure Vessel NPV

10. The MAWP must be based on the most restrictive part of the vessel.
11. When a complete vessel or parts of a vessel of welded construction have been radiographed in
accordance with UW-11, the marking must be as follows:

"RT 1" when all pressure retaining butt welds, other than B and C associated with nozzles and
communicating chambers that neither exceed NPS 10 nor 1-1/8 inch thickness have been radiographically
examined for their full length in a manner prescribed in UW 51, full radiography of the above exempted
Category B and C butt welds if performed, may be recorded on the Manufacturer' Data Report.

"RT 2" Complete vessel satisfies UW-11(a)(5) and UW- 11(a)(5)(b) applied.

"RT 3" Complete vessel satisfies spot radiography of UW-11(b).

"RT 4" When only part of the vessel satisfies any of the above.

12. The letters HT must be used when the entire vessel has been postweld heat treated.
13. The letter PHT when only part of the vessel has been postweld heat treated.
14. Code symbol must be applied after hydro or pneumatic test.
15. Parts of vessels for which Partial Data Report are required shall be marked by the parts manufacturer
with the following:
"PART"
Name of the Manufacturer
The manufacturer's serial number.

These requirements do not apply to items like manhole covers, etc.
141
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-119 Nameplates

Overview

In this paragraph are the details of nameplates, including such things as the size and methods of markings
allowed. The nameplate must be located within 30 in. of the vessel and must be thick enough to resist
distortion when stamping is applied. The types of acceptable attachment types include welding, brazing,
and tamper resistant mechanical fasteners of metal construction. Adhesive attachments may be used if the
provisions of Appendix 18 are met. An additional nameplate may be used if it is marked with the words "
DUPLICATE " . On previous tests some essay or multiple choice questions have come from this
paragraph. As with all paragraphs UG-119 should be read entirely.

CODE SYMBOL Certified by
Johns Trailer and Vessel Welding
U 350 psi at 300
o
F
W MAWP
HT
RT 1 -20
o
F @ 200 psi
L
MDMT

S/N 0000001

Year 1994



You could be asked for the definition of any of these stampings.
142
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-120 Data Reports
Overview

Data Reports must prepared on form U-1 or U-1A for all vessels that the Code Symbol will be applied to.
The Manufacturer and the Inspector must sign them. A single Data Report may represent all vessel made
in the same day production run if they meet all of the requirements listed in UG-120.

A copy of the Manufacturer's Data Report must be furnished to the User and upon request the Inspector.
The Manufacturer must either keep a copy of the Data Report on file for 5 years or register the vessel and
file the Data Report with the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.

A Manufacturers Certificate of Compliance must be completed on form U-3 for all UM (unfired miniature)
stamped vessels.

A Partial Data Report form U-2 or U-2A must be completed for parts of a vessel that require one ( parts
bought from other manufacturers such as formed heads made with welding). These forms must be attached
to forms U-1 or U-1A as applies for the vessel to be marked with the Code Symbol..

A Partial Data Report form U-2 or U-2A must be completed for parts of a vessel that are ordered to repair a
User's vessel.

If a vessel has any special service requirements (Lethal, Unfired Steam Boiler, etc.) compliance must be
indicated on the appropriate "U" Form.
143
API 510 Module
SECTION IX PART QW

Article I. Welding General Requirements
Overview

Since this article covers the requirements in general terms it is often given just cursory attention or skipped
altogether. This is a mistake for anyone wishing to be competent in applying this section of the ASME
Code.

It is mandatory to read every article of Section IX in order to apply the code rules and since many
questions on an exam could come from this article alone, it should not be overlooked. As an example, the
purposes of a welding procedure are given in paragraph QW-100.1. In the very next paragraph, welders
performance qualification tests are addressed. In QW-100.3 it is stated that a Welding Procedure
Specification written and qualified in accordance with the rules of Section IX may be used in any
construction built to the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or the ASME B-31
Code for Pressure Piping. In the next paragraph you are cautioned that other Sections of the Code state the
conditions under which Section IX requirements are mandatory, in whole or in part.

Also in QW-120, QW-130 and QW-132 of this article, test positions are listed with written definitions and
references to Article IV where illustrations of these positions are to be found.

Types and purposes of tests are addressed in the paragraphs of QW-141.1 through QW-141.5, and all the
subsequent paragraphs up and including QW-180 contain explanations of the various tests and
examinations required. Acceptance criteria are listed for each type of test described with the one exception
being the Notch Toughness Tests of QW-170. A notch toughness tests acceptance requirements are found
in the construction Code that mandated the tests.

Beginning with QW-190, other types of tests and examinations are listed, most notable for the exam being
the radiographic and liquid penetrant examinations. Here you are referred to Section V articles 2 and 6
respectively for technique. The acceptance standards of QW-191.2 and QW-195.2 respectively must be
met for the examinations.
144
API 510 Module
SECTION IX PART QW

Article II. Welding Procedure Qualifications
Overview

In the QW-200.1 paragraphs you are given the definition of a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS);
what its contents must consist of, as well as what changes may be made with out re-qualifying the WPS.
Also, here you are directed that the format may be of any form desired as long as every essential,
nonessential and supplementary essential variable (when required) is included or referenced as outlined in
QW-250 through QW-265. That statement permits the use of any computer generated WPS or PQR forms
along with any other method the Code user may desire to use. Remember however all of the variables
listed for a given process must be addressed correctly.

In the paragraphs of QW-200.2 the same type of information for the Procedure Qualification Record
(PQR) is listed as was given for a WPS in the previous paragraph, starting with the definition. As in the
WPS, you are given the required contents for a PQR. We are told that changes in a PQR are not permitted
except for editorial changes such as the recording of a P-Number incorrectly when filling out the original
PQR. Addendum is permitted if it meets the definitions as given in this paragraph. Examples of permitted
addendum are given to clarify its meaning. Finally, we are instructed that it is possible to have multiple
WPS s with one PQR (done by adjusting non-essential variables on the WPS to suit production) and also to
have multiple PQRs with one WPS (done by supporting different essential variables by using multiple
PQRs). According to the above paragraphs WPSs must contain all variables both essential and non-
essential. PQRs are required to address only essential variables. Placing only essential variables on a PQR
is not usually done in actual practice, but that is possible in the simplest of welding procedures.

QW-200.3 gives the purpose and an explanation of the use of P-Numbers. It is stated here that a P-
Number is assigned to base metals dependent on characteristics such as composition, weldabilty, and
mechanical properties where it can logically be done. Group Numbers are introduced here, stating that
Group Numbers are assigned among P-Numbers to classify the metals for procedure qualification where
notch toughness requirements (impact tests such as Charpy V-notch) are specified. You are also
cautioned here that these assignments do not imply that base metals within a P-Number may be
indiscriminately substituted.

The combination of welding procedures is permitted as given in paragraph QW-200.4. That is to say,
more than one WPS can be used in a production joint, and they may include one or a combination of
processes. QW-451 is referenced to make sure the reader is aware that limitations are placed on the base
metal thickness and the deposited filler metal thickness of each procedure.

The types of tests required to qualify a procedure are given in paragraphs QW-202.1 through QW-202.5.
Referenced therein are mechanical tests, groove and fillet welds, weld repair, dissimilar base metal
thickness and stud welding. In each of the paragraphs, other QW paragraphs are referenced for details and
exceptions that might exist.

QW-203 states that unless required otherwise by welding variables of QW-250, a qualification in any
position qualifies the procedure for all positions. So, most PQR s can be performed on plate since the goal
is to prove that the metal or metals can be successfully joined as opposed to proving the skills of a welder
or welding operator.

Beginning with QW-250, welding variables are specified with an explanation of each type. Please notice
the definitions of essential and nonessential variables given in QW-251.2 and QW-251.3 Welding
Variables Procedure Specifications (WPS) start at QW-252 and end at QW-265. These paragraphs are in
tabular form and cover the different welding processes recognized in Section IX. Within these tables for
each process are lists of variables, and whether or not they are essential, nonessential or supplementary
essential. These paragraphs in tabular form are labeled as Brief of Variables and reference where in the
other code paragraphs of QW-400 the specific requirements and definitions can be found.
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API 510 Module
SECTION IX PART QW
Article III. Welding Performance Qualifications
Overview

This article lists the welding processes separately, with the essential variables which apply to welder and
welding operator performance qualifications.

In QW-300.2, the responsibility for the qualification of welders and welding operators is placed on the
manufacturer and/or contractor. One important fact given is that if two companies of different names are
actually part of one organization, then one company may control the welder and welding operator
qualifications. That is so long as this condition is included in the quality control system of the companies
and all other requirements of Section IX are met.

Starting with QW-301, tests required for welders and operators are addressed. This includes the intent of
such tests, the extent of testing, identification of individual welders along with the records required for
such tests.

QW-302 calls out the type of tests. They are mechanical or radiographic, and in QW-302.3, the location
and removal of pipe test coupons for mechanical tests are described.

Next in this series is QW-303 where limits of qualified positions and diameters are located. You are
immediately directed to the paragraphs of section QW-461, which has the graphics defining positions.

QW-303.1 through QW-303.4 gives details of weld positions and the limits of qualifications for each.

Welder qualifications to weld to various WPS s and limitations on qualification by radiography are to be
found in QW-304. Specifics of examination for welders begin in QW-304.1. It says that welds made in
test coupons may be radiographed or have bend tests performed. Alternatively, a six-inch length of the
first production weld made by the welder being examined may be qualified by radiography.

In QW-304.2, failure to meet radiographic standards is discussed. If a production welder's test is flunked,
the entire production weld made by the welder being tested must be radiographed and repaired by a welder
who is qualified.

QW-305 through QW-305.2 is a description of how welding operators are examined and qualified. It's
essentially the same as QW-304, with the length of the production radiograph being 3 feet instead of 6
inches.

In QW-305 the combining of welding processes requires that the welder be qualified either for each
individual process or by the actual combining of the processes in one test coupon. Two or more welders
can be qualified by a single test coupon each using the same or different processes. Each welder will be
limited for thickness of deposited weld metal as given in QW-452. Failure of any portion of a combination
test constitutes failure of the entire combination. All this is to be found in QW-306.

QW-310 to QW-310.3 are concerned with test coupons and welding groove welds with or with out
backing.

In QW-320 retest and renewal of qualifications are divided into two categories. Immediate retest by
mechanical or radiographic means, and retest after further practice

QW-321.1 outlines the mechanical tests and basically says the welder will make two consecutive test
coupons for every position he failed, all of which must pass the test requirements. Retest by radiography is
laid out in QW-321.2. How to handle situations dealing with further training is found in QW-321.3.

Renewal of a welder's qualification for a process is mandatory when he has not used the process for the
time limits as given in QW-322.1 (a) and (b).

The QW-350 paragraphs have all of the variables for welders and here you will find what changes to his
essential variables will require a welder to re-qualify. These tabular paragraphs are similar to those of the
Article II for welding processes using a Brief of Variable and a referenced paragraph that follows.

146


API 510 Module
SECTION IX PART QW

Article IV. Welding Data
Overview

This article contains within it all of data for the variables that pertain to Welding Procedure Specifications
and Welder Performance. These include joints, base metals, filler metals, preheat, postweld heat treatment
and electrical characteristics.

By using the tabular paragraphs and reading the written paragraphs they reference, requirements for a
welding procedure or a welder's performance test can be interpreted. Since metals are given P-Numbers
and their P-Numbers greatly affect their applications, they are listed by P-Number; for qualification in the
tabular forms of paragraph QW-422 which is 52 pages long.

In QW-423.1, it is given that base material for welder's qualification to a WPS may be substituted with a
different base material, and lists the permissible substitutions.

QW-430 starts the F-numbers for electrodes and welding rods, these paragraphs are also in tabular form.

QW-440 addresses weld metal chemical composition. As can be seen there are 12 A-Numbers. As the A-
Number must be listed on the WPS, one should become acquainted with A-Numbers. However Section IX
does not provide information on how to determine the A number. Section II part C Filler Materials must
be consulted for determination of the number. For reference when performing a WPS review on the exam
just remember it can not be omitted. An A number must listed, you will have no way of determining if it is
the correct one for the filler metal listed on the WPS/PQR. Testing on this aspect has been dropped from
the exam.

The remaining paragraphs of Article IV deal with thickness limits for tension and bend tests, diameter
limits, fillet welds, test specimens and their order of removal. Also given are the configurations of test jigs.
In short, Article IV is where you will be constantly sent for the data required of weld tests in accordance
with the ASME Code.

Remember that it is possible to write a perfectly good welding procedure using Section IX that will not
meet one of the construction codes. An important paragraph for understanding Section IX is QW-492
"Definitions", if in doubt go here first for clarification. Lastly, non-mandatory appendix A has sample
forms that list the necessary information for the WPS, PQR and WPQ.
147
API 510 Module
SECTION IX PART QW
Welding Procedure Specification
Overview

In all welding procedures there are three types of variables. The first being the essential variable which is a
variable that if changed will cause a change in the mechanical properties of the weldment. Any time an
essential variable is changed outside of the range given in the WPS, the procedure must be re-qualified by
welding a new coupon and mechanical testing. You must generate a new PQR!

The second type is the nonessential variable. Changes in these can be made without re-qualification of the
WPS (which would require the welding and testing a new coupon i.e. a new PQR);

HOWEVER, THE WPS MUST BE REVISED TO REFLECT THESE CHANGES. For example the
addition or deletion of particular groove design would be changing a non-essential variable. As such this
change would require the revision of the WPS or the writing of an entirely new one as suits the users
needs.

Lastly, the supplementary essential variables need only be given if the weld must have specific impact
properties for low temperature service. If supplementary essential variables are required they automatically
become essential variables and must be handled the same as any other essential variable. That is to say all
required testing (including impact testing) must be done to qualify the WPS. The API 510/570 Body of
Knowledge has excluded supplementary essential variables from the exam. There will be no further
discussion of this type of variable.

The purpose of this portion of instruction is not to teach every welding process recognized by the ASME
Code. It will concentrate on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding process, which will serve as an example for
all of the procedures that could be on the API 510/570 exam. The Body of Knowledge allows that the
WPS/PQR may use SMAW, GTAW, GMAW (FCAW is a subset of GMAW) or SAW. Since all WPSs are
reviewed in the same manner learning the review method for the SMAW process will serve to teach all
processes.

The way to understand how WPSs are created is to turn to Article II. In our case, specifically to paragraph
QW-253 (SMAW). Here the essential, supplementary essential and nonessential variables are given. As
can be seen, there are several variables to be dealt with. When a WPS is written every variable listed must
be included whether or not it is essential, supplementary essential (not required for the exam) or
nonessential.

Joints

There are no essential or supplementary essential variables given for the joint category. However, we do
have four (4) nonessential variables. As stated above, all variables (when required) must be included in
the WPS. Our first variable, which pertains to joints, is groove design.

Groove Design

Looking in the box labeled joints, we see that information on grooves may be found in paragraph QW-
402.1. A change in groove design allowed from double vee to single vee can be made with only a revision
in the WPS, or alternatively writing a new WPS changing only the groove design and using the same PQR
to support the new or revised WPS.

If you specify "U" groove on the WPS, you must use only U grooves in production or revise the WPS to
reflect the new groove. Also, you must use a U groove when performing the PQR. Although the PQR
need not list any of the nonessential variables, the signature of the manufacturer's representative is
testament to using one of the grooves listed on the WPS. Again this is for test purposes only, normally one
does list by sketch at least the groove design used. Backing: The deletion of backing is a nonessential
variable specified in QW-402.4. If we do not want to place unnecessary restrictions on ourselves we can
state this variable as being "With Or Without Backing"; or simply place X's in both blocks. Root Spacing:
Here again this is a nonessential variable. Do not leave this blank e.g. 1/32to 1/16. Retainers: "With or
without" is appropriate. Don't leave it blank. If you are not going to use retainers you should so indicate.
"No retainers allowed or if you will Ceramic retainers allowed etc..".
148
Base Metals

In this category there are no nonessential variables. There are only essential and supplementary essential
variables. Supplementary essential variables apply only when impact properties are required (which are
not on the exam). This put restrictions on the base metal material that can be qualified with any one PQR.
It also puts restrictions on the base metal thickness range that can be qualified when running a PQR.

Group Number: A change in a group number becomes an essential variable when impact properties are
required of the base material (since this is a supplementary variable it need not be addressed on the exam).

T Limits Impact: In QW-403.6 the minimum thickness ranges qualified by impact testing is called out
(again a supplementary variable not on the exam).

T/t Limits > 8 in.: This is the first essential variable in the base metal category. It becomes effective when
trying to qualify welds greater than 8 inches in thickness (has never been an issue on the exam).

Change in T Qualified: Essentially it stipulates that the welding procedure depending on the thickness of
the coupon used in the PQR is qualified for a range of base metal thickness. If base metal thickness goes
beyond that qualified, a new PQR will be required.

t Pass > 1/2 in.: This variable speaks to weld passes that deposit a single pass weld metal layer greater than
inch in thickness. When weld metal is deposited in a thickness greater than within a single pass, the
WPS has a different qualified thickness range than one made with passes less than . A thickness pass
greater than limits the base metal qualified to 1.1x T, where T is the thickness of the PQR test coupon.
As you will later see in QW-451.1 most procedures will have a maximum thickness range qualified of 2
times the Test Coupon (T) for example 2 x T. Therefore a coupon would yield a maximum thickness of
1 under normal circumstances.

Change in P-No.: Any change in P-Numbers requires re-qualification of the procedure.

Change in P-No 9/10: Here we find changing from P-No. 9A to P-No. 9B is considered a change but not
the reverse. For the P-Nos. 5A, 5B, 5C and P-Nos. 10A, 10B, 10C a change from one to the other is
essential and would require re-qualification by the welding of a new PQR coupon and testing it.

Filler Metals

In the filler metal category, all three types of variables apply. The first two have to do with chemistry and
the types of electrodes used in the welding process. The F Number is a grouping of electrodes that have
similar characteristics in the way that they produce mechanical properties. Deposition is also similar among
f-numbers. A-Numbers define chemical limitations and all electrodes that fall under the same A-Number
have similar chemical properties. A-Number applies only to ferrous materials.

Change in F-number: Requires re-qualification of the procedure.

Change in A-Number: Requires re-qualification of the procedure, except as given in QW-404.5, which
says that A-No. 1 and A-No. 2 can be exchanged. How the A number is determined is detailed in QW-
404.5

Change in Diameter: Since this is a nonessential variable changing it does not demand re-qualification of
the procedure. However, you should revise the WPS to reflect the change.

Change in Diameter > 1/4 in.: This is listed as a supplementary essential variable. It says that if impact
properties are necessary and an electrode of greater than 1/4 inch is used, that size electrode must be
qualified for impact properties in the weld (once again not on the test).

Change in AWS Class: Requires re-qualification as a supplementary variable if impact properties are
required. This is an SFA number given in Section II of the ASME Code.

Change in t: A change in the thickness of deposited weld metal beyond the range qualified. This comes
into play when more than one class of filler metal is used during the PQR coupon welding.

149
Change in AWS Class: This is a nonessential variable where impact properties are not required. It must
be addressed on the WPS however.
150
Position

There are three variables listed for position. Notice that unless impact properties are required position is a
nonessential variable.

Addition of a Position: Nonessential but the WPS must be revised if one position is given then another is
used in production.

Change in Position: A supplementary essential variable (not on the test), which becomes essential when
impact properties are required. Specifically when you change from any position to vertical uphill
progression. Also if changing from a stringer bead in the vertical uphill to a weave bead. Either will require
re-qualification of the procedure.

Preheat

There is one essential variable, one supplementary essential, and one nonessential variable listed in this
category.

Decrease > 100 degrees: If a procedure is qualified at a given preheat, a reduction of that preheat by
greater than 100 degrees in production requires re-qualification of the WPS. If the PQR used 350
o
F WPS
will use 249
o
F re-qualification would be required.

Preheat Maintenance: This is the continuance of preheat temperature after the completion of welding.
Will preheat be maintained for a given time or will the weld be allowed to cool in air and not monitored?

Increase > 100 degrees:(interpass temp): If the weld requires impact values using the Shielded Metal Arc
process, the interpass temperature must be maintained below some maximum temperature. If the interpass
temperature is increased by more than 100 degrees over what was qualified, the procedure must be re-
qualified.

Post Weld Heat Treatment

The first variable given is a change in postweld heat treatment. This is an essential variable. While it is not
always necessary to postweld heat treat a material, a change in postweld heat treatment or the lack of is an
essential variable and must be reflected on the WPS and the PQR.

Change in PWHT: If PWHT will not be performed, this should be indicated on the WPS by entering the
words: "No Postweld Heat Treatment" or simply "None". If PWHT is required and then changed from
that specified on the WPS, the WPS must be re-qualified since it is an essential variable. The WPS and
PQR must be in agreement on PWHT.

PWHT (Time and Temperature Range): Again when impact properties are required of a weldment, a
change in the time span of PWHT or the temperature range will require re-qualification of the procedure.

Thickness Limits: As indicated, this is an essential variable. It deals with exceeding the upper
transformation temperature of alloys. It states that if the test coupon being heat treated exceeds the upper
transformation temperature of the alloy the maximum thickness qualified is 1.1 times the thickness of the
test coupon as opposed to two times the coupon thickness allowed if the upper transformation has not been
exceeded. See QW-451 for T limits.

Electrical Characteristics

Change in Current or > Heat input: This is a supplementary essential variable that deals with impact
properties. Here if the heat input due to welding is changed or the type of current is changed resulting in an
increased deposition of weld metal the procedure must be re-qualified for impact values (you guessed it,
not on the exam).

Change in the Type of Current or a Change in the Current or Voltage Range: These are both
nonessential, but if changed in the WPS must be revised to reflect the change.



151
Technique

Change in String or Weave Bead: Nonessential, but if other than that stated on the WPS, the WPS must
be revised to reflect the change for production.

Change in Method of Cleaning, Change in Method of Back Gouge, Change from Manual to
Automatic, Addition or Deletion of Peening: Same as string or weave bead above something must be
stated in all of these blocks.

Procedure Qualification Record

The next document required by the ASME Code is the Procedure Qualification Record. Its purpose, to
record the values of essential variables that were actually used during the qualification test and to report the
mechanical properties obtained using the essential variables of the WPS. One should know that only a
listing of the essential variables values used while welding the test specimen is required on the PQR. The
suggested ASME forms provide spaces to list supplementary essential when required and nonessential
variables if so desired. If these non-essential variables are listed they should be the values actually used to
weld the test coupon.

A range of thickness qualifications for base metal and deposited weld metal is allowed in the ASME Code.
Let's say a test plate had a thickness of . If the test coupons taken pass mechanical tests, the procedure
would be good for base metals 1/16 minimum to a maximum of . When qualifying welding procedures,
make sure that the thickness used for the test coupon will cover the thickness used in production.
Deposited weld metal should be given the same consideration, as should the combination of weld
processes. Always be sure the thickness used will cover your maximum production needs or you may be
re-qualifying a procedure. The thickness qualified by the PQR may only support part of the range of
thickness desired on the WPS. If that were the case, another PQR would be needed to finish out he range
of T on the WPS and to weld all of WPS range in production

Welder Performance Qualification Record

This document lists all of the values used by the welder when performing his test weld coupon. It also
gives the thickness ranges he is qualified for. To best understand the welders essential variables, turn to
table QW-353 and review it. You will notice that the welder has four (4) categories of essential variables.
Joints involve the addition or removal of backing. Base metals are concerned with P-Numbers. Filler
metals address F-number ranges and the thickness of deposited weld metal. Lastly, the addition of a more
difficult position than the one originally tested for or a change in vertical progression from up to down or
down to up. The change of one of these essential variables will require the welder to requalify. The
ASME Codes place the responsibility on the manufacturer or contractors to insure all welders are qualified
for production welds.

Review of WPS s and PQR s

On the examination, the API candidate will be given a WPS and a PQR and asked to identify the errors or
unsupported requirements contained in these documents. You will be asked specific questions about
individual blocks on the WPS/PQR. You will not be required to review the entire document as was the case
in the past. This exam is multiple choice in format, so normally 3 to 6 questions come from the review.

When reviewing the WPS, look for information, which has been omitted. Every Essential and
Nonessential variable should be addressed. Also, common errors are made in such things as base metal
classifications, base metal thickness. Remember the PQR test coupon T can and may only support part of
the range desired by the WPS.

Backing is often over looked. Since the addition or deletion of backing is a nonessential variable the best
course would be to state with or without in the WPS. Retainers and Root Gap must also be listed on the
WPS. These should not be left blank something should be in those spaces.

Sizes of electrodes are again nonessential and listing all sizes that are manufactured of a certain
classification that will be used for production is wise. If a 1/32 rod is given for WPS and 1/8 rod is used
for production the WPS will need to be revised, but not re-qualified.
152

Finally, check each category of variable required on the SMAW table QW-253 to see if it has been
addressed on the WPS. If it is given as not applicable, make sure that it is a true statement. If it is left
blank, by very definition, that is an error. Also, check the specifications to see that they are given correctly
and match on the WPS and PQR.

If we are given a E-7018 filler metal and it is listed as having a F-number of 3, is that correct? It is given
in table QW-432 as having a F-No. of 4. To recap, if a variable; essential, nonessential and if needed
supplementary essential variable is listed in the paragraph for a process, it must be addressed on the WPS.

API 510/570 Body of Knowledge has a step by step procedure for the review or WPS s and PQR s. The
approach starts with the review of last page of the PQR. The following is a reproduction of that list with
added comments to help with clarification

a. It must be determined if impact tests are present. The reason of course is because if impact tests are
present, supplementary essential variables do apply to the review. If they are present, it then becomes a
bit more difficult to review the documents. However they will not be required so this step is not needed.

b. At the bottom of the PQR is a signature line for the manufacturer. This line must contain a signature, not
a typed name.

c. Turn to the front of the WPS and verify that the WPS references the PQR s number. The reverse is
not true the PQR may or may not reference the WPS. A WPS can be written from a very old PQR and
often is.

d. Place the WPS and PQR side by side and verify that:

1. All essential variables are present have been addressed on the WPS and PQR. By using the
paragraph in Section IX Article II that applies to the process used, check each box in the WPS and
PQR against the Code paragraph line by line.

2. The essential variables on the WPS must be supported by the PQR. Is the post weld heat treatment
required on the WPS and is it present on the PQR, etc.?

e. Review the WPS for the presence of all non-essential variables that are required of the welding process
used. If peening is present in the Code paragraph that applies to the process, it should be mentioned
directly in the WPS 'No Peening' for example. That line should not be blank or contain N/A. Peening is
applicable or it would not be present in the Code paragraph.

f. Look at the PQR. Are all the mechanical tests present? Are they of the correct types and of the correct
number.

g. Check for mistakes such as the wrong P number for a material, Wrong F-number for a welding rod, etc.

153
Practice reviews of WPS s and PQR s

Instructions

Remove the practice WPS and PQR from Section 5 of this book beginning on page 200 and place
them along side this text. Follow along step by step as we review them together. Also remove the
paragraph QW-253 from Section IX. This paragraph is a tabular listing of the variables that must be
addressed for the SMAW process. It will be used as a check list to make sure that every thing that should
be addressed has been.

Begin with the WPS and PQR titled Confusion Welding.

1. Turn to the last page (the back of the PQR) and look at the block titled Toughness Tests QW-170. We
observe that there are no Charpy notch toughness test results so we can ignore the supplementary
variables of QW-253 for SMAW. (Impact test results and hence Supplementary Essentials are
Excluded on the Exam)
2. This PQR does not have a signature, a mistake here.
3. Turn to the front of the WPS and see if the Supporting PQR numbers match those on the PQR. The
numbers match, so no mistake here.
4. Now using QW-253 we will do a block by block review beginning at the top of the WPS front page.
Front of the WPS

- Joints (QW-402)

1. Joint (groove) design is addressed, ie.. not blank. No mistake here.
2. Backing is addressed. The two xs are to indicate with or without backing.
3. Backing addressed as flat metal bar. Retainers, root spacing and, joint desigh are addressed in
the body. No mistake here.

- Base Metals (QW-403)

1. P-No. is addressed, no mistake here (by the way since no impact tests are present Group
Numbers are not required.
2. The proposed production thickness range has been stated - no mistake. If it were blank it
would be an omission and therefore and error.
3. t pass greater than has not been restricted. In accordance with IX this would limit welding
in production to 1.1 time the thickness qualified by the PQR, instead of the usual 2 times T.
This is a mistake.

- Filler Metals (QW-404)

1. AWS classification listed as E-7018, no mistake by omission.
2. F-No. Listed as # 3 all E-xx18 electrodes are F-No. 4 WRONG F NO. see QW-432. This is
a mistake.
3. A-No. addressed as #1. This is correct for mild carbon steel electrodes, the A-No. will not
change until an alpha numeric is added to the end of an electrode designation. For example if the
electrode had been listed as E-7018 B2, this would indicate that the deposited weld metal has a
different chemistry and that its A-No. would be other than #1. There is no way to determine
directly the A-No for these modified electrodes in Section IX.


4. The size of electrodes allowed for use must be listed. It cannot be blank. This is a MISTAKE
by omission.

- Filler Metal (QW-404)

1. Thickness Range - Since we are using only one electrode for production the weld metal
thickness range will be same as the base metal thickness range. This means this could be left
blank and would be answered by default. To better understand this, look at the WPS, notice
154
we have spaces to list up to three electrodes. For example, say we used E-6010 and E-7018,
then each would require a weld metal thickness range.
2. The remaining spaces are for information only and can be left blank if so desired in the case
of the SMAW process. This would not be true if another process were used which required
this information.

Reminder-All variables that apply to a given welding process must be addressed on the WPS
(notice this is not true of the PQR). This includes Essential, Supplementary Essential ( only
when notch toughness applies), and Non-essential.



Back of the WPS

- Positions (QW-405)

1. Positions are instructions to the user, that is what positions are permitted in the production of
a weld using this WPS. It is a non-essential variable as listed in QW-253. It has been
addressed and therefore no mistake exists. It would rather difficult to use a WPS that only
allowed the 6G position. In most cases such a WPS would be revised or re-written to include
more than a single position. This is not however a mistake, since the non-essential variable
has been addressed.

- Preheat (QW-406)

1. The minimum preheat has been given as 60
o
F. Preheat becomes essential when welding is
performed with a preheat greater than 100
o
F less than that qualified by the PQR. Preheat
must be stated on the WPS, it is needed to confirm that the PQR was not performed with a
preheat more than 100
o
F below that stated for production welds on the WPS. There is not a
mistake unless preheat is not given.
2. The interpass temp is listed, and thats fine however it is not required on this WPS because
there are no toughness test results present on the PQR.
3. Preheat maintenance is not addressed, this is an error by omission. All essential and non-
essential variables listed for a given process must be listed. The important thing to remember
is that preheat maintenance is listed in QW-253 for the SMAW process, and it must be
addressed. The statement None would have been good enough.

- Postweld Heat Treatment (QW-407)

1. This one is easy. There will be NONE and that is all that is needed to address the item. Of
course the PQR should not show Post Weld Heat Treatment in order to support this WPS.

- Gas (QW-408)

1. Shielding gas is not used with this process.-Ignore this block for SMAW

- Electrical Characteristics (QW-409)

1. Current AC or DC , Straight or Reverse, Amps and Volts must be addressed and can be
totally wrong for a given electrode. If it is addressed it is not a mistake. Welders find many
mistakes here because they know that it wont work. As far as the review for the test goes, if
it is addressed right or wrong it good to go and there is no mistake here to list on the answer
sheet. This true of all non-essential variables.
2. The rest of the variables do not belong to the SMAW process and any thing placed on these
lines can be and should be ignored for the test.
155
- Technique (QW-410)

1. String or weave is addressed
2. Orifice or gas cup / (N/A) Not applicable to SMAW
3. Cleaning addressed

4. Back gouging addressed
5. Oscillation N/A
6. Contact Tube N/A
7. Multiple or single pass, multiple or single electrodes, travel speed ( all N/A)
8. Peening is applicable to SMAW and has been addressed.




- Tabular form at the bottom of the back.

1. This form is for listing details of different process passes and filler metals. With only one
filler metal and process such as we have in this WPS/PQR it is normally left blank. If it is not
and any differences are found with it and the body of the WPS they are meaningless and
should be ignored. DO NOT list any of these as mistakes on the answer sheet.

Recap of mistakes found on the WPS

1. t pass restrictions no addressed
2. Wrong F-No. for E-7018 electrode
3. Size of electrodes blank.
4. Preheat maintenance not addressed



Review of the PQR

The first statement to be made about review of a PQR is that PQRs do not require non-essential variables
be listed on them. Confirmation of this statement is found in paragraph QW-200.2. Since non-essential
variables need not be recorded on the PQR they can be and should be totally ignored during the PQR
review. There cannot be a mistake on a non-essential variable listed on a PQR. It is not required to be
there and if it is, it cannot be wrong. WPSs can be written from PQRs that are very old, the interest in the
PQR is in the essential variables that it supports. These include the P No., F No., base metal thickness,
postweld heat treatment, and the rest of the essential variables for a given process.

Front of the PQR

- PQR number is the correct one listed for the WPS.
- Joints (QW-402)
1. Blank is not a mistake, doesnt need to be addressed (non-essential)

- Base Metal (QW-403)
1. Material specification is SA-53 grade B. The WPS states that P No. 1 materials are to be
welded in production. SA-53 is a P No. 1 material so this PQR supports the WPS. Go to the
material specs of QW 422 and look it up if you are not sure.
2. Thickness welded .500 this supports the upper range of thickness to be welded in production
listed on the WPS as 1/16 in. to 1 in. Looking at QW-451.1 we see that this coupon will
support the range from 3/16 in. to 1 in. If lower thickness are to be welded then a second
PQR will be required. This is a mistake on the PQR. It does not support the stated range
of the WPS.

156
Filler Metals (QW-404)

1. A No. 1 correct for E-XX18
2. Size of electrode left blank not mistake.(non-essential).
3. F No. 4 correct for E-XX18

Positions (QW-405) non-essential anything or nothing (it can be blank).

- Preheat (QW-406) must be addressed and cannot be greater than 100
o
F above that stated to
be used in production on the WPS. 175
o
F is so there is a mistake here. This PQR would not
qualify the WPS for 60
o
F preheating.

- Postweld Heat Treatment (QW-407) Addressed correctly as None.

- Gas (QW-408) not essential to the SMAW process
- Electrical (QW-409) non-essential anything or nothing here is ok
- Technique (QW-410) non-essential anything or nothing here is ok

Back of PQR

- Tensile Test (QW-150)

Since there are two tensile specimens present and the test results indicate pass, there are no
mistakes here. You can do the arithmetic to check and see if there is a mistake there. Multiply the
width times the thickness and determine the area. Divide the area in to the ultimate load and this
should yield the ultimate unit stress. Since this PQR does list the actual material used for the test
coupon you can go to the P No.s listed in Section IX and check for the ultimate strength of SA-53
gr. B. If QW-403 states only the P NO. of the material used to make the coupon then there is no
way to determine if the material failed at or below its specified minimum ultimate strength.
Basically all that can be done is to check to see if the math is correct and that two samples are
present.

- Guided Bend Tests (QW-160)

In this block we show one side bend, one blank space and two face bends. The mistakes are as
follows:
1. You cannot mix types of bends, it must be 4 side or 2 face and 2 root. Side bends would be
permitted(optional) for a coupon. See the notes of QW-451.1
2. It always requires 4 bend tests.

- Toughness tests have not been performed, fillet weld tests dont apply to groove weld
procedures, and we have already checked for a signature.









157
Second WPS/PQR review

Remove Wee Welders WPS and PQR from the appendix and review those for mistakes just as
was done with Confusion Weldings WPS and PQR.


The mistakes are as follows see if you agree.

Back of PQR

- Toughness test results are not present so Supplementary Essential Variables do not apply
during the review.
- The PQR has a signature.


WPS

- WPS references the PQR by number no mistake here.
- Joints (QW-402)
1. Root gap not addressed
2. Retainers not addressed

PQR

- Filler Metals (QW-404)
1. E-7018 is not F-No. 3.

The total mistakes between the WPS and PQR are 3.
158

















ADVANCED MATERIAL
159
API 510 Module


Static Head of Water

The static head of water is equal to 0.433 psi per vertical foot above the point where the pressure
will measured. For example the static head of water at a point in a vessel with 10 feet of water above it is
calculated by multiplying 10 x 0.433 psi..

10 x 0.433 = 4.33psi

The 4.33 psi is being exerted totally by the weight of the water. No other external pressure having
been applied. If an external source of pressure is applied it would be added to the static head pressure of
the water at any given point in the vessel.

Suppose an external pressure from a pump of 100 psi is applied to the above vessel.. This
pressure would be added to the 4.33 psi that already exists from the static head for a total pressure at that
point of 104.33 psi.

From this simple principle the following concepts must be understood.

- Case 1. How do you determine static head based on a given elevation?

- Case 2. When do you add the static head pressure in vessel calculations?

- Case 3. When do you subtract the static head in vessel calculations?

- Case 4. How do you calculate static head on ellipsoidal and hemi heads?

160

Case 1. To determine static head based on an elevation from a stated problem it must be understood that
elevations are normally taken from the ground level for an existing vessel including any base the
vessel is on. You must subtract the GIVEN elevation form the TOTAL elevation to determine vertical
feet of static head above the given elevation.

Example: A vessel has an elevation of 18 feet and is mounted on a 3 foot base. What is the static
head pressure of water at the 11 foot elevation which is located at the bottom of the top shell course?



You must realize it is the number of vertical feet above the GIVEN elevation in question which causes
the static head at that point. To find the static head you must subtract the elevation of the GIVEN
point from the TOTAL elevation given for the vessel.

18' feet total
-11' desired point
7' total static head

Static head pressure at 11' elevation is: 7 x 0.433psi = 3.03 psi
161

Case 2. Static head at a point in a vessel must be added to the pressure used (normally vessel MAWP)
when calculating the required thickness of the vessel component at that elevation.

Example: Determine the required thickness of the shell course in Case 1.
The vessel's MAWP (Always measured at the top in the normal operating position) is 100 psi.
The following variables apply:

Givens:

t = ? Circumferential stress From UG-27(c)(1)
P = 100 psi + Static Head
P SE
PR
t
6 . 0
=
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R = 20"



Since the bottom of this shell course is at the 11 foot elevation the pressure it will see is 100 psi + the
static head.
Or

100 + 3.03 = 103.03 psi

" 1379 .
18 . 14938
20606
) 03 . 103 6 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 000 , 15 (
20 03 . 103
= =

=
x x
x
t
162

Case 3. You must subtract static head pressure when determining the MAWP of a vessel. If given a
vessel of multiple parts and the MAWP for each of the parts, the MAWP of the entire vessel is
determined by subtracting the static head pressure at the bottom of each part to find the part which
limits the MAWP of the vessel

Example: A vessel has an elevation of 40 feet including a 4 foot base. The engineer has calculated the
following part MAWP'S to the bottom of each part based on each part's minimum thickness and
corroded diameter. Determine the MAWP of the vessel.

Design pressure at the bottom of:

-Top Shell Course 28' Elev. 406.5 psi
-Middle Shell Course 16.5' Elev. 410.3 psi
-Bottom Shell Course 4' Elev. 422.8 psi

Bottom of top shell course:
40.0' elev.
-28.0' elev.
12.0' head

12' x 0.433 psi = 5.196 psi of Static Head
163

Bottom of the middle shell course: 40.0' elev.
-16.5' elev.
23.5' head

23.5' x 0.433 psi = 10.175 psi of Static Head

Bottom of bottom shell course: 40.0' elev.
-4.0' elev.
36.0' head

36' x 0.433 psi = 15.588 psi of Static Head
164
The final step in determining the MAWP of the vessel at its top is to subtract the static head of water
from the calculated MAWP'S at each given point. The lowest calculated pressure will be the
maximum gage pressure permitted at the top of the vessel.

Bottom of top shell course 406.5 - 5.196 = 401.3 psi
Bottom of mid shell course 410.3 - 10.175 = 400.125 psi
Bottom of btm shell course 422.8 - 15.588 = 407.212 psi

Therefore the bottom of the middle shell course MAWP determines the MAWP of the entire vessel.


The MAWP of the vessel is 400.125 psi
165

Case 4. As part of calculating hydrostatic head on a vessel you will be required to determine the depth of
two types of heads, 2 to 1 ellipsoidal and hemispherical. You will be given only the diameter of the
vessel and using this you must calculate the head's depth which in turn is used to find the hydrostatic
head at the bottom of the head.

Example: A vessel has an inside diameter of 48 inches. Determine the depth of a hemispherical and a
2 to 1 ellipsoidal head with a 2 inch straight flange. The approach here is based on the fact that the
heads diameters will match the vessel's diameter and therefore will be the same. In this case 48 inches.

Hemispherical Head
Our hemispherical head has an inside diameter of 48 inches which means it has a radius of 24 inches.
The radius is the depth of the hemispherical head

166

2 to 1 Ellipsoidal Head

An ellipsoidal head's I. D. will be the same as the shell's. The inside diameter of an ellipsoidal head is
also its major axis. This fact is the basis of finding the depth of a 2 to 1 ellipsoidal head. Notice that
we are strictly talking about 2 to 1 ellipsoidal heads. The 2 to 1 refers to the ratio of the Major Axis to
the Minor Axis of a ellipse which is used to form the head.

Of course only half of the Minor Axis is used for the head.

167

Now add the 2 inch flange to the dish.

Therefore our 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal head has a depth of 14 inches.

Example: Calculate the hydrostatic head of water for the following heads on a vessel with a Total
Elevation of 70'. The vessel's I. D. is 64 inches. The top head is a 2 to 1 ellipsoidal and has a 2 inch
flange. The bottom head is a hemispherical and is welded to the shell at the 8 foot elevation.


168
Step 1. Calculate the depth of the 2 to 1 ellipsoidal head on top.

The I.D. of the head equals the Major Axis therefore:

64" is the Major Axis and the Minor axis equals 1/2 the Major Axis.

64" divided by 2 equals 32" which equals the entire Minor Axis

However an ellipsoidal head uses only half the Minor Axis for its dished portion. 32" divided by 2
equals 16 ". To this you must add the length of the straight flange 2" So the depth of our ellipsoidal
head is 18 inches.


Step 2. Calculate the depth of the hemispherical head.

The I.D. of the hemi head equals the I.D. of the vessel therefore:

64" equals the diameter and the radius is one-half of the diameter.

64" divided by 2 equals 32" which equals the radius of this head.

The Radius is equal to the Depth of the hemi head or 32 inches.

Step 3. Calculate the static head pressure on each head.

Depth of head x 0.433 psi = Static head pressure.

Ellipsoidal

Converting to feet: 18" divided by 12 = 1.5' x 0.433 psi = 0.6495 psi

Hemispherical

Converting to feet. 32" divided by 12 = 2.666' x 0.433 psi = 1.1543 psi

169
To find the total hydrostatic head on the hemispherical head at its bottom you must add all of the head
that exists above it including the shell and the ellipsoidal head. We calculate as follows.

70' total elevation
- 8' to the top of hemi head
62' hydrostatic head
+ 2.666' depth of hemi head
64.666 total feet head

64.666' x 0.433 psi = 28.0 psi to the bottom of the hemi head.




ANS: Static head for the:
Ellipsoidal head equals 0.649 psi
Hemispherical head equals 28.0 psi
170
Quiz Static Head /UG-99


A. A 100 foot tall column is being hydrostatically tested. The vessel's MAWP is 100 PSI at 750F. The
vessel's material has an allowable stress of 13,500 PSI at MAWP, its material allowable stress at 70F, the
test temperature is 15,000 PSI. What is the required hydrostatic test pressure?

B. The vessel above is under full hydrostatic test pressure in an operating unit during the summer. A plant
wide evacuation alarm sounds and all test personnel leave. Four hours later, upon the all clear, the test
crew finds that the gauge pressure on vessel has risen to an unacceptable pressure. How could this have
been avoided?

C. The test gauge for the test above is located at the 30' elevation of the vessel, what will be its gauge
pressure during the test and at what pressure shall the visual inspection take place as read from the gage at
the 30' elevation?
171
ANS/UG-99

Solution A: Hydrostatic Test Pressure Per UG-99(b)

PSI 144.44 100 1.3
PSI 13,500
PSI 15,000
=



Solution B: Per UG-99(h), a relief valve set at 1 1/3 the pressure could have been installed.


Solution C: test pressure/1.3 plus static head at 30' elevation. Per UG-99(g)

Test pressure at the top 144.44
Hydrostatic head + 30.31
Test pressure at 30' 174.75

144.44/1.3 = 111.11 + 30.31 = 141.42 psi (inspection psi as read at 30' elev.)

Drawing:
















172
Corrosion Example Problems


A 60 foot tower consisting of four (4) shell courses was found to have varying corrosion rates in each
course. Minimum wall thickness readings were taken after 4 years and 6 months of service . All original
wall thicknesses included a 1/8" corrosion allowance. The top course's original thickness was .3125". The
present thickness is .3000". The second course downward had an original thickness of .375". During the
inspection it was found to have a minimum wall thickness of .349". The third course was measured at
.440" its original thickness was .500". The bottom course had an original thickness of .625" and measured
to be .595".

Determine the metal loss for the top course, the corrosion rate for the second course, the corrosion
allowance remaining in the third course, the retirement date for the bottom course.





173
Solution A:

TOP COURSE.

Metal loss equals the previous thickness minus the present thickness.

Previous .3125"
Present -.3000"
.0125" Metal Loss

SECOND COURSE.

Corrosion rate equals metal loss per given unit of time.

Previous .3750"
Present -.3490"
.0260" Metal Loss

Total loss 0.260"
Corrosion Rate = --------- = .006"/ Per YR.
Total time 4.5 Ys

THIRD COURSE.

Remaining Corrosion Allowance equals the actual thickness minus the required thickness.

Original Thickness .500"
Original C. A.-.125"
Required Wall Thickness .375"

Actual Wall Thickness .440"
Required Wall -.375"
Remaining C.A. .065"
174
BOTTOM COURSE.

Remaining service life equals the remaining corrosion allowance divided by the corrosion rate.

1.Required Thickness

Original Thickness .625"
Original C. A.-.125"
Required Thickness .500"


2.Remaining Corrosion Allowance

Actual Wall Thickness .595"
Required Thickness -.500"
Remaining Corrosion Allowance .095"

3.Corrosion Rate

Original Thickness .625"
Present Thickness -.595"
Metal Loss .030"

Metal Loss .030"
Time 4.5 Years.

Corrosion Rate = .0067"/Yr.

4.Remaining Service Life

Rem. Corrosion Allowance.095"
Corrosion Rate .0067"/Yr.

Remaining Service Life = 14.2 Years






175
Cylinder Under Internal Pressure

Problem #1
Calculate the required thickness of a 60 inch I.D. cylindrical shell. It is constructed of SA-516-70 rolled
steel plate. The vessel's Category A&D Type 1 joints are fully radiographed. All Category B joints are
Type 1 also and have been spot radiographed per UW-11(a)(5)(b). The vessel MAWP must be 350 PSI at
450F. The shell will see 11 psi of static head at its bottom.

SOLUTION:

DRAWING:



Givens:

tr = ?
D = 60.0" R = 30"
P = 350 + 11psi static head
S = 17,500 from stress table
E = 1.0 per UW-12(a)

UG-27(c)(1) CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS

0.6P - SE
PR
= t
" 6266 .
) 361 6 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 500 , 17 (
30 361
=


= t

ANSWER t = .6266 "
176
Cylinder Under Internal Pressure

Problem #2
A vessel is constructed using two courses of rolled and welded SA-515-60 plate. The maximum design
temperature is 750F. All joints used in shell courses are Type 1 those used to join heads are Type 2. The
vessel's name plate is stamped with the following: HT, W, RT 3. The vessel is 48 inches O.D. and has a
thickness of .500 inch. What would be the vessel's MAWP based on the MAWP of the shell?

DRAWING:



Givens:

t = .500"
P = ?
S = 13,000 from stress table
E = .85 RT 3 for Type 1
OD = 48.0" R
o
= 24.0"

APPENDIX 1
0.4t - R
SEt
= P
0


SOLUTION:
psi P 14 . 232
) 500 . 4 . 0 ( ) 0 . 24 (
500 . 85 . 000 , 13
=


=


177



Heads Under Internal Pressure

Problem #1
A hemispherical head formed from solid plate is 48.0 inches in inside diameter and has a thickness of .500
inch. This head will be attached to a seamless shell which has not had radiography on the Category A
Type 1 weld that attaches the head to the shell. The vessel is horizontal and operates at 500 PSI water
pressure with an allowable stress on the head's material of 15,000 PSI. Does the head's thickness meet
Code? Show calculations.

SOLUTION:

DRAWING:


Givens:

t = .500"
D = 48.0" L = 24.0"
P = 500 PSI + (0.433 psi x 4') = 1.732 =501.732
S = 15,000
E = .70


UG-32(f)
0.2P - 2SE
PL
= t
" 5761 .
) 732 . 501 2 . 0 ( ) 7 . 0 000 , 15 2 (
0 . 24 732 . 501
=


= R t

Answer: NO.



178
Heads Under Internal Pressure

Problem #2
An Ellipsoidal head of seamless construction is welded to a seamless shell. The weld joint was spot
radiographed per UW-11(a)(5)(b). The head's inside diameter was originally 36 inches. Uniform
corrosion has occurred on the internal surfaces of the head leaving a wall thickness of .240". The original
thickness of the head was .375". The MAWP of the vessel is 175 PSIG at 450F and the static head at the
bottom of the head is 5.3 psi.. The stress allowable on the head's material is 13,500 PSI. Does this meet
Code?

SOLUTION:

DRAWING: original head dimensions

Givens:

t = .240"
D = 36.0" + [(.375-.240) x 2] = 36.0 + .270 + 36.270" adjusted for corrosion!
P = 175 PSI + 5.3 psi static head = 180.3 psi
S = 13,500
E = 1.0 from UW-12(d)

UG-32(d)
0.2P - 2SE
PD
= t
" 242 .
) 3 . 180 2 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 500 , 13 2 (
270 . 36 3 . 180
=


= R t

.240" < .242"

Answer: NO
179

Heads Under Internal Pressure

Problem #3
A seamless circular flat head is attached to a 36 inch I.D. shell similar to Figure UG-34(e). The shell's
required t is .375 inch. The shell's actual t is .500 inch. The flat head is .750 inch in thickness. The vessel
is to operate at 300 PSIG. The head's material has a stress allowance of 15,000 PSI. The fillet welds are
0.7 t
s
. Is the head's thickness in compliance with the Code?

SOLUTION:

DRAWING:

Givens:

t = .750
t
S
= .500
t
R
= .375
P = 300
S = 15,000
D = 36.0"
E = 1.0 Because the flat head is seamless.
C = .33 x m = .33 x .375 = .33 x .750 = .247
.500

UG-34(c)(2)
SE
CP
d = t

0 . 1 000 , 15
300 247 .
0 . 36

= t

" 53 . 2
000 , 15
1 . 74
0 . 36 = = X t

Answer: NO.
180
Heads Under Internal Pressure

Problem #4
While pulling exchanger bundles, a contractor backed against a torispherical head on a vessel. As a result
of the bump, a circular flat spot is left on the formed head. This head is .375 inch thick and the flat spot is
6 inches in diameter. The vessel has a MAWP of 150 PSI and the head's material has an allowable stress
of 15,000 PSI. Does this head require repair?

Per Formed Heads UG-32(o) AND UG-34(c)(2)

Drawing:



Givens:

t = .375 (formed head)
P = 150
S = 15,000
E = 1.0 Seamless. Flat Head
C = 0.25 per UG-32(O)
d = 6.0 "

SE
CP
d = t

" 300 . 0
) 0 . 1 ( ) 000 , 15 (
) 150 )( 25 . 0 (
0 . 6 = = t

" 300 . 0 " 375 . 0 >

Answer: No repairs are required. The flat spot meets t required for an equivalent flat head. See UG-32 (o),
found near the end of UG-32.


181
API 510 Module

UG-84 WPS

Problem #1
Please evaluate the following Charpy Impact Test results for a SMAW procedure. The plate is SA-516
grade 70 normalized, 1 3/4" thick. The WPS is being qualified for a range from 3/16" to 8" in thickness.

The max weld pass t = 1/2". The plate's specified minimum yield normalized is 38 KSI. Do the test results
qualify this procedure for impact testing?


Specimen Notch Notch Test Value
Location Type Temp. ft/lb's
W-1 WELD V
-25
o
F
21
W-2 WELD V
-25
o
F
20
W-3 WELD V
-25
o
F
15
W-4 WELD V
-25
o
F
22
W-5 WELD V
-25
o
F
22
W-6 WELD V
-25
o
F
14
H-1 HAZ V
-25
o
F
19
H-2 HAZ V
-25
o
F
19
H-3 HAZ V
-25
o
F
20
182
UG-84 WPS

SOLUTION:

Step (1) Determine the minimum impact energy for the test coupon.

Per UG-84(h)(2)(c) the test specimens must meet or exceed the values for the thickness of the
range qualified in the welding procedure. Per QW-451.1 Section IX. This procedure will be qualified
from 3/16 inch to 8 inches.

Therefore: T qualified = 8.0 inches.

Going to Table UG-84.1 and entering on the bottom line at any value greater than 3 inches, then
moving up to the s38 KSI curve, then across to the minimum impact values on the left, we find a minimum
impact value of 18 ft./lbs.

Step (2) Check test results.

(a) Average impact value required per Figure UG-84.1 is 18 ft./ lbs.

(b) Calculate averages

W-1 21 W-4 22 H-1 19
W-2 20 W-5 22 H-2 19
W-3 + 15 W-6 + 14 H-3 + 20
56 3 = 18.6 58 3 = 19.3 58 3 = 19.3

(c) Note (b) of Figure UG-84.1 states that one specimen shall not be less than 2/3 the average
energy required for three specimens. Only one (1) specimen is allowed to fall below the min avg.
of three per
UG-84(c)(6).

The minimum acceptable value of a single specimen is as follows:

Acceptance values = 2/3 x 18 = 12 minimum

Answer: All values meet minimums and the procedure's impact tests pass.












183
ADVANCED EXERCISE PROBLEMS


INTERNAL PRESSURE (CYLINDERS)

1). A cylindrical shell has been discovered to have uniform external corrosion. The shells original
thickness was 7/8 inch, it is presently .745 inch in thickness. The original O.D. of the shell was 30 inches.
The vessel operates at 650
o
F with a stress allowable on the material of 15,000 psi. All joints were fully
radiographed. All joints are type 1. What is the vessel's present MAWP?

2). A vessel is fabricated from SA-516 gr.70 plate material to operate at 600
o
F with an allowable stress of
17,500 psi. The vessel has an inside diameter of 36 inches and operates at 375 psi . The type 2 long seam
has had full RT. The circumferential joints have met UW-12(d) and UW-11(a)(5)(b)requirements. What
is its required thickness?

3.) A shell course is being replaced with the new course being 60 inches in inside diameter and 7/8 inches
thick. The vessel course material is SA-515 gr 60 plate at a design temperature of 650
o
F with an
allowable stress of 13,000 psi. The vessel joints are all type 2 and the vessel is stamped RT-3. What is the
MAWP of this shell course?

4.) What is the minimum required thickness of a vessel shell operating at 650 psi and 500
o
F. The vessel
shell is fabricated of SA-516 gr 60 plate, allowable stress of 15,000 psi. The inside diameter of the vessel
shell is 50 inches. The vessel has received FULL RT on Category A joints. All of its category A joints are
type 1. The category B joints are type 2 and have met the requirements of UW-12(d) and UW-11(a)(5)(b).

5). A vessel shell is made from SA-515 - Grade 70. It has a design operating pressure of 200 psi at 750
o
F, allowable stress is 14,800 psi. The inside diameter is 14 feet. All joint efficiencies are 1.0 The shell
has corroded down to 1.28 inches. Its original t was 1.375". May this vessel shell remain in service in
accordance with rules of Section VIII Division 1?



184


INTERNAL PRESSURE (HEADS)

1.) A seamless torispherical head made of SA-515 gr. 70 material with an allowable stress of 14,800 at
750
o
F is to operate at 250 psi. The knuckle radius is 6% of the outside diameter of the head skirt and the
inside crown radius is equal to the outside diameter of the skirt. The outside diameter of the skirt is 50
inches. The vessel it is attached to meets the requirements of UW-12(d) and UW-11(a)(5)(b). What is the
minimum required thickness of the head?

2.) A seamless ellipsoidial head with a 2 to 1 ratio of the major to the minor axis is to operate at 750
o
F
with an internal pressure of 250 psi. The material has an allowable stress of 14,800 and the skirt has an
inside diameter of 50 inches. All category B butt welds do not meet UW-11(a)(5)(b). What is the
minimum required thickness for the head?

3.) A seamless hemispherical head is fabricated from a material with a calculated stress of 14,800 psi at
operating temperature. All category B butt joints in the vessel meet UW-11(a)(5)(b) and all category A
joints are type 1 and have had spot radiography. The vessel's design requires an maximum operating
pressure of 250 psi. The corroded thickness of this head is .295". It has a corroded I.D. of 72.230". May
this head continue in service ?


4.) During the inspection of a horizontal 36 inch ID vessel in gas service a seamless circular flat head
attached similar to Fig UG-34(e) was found to have corroded to a thickness of 1.948 inch minimum. The
shell's required thickness was calculated based on 100% joint efficiency and an allowable stress of 17,500
psi. The shell's actual thickness is .505 inch and the vessel operates at 250 psi. The flat head's allowable
stress is 15,500 psi. The fillet weld throat sizes are still in excess of .7 t
s
. May this flat head remain in
service?

185
Solutions for Internal Pressure Cylinders

1. From: Appendix 1-1
t R
SEt
P
o 4 . 0
=


Givens:
t original = .875
t present = .745
P = ?
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R
o
= 14.87 R
o
=
30
2
= 15-(.875-.745) = 15-0.13 = 14.87 this adjusts the o.d. wall loss

psi
x
x x
P 88 . 766
) 745 . 4 . 0 ( 87 . 14
745 . 0 . 1 000 , 15
=

=

The trick here is knowing to adjust the outside radius for corrosion, remember it will decrease
when there is external corrosion. The opposite is true for internal corrosion.





2. From: UG-27 ( c ) ( 1)
P SE
PR
t
6 . 0
=
Givens:
t
req.
= ?
P = 375 psi
S = 17,500 psi
E = .90
R =
2
36
= 18
" 4347 .
) 375 6 . 0 ( ) 90 . 500 , 17 (
18 375
=

=
x x
x
t

In order to take .90 for the E on the category A joint, it must have full RT and the circumferential joint
must meet the spot RT required by UW-12(a).
186
3. From: UG-27 ( c ) ( 1)
t R
SEt
P
6 . 0 +
=
Givens:
t

= .875
P = ?
S = 13,000 psi
E = .80
R =
2
60
= 30
psi
x
x x
P 11 . 298
) 875 . 6 . 0 ( 30
875 . 80 . 000 , 13
=
+
=


4. From: UG-27 ( c ) ( 1)
P SE
PR
t
6 . 0
=

t

= ?
P = 650 psi
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R =
2
50
= 25
" 112 . 1
) 650 6 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 000 , 15 (
25 650
=

=
x x
x
t

Here you must remember that UW-12(a) will not allow the use of a joint E from column A unless the
requirements of UW-11 (a)(5) have been applied. If the spot RT had not been performed the E would be
taken from column B and have a value of .85.

187


5. From: UG-27 ( c ) ( 1)
P SE
PR
t
6 . 0
= or
t R
SEt
P
6 . 0 +
=

Givens:
t

= 1.28
P = 200 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = 1.0
R =
2
' 14
= 7 x 12 = 84 Inside radius corroded = 84+(1.375-1.28) = 84.095


" 145 . 1
) 200 6 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 800 , 14 (
095 . 84 200
=

=
x x
x
t or psi
x
x x
P 23 . 223
) 28 . 1 6 . 0 ( 095 . 84
28 . 1 0 . 1 800 , 14
=
+
=

The answer to the question is YES it may remain in service.
Notice that since both pressure and thickness are known that either calculation can be made. It does not
matter which is used.



188
Solutions for Internal Pressure Heads

1. From: UG-32 (e)
P SE
PL
t
1 . 0
885 . 0

= (Torispherical Formula )
Givens:
t = ?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = 1.0
L = 50 crown radius

" 7487 .
) 250 1 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 800 , 14 (
50 250 885 . 0
=

=
x x
x x
t


2. From: UG-32 (d)
P SE
PD
t
2 . 0 2
=
Givens:
t = ?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = .85
D = 50 inside diameter
" 4978 .
) 250 2 . 0 ( ) 85 . 800 , 14 2 (
50 250
=

=
x x x
x
t

3. From: UG-32 (f)
P SE
PL
t
2 . 0 2
=
Givens:
t = ?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = .85
L = 36.115 inside spherical radius
" 3595 .
) 250 2 . 0 ( ) 85 . 800 , 14 2 (
115 . 36 250
=

=
x x x
x
t

ANS: NO
189
4. From: UG-34 ( c ) ( 2 )
SE
CP
d t =
Givens:
t = ?
t = .505 actual thickness of the shell
P= 250 psi
S = for head material 15,500 psi
S = for shell material 17,500 psi
d = for head 36
D = for shell 36 inside
E = 1.0 for a seamless head
C = ?
Step 1. Calculate the Shells required thickness

From: UG 27 (c) (1) we use the t = formula to find that the shells required which is .259 remember to
use the shells material stress in this calculation.

Step 2. Using the actual thickness of shell and its calculated req. thickness find m

From: The definitions of variables in and fig. UG-34 (e) 51 .
505 .
259 .
= = =
ts
tr
m

Step 3. Calculate the value of C

From: Fig. UG-34 (e) C = .33 x m = .33 x .51 = .1683

Since the minimum that C is allowed to be in this geometry is .20 use C = .20 to solve.

Step 4. Calculate the required t of the flat head

= =
0 . 1 500 , 15
250 20 .
36
x
x
t 0032258 . 36 = " 044 . 2 0567961 . 36 = x

Answer No: 1.984 < 2.044

190



















APPENDIX

191

Solutions for ASME Module Exercises

UW-3
1. ans. D ( it depends on the location in the vessel )
2. ans. B ( it is a category C weld)

3.


192
UW-11

1. Category A joints in nozzles and communicating chambers and category B joints in nozzles and
chambers which exceed either 10 NPS or 1-1/8 wall thickness.

2. The category A joint must be fully radiographed and the spot radiography of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) must be
applied per UW-12(a).

3. Full radiography for all butt joints, which exceed the specified thickness, excluding the category Bs
that do not exceed the 10 NPS or 1-1/8 inch thickness.

4. It may not be assumed that all joints have been radiographed. The thickness of some joints may not
exceed the limit for the material used. Remember it is the least nominal thickness at the welded joint
which determines the requirement.

5. Both joints must be radiographed by the requirement that all A AND D butt welds shall be shot.

UW-12 # 1 pg 91

1. E = 1.0 per UW-12 (d)
2. E = .80 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for the head
3. E = .85 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for the head
4. E = 1.0 per UW-12 (d)
5. E = .85 no spot RT. per UW-12 (d)
6. E = .85 no spot RT. per UW-12 (d)
7. E = .65 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for the head

UW-12 # 2 pg 92

1. E = 1.0 based on full RT of all category A and D joints and the spot RT applied to the category B joint
attaching the Ellipsoidal head (see UW-12(a) ).
2. E = .80 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for the Ellipsoidal head
3. E = 1.0 Full RT on the category A joint in the hemispherical head.
4. E = 1.0 per UW-12 (d)
5. E = 1.0 per UW-12 (d)
6. E = 1.0 per UW-12 (d)
7. E = .80 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for the head and spot RT.

193
UG 27

1. From: Appendix 1-1
P SE
PRo
t
4 . 0 +
=


Givens:
t = ?
P = 500 psi
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0 per UW-12(d)
Ro = " 375 . 6
2
75 . 12
=
" 2097 .
) 500 4 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 000 , 15 (
375 . 6 500
=
+
=
x x
x
t


ANS: the required t = .2097



2. From: UG-27 ( c ) ( 1)
t R
SEt
P
6 . 0 +
=
Givens:
t

= .850
P = ?
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R = 52
psi
x
x x
P 81 . 242
) 850 . 6 . 0 ( 52
850 . 0 . 1 000 , 15
=
+
=


ANS: MAWP is 242.81 psi
194
UG 32

1. From: UG-32 (d)
P SE
PD
t
2 . 0 2
=
Givens:
t = ?
P = 350 psi
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0 full RT per UW-11 (a) (1) in butt joints in shells and heads
D = 48 inside diameter
" 5613 ..
) 350 2 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 000 , 15 2 (
48 350
=

=
x x x
x
t

ANS: required t = .5613








2. From: UG-32 (e)
P SE
PL
t
1 . 0
885 . 0

=
Givens:
t = .353
P = 100 psi
S = 13,800 psi
E = 1.0
L = 56 crown radius
" 3593 .
) 100 1 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 800 , 13 (
56 100 885 . 0
=

=
x x
x x
t


ANS: No the head may not remain in service.
195
UG-32





3. From: UG-32 (f)
P SE
PL
t
2 . 0 2
=
Givens:
t = ?
P = 200 psi
S = 17,500 psi
E = .85 Spot RT per UW-12(d)
L = 32.0 inside spherical radius (D/2)

" 2154 .
) 200 2 . 0 ( ) 85 . 500 , 17 2 (
0 . 32 200
=

=
x x x
x
t




ANS: the required thickness = .2154




4. From: UG-32 (d)
P SE
PD
t
2 . 0 2
=
Givens:
t = ?
P = 200 psi
S = 17,500 psi
E = .85 No spot RT per UW-12(d)
D = 64.0
" 4308 .
) 200 2 . 0 ( ) 85 . 500 , 17 2 (
64 200
=

=
x x x
x
t



ANS: thickness required = .4308
196
UG-34

1. 4. From: UG-34 ( c ) ( 2 )
SE
CP
d t =
Givens:
t = ?
t = .500 actual thickness of the shell
P= 75 psi
S = for head material 13,800 psi
S = for shell material 15,000 psi
d = for head 42
D = for shell 42 inside
E = 1.0 for shell calculation (Shell E is always 1.0 for a flat head calculation)
E = 1.0 per UW 12 (d), this is a forged head but is treated like a formed head. Read the paragraph for the
Fig UG-34 (b-2)
C = 0.33 x m = ?
Step 1. Calculate the Shells required thickness

From: UG 27 (c) (1) we use the t = formula to find that the shells required which is .1053 remember to
use the shells material stress in this calculation.

Step 2. Using the actual thickness of shell and its calculated req. thickness find m

From: The definitions of variables and fig. UG-34 (e) in UG-34 2106 .
500 .
1053 .
= = =
ts
tr
m

Step 3. Calculate the value of C

From: Fig. UG-34 (e) C = .33 x m = .33 x .2106 = .0694

Since the minimum that C is allowed to be in this geometry is .20 use C = .20 to solve.

Step 4. Calculate the required t of the flat head

= =
0 . 1 800 , 13
75 20 .
42
x
x
t 0010869 . 42 = " 3846 . 1 0329681 . 42 = x

Ans: thickness required = 1.3846




197
UG-28

(1) Cylinders having 10 values
t
Do
>
Testing to see if this paragraph applies:
32 =
1.25
40
=
t
Do

Step 1. Our value of D
o
is 54 inches and L is 98 inches. We will use these to determine the ratio of:
1.75 =
40
70
=
o D
L

Step 2. Enter the Factor A chart at the value of 1.8 determined above.

Step 3. Then move across horizontally to the curve D
o/t
= 48. Then down from this point to find the
value of Factor A which is approximately .0022 .

Step 4. Using our value of Factor A calculated in Step 3, enter the Factor B (CS-2) chart on the bottom.
Then vertically to the material temperature line given in the stated problem (in our case 300
o
F).

Step 5. Then across to find the value of Factor B. We find that Factor B is approximately 15000. Note
due to the variance in the reading of the charts answers and values may vary , but should be within a 5 %
range of the solution.

Step. 6 Using this value of Factor B, calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure P
a

using the following formula:

)
t
D
3(
4B
= Pa
o


psi 541.66 =
96
52,000
=
3(32)
4x13,000
= P a


416.66 psi > 350 psi ANSWER: YES, your answer may be slightly different +or- 5% due to the
variation in reading the factor A and B charts. This is acceptable.
198
UG-99/100

1. Hydrostatic Test
A.
psi x x 295 . 332
700 , 14
700 , 16
225 3 . 1 =

B.
psi 61 . 255
3 . 1
295 . 332
=

C. Minimum gage range 1.5 x 332.295 = 498.4 ( use 500 psi )

Maximum gage range 4 x 332.295 = 1329.18 ( use 1000 psi )

Of course the gage pressure at the 4X range would be rounded down to closest standard range!

2. Pneumatic Test

Step 1. Raise the pressure to the test pressure, x 310psi = 155 psi ,then raise in 1/10 steps to full test
pressure.

Step 2. 155+31=186 psi
Step 3. 186+31=217 psi
Step 4. 217+31=248 psi
Step 5. 248+31=279 psi
Step 6. 279+31=310 psi

Last find the inspection pressure 310/1.1 = 281.8 psi and lower for visual inspection.

199
UW-16

Throat = Leg Size x .707
Leg Size =
707 .
Throat

1. 1.125 x .707 = .7953 = throat size

2. Leg Size = 8486 .
707 .
600 .
= therefore the next 1/16 would be a 7/8 inch leg.
13/16<.8486<7/8 (14/16) or .8125<.8486<.875

UG-40/41/42/45

1. Ratio = 0135 . 1
800 , 14
000 , 15
= therefore use 1.0 credit cannot be taken for the higher strength of the pads
material, only the reverse is true, that is you must reduce the area that the pad provides if it is of a lower
strength than the shell.

2. The centers can be no closer than the sum of their diameters and still be considered isolated openings, in
this case 6+4 =10 inches. The answer is: their centers can be no closer than 10 inches with out the areas of
reinforcement overlapping.

3. The area of reinforcement must that of a hole which would contain all of the nozzles with in it. It is
treated as if it were on large hole for reinforcement calculation.

UG-37 Reinforcement

1. Corrosion allowance must be deducted from all surfaces in contact with the corrosive substance.

2. A= d t
r
F +2t
n
t
r
F(1-fr
1
) Area required

3. Answer: 4 points for the reinforcement and 4 points for the hydrostatic calculations. Which one takes
the most study time? Which one of these are you most likely to do in actual practice? Which one of these
is the most likely to be on the exam?

200
UG-84

1. SA-370 ( second paragraph of UG-84)
2. Charpy V-notch(only one mentioned in UG-84, first paragraph UG-84 Charpy impact tests shall be
performed)
3. 165 long x 0.394thick see Fig UG-84
4. Three make a set
5. Three sets, two from the weld metal and one set of heat affected zone specimens.
6. The P No. and the Group No. must be the same as will welded in production.
7. Weld Metal and Heat Affected Zone.

UG-20/UCS66/68

1. Step 1. UG 20(f), Step 2. UCS-66(a) , Step 3. UCS-66 (b) , Step 4. UCS-68 ( c ).
2. When the Welded thickness exceeds 4 inches and the MDMT is below 120
o
F.
3. When the governing thickness exceeds 6 inches and the MDMT is below 120
o
F
4. 88
o
F SA-515 gr 70 is a curve A material
5. 48
o
F a coincident Ratio of 0.6 will reduce any materials MDMT by 40
o
F from that in the curves/tables.


Solutions for Internal Pressure Cylinders

1. From: Appendix 1-1
t R
SEt
P
o 4 . 0
=


Givens:
t original = .875
t present = .745
P = ?
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R
o
= 14.87 R
o
=
2
30
= 15-(.875-.745) = 15-0.13 = 14.87 this adjusts the o.d. wall loss

psi
x
x x
P 88 . 766
) 745 . 4 . 0 ( 87 . 14
745 . 0 . 1 000 , 15
=

=

The trick here is knowing to adjust the outside radius for corrosion, remember it will decrease
when there is external corrosion. The opposite is true for internal corrosion.

2. From: UG-27 ( c ) ( 1)
P SE
PR
t
6 . 0
=
Givens:
t
req.
= ?
P = 375 psi
S = 17,500 psi
E = .90
R =
2
36
= 18
" 4347 .
) 375 6 . 0 ( ) 90 . 500 , 17 (
18 375
=

=
x x
x
t

In order to take .90 for the E on the category A joint, it must have full RT and the circumferential joint
must meet the spot RT required by UW-12(a).
201
3. From: UG-27 ( c ) ( 1)
t R
SEt
P
6 . 0 +
=
Givens:
t

= .875
P = ?
S = 13,000 psi
E = .80
R =
2
60
= 30
psi
x
x x
P 11 . 298
) 875 . 6 . 0 ( 30
875 . 80 . 000 , 13
=
+
=

4. From: UG-27 ( c ) ( 1)
P SE
PR
t
6 . 0
=

t

= ?
P = 650 psi
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R =
2
50
= 25
" 112 . 1
) 650 6 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 000 , 15 (
25 650
=

=
x x
x
t

Here you must remember that UW-12(a) will not allow the use of a joint E from column A unless the
requirements of UW-11 (a)(5) have been applied. If the spot RT had not been performed the E would be
taken from column B and have a value of .85.

5. From: UG-27 ( c ) ( 1)
P SE
PR
t
6 . 0
= or
t R
SEt
P
6 . 0 +
=

Givens:
t

= 1.28
P = 200 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = 1.0
R =
2
' 14
= 7 x 12 = 84 Inside radius corroded = 84+(1.375-1.28) = 84.095

" 145 . 1
) 200 6 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 800 , 14 (
095 . 84 200
=

=
x x
x
t or psi
x
x x
P 23 . 223
) 28 . 1 6 . 0 ( 095 . 84
28 . 1 0 . 1 800 , 14
=
+
=

The answer to the question is YES it may remain in service.

Notice that since both pressure and thickness are known that either calculation can be made. It does not
matter which is used.

202

Solutions for Internal Pressure Heads

1. From: UG-32 (e)
P SE
PL
t
1 . 0
885 . 0

= (Torispherical Formula )
Givens:
t = ?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = 1.0
L = 50 crown radius

" 7487 .
) 250 1 . 0 ( ) 0 . 1 800 , 14 (
50 250 885 . 0
=

=
x x
x x
t

2. From: UG-32 (d)
P SE
PD
t
2 . 0 2
=
Givens:
t = ?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = .85
D = 50 inside diameter
" 4978 .
) 250 2 . 0 ( ) 85 . 800 , 14 2 (
50 250
=

=
x x x
x
t

3. From: UG-32 (f)
P SE
PL
t
2 . 0 2
=
Givens:
t = ?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = .85
L = 36.115 inside spherical radius
" 3595 .
) 250 2 . 0 ( ) 85 . 800 , 14 2 (
115 . 36 250
=

=
x x x
x
t

ANS: NO
203
4. From: UG-34 ( c ) ( 2 )
SE
CP
d t =
Givens:
t = ?
t = .505 actual thickness of the shell
P= 250 psi
S = for head material 15,500 psi
S = for shell material 17,500 psi
d = for head 36
D = for shell 36 inside
E = 1.0 for a seamless head
C = ?

Step 1. Calculate the Shells required thickness

From: UG 27 (c) (1) we use the t = formula to find that the shells required which is .259 remember to
use the shells material stress in this calculation.


Step 2. Using the actual thickness of shell and its calculated req. thickness find m

From: The definitions of variables in and fig. UG-34 (e) 51 .
505 .
259 .
= = =
ts
tr
m

Step 3. Calculate the value of C


From: Fig. UG-34 (e) C = .33 x m = .33 x .51 = .1683

Since the minimum that C is allowed to be in this geometry is .20 use C = .20 to solve.


Step 4. Calculate the required t of the flat head


= =
0 . 1 500 , 15
250 20 .
36
x
x
t 0032258 . 36 = " 044 . 2 0567961 . 36 = x

Answer No: 1.984 < 2.044
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