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INDEX Section 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Title Introduction..2 Responsibilities of Billing Engineer3 Documents to be Maintained by Billing Engineer.4 Mathematical Formulae..5 Cement Coefficient..

11 Method of measurements Earth work and Back filling.13 Plain cement concrete15 Reinforced cement concrete15 Form works..16 Reinforcement.20 Masonry..21 Plastering21 Paving, Floor finishes, Dado & Skirting.23 Whitewashing, Colour washing, Distempering..24 & Painting works Demolition & Dismantling works...24 Antitermite works..24 Gypsum and False ceiling works25 Page

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Running Bills, Prefinal and Final Bills26 NT Items and Deviations.27 QAD Auditing.28 Bill Certification.29 Reconciliation.30 Invoicing31 Billing Mechanism/ Standards32

2. MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE 01. SQUARE A A Area = A * A A Length of one side

02. RECTANGLE L B B Area = L * B L - Length B - Breadth

03. CIRCLE

Area = *R*R 2 R- Radius of the Circle

04.EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE h = ( a * 3) /2 a a A = (a2 * 3) / 4 B - Base of The Triangle H Height of the Triangle

a 5. ISOSCELES TRIANGLE

Area = c/4*sqrt (4a2 c2) c - Base of The Triangle a Side of the Triangle

c 06. PARALLELOGRAM

Area = B * H B Base length H perpendicular Ht of Parellogram

07. TRAPEZOID

Area = (A+B)*H 2 H- Perpendicular distance btn Parallel sides

08. SECTOR OF CIRCLE Area = Q**R2 360 Where Q = Angle of the Sector R = Radius of the Circle

09. AREA OF RHOMBUS: Area = d1d2 2 Where d1 and d2 are the diagonals. 10. SEGMENT OF CIRCLE: Segment of the circle is that part of the circle contained between the arc and its chord. Area = 2*L*H Where L- Length of the Arc 3 H - Rise of the arc 11. QUADRILATERALS: A=0.5*d (p1 + p2) Where A = area; d = Diagonal; p1 and p2 are the offsets of the Diagonal. 12. REGULAR HEXAGON: A = (3 a2 3)/2 Where A = area; a = side of the Hexagon 13 REGULAR OCTAGONS: A = 2 a2 (1+2) Where A = area; a = side 14 REGULAR DODECAGONS (12 SIDES): A = 6 a2 (7/4 + 3) Where A = area; a = side 15 ELLIPSE: A = ab C=DM

Where A = area; a = semi-major axis; and b= semi- minor axis; C= Circumference; multiplier. If value of d/D = 0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7,0.8,and 0.9 then the corresponding multiplier (M) sill be 2.1010,2.1930,2.3013,2.4221,2.5527,2.6912,2.8361, and 2.9866 respectively. D= a*2 and d=2*b.

11. IRREGULAR SURFACES: Divide the area or Figure into an even number (n) of parallel strips by means of (n+1) ordinates, spaced at equal distances, d. Let the ordinates be yi A. TRAPEZOIDAL RULE: Area = d*((y0+yn)/2 + y1 +y2 ++yn-1) B. DURANDS RULE: Area = d*[0.4(y0 + yn) + 1.1(y1+yn-1)+y2+y3+. +yn-1] C. SIMSONS RULE: Area = d*[( y0 + yn ) +4*(y1 + y3 +..+yn-1) +2*(y2 + y4 + +yn-2)] 3 VOLUME: 1.CIRCULAR CONES: A Cone is a solid whose base is a circle and whose convex surface tapers uniformly to a point called the vertex. Volume = 1/3 X area of base X Vertical Ht. Convex Area = X Perimeter of base X Slant Ht. 2.RECTANGULAR SOLIDS: i)

ii) iii)
iv)

v)

V = abc V = A1c = A2b = A3a V = (A1A2A3) V = 2 (ab + bc+ ca) D = (a2+b2+c2)

Where V= Volume; S = Whole surface; a = length; b- breadth; c = Depth; A1=Area of base; A2 = area of side; A3 = area of end; d = diagonal. 3.CUBES:

i) ii) iii)

V = a3 S = 6 a2 D = a 3 Where V = Volume; S = Whole surface; a = edge; D = Diagonal.

4.CYLINDERS:

i) ii)

V = r2 h S = 2 r (h+r)

Where V =Volume; S = whole Surface; r= radius of base; h = height. 5.CYLINDRICAL RINGS:

i) ii) iii) iv)

V = 2/4 (R+r) (R- r) 2 V = 1/32 (C + c) (C c) 2 S = 2 (R2 r2) S = (C2 c2)

Where V = Volume; S= Whole Surface; R= Outer radius; r=inner radius; C= Outer Circumference; c = Inner circumference. 6.PYRAMIDS AND CONES: V = 1/3 Ah Where V = Volume; A = area of base; h= height. 7.REGULAR TETRAHEDRONS:

i) ii) iii)

V = (2*2/3) a3 S = 4 a2 3 H = 2a(2/3)

Where V = Volume; S = Whole Surface; 2a= edge; h= height 8.FRUSTRA OF PYRAMIDS, CONES and TRAPEZOIDAL VOLUME: V= H/3 (A1 + A2 + (A1 + A2) Where V= Volume; h= height; A1 and A2 are the ends; P and p are the perimeters of the ends; s = slant height. 9.FRUSTRA OF RIGHT CIRCULAR CONES: i) V= h/3 (R2 + r2 + Rr) ii) S = 0.5 s (C + c) iii) S = s (R + r)

Where V = Volume; S = Curved Surface; R and r are the radii of the ends; C and c are the circumferences of the ends; s = slant height; h= perpendicular height.

10.SPHERES:

i) ii) iii) iv)

V = d3/6 V = 4/3 r3 S = d2 S = 4 r2

Where V = Volume; S = Surface; d= Diameter; r = radius. 11.SPHERICAL SHELLS: V = /6 (D3 d3) V = 4/3 (R3 r3) Where V = Volume; R=Outer radius; r = inner radius; D = Outer diameter; d= inner diameter; 12.ZONES OF SPHERES:

i) ii)

i) ii)

V = h/3 [3(r1 2 + r22)+ h2] S = dh

Where V = Volume; S = Curved surface; r1 and r2 are the radii of the two ends; h = height; d = dia of sphere. 13.Square of same area as a circle Side = diameter X 0.88623 14.Circle of same area as a Square Diameter = side x 1.12838 15.PARABOLAS AND PARABLOIDS: Area of space within the parabola = Base x 2/3 perpendicular height Volume of parabloid (Solid) = r2h Where r = radius of the base of the parabloid h = height

CEMENT CO-EFFICIENTS FOR RECONCILIATION & OHP S/N CONCRETE 1 P.C.C.1: 4:8 below foundation/floors 2 R.C.C. M-25 footing 3 RCC M20 for Roof slab/beam, columns, stair case 4 DPC 1:3:6 MASONRY WORKS 5 SSM for foundation/basement in CM 1:6 6 200 mm Solid block in CM 1:6 7 100 mm Solid Block in CM 1:6 8 150 mm Solid Block in CM 1:6 9 230 mm Brick Masonry in CM 1:6 10 115 mm Brick Masonry in CM 1:4 PLASTERING 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 12 mm Ceiling plastering in CM 1:4 12 mm Internal wall plastering in CM 1:6 15 MM Rough plaster in walls IN 1:4 External plastering Basement waterproof plastering Duct Plastering Plastering Grooves 19mm width and 15 mm Deep Drip moulds PVC beading for Grooves above skirting STAIRCASE WORKS 20 21 Tread-Multicolour-20mm thk. Riser-Multicolour-20mm thk. SQM SQM 0.22 0.22 SQM SQM SQM SQM SQM SQM RM RM RM 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.05 0.03 0.05 CUM SQM SQM SQM CUM SQM 1.60 0.18 0.12 0.15 1.23 0.14 CUM CUM CUM CUM 3.30 7.50 6.80 4.50 DESCRIPTION UNIT CO-EFF

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Tread-Sadharalli -10mm thk. Riser-Sadharalli -10mm thk. FLOORING

SQM SQM

0.22 0.22

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Screed concrete Multicolour granite 20 mm Multicolour granite 10 mm Sadaralli granite Vitrified tile flooring (Labor only) Cudappa slab flooring Eurocon Tiles for ramp Broken tile flooring Grano Flooring WALL TILING

SQM SQM SQM SQM SQM SQM SQM SQM SQM

0.40 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.30 0.30

33 34 35 36 37 38

Toilets & Pantry Ceramic tile dadoing (1:4) Ceramic tile dadoing (1:1) Multi color Wall Dado 20 mm thick Jet Black Wall Dado 20mm thick Door Jambs with Granite

SQM SQM SQM SQM SQM SQM

0.22 0.22 0.40 0.22 0.22 0.22

SKIRTING 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Granite tile-Multi colour 100 High Sadharalli granite 100 High Vitrified tile-glossy(Labor only) 100 High Cudappah slab skirting 100 High Cement skirting 100 High 190 mm High Skirting Clay Tile Skirting works in Terrace MISCELLANEOUS 46 47 48 Multi colour granite coping 20 mm Multi colour granite coping 10 mm Hume Pipe SQM SQM RM 0.22 0.22 0.60 Rm Rm Rm Rm Rm Rm Rm 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.10

MODE AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENTS: EARTHWORK AND BACK FILLING: 1. Block Levels has to be taken at the start of the work. The intervals can be of 3m or 5m. 2. The Uom is in CUM and should be rounded off to nearest two decimals. 3. For Pit Excavation an offset of 30 cm can be taken on either side of the footing up to 1.5 m depth and for more than 1.5 m depth it can be taken as 50 to 60 cm. 4. For Pit excavation Depth can be arrived by taking = Average top level Average Bottom Level 5. For Mass Excavation Earth work quantity can be calculated by using any of the rules like Trapezoidal or simsons rule etc. Proper CVI (Reasons) has to be maintained for Mass Excavation 6. For hard rock and soft rock the top levels and bottom levels should be taken with consultant approval. The Quantity can be arrived with top and bottom levels or the quantity can be arrived by stacking the Hard rock. The place for stacking should be selected in accordance with clients approval and must be recored with joint measurement from client and contractor. 7. Back filling quantity can be arrived using trapezoidal or simsons rule. 8. Final quantity is arrived by deducting the volume of concrete and size stone masonry below ground level from the total quantity. 9. Earth brought from outside or to be carted away is calculated by = Total Excavated Quantity - Total Backfilling Quantity. If Value is - Ve - It is Earth brought from outside +Ve - It is Earth to be carted away. 10. For Jungle clearance item, the area to be considered is 5m off set all-round the building and if for road works, 1m offset should be considered on either side. 11. For EX: The below is the block level of area 40 m X 20 m with levels of 5 m interval with mass excavation to be done for entire area with excavation bottom level as 95.2

10

BlockLevel

.5 4

5 .6 98 5 .4 98 5 .6 98 3 .9 98 8 .9 98

.7

.6

.4

.5

.6

.6

98

98

98

98

98

98

98

.6 8

.6

.5

.3

.5

.6

.7

98

98

98

98

98

98

98

.8 5

.9

.7

.7

.8

.7

.9

98

98

98

98

98

98

98

.9 2

.8

.6

.7

.7

.7

.8

98

98

98

98

98

98

98

.9 5

.7

.7

.6

.5

.7

.8

98

98

98

98

98

98

98

The volume can be found by taking average rectangle/square method. The depth of excavation
=(98.75+98.7+98.68+98.85)/4 95.2 (i.e. Avg Top lvl Bottom lvl.). = 3.545 m Area = 5 X 5 = 25 sqm Volume of Earth = Area X Depth = 25 X 3.545 = 88.63 cum

11

98

.9

98

.9

98

.7

98

.3

98

.2

Similarly Volume of Earth has to be calculated for Other Square areas and to be added to get the total quantity. If there is hard rock, it can be stacked separately. The volume of Hard rock stacked can be found by taking site measurements. For Ex, refer below sketch as stack measurement.

The Hard rock is stacked in trapezoidal shape generally. Stacked Quantity = H/3 (A1 + A2 + (A1 + A2) A1 = Lx B = 10 x 8 = 80 m2 A2 = L1xB1= 6 x 4 = 24 m2 = 2/3x(80+24+(80+24)) = 76.13 cum The Volume of Hard rock = The volume of stacked quantity Deduction for voids. Deduction for Voids should be preaccepted and normally stated in percentage of stacked quantity. From the total Quantity of the mixture the quantity of hard rock excavated thus arrived at shall be deducted to work out the quantity of the soft, disintegrated rock excavated. PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE: 1. Quantities should be taken only as per drawings with offset as mentioned in drawings. 2. Any variations with respect to drawings should be recorded and CVI should be got from clients and should be intimated to Estimation Department and Project head immediately. 3. The variation can be like mass Pcc, Variation in Thickness due to site requirement, Grade change, laying using pump etc. Variation due to faulty execution cannot be claimed. 4. Shuttering for edges has to be claimed unless it is mass execution.

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5. UOM is usually in cum. For Screed it is in sqm.

REINFORCED CEMENT CONCRETE: 1. The Quantities can be rounded off to the nearest two decimals. 2. Concrete in Structural members, such as columns, Beams and slabs shall each be measured separately. 3. No Deductions shall be made for the following.

Opening up to 0.1 m 2 Volume occupied by reinforcement. Volume occupied by pipes, conduits, sheathing, etc not exceeding 100 cm2 each in cross-section. Moulds, drips moulding, chamfers, splays rounded or covered angles, beds, grooves and rebates up to 10 cm in girth

4. Footings: Volume of concrete = L *B *D for Rectangular and Square footing. For Trapezoidal Footing, Volume of Concrete is calculated in two parts. Bottom Rectangular portion is calculated separately and Trapezoidal volume is calculated separately.

Rectangular Volume = L*B*D Trapezoidal Volume V= H/3 (A1 + A2 + (A1 + A2) Total Volume = Rectangular Volume + Trapezoidal Volume Where V= Volume; h= height; A1 and A2 are area at the Top and Bottom ends.

5. Columns: Columns shall be measured from top of Column base to underside of first floor slab
and subsequently from top of floor slab to underside of floor slab above. Incase of Columns for flat slabs, flare of column shall be included with column for Measurement.

6. Beams: Beams shall be measured from face to face of columns and shall include haunches, if
any, between columns and beams. The depth of beams shall be measured from bottom of slab to bottom of the beam except incase of inverted beam where it shall be measured from top of slab to top of beam.

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7. Pedestals: Pedestals is measured from top of Footing to top/ Bottom of plinth beam
depending on site conditions. If measured up to bottom of Plinth beam then Ground floor column can be measured from Bottom of plinth beam to underside of slab. The Height of Pedestal can be arrived from levels of footing and plinth beam. The Height shall be crosschecked with site also.

FORM WORKS: 1. Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 m.

2.
3.

Areas shall be worked out to the nearest 0.01 m2. Formwork shall be measured in sqm as the actual surfaces in contact with the concrete or any other material requiring formwork.

4. Shuttering For PCC Edges has to be taken unless otherwise it is mass Pcc. 5. Footing: Footing shuttering = 2(L+B)*D Where L Length, B Breadth, D Depth.

6.

Column shuttering is calculated same as above. But height of column should be taken from top of column base to underside of floor slab. Pedestal shuttering is also normally taken in Column shuttering. Circular Columns should be taken separately i.e. Q= 2 r h/ dh where rradius and d Diameter, h - Column height.

7.

In case of Flat slabs for column-shuttering height of column is taken up to bottom of column capital and capital shuttering should be taken separately.

8.
9.

No Deductions shall be made for opening up to 0.4 m 2. No Deduction shall be made for any opening /cutouts when slip form technique is used. Formwork to secondary beams shall be measured up to the sides of main beams, but no deduction shall be made from the formwork of the main beam where the secondary beam intersects it. Formwork to beam shall be measured up to sides of column, but no deduction shall be made from the formwork to stanchion or column casings at intersections of beam.

10. Examples for calculating Footing Concrete & Shuttering: Size of Footing = 4 m x 3m x 0.8 m with PCC 100 mm thick below with offset of 100 mm all sides.

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0.8m 4m 4.2 m Rectangular Footing Footing PCC quantity Footing PCC Shuttering = Lx B x D = 4.2 x 3.2 x 0.1 = 1.34 cum

0.9 m

= 2x(L+B) x D = 2x (4.2+3.2) x 0.1 = 1.48 sqm

Footing Concrete Quantity = Lx B x D = 4 x 3 x 0.8 = 9.6 cum Footing Shuttering Quantity = 2 x (L + B) x D = 2 x (4 + 3) x 0.8 = 11.2 sqm

3m 1.28 m .8 m 1.0 m

5m 5.2 m

1m

3m

5.2m 5m

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3m 1m Trapezoidal Footing PCC concrete and shuttering quantity is calculated similarly as above example. Concrete quantity for trapezoidal footing = Trapezoidal volume +Rectangular Volume = d/3 x (A1+A2+(A1+A2))+Lx B x D A1 = 5 x 5 = 25 m2 A2 = 3 x 3 = 9 m2 Concrete Quantity = 0.8/3 x (25 + 9 + (25+9))+5x5x1 = 10.62+25=35.62 cum Shuttering Quantity = 2 x (L+B) x D = 2 x (5+5) x 1 = 20 m2

Example for Beam, column and Slab Concrete & Shuttering:


C1 B1 C1

A B1 4m 5.6 m SLAB 100mm thk 3.6 m B1

C1

B1 6m

C1

Slab 100 mm thk

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Beam 200 x 600 4.5 m

2.9m

3.0 m 2.4 m

Section AA

C1 Column 200 x 750 mm; B1 Beam 200 x 450 mm


Column Concrete & Shuttering: Column concrete for C1 = L x B x D = 0.75 x 0.2 x 2.9 = 0.44 cum For four no = 4 x 0.44 = 1.76 cum Column shuttering for C1 = 2 x (L + B) x D = 2 x (0.75+0.2) x 2.9 = 5.51 m2 For Four no = 4 x 5.51 = 22.04 m 2 Slab Concrete & Shuttering: Slab Concrete = L x B x D = 6 x 4 x 0.1 = 2.4 m3 Slab Shuttering = L x B = 5.6 x 3.6 = 20.16 m2 Beam Concrete: Beam Concrete in longer span = L x B x D = 4.5 x 0.2 x 0.5 = 0.45 cum For 2 Beams = 2 x 0.45 = 0.9 cum Beam concrete in shorter span = L x B x D = 3.6 x 0.2 x 0.5 = 0.36 cum For 2 Beams = 2 x 0.36 = 0.72 cum Total Beam Concrete = 0.72+0.9 = 1.62 cum Beam Shuttering:

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Beam Shuttering in longer span = 2 x L x (D1 + D2) = 2 x 4.5 x (0.6+0.5) = 9.9 m2 For 2 beams = 2 x 9.9 = 19.8 m2 Beam Shuttering in Shorter span = 2 x L x (D1 + D2) = 2 x 3.6 x (0.6+0.5) = 7.92 m2 For 2 Beams = 2 x 7.92 = 15.84 m2 Total Beam Shuttering = 19.8 + 15.84 = 35.64 m2 Reinforcement: 1. Reinforcement is measured normally in metric tones-MT. Unit weight of steel is 7850 kg/cum

2.

Weight of bars/rm for different dia can be calculated using w= D 2/162 where w-weight in kg; D-Dia of bar in mm

3. Normally lap of bars is taken as 50 times diameter. When two different dia is lapped together the lap length is taken as 50 times of smaller dia. 4. Normally no. of bars in footing mat is calculated by No of bars in shorter direction =(Length of longer side cover in both ends/ spacing) +1 No of bars in Longer direction =(Length of Shorter side cover in both ends/ spacing) +1 5. Cover of footing is 50 mm, Column is 40 mm, beam is 25 mm and slab is 15mm.It may vary as per design and site. 6. For Tie Bars in columns and stirrups in beam the hook length is taken as 100mm normally. 7. Extra rods provided as per site should be claimed with proper back up and site instruction. 8. Chair rods in footing, slab and spacer bars in Beam should be claimed unless otherwise it is mentioned in the purchase order. 9. Tie bars and stirrups will not be claimed in beam-column junction unless or otherwise it is done in site. Masonry works: 1. For size stone masonry proper CVI should be maintained at site confirming the width and depth of courses to be done. Site measurements should be taken and hand sketches should be made with location, width, Depth and length of the courses. Appropriate levels can also support it. UOM is in cum. 2. Pcc Below SSM and Damp proof course above SSM should be claimed including shuttering to the sides in Plain cement concrete Item. 3. Blocks of different sizes and specification should be claimed separately. Actual Height is taken including concrete packing at the top course. 4. Block work is measured in sqm and 12.5 Blocks is considered for 1 sqm.

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5. Openings for windows and Doors and other opening should be deducted. Area for lintels above doors and windows shall not be deducted. 6. Soling is measured in cum. The depth should be supported with levels. Any deviations should be recorded and can be claimed if it can be justified. 7. Block work/Brickwork for step works is normally missed out. PCC Below steps and shuttering for edges also should be taken in to account while billing. 8. Brickwork 115 mm thk is measured in sqm. Normally it is done as skin wall in toilet in water closet area. 9. Brickwork more than 115 mm thk is measured in cum. If standard bricks are used, 500 nos are required for 1 cum. 10. Cinder filling is measured in cum and is done in sunken and hollow portions like Stepped/sloped classrooms and toilets.

Plastering works: 1. Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 m.

2. Areas shall worked out to the nearest 0.1 m2


3. Preparatory work, such as raking out joints, scarifying and cleaning, shall be included in the description of item unless otherwise specified. 4. Plasterwork shall be classified according to the material used and each classification shall be measured separately. 5. The following particulars shall be given for each classification. Mix of mortar; Number of coats and thickness of each coat; Nature of surface treatment; Nature of base; Curved work, conical work, spherical work and elliptical work stating the radius; and Any special treatment of base.

6. Plastering on roofs, ceilings and walls shall be measured separately. 7. Removing plaster by scraping or otherwise shall be measured separately in sqm. 8. Plastering in Isolated widths or in Widths not forming part of general plastering work (as in bands, cornices, sunk, panels, etc) and in chamfers, rounded angles exceeding 80 mm in girth shall be measured as below: 30 cm or below in width/girth, in running meters; and Width/girth above 30 cm in sqm.

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9. Plastering at a height greater than 10 m above ground / datum level shall be measured separately in stages of 5 m height except interior plastering incase of building which shall be measured separately for each storey. 10. All plastering shall be measured in sqm unless otherwise described

11. No Deductions shall be made for ends of joists, beams, posts, etc, and openings not exceeding
0.5 m2 each and not exceeding 0.5 m2 each and no addition shall be made for reveals, jambs, soffits, etc, of these openings nor for finish to plaster around ends of joists, beams, posts, etc.

12. Deductions for openings exceeding 0.5 m2 but not exceeding 3 m2 each shall be made as
follows and no addition shall be made as follows and no addition shall be made for reveals, jambs, soffits, sill, etc, of these openings: When both faces of wall are plastered with same plaster, deduction shall be made fro one face only. When two faces of wall are plastered with different types of plaster 50% Deduction shall be made on either side. When only one face is plastered and the other face is not, full deduction shall be made from plaster if width of reveal on plastered side is less than that on unplastered side but if widths of reveal on both sides are equal or width of reveal on both sides are equal or width of reveal on plastered side is more, no deduction shall be made.

13. Incase of openings of area above 3 m2 each, deduction shall be made for opening on each face
but jambs, soffits and sills shall be measured. 14. Ceilings shall be measured between walls or partitions and dimensions before plastering shall be taken. Width covered by cornices or coves, if any shall be deducted. 15. Soffits of stairs shall be measured as plastering on ceilings. Ribs and mouldings on ceilings shall be measured as for cornices, deduction being made from plastering if width/girth exceeds 15 cm. 16. Measurement of wall plastering shall be taken between walls or partitions (Dimensions before plastering being taken) for length and from top of floor or skirting to ceiling for height. Depth of cornices or coves, if any, shall be deducted. When taken from top of skirting, for deduction of doors, height of opening should be considered subtracting the skirting height. 17. Plastering on honeycomb work shall be described and measured in sqm on the basis of overall superficial area without deducting openings. Paving, Floor Finishes, Dado and Skirting:

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1. Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01m and areas shall be worked out to nearest
0.01 m 2 Except for skirting, which is measured in Rm. 2. Expansion and dummy joints shall be described and measured separately in Rm stating depth and width of joints. The filler shall be described and included in the description of item. 3. Curved work, conical work and spherical work shall be measured separately. 4. Insitu finishes shall be classified according to the kind of material (for Example, granolithic, terrazzo, mosaic, etc) and measured separately. The following particulars shall be given for each classification: Composition and mix; Thickness, which shall be exclusive of keys, grooves and open joints; Number of coats; Nature of surface treatment (for example, steel trowelled, wood floated, polished, sprinkled with carborundum powder, etc); Nature of base and any special treatment to the same; and Situations, for example, whether in flooring or in dado/skirting

5. No Deduction shall be made for voids not exceeding 0.2 m 2.


6. Work in treads, risers and edges of landings shall be measured in square meters. Work in landing shall be included in main item. 7. Moulded nosing shall be measured in Rm. Dodos shall be measured in sqm. Skirting shall be measured in Rm stating height. 8. Granite and tile works should be described in detail like thickness of mortar bed / cerabond or araldite backing with details like nosing and chamfering and width incase it is measured in rm. White washing, colour washing, Distempering, and painting works etc 1. Method of measurements is same as that of plastering. 2. The Description should be clear like number of basecoats and final coats. 3. Deductions for openings are same as like that of plastering 4. Corrugated surfaces shall be measured flat as fixed and not girthed. Quantities so measured shall be increased by the following % and resultant shall be included in general areas: Corrugated steel sheets Corrugated asbestos cement sheet Semi-corrugated asbestos cement sheets Nainital pattern roofs (Plain sheeting with rolls) Nainital pattern roofs with corrugated sheets - 14 percent - 20 percent - 10 percent - 10 percent - 25 Percent

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5. Area of uneven surfaces be converted into equivalent plain areas as under: External walls of plain brick work faced with recessed, raised or weather stuck pointing - 20 percent Sand faced plaster width up to 4 mm size - 50 percent Rough cast plaster with stone aggregate up to 10 mm 100 percent Pebble dash finish 275 percent

6. Rcc jallies up to 50 mm thick, the quantity shall be increased by 50 percent if painted on one side and 70 percent if painted on both sides; when thicker than 50 mm the quantity shall be based on actual area painted. Demolition and Dismantling:

1. Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 m, Areas shall be worked out to the nearest
0.01 m2 and volume to nearest .01 m3. 2. Works required to be demolished and to be dismantled shall be measured separately. 3. Distances exceeding 100 m and up to 1 km shall be measured in units of 100 m and those exceeding 1 km in units of 500 m. Antitermite Treatment: 1. Antitermite treatment is measured in sqm. 2. Area to be considered is the plinth area of the building.

Gypsum and false ceiling works: 1. Grid ceiling works is measured in sqm 2. If client supply the material it should be billed separately and our supply is there it should be billed separately. Wastage should not exceed more than 5%. 3. Materials normally used are Grid tiles 600 x 600(owatiles, aerolite). The materials used for Grid works are Main Tee, Cross Tee 1.2 m, Cross Tee 0.6 m, J hook, MS wires, perimeter angles, & Black screw.

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4. Gypsum ceiling is measured in sqm. Plain and Decorative ceilings should be billed separately. The drops for the ceiling should be taken in to account based on the rate analysis. Normally for Infosys projects the drops are also measured for the gypsum ceiling quantity. 5. Gypsum partitions are measured in sqm. The width of the partition, Double side board or single side board, number of boards on either side etc should be clearly mentioned based on which the rates are decided. 6. Gypsum cladding and Boxing for Beams and columns are measured in sqm. 7. Wastage allowed is only 5%. If wastage increases it has to be supported with proper backup and workings, so that it can be claimed. 8. Gypsum punning and POP punning is measured in sqm. The method of measurement followed for plastering and painting is applicable for POP/Gypsum punning.

5.RUNNING BILLS & FINAL BILLS Running Bills: Running bills are prepared every month based upon the work executed in the site. The Billing engineer has to take the actual measurement at site and prepare the bill. The running bills should be raised before 25 th of every month and submitted for certification, along with the invoice before 28th of the month. A copy of the running bill has to be forwarded to estimation department on 25 th of every month. The running bills should be certified within 28 days from preparation. The Bill submission date varies as per Location of site and requirement of client. Running bill abstract shall be divided into three parts

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Annexure A: Items as per PO Annexure B: Items Exceeding PO Annexure C: Non Tendered Items In Annexure A, all the items as per the Purchase order / work order should be included irrespective of whether its executed in the site or not. If an item is not executed then the quantity and value will be zero. In Annexure B, only the items, which are exceeding the PO/WO, shall be included. The items number should be same as that of the PO. The quantities that are exceeding the PO quantity shall be included in this annexure. In Annexure C, all non-tendered items are included. The specification and quantity as executed in the site are shown in this annexure. The estimation department will give the rate for the non-tendered item. All non-tendered items should be supported by any of the following. (a) Site Instruction from Client/architect/consultant (b) Drawings issued by the architect (c) Confirmation of Verbal instruction issued by client/consultant/architect (d) Minutes of meeting, if the same is discussed & approved in the meeting

Pre final
The pre final / final bill should be prepared within 14 days after the handing over/completion of the project. The final bill should have the following Reconciliation statement (client supply and company supplied materials) Certified copy of all running bills Supporting documents for Non Tendered items Rates for Non tendered items (Which shall be provided by estimation department)

The copy of the Pre final bill should be given to QAD for final checking. The final bill should be submitted for certification after QAD auditing. The Pre final bill should be certified within 56 days from the date of preparation/submission. After certification of Pre Final bill, a copy of the bill has to be forwarded to estimation department for amendment of the PO. The estimation department will take up the PO amendment. FINAL BILL:

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Final bill shall be raised only after the amendment of PO. The final bill value should be equal to the Amended PO Value, so that there will be no problem in accounting the invoice and for closure of the PO.

6. NT ITEMS AND DEVIATIONS FROM PO The Non Tendered items and deviations will happen in almost all projects. Any item that is not considered in the estimate is a Non Tendered item. Any which is considered in the estimate and during the time of execution there is a change in the specification can be considered as deviation item. For example, in the estimate the following item is considered (a) Providing and fixing 190mm high skirting in Jet Black Granite flushed to the wall surface with

mortar backing including chamfering the edges for Staircase


It is decided to use Multi color granite instead of jet-black granite, and then the item will be a deviation item from the original specification. Although the item is considered in estimate, the rate for the item varies due to change in specification. If an entirely new item of work, which is not considered in the estimate, is introduced, the item is billed in Non Tendered item. In normal case, the specification of non-tendered item has to be clearly decided and the rate has to be finalized before starting the job. But in very few exceptional cases, the item can be executed with the written approval of client/consultant.

7. QAD AUDITING The quantity audit department will audit the client bills periodically. Its the responsibility of the billing engineer to give full support to the audit team. Each item has to be explained properly and any variation informed by the audit team should be incorporated in the subsequent bills. The audit team will scrutinize the following elements

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a. Method of measurement b. Status of drawing c. NT items

d. Site Instruction e. Stages of certification f. Expenditure Vs Bill - Comparison

g. Missed out / Deviation Items h. Rates

The billing engineer has to produce the clear facts related to above items. The audit team will explain the drawbacks, if any, and care should be taken to avoid it.

8. BILL CERTIFICATION: This is one of the most important jobs as far as billing engineers are concerned. Bill prepared has to be properly submitted to the client/consultant with necessary documents such as invoice, abstract sheet, detailed measurement sheet, site instruction/CVI, drawings etc. The client/consultant will verify the bill as executed in site and certify based on actual. The billing engineer has to explain each item properly with the help of drawings, hand sketch. There should not be

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any disparity in the bill submitted. Any correction proposed by the client/consultant has to be done immediately. Following points has to be noted before submitting the bill

Properly file the abstract, measurement sheet. The original has to be submitted and the copy to be retained by the billing engineer.

The invoice in the first page followed by bill abstract, copy of PO and measurement sheet The measurement sheet should be numbered and the page no has to be indicated in the remarks column of abstract sheet against the item of work

Relevant drawings/ hand sketches to be filed along with the measurement sheet Any carry over / back file to be indicated with page numbers

After the certification of the bills, necessary corrections as mentioned by the architect/consultant/client to be incorporated in the bill and a copy of the bill duly signed by the architect/consultant/client to be forwarded to estimation/billing department. The architect/consultant/client may issue a certificate of payment, which reflects the amount due to the contractor and taxes to be paid by the client against the work executed. The billing engineer should take minimum time possible for certification of the bills. The time allotted for certification of running bills is 28 days and final bill is 56 days.

9.RECONCILIATION All materials used in the project have to be reconciled and the reconciliation of client-supplied material has to be attached with the final bill. The intention of reconciliation is to arrive the percentage of wastages incurred during the course of the project and comparing with the permissible percentage of wastages. The reconciliation has to be carried out monthly so that a

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control on excess wastages of materials is achieved. The major items, which are to be recon ciliated, are

Civil & Finishes Works 1. Ready mix concrete All Grades 2. Cement 3. Steel 4. Sand 5. Tiles 6. Size Stone 7. Blocks 8. Structural Steel 9. Gypsum Materials 10. Grid Ceiling materials 11. Granite

The format used for preparing the reconciliation statement is attached.

10.INVOICING The bill carries details about the specification, Unit of measurement, quantity, rate and amount. Apart from these there is a tax component, which may not be shown in the bill abstract. The tax component may be for the entire amount of bill raised or for certain item of work. While we submit the bill to the client, the tax component has to be added and we have to raise a claim for the entire amount. The Invoice is the claim put forward by the contractor for the item of work executed as per the agreement along with the taxes/duties as applicable.

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The accounts department does invoicing in co ordination with billing department. The invoice will carry following details

Name and Address of the client Invoice No and Date Project Name Running bill No TIN/CST No and date PO/WO/LOI No and date PAN No/ Service tax No and date Bill Value Taxes Total Invoice value Signature of authorized person

If the tax component is for the entire bill value then its shown in the invoice itself. If the tax component is for certain item of work then there should be separate working sheet attached clearly showing the applicable taxes and the same has to be reflected in the invoice. The copy of the bill has to be forwarded to accounts department for invoicing. The accounts department will provide the appropriate tax percentage/value as per the terms and conditions in PO/WO/LOI. ANNEXURE (1) Format of measurement sheet (2) Format of bill abstract (3) Format of reconciliation statement COST CONTROL CHECK LIST FOR PROJECTS ACTIVITIES POINTS TO BE NOTED Working space Natural Ground levels Excavation depth Stacking excavated earth BILLING MECHANISM / STANDARDS 300mm from Footing face Block leveling before excavation starts Not more than shown in the Drawings Location to be agreed with Client to avoid any double shifting

EARTH WORKS

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PCC WORKS

Depth of PCC Grade of PCC Offset of PCC from Footing Wastages

Not more than shown in the Drawings As mentioned in Drawings Not more than shown in the Drawings Not more than 3% Try to use maximum in Lintels / Grade slabs No wastages (0%), ideally there should be savings of reinforcement volume. Not more than shown in the Drawings Should be cross verified every time for major concreting with the actual quantity of work done to the Theoretical Quantity

REINFORCEMENT

Cut pieces

Wastages in RMC Thickness of Slabs RCC WORKS RMC volume received

No of Repetitions SHUTTERING WORKS

Not less than 4 for ordinary plywood Not less than 8 for film faced plywood Must be worked out at the beginning say If standard repetitions not available before 30 days from Starting of the Project and informed to Contracts. Not more than 5% No wastages allowed, it must be reused simultaneously Must be maintained as per proportion by Volume batching Not more than 15mm for internal plastering

Wastages In Blocks BLOCK WORKS Mortar wastages Mortar mix

Average Thickness of Plaster Not more than 25mm for External plastering PLASTERING Mortar wastages Mortar mix No wastages allowed, it must be reused simultaneously Must be maintained as per proportion by Volume batching

TILE FLOORING

Tile normal wastages Any Additional wastages Average Mortar bed thickness

Not more than 6% unless design flooring Must be worked out in the beginning and documented with the approval from Architects/Clients/Contracts Not more than as shown in the drawings for example for 50mm thick floor finishes it must be equal or less than 42mm (50mm-8mm) considering thickness of tile as 8mm

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Mortar mix

Must be maintained as per proportion by Volume batching Not more than 10% unless design flooring Must be worked out in the beginning and documented with the approval from Architects/Clients/Contracts Not more than as shown in the drawings for example for 50mm thick floor finishes it must be equal or less than 30mm (50mm-20mm) considering thickness of Granite as 20mm Must be maintained as per proportion by Volume batching Not more than 8% unless design Must be worked out in the beginning and documented with the approval from Architects/Clients/Contracts Not more than 15mm Not more than 20mm Must be maintained as per proportion by Volume batching Not more than 5% unless design Not more than 5% unless design Must be worked out in the beginning and documented with the approval from Architects/Clients/Contracts Not more than 3% Not more than 20%

Granite normal wastages Any Additional wastages GRANITE FLOORING Average Mortar bed thickness

Mortar mix Tile normal wastages Any Additional wastages TILE DADOING Rough plastering thickness Average Mortar backing thickness Mortar mix Gypsum board wastages Grid tile wastages FALSE CEILING Any Additional wastages

GENERAL MATERIALS

Cement wastages Sand wastages

Location must be studied at the beginning and Site infrastructure like Office, go PRELIMINARIES down, stores, lab etc Client approval must be taken on a drawing. Any relocation must be as per the instructions from Architects/Clients, which must be claimed in the bill and get certified. Same as above Same as above

Material stack yard Labour sheds

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Any shifting as per Client/Architect instructions must be documented with approx loads before starting the work on Site instructions, which TRACTOR LOADS Shifting works may be other contractors work, demolition works, office shifting, stack yard shifting etc. (which are not due to our internal requirement) Must be charged to them with some lumpsum amount fixed at the beginning. This is only if WATER & ELECTRICITY Supplied to Other Client side Contractors we are sourcing the supply (when Client is not supplying the Water & electricity free of cost or if he is supplying and deducting from our bills based on the consumption) Provided to Other Client side SCAFFOLDING Contractors Provided at a later stage for modifications due to Architect / Client instructions Must be charged to them with some lumpsum amount fixed at the beginning. Must be recorded and charged to Client with Site instructions It must be done monthly for Cement, Sand, RECONCILIATION Reconciliation of Major materials Aggregates, RMC, Reinforcement, Granite and Tiles, Gypsum & Grid tiles.

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