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The Stirling engine is a heat engine that is vastly different from the internalcombustion engine in your car.

Invented by Robert Stirling in 1816, the Stirling engine has the potential to be much more efficient than a gasoline or diesel engine. But today, Stirling engines are used only in some very specialized applications, like in submarines or auxiliary power generators for yachts, where quiet operation is important. Although there hasn't been a successful mass-market application for the Stirling engine, some very highpower inventors are working on it. A Stirling engine uses the Stirling cycle, which is unlike the cycles used in internal-combustion engines.

The gasses used inside a Stirling engine never leave the engine. There are no exhaust valves that vent high-pressure gasses, as in a gasoline or diesel engine, and there are no explosions taking place. Because of this, Stirling engines are very quiet.

The Stirling cycle uses an external heat source, which could be anything from gasoline to solar energy to the heat produced by decaying plants. No combustion takes place inside the cylinders of the engine. There are hundreds of ways to put together a Stirling engine. In this article, we'll learn about the Stirling cycle and see how two different configurations of this engine work.

Scope of GATE
Admission to postgraduate programmes with MHRD and some other government scholarship/assistantship at engineering colleges/institutes in the country are open to those who qualify through GATE. GATE qualified candidates with Bachelor"s degree in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture/ Pharmacy or Master"s degree in any branch of Science/Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Applications are eligible for Master/Doctoral programmes in Engineering/Technology/Architecture/Pharmacy as well as for Doctoral programmes in relevant branches of Science. To avail the scholarship, the candidate must secure admission to such a postgraduate programme, as per the prevailing procedure of the admitting institution. GATE qualification, however, is not required for candidates with Master"s degree in Engineering /Technology/Architecture/Pharmacy, who may be seeking scholarship/ assistantship for relevant doctoral programmes. 1. Some private institutions specify GATE as the Mandatory Qualification even for admission of self-financing students to postgraduate programmes 2. GATE qualified candidates are also eligible for the award of Junior Research Fellowship in CSIR Laboratories and CSIR sponsored projects

3. Some government organizations prescribe GATE qualification as a requirement for applying to the post of a Scientist / Engineer 4. Indian Institute of Managements (IIMs) consider the GATE score for admissions to their prestigious fellowship program (Ph.D in management). For details visit the websites of the respective IIMs 5. Some universities of high repute ( top 100 globally) ,abroad, also consider the GATE score for admissions to their post graduation/ M.S programs 6. GATE score is required for admissions to the highly acclaimed Post Graduate Diploma in Industrial Engineering (PGDIE) offered by National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE) There are several other opportunities where the GATE score is required. The details will be shared with the students of The GATE Academy during the course of Study.

Fuel nozzle that supplies fuel into combustion chamber of internal combustion engine in the shape of continuous circle cone
Summary: To diminish the diameter of atomized fuel drops and disperse fuel drops as evenly as possible along a combustion chamber, we came up with the usage of a valve fuel injector, which supplies Diesel or gasoline into a combustion chamber in the shape of continuous circle cone with an exposure angle of 50o 180o. The cone fuel nozzle capitalizes Homogenous Chamber Combustion Ignition (HCCI) process in internal combustion engine. Full Description: To diminish the diameter of atomized fuel drops and disperse fuel drops as evenly as possible along a combustion chamber, we came up with the usage of a valve fuel injector, which supplies Diesel or gasoline into a combustion chamber in the shape of continuous circle cone with an exposure angle of 50o 180o. There is a gap between a valve and an injector housing; fuel enters a combustion chamber through this gap; its size is about 20 50 micron. During the process of fuel injection, an injector valve also vibrates and that leads to substantial fractioning of fuel. The cone fuel nozzle capitalizes Homogenous Chamber Combustion Ignition (HCCI) process in internal combustion engine (both engines Diesel and Spark Ignition) by means of wide and equally dispersing the fuel throughout the entire combustion chamber. In modern diesel engines the fuel supply into a combustion chamber is performed throughout multi-hole fuel injector. The shape of fuel stream, number of holes and their diameter impact the quality of combustion process as well as contents of harmful substances within

exhaust gases. While developing cone fuel injector designs usually the following tasks are set to be resolved: diminish diameter of atomized fuel drops, disperse fuel drops as equally as possible along a combustion chamber, within one cycle fuel supply to break it down into many injections (sub-injections); usually up to 20 sub-injections for a cycle Decreasing jet holes of a fuel injector and their quality production can resolve by diminish diameter of fuel holes. However, dramatic diminishing of their diameter is impossible due to technological obstacles related to the holes fabrication process. Disperse fuel drops is resolved by selection of the most suitable combustion chamber and determination of the fuel stream direction in such a way that equal dispersion of fuel is provided among the entire combustion chamber. The number of holes cant be increased indefinitely because of technological complexities. The newly developed nozzle of valve type supplies engine (both Diesel and spark ignition) with fuel directly into a combustion chamber. Fuel takes the shape of continuous circle cone with an exposure angle of 50o 180o. There is a gap between a valve and an injector housing. Fuel enters a combustion chamber through this gap; its size is about 20 50 micron. During the process of fuel injection, an injector valve also vibrates and that leads to the substantial fractioning of fuel. File 1. Cone Nozzle 2D.doc (or 1_1. Cone_Fuel_Nozzle_FD-22.jpg) contains the schematic drawing of the nozzle. We have developed several designs of a nozzle based on the same fundamental of cone-shape fuel supply. Pictures of some nozzles are in file 2. Cone Fuel Nozzle.jpg. The nozzle in the middle corresponds to the best design that assumes axial fuel supply to the nozzle. This design does not have discharge system to get rid of residual fuel from the nozzle, and due to its special features the fuel cut-off occurs rapidly and without any fuel loss within dead (free) cavities that is

very common for ordinary nozzle design. To verify an approach used for design of this type of nozzle we have conducted several experiments. File 3. Nozzle_1_2.jpg shows two typical results. Experiment conditions 1. The nozzle is set perpendicular to the aim plane surface 2. The nozzle outlet point is situated opposite to the centre of the aim surface 3. The distance between the nozzle point and the aim surface is about 30mm 4. Pressure to open the nozzle is not less than 120MPa 5. Fuel type is Diesel Aim 1 shows the shape of the fuel distribution for the earlier nozzle versions. Such fuel distribution happens due to the high pressure that squashes a guiding part of the valve to a nozzle wall, so the entire fuel goes along one side only. After the modification of the nozzle guiding part design, the fuel distribution took the shape as it is shown on aim 2. Besides, there are some volume spots around the nozzle centre where fuel is not being distributed. In addition, there is no fuel outside the fuel distribution boundaries, which means the cone-shape fuel distribution takes place. It was visualized that the fuel distribution has the appearance of white fog, e.g. it comes in form of the finedispersed fuel suspension. Nozzle Features and Resume Valve that locks the dispersing nozzle unit turns into a bar mounted with tightness to provide its opening at 1,200 2,000atm (120 200MPa) pressure. Additional lengthening of the valve bar takes place within the zone of plastic deformation, so the valve repeatedly seats on its bed during the injection process. The round injection torch has white color (typical fog color), e.g. there is no liquid component in the fuel torch. Such fuel fragmentation, under conditions of certain surfaces roughness, a gap between valve cone surface and its bed,

fuel pressure and frequent axial vibrations, results in destruction of fuel molecules and its fragmentation. This process of fuel supply is of nanotechnology level. In accordance with the computations, the frequency of axial vibrations is no less than 100,000Hz meaning that during one injection the valve sits about 15 20 times at engine crankshaft frequency of 2,200RPM, which corresponds to 20 24 degrees of crankshaft rotation. The newly developed nozzle design allows introduction of additional voltage into the valve zone, e.g. creation of electro-magnetic zone to activate rarefied molecules and, as a result, to provide combustion that is more complete and to reduce harmful emission. The technology package includes: 1. Patent applications (both PPA and FPA) ready for submission 2. System to compute main characteristics of a cone fuel nozzle 3. SolidWorks model 4. Full set of AutoCAD blueprints 5. The physical prototypes of the Cone fuel nozzle with proven workability We are looking for the Joint-Venture opportunity to advance the project in cooperation with any interested party like individual, automotive company, university or research institute, government agency or some from the above. Additional information and data clearing up the technology and approaches are available upon request. Problem this idea/invention addresses: Diesel engine industry Spark ignition engine industry Homogenous Chamber Combustion Ignition (HCCI) process of internal combustion engine Fuel nozzle, fuel injector, DI diesel engine, DI gasoline (spark ignition) engine

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