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Research Study on the Socio-Economic Impact of the Social Forestry Programme, Khammam District, AP


Submitted to

ITC Limited, Kolkata


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At the beginning of the programme, ITC decided the quantum of acreage which has to be taken up under the Social Forestry programme per year and entrusted the responsibility to the implementing agency /NGO. The implementing agency in turn surveyed the existing plantation areas and neighbouring new Mandals to earmark the villages where unproductive land is available.

The NGO representatives then organized village level meetings to sensitize the community members and inform the prospective beneficiaries about the various aspects of the programme and implementation details

The prospective beneficiaries were encouraged to form Vaneekarana Sanghas which was then responsible for the self-sustainability of the SF programme

Formation of the Vaneekarana Sangha: NGO partners selected for their local knowledge and mobilizing skills play the key role in implementing projects on the ground. They conduct extensive PRA exercises and village meetings to identify target beneficiaries and enable them to form associations

NGO partner provide training for building grassroots management capacities and are responsible for conducting on-going group meetings as well as tracking progress. These are part of the robust feedback mechanisms that enable fine-tuning of strategies and mid-course corrections.

Formation of the Vaneekarana Sangha: NGO partners selected for their local knowledge and mobilizing skills play the key role in implementing projects on the ground. They conduct extensive PRA exercises and village meetings to identify target beneficiaries and enable them to form associations

The process of land verification is followed by documentation which includes cross checking beneficiary wise details like survey number, extent of land and individual applications. Subsequently, an indent is prepared from each Sangha and submitted to the implementing agency for supply of clones and other inputs

As part of the program awareness, information regarding plantations in any particular village under Social Forestry program was displayed through boards and leaflets across the programme area

SF Display Boards were fixed at community decided points across village roads, which was used to inform beneficiaries and non beneficiaries on the status of SF plantations in the region

The CPC supplies clones through the respective Vaneekarana Sanghas based on this indent. CPC also collaborates with Forest Department and private nursery growers for meeting the requirements of clones

Supply of EC clones to respective villages

Distribution of EC saplings to individual farmers. The ITC SF programme was also designed to extend appropriate support to the beneficiaries in terms of technical knowhow, institutional building and managerial aspects of the Social Forestry programme. This was delegated through community organizers who play an active role in training and capacity building activities at the village level

Plantation Phase The planting is done by digging pits of 30 x 30 x 30 cm on the ground by using a crow bar.

Alignment is done with 3 x 2 m spacing. In case of mortality (if any) is replaced within a months time

Fertilizer Single Super Phosphate was provided during the initial stages of plantation

Plantation Year 1 enumeration by beneficiaries

MSK team inspecting EC plants Plantation Phase 1: ITC provides a range of services soil testing, pest management, intercropping advice and technical guidance from planting to harvest. By bringing in its managerial expertise and instituting MIS, monitoring and evaluation processes, ITC has ensured the effectiveness and replicability of its SF model

Year 3 plantations: After activities in the first year, they require minimal maintenance and inputs, allowing owners to pursue other income avenues.

EC plantations year 4

Plantations year 4

The harvesting of the Eucalyptus plantations is done at every 4- year intervals. Once a farmer decides to harvest, the Vaneekarana Sanghas pass a resolution and inform the implementing agency about the proposed felling. The implementing agency or the NGO in turn intimates the Raw Material department of ITC, which subsequently contracts the process to a defined contractor to carry out the felling and transportation process

The contractor undertakes felling, weighs the wood and the payment are made after 15-20 days in cash to the beneficiary through the Vaneekarana Sanghas once pulpwood is received by ITC

Cut Plantations & supply of wood to PSPD

Post harvesting phase: After harvesting pulpwood, the entire plantation area is treated in order to accelerate coppicing, which is followed by inter-cultivation

Once harvested, same crop again comes to yield for another 2-3 cycles without any investment on plant material. Hence established field acts as a fixed deposit for farmer and his/her access to loans becomes easier.

As much as 3 coppice crops can be harvested from the initial stock. This results in considerably higher returns from the subsequent fellings as there is far less investment required

Gall affected plantation at Gundivaraigudum village: Infestation by the gall wasp was the major reason for the large scale wipeout of eucalyptus plantatioons during the study period with 27% of the farmers reporting no income due to damaged plantations

This study assessed the socio-economic impact of the social forestry plantations promoted in the years 2004-05, 2005-06 and 2006-07 in Khammam district covering 1648 households consisting of 1210 beneficiaries and 438 control group members. The pre-coded survey instruments for beneficiary, control group household, ITC service provider were developed

Pilot 2: Field testing of survey instruments at Sangha leaders house Ramchandrunipeta village Beneficiary Household selection was based on random starting point and skip pattern from the village ITC beneficiary list available. o Around 20 beneficiary households per village were selected for the survey. A total of 1210 beneficiaries were contacted.

Pilot 1: Field testing of survey instruments at

Control Group (non-beneficiary) Household selection was based on random starting point (drinking water source) and skip pattern in hamlets where the ITC beneficiary survey was conducted. o Around 7 non - beneficiary control households per village were selected for the survey. A total of 438 non- beneficiaries were contacted. o Respondents were the chief wage earner

Quantitative study: Narshingpeta village

Quantitative study: Thrumulacheru village

Quantitative study: Buddugudum village

Quantitative study: Bheemavaram village

Quantitative study : Ganapavaram village

Quantitative study : Anjubaka village

Qualitative Survey Separate Discussion Guides (DG) for the Focused Group Discussion was developed for the beneficiary and the control group households. Focused group discussions were conducted across 15 villages
15 numbers with 8-10 Farmers in each group

Qualitative Study: FGD at . village

Qualitative study: FGD at . village

Qualitative study: FGD at village

Qualitative study: FGD at village

Success stories of plantation committees were conducted by capturing detailed case studies of individual farmers.

Case study: Satyavadi Laxminarayana of Nadigudem village, Khammam district

Case study: Silam Lakshmi of Pochavaram Colony, located in the Mandal of Kunavaram in Khammam

Case study: Podiyam Ramadevi of Gommukoyagudem village of Bhadrachalam mandal

Case study: Sonde Arjun of Village Latchigudem, Dummugudem Mandal in Khammam district

Case study: Voggela Ankamma of Sunnambatti village, Case study: Korsa Venkatesh of Gangaram village, a remote village in Aswaraopeta Mandal of Bhadrachalam Mandal Khammam district

Case study: Kunja Laxminarayana, Duradapadu village, Aswaraopeta mandal

Case study: Kesari Gopaiah of Mogarallaguppa village, Mulakapally Mandal

Case study: P Periah, Burgampahad Mandal

The agro forestry model not only assures food and wood security through increased farm productivity & profitability but also plays an active role in conservation and sustainable development by increasing diversification and carbon sequestration. Plantations on this scale relieve pressure on public forests and serve as a sustainable ecological resource with long-term benefits that augment the natural resource base in the area. By regenerating green cover they improve soil and in-situ moisture conservation, increase groundwater recharge and significantly decrease soil loss due to wind and w