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FIELDTRIP REPORT

[PETROLEUM GEOLOGY]

CHAPTER I GENERAL DESCRIPTION


I.1. General Description of fieldtrip area North East Java basin is classified on back arc basin based on morphotectonic. This area is relatively stable area form influence of tectonic, so thick sediments are filled, quiet environment are created, deep marine environments develop and the most important is occurence of organic material for source rock qualification. Tectonics activity created some structural trap both which are very important in petroleum system due to accumulation of hidrocarbon. Generally, East Java basin is prospect basin based on its petroleum system.

Fig I.1.1 Physiography of North East Java basin (Satyana et al, 2004)

Gambar 2. Profil Cekungan Jawa Timur Utara.

Fig I.1.1.2 Nort East Java basin cross section Group 5 1

FIELDTRIP REPORT

[PETROLEUM GEOLOGY]

CHAPTER II REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF CEPU AREA


II.1. Regional Geomorphology of Cepu Area
II.1.1. Kendeng Zone Kendeng Zone is moutain range located in the north side of Ngawi sub-zone, oriented to west-east direction. This mountain range consist of deep marine sediment which had been faulted and folded intensively forming anticlinorium. North margin is bordered by Randublatung Depresion, then south margin is bordered by volcanic mountain (Solo Zone) This mountain lies from Ungaran . Mountain on the west side to Ngawi and Mojokerto Area. Rest of this mountain is still can be tracked until subsurface on Madura strait.

Fig. II.1 Phisiography of Central and East Java (Bemmelen)

Kendeng Mountain on west parts wide is about 40 km, then become narrow to the east with length approximately 250 (de Genevreye & Samuel, 1972). Characteristic of Kendeng Zone is line of hills with low elevation, wavy hill morphology elevated on 50-200 m. This west-east lineament reflects some folding and faulting trending west-east. Folding and thrusting intensity in this mountain have big intensity in west part and become weak in east part. Thrust fault make the unit boundary to be structural boundary. Th occurrence of fault and fold because e of compressive force yield fractures, faults and weak zones trending southeast northwest, southwest-northeast and north-south.

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II.1.2. Randublatung Z ne R ubl tung Depression is physiographi depression due to tectonic

acti ity lies bet een

endeng Zone and Rembang Zone, formed on Pleictocene.

This depression has west east trend. The narrowest part of this area is located on Cepu Area, then become wide to east direction as far as sedimentation distance of Madura strait and until now sedimentation in this one is still occur. Randublatung Depression generally can be classified into synclinal valley morphology unit consist of Cepu Area and Bojonegara. Bengawan Solo river flow in this area, form meandering system. Most of Randublatung Area is filled by fine grain clastic sediment such as clay, silt from Lidah Formation aged Quarternary. II.1.3. Rembang Z ne Rembang zone is high elevated area separated by Randublatung Area and parallel to endeng Zone. This area consist of anticlinorium trending west east

due to tectonuc activity happen on late Tertiary. This foleded mountain has enough high elevation, average is less than 500 m. Some of those anticlines are young anticlines mountain and have not been eroded intensively. Those exogenic activitiy make the mountain look like back of hill. Structurally, Rembang Zone is fault zone located between carbonate Shelf on north of Java (Java Sea) and deep basin located on south of Rembang ( endeng Basin). Litology consists of mix silisiclastic which is mixing of shallow carbonate and clastic from continent, clay and deep sea marl. Oil field had been found in this area and operated since early 20th century.

II.2. Regi nal Stratigraphy of Cepu Area


II.2.1. Mandala Kendeng Stratigraphy Sedimentary rock which fill endeng Basin consist of turbidite clastic,

carbonate, and deep marine volcaniclastic, especially on lower part of deposits. On vertical sucession, more shallow deposit will develop to the top anf finally nonmarine deposits will be formed on the top. Stratigraphy of endeng Zone can be divided into 9 Formation from oldest

to youngest. The formations are :

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Fig. II.2.1.1 Regional stratigraphy of endeng Zone (Harsono, 1983)

a. Pelang Formation Pelang Formation is the oldest formation located in Mandala Area. Lithology of this formation consists of endeng clayey marl with bioclastic

calcarenite lenses which contain many large foraminifera. Lithology on top and bottom of this formation is unknown due tectonic activity which deform the formation so the top and bottom of this formation is difficult to be defined. The outcrop located on up-thrust area and directly verge with erek Formation is youger than Plang one, and aged Miocene). b. erek Formation This Formation is deposited on the unconformity on Pelang Formation. Lithology of this formation sonsists of interbedded clayey marl, sandy marl, erek Formation. 4- 9 (Middle

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calcareous tuff, and tuffaceous sandstone which show flysch characteristic.This formation can be divided into 3 members from the oldest to the youngest :
y Banyuurip Member

This member consists of interbedded clayey marl, marl, clay, tuffaceous calcareous sandstone, and tuffaceous sandstone. Thick of deposit reach 270 m and this deposit is deposited on 10- 15 (Middle Miocene).
y Sentul Member

This member consists of lithology which has same characteristic with Banyuurip Member. The difference is pointed to the occurence of bed which contain thicker tuffaceous material . Total thickness of this deposit is about 500 meter and aged 16 (Early Upper Miocene).
y Kerek Limestone Member

This emmber consists oof interbeded of tufaceous limestone and clay and tuff bedding . Thickness of this formation reach 150 meterand aged 17 (Middle Late Miocene). c. Kalibeng Formation This Formation is unconformable on Kerek Formation and divided into 2 parts : Lower Kalibeng Formation and Upper Kalibeng Formation. Lower Kalibeng Formation consist of massice marl which develop into depp marine volcanic deposit, characterized by turbidity structure. These facies are named Atasangin Member with thickness is about s 600 meter. Based on bentonic foraminifera association, this formation is formed on marine environment on depth 1000 meter. The age of this formatin is Pliocene). d. Banyak Formation This Formation is intefingering with Kalibeng Formation. Lithology of this formation consist of tufffaceous sandstone, thick gravelly sandstone, calcareous sandstone with clay and marl. e. Klitik Formation This formation is conformable with Kalibeng Formation. Lithology forming this formation are bioclastic limestone with marl interbedded. f. Sonde Formation 17- 21 (Upper Miocene-

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Secong part of Kalibeng Formation is also called by Sonde Formation or Upper Kalibeng. This formation can be divided into a member called Klitik Member which consist of well bedded marly calcarenite limestone. On the top of deposit, facies are breccia with fragmen carbonate gravelly limestone and carbonate cements, sandy marl deposit which develop into clayey marl. Thickness of this formation is 27-589 meter and aged 9- 21 (Pliocene). This formation is deposited in shallow marine environment, on the shelf margin near shore. g. Danar Formation This formation is unconformable with Sonde Formation. There is facies changing to the east from Danar Formation to Pucangan and Lidah one eastward. This formation consists of lahar deposit and vlack clay with interbedding of diatome. The thickness is about 61-480 meter, aged 21 (Late

Pliocene). Lithology of this formation generally is formed on shallow marine environment and develop into non marine (fresh water environment). h. Kabuh Formation This formation conformable on Danar one. Lithology of this formation are non-volvanic sandstone and conglomerate interbeding. Thickness of this formation reach 100 meter, deposited on fluvial system environment. This fluvial deposit are charecterized by occurence of crossbedding structure, lake deposit, mollusca fresh water fossils, and Pithecanthropus skull fossils. i. Notopuro Formation This Formation is deposited conformable on Kabuh Formation. Lithology of this formation consists of interbeddiing tuff and tuffaceous sandstone, laharic breccia and volcanic conglomerate. Interbedding of volcanic breccia with andesite and pumice fragments as lenses are also founded. This pumice characterize deposits of Notopuro Formation. Depositional Environment of this formation is non-marine, aged Late Pleistocene with total thickness more than 240 meter.

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II.2.2. Mandala Rembang Stratigraphy Rembang stratigraphy are consist of some formation below from the oldest to the youngest :

Fig. II.2.2.1 Stratigraphic coloumn of East Java basin (Mudjiono and Pireno, 2001)

II.2.2.1. Ngimbang Formation This formation consists of shale with silt interbedding, fine sandstone, limestone and coal. Depositional environment of this formation is on delta system, lacustrine and shallow marine on Eocene until Lower Oligocene. II.2.2.2. Kujung Formation This formation consists of shale with clay interbedding. On some area, there are clastic and reef limestone found spotted. Depositional Environment of this formation is deep marine until shallow marine on Late Oligocene until Early Miocene.

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II.2.2.3. Tuban Formation This formation consists of claystone beds with limestone interbedding. There is facies change southward in which lithology will grade into shale and claystone facies (Soejono, 1981 on Handbook of Petroleum Geology 2006). Depositional Environment is deep-middle neritic. II.2.2.4. Tawun Formation This formation consists of silty shale with limestone interbedding. On top deposit, sandstone facies with little clay inside dominate. Locally, there is spotted limestone found. Top of Tawun Formation is also called as Ngrayong Member. Depositional Environment of this formation is open marine until shallow marine in the top formation. This formation is formed on Middle Miocene (N9-N13) (Rahardjo & Wiyono, 1993, on Handbook of Petroleum Geology, 2006). II.2.2.5. Ngrayong Member This member is also called as Upper Orbitoiden-Kalak by Trooster (1937). Van Bemmelen (1949) named this emmber as Upper Rembang beds. Ngrayong Sandstone name has been introduced by Brouwer (1957). He proposed local type of this sandstone based on quartz sandstone found in Ngrayong Village, Jatirogo, in which that member are composed of sandstone mainly with intercalation of coal and sandy clay. Harsono (1983), describe Ngrayong as member of Tawun Formation, consists of orbitoid limestone and shale in lower part. In the upper part, there are sandstone with limestone intercalation and lignite. This unit is aged on Middle Miocene, N9-N12. Depositional environment of this unti is fluvial or submarine based on outcrop found in northside of Village (Jatirogo, Tawun). On south side of village, this depositional environment of formation change into marine environment. Marine deposit of this formation on Ngampel Area show shallowing upward pattern from shoreface to beach. This unit also show hiatus on mouth of Java Sea. Ngrayong Unit is main reservoir of Cepu Oilfield, but there is shale occurence in the south and east of this field. Total thisckness of this unit is varied, average is more than 300 m.

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II.2.2.6. Bulu Formation This formation consists of bedded clastic limestone and sandy limestone. Locally, chalky limestone and marl will be found spotted. Crossbedding limestone is often to found. Depositional environment of this formation is open marine on Middle Miocene (N13-N14). II.2.2.7. Wonocolo Formation This formation consist of yellow-brown marl, contain glauconite. There are interbedding of calcarenite and claystone. Depositional environment of this formation according to Purwati (1987, on Handbook of Petroleum Geology, 2006) is deep neritic until middle bathyal and formed on Middle Miocene Upper Miocene (N14-N16). II.2.2.8. Ledok Formation This formation consist of green and red sandstone, glauconitic type with intercalation of calcarenite and claystone. Crossbedding structure will be found intensively in sandstone. This formation is deposited due to regresion phase from Wonocolo Formation on Upper Miocene (N17). II.2.2.9. Selorejo Formation This formation formed by Selorejo Beds acording Trooster, 1937. This formation had been classified into member of Lidah Formation by Udin Adinegoro (1972) and Koesoemadinata (1978). This research had been done since Harsono (1983) didnt continue his observation about the occurence of unconformity between Lidah Formation and Mundu Formation. He classified this member into Mundu Formation. Local type of this member located on Selorejo Village, near Cepu. Lithology character is shown by weaker and harder bed boundary, remain some glauconites. This unit depositional environment is deep marine, based on foraminirefa analysis. II.2.2.10. Lidah Formation This formation consists of blue limestone, bedded marl and coquina limestone lenses. There are sandstone intercalation especially quartz sandstone contain glauconite and seaa mollusca. In are where this formation develop into reef limestone, the unit is called Dander Member.

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II.3. Regional Geology Structure of Cepu Area


East Java Basin generally are formed by main primary structure from south to north. Kendeng Zone and Madura strait lie in west-east direction, especially are characterized by fold, fault and thrust one. Southern part of Rembang Zone and Randublatung are characterized by di

characterized by dome structure associated with fault structure as like as anticline in Ngimbang. Northen part of Rembang Zone and Madura are characterized by uplifted and eroded anticlinorium structure on Plio -Pleistocene. This structure is associated with strike slip fault system trending northeast-southwest. The fault system continue until South Kalimantan Area. There are 2 primary geological structure in East Java Basin: a. Northeast-southwest structural pattern, also called by Meratus type. b. West-east structural pattern, also called by Java type.

Fig. II.3.1 Regional structural pattern in Indonesia (Satyana, 2005)

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i fold type. Beside that, this zone is

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Kendeng Zone on Early Miocene is active tectonized area. In tectonic regional framework, Kendeng Zone is included on the part of East Java basin This . basin has occured extensional tectonic regime on Paleogene and result many normal faults in high-low morphology form. On Neogene, East Java basin was compressed by compressional regime and caused reactivation on normal faults. and yield many thrust faults. Those faults cut Neogene sediment and resulted thrust faults. These thrust faults can be tracked in west part of Kendeng area. On east part of Kendeng area, there are many anticlines with plunged axis to the east. Fold and thrust intensity will be decreased to the east, then dissapeared on the south. The phenomenon explain that there are only anticlines in north part which can be tracked until Surabaya. These fold pathway verge directly with volcanic arc and only separated by Ngawi Alluvium.

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CHAPTER III FIEL S DESCRIPTION


III. 1. Mrapen Stopsite
Mrapen is located in Grbongan district, and about 28 km on the west from Purwodadi. Mrapen is one region in Randublatung Zone. Location 1 Eternal Fire The first stop site is located at Mrapen, Purwodadi and it is a part of Randublatung depression. This place have alrady well known as a quite famous tourism object, by its eternal flame, commonly called Mrapen. The flare is quite difficult to be seen because mostly its consists of methane or CH4. This eternal flame is produced by gas seepage in the subsurface. This gas predicated as biogenic gas, that produced by biopolymerytation processes. Biogenic gas dominated by methane (CH4). This gas can reach to the surface because the gas has path and the path is geological structures like fault. The source rock of this gas is pedicated from theh Tawun Formation that migrated to the reservoir of the Selorejo Formation. Actually, methane can be formed when sub surface rocks are decomposited. The methane also associated to the nature of HC materials, the evidance of existance o this phenomenon can be prooved by putting bumale materials such as paper on the rocks where the gasses exhausted. We would considered that the gas in this location is the same whit the gas in the oil field if we dont know the origin of the gas in this location. Genetically, gasses are derived from 2 processes. a. Biogenic gas or biogas b. Thermogenic gas or thermogas This kind of gasses can be formed here in consedired as biogenic gas, to know the genetic processes there should be an isotop analysis so we will know its C atoms. Organics materials is decomposited by microorganism anaerobic materials there 3 elements influenced the processes; decomposition of organis materials at law temperature, anaerobic microorganism and in rocks that are lack of water. Biogenic gas is considered useful and this kind of gas could become an alternative fuel to subtitute the oil and LNG function someday. VICO is one of iol company that make a specific study about this gas (geochemistry aspect),because :

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1. Geologically, easy to predict. 2. In a large area, can be found in a shallow depth 3. Always found in large ammount. The gasses formed by transported burried organic material in a basin/ depression and structurally subside as result of continous seccesion on the deposit after all. Biopolimeration processed took place yielding biogenic gas that is not associated to hydrocarbon. If geopolimeration happended (in a deeper part), thermogenic gas that is associated to HC is formed, the 2 gasses can be found as methane (CH4) come out frpm rock fractures, the observation of these gasses can be dome by making surface mapping and stratigraphy.

Fig. III.1.1 Eternal flame of Mrapen area, gas leakage manifestation

Location 2, Sendang Dudo It is located about 25 metres from location 1 to the south, but still in the area of thermal flame tourism object. Sendang Dudo is pond that made by spring and have unique phenomenon. On the pond we can see bubble, and this phenomenon caused by gas that has same process with the eternal flame, that the energy from subsurface get into surface because any some crack as tool for the energy pass way. The spring is indicate that this location is on the zone. According to geochemistry research, the gasses are : Clorida 62 ppm, shulphate 400 ppm, CO2 2000 ppm and H2S 1,6 ppm. These gasses are biogenic gas whit complex

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CO2 in high temperature, and connected to the seepage of methane. Sendang Dudo yielding gasses. There are some opinions of the gas causes : 1. Structural control or there are fractures where the gasses can come up into the water. 2. Seapage of gasses in the shallow area. 3. In has some depth wiyh deformation of spring. This last opinion actually is the combination between the former opinions, means that because of the structural deformation, gas can make a gas seepage through the fracture that cause by that deformation, and than the seepage was overlied by spring which is also the result of the deformation processed.

Fig. III.1.2 Bubble gas outgoing form pool in Mrapen area, gas leakage manifestation

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III. 2. Stopsite 2 Bledug Kuwu Bledug Kuwu observatory site Location Bledug Kuwu is in Purwodadi region, approximately 30 km eastside of first observatory stations (Mrapen and Swimming Sendang Dudo).This Areas is a phenomenal site because of the gases bursts activities which emerged poking into surface which bring mud material. Geomorphology The geomorphology of the observatory site is dominated by low relief land.

Fig. III.2.1 Mud volcano in Bledug Kuwu

Lithology The lithology of the observatory site is consist of ejected mud from mud volcano. Around the observatory site there was alluvial deposit which lay on lidah formation. Structural geology There was probable fault or fracture in subsurface whe this structural geology re being a way for mud, water formation and gasses ejected to the surface. Potential

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This area has some potential as geological tourism site and salt factory. The outpouring air formation that contain salt material is used by people around there. The negative potential of this phenomena, if the volume of mud was ejected to the surface is very huge, this area will be like mud volcani in sidoarjo area. Bledug Kuwu Phenomena could be a manifestation there was probability of hidrocarbon accumulation in subsurface. The outburst of bledug kuwu contain gasses mixed with mud and formation water. Firstly, there was a diapiric shale with high pressure; and because of plioplistocene tectonic event, it forms fractures. This fracture make the pressure release and then the mud was ejected to the surface. There are some condition can form mud volcano,
o Thick layer of uncompacted shale.

Sedimentation from shale was very quickly so material shale is not compacted perfectly and consequently formed undercompacted shale (nature plastis).
o High pressure of formation water or fluids from subsurface

Shale that formed in the mud volcano is usually a undercompacted shale. Order this shale can exit if threre are enough tremendous pressure. There are wo types pressures regarding shale they are:
y

Hydrostatic pressure that depends at depths layout shale, increasingly within layout shale hence bigger depressurised.

Pressure overburden derived from other materials stacked on top of shale.

o Gas / fluids accumulations.

Existence fluid from water formation excessive causing shale changed become liquid. Fluid can originated from zone faults represents exit shale filled by water formation and gas. This causes shale mingled formation ater and gas.
o Way the accumulation to exit.

Fractures that formed by regional tectonic through the accumlation diapiric shale can be a way fot it to the surface.

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Fig. III.2.1 Eruption of mud and gas from vents periodically in Bledug Kuwu area

Characteristics: High saline. Low temperature. Classified into biogenic gas. Main lithology is shale form Lidah Formation, shallow depth. Connate water is bursted from eruption vents. Explosions are periodically.

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III. 3. Stasiun Pengamatan Ngampel This stop site location in district Ngampel sub-province Blora, or precisely at S 06 54 ' 12'' and E 111 26' 28,3''. location of Reconnaissance stays at South edge S. Broholo flowing from occidental direction eastwards. Morphology as a whole in the form of hill bank with dip of caster 450 - 700 degrees which more alike like anticline limb. Lithology at this district consisted of assorted, for example limestone, sandstone, shale. observation about lithology only can be done is patch up is caused by time which unable to be adequate since have already nearing night. limestone at the location having colour rather white brass, medium fairish until coarse, and age relatively young because laying in outmost division of the anticline limb. Limestone has dip of layer equal to N 80 E / 48. This limestone conceived of Orbituidal Calcarenite. Anticipated deposition from this limestone is shallow Sea district because its scale is being medium until coarse.

Figure II.3.3.1 Anticline limb contained by limestone dominantly

Under from limestone there is sandstone lithology. this sandstone has is medium size and coarse dominance, interbedded structures, lapped over by clastic material, rose colored, what is estimable effect of oxidation. This litollogi then at intervals with set of

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black Clay lithology, fairish of Clay, contains mineral gypsum having colour white, has laminated structures. lithology like that way indicates both the lithologies as reservoir and seal rock exploration field of oil in district Cepu because seen from the grain size is medium until coarse ( for sandstone reservoir) and then Clay layer is top of it. Both of lithology has dip N78E/48. Both types of this lithology is member from upper Tawun Formation or more knowledgeable with Ngrayong Formation. Interpretation of its deposition area is namely sea area with depth of skin-deep that is then experiences derivation of sea water face so forms lagoon. In lagoon district this is formed Clay containing mineral gypsum while at condition of shallow Sea is formed sandstone. The case happened repeatedly so is formed restating between both the lithologies. The Black Clay lithology actually has a real abundance organic material content, but because level of the maturity which has not fullfilled (immature) causes the unit has not can yield hydrocarbon.

Figure III.3.3.2 Sandstone interval with blackclay member of Ngrayong Formation

More and more towards lithology fold axis more and more old in age. oldest lithology met is shale is having colour black, has lamination sewer structures, very smooth fairish, has layer dip N75E/50. Set of this lithology is member from Ngimbang formation which age Lower Oligocene. According to organic material content data at

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this finite lithology of 0,5% and level of its(the maturity which have been enough causing makes this lithology as source rock from exploration field of district gas and oil Cepu. As a whole, history of the forming of this district having beginning of from the forming of Ngimbang (shale) at lacustrine area or delta environment because rich of organic material. Then is formed lithology claystone which is member of Tawun formation. Initial condition of Tawun formation is a deep sea environment in at the age of Middle Miocene. Because happened derivation process of sea water face that is continuously causes condition of its deposition turns into shallow Sea and formed sandstone and lack clay at lagoon area. Event of second deposition restating of this lithology clearly codified at outcrop in stop site location. The deposition also terminating set of Tawun formation. Topmost division of Tawun formation called Ngrayong formation. Then is precipitated after of limestone orbituidal as result of increase of sea water face returns. Limestone is member from formation Bulu. Then, happened tectonic event of north direction of causing south formed Northern East Java anticlinorium having direction West-East. This anticlinorium which becomes trap for hydrocarbon in exploration district of oil in Cepu. III. 4. PPPT MIGAS Cepu 4th Stopsite Pusdiklat Cepu oil is the government agency under the Department of Energy and Mineral Resources. These training centers have the task of carrying out oil and gas education and training sector on the basis of Oil and Natural Gas Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources. Pusdiklat migas has the program, which are;
y y

Improved operations of oil field in order to enrichment oil reserve Change and repaired the equipment in oil and gas and also oil manufacture in order to complete to safety of work. To improve the function of oil field training, pusdiklat migas has some facilities,

they are laboratory of drilling, laboratory of exploitation and laboratory of production. But in this time, we only visited to the laboratory drilling. Laboratory of drilling are consist of drillings rig, rig well service, tool house, laboratory of drillings simulation and drillings equipment. In this laboratory, we did three activities, such as observation of the drilling process operation in the

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laboratory of drillings simulation, observation of the installation of pipe in the drilling process in the drillings rig and drillings equipment. First location is laboratory of drillings simulation. In this room, we observated the operator that was simulating the operation of technical equipment that control the mechanical equipment in the drilling process. The technical equipment that was simulated in this room is a important component in the process of exploration, especially the drilling process. Drilling processes were simulated in the second location. This location is drillings rig, the location is in outside. In this location, there is a small rig used for the simulation of drilling by the trainees. Some trainees seem to do the installation of pipes which in turn is inserted into the boreholes. There are 5 systems in the drilling processess; power system, rotaring system, circulating system, hoisting system, and BOP system. Each system has their own function. a. Power system This system has function as a source of power to move all the components for drilling processess. b. Rotaring system This system has a function to rota ring the whole drilling system. c. Circulating system This system has a function to inject the drilling mud in order to avoid blowouts. In this processess we have to keep the mud pressure is litlle bit higher than formation pressure. d. Hoisting system This system has a function to raise and lower the lifting mechanism. e. BOP system This system has a function to avoid the blow out.

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Figure III.3.4.1 Situation in the drillings rig at Pusdiklat migas Cepu.

The third location that we were visited is laboratory of drilling equipments. In this location we learn about the function all the equipments of each drlling system component. a. Hoisting system 1. Elevator : to carried forward the pipe 2. Slip : to prevent the casing, drill collar, and drill pipe so as not to fall.

Figure III.3.4.1 Hoisting systems

b. Bit 1. Cone bit/ Roller bit : to penetrate a weak-hard formation 2. Diamond bit : to penetrate a medium- very hard formation 3. Wing bit : to penetrate a weak formation 4. Core bit : to take the core sample

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a.

b.

c.
Figure III.3.4.3 various bit; [a] cone/roller bit, [b] diamond bit, [c] wing and core bit .

c. BOP system 1. Annular : to close the existing borehole string 2. Blind rem : to close borehole without string 3. Cementing equipment : include centraliser, drill hole cleaner, cementing head. 4. Pump 5. Indicator sensor

Figure III.3.4.4 BOP system

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d. Fishing Tools To take the pipe that fall or break in the drill hole.

Figure III.3.4.5 Fishing tools

e. Miling Tool To smooth the rough borehole. III.5 Kawengan oilfield 5th Stopsite More than 25 oil field have been discovered and development in Cepu area until Surabaya. But most of them have been leaved. Now only 5 oil field (Kawengan, Ledok, Nglobo, Semanggi , Wonocolo) and gas field (Balun) that have been produced by Pertamina (Oil Company of Indonesia Government). Kawengan oil field is the

biggest oil field in North East Java Basin. Cumulative p roduction in this field can achieve 150 million cubic meters at 1990. Upper Tawon formation, Ngrayong sandstone, and bottom Wonocolo formation are layers that produced hydrocarbon. Now, oil production use pump system because the formation pressure decrease. Pertamina doesnt use EOR method (Enhanced Oil Recovery). Oil in this area is collected and dispersed by water.

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Figure III.3.5.1 Oil Derrick, primary recovery by oil pump

Ledok field This observation site still under the head of Pertamina operational at Kawengan oil field. In this location, oil intake is used by modern method (land shore). There are 2 type of tool that is used to oil intake within the earth. The first tool is mechanic type. This type is old tool, so the depth obtained isnt high and the result of oil intake isnt optimal. The second tool is hydraulic machine type. The technology of this tool newer than the first tool, so the depth obtained is high. This tool capable of reaching depths of 700 meters. This tool also able to display data recording (result of oil intake) digitally.

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CHAPTER 4 PETROLE M SYSTEM

IV.1. Source rock Source rock is rock which have potential to create and expel hidrocarbon in enough quantity. There are 4 formation which act as source rock, they are : Ngimbang Formation, Kujung Formation, Ngrayong formation and Tuban Formation. Generally, they have shale which can create kerogene. Beased on maturity, all of them had been mature thermally. Three formation above had been being mature on Paleogene, except Tuban Formation which formed on Miocene age. Ngimbang Formation has good source rock, prooved by occurence of good TOC (1%-4%) on shale and carbonaceous limestone also 40% for coal). Source rock on this formation is classified into effective source rock because this source has supply economic hydrocarbon (95% oil and gas) in NE Java basin. Kujung Formation has classified into possible source rock due to no identification by geochemical method to some factor (TOC, Ro, and kerogen type). Tuban Formation has been classified into effective source rock due to high content of TOC (0,53-2,3 %). Lithology consists of clastic limestone as intercalation. Kerogen type is classified into type III (gas prone), then on the lower part of this formation, kerogen is belong to type II and II (oil and gas prone). Ngrayong formation (lower) has become good source rock with local TOC greater than 1 %. Organic matter is prdominantly form terestrial. Maturity of this source rock is belong to submature, due to lack of thermal maturity because of burial time and intensity in Central deep. IV.2. Reservoir rock Reservoir rock is rock that can accumulate hidrocarbon On Nort East Java . absin, there are 3 formation act as reservoir rock, they are Kujung formation, Ngrayong formation and Mundu Formation. Kujung formation is divided into 3 part, Kujung I, II and II. Kujung I consist of shelfal equivalent to deep water Prupuh limestone of the East Java / Madu ra basin. It has the best reservoir characteristic of North East Java basin. Kujung II

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consist of limestone form one of main target in central deep and provide reservoir. Limestone of high energy and reefal facies oversteep basement on the flanks but are fine grained in the basin centre. Primary reservoir quality is fair, but the performance can be enhanced by some technique like fracturing to are near reactiveted faults zone. Kujung III consist of mixed shlefal clastics and carbonates. Sand are medium to soarse and locally tuffaceous and are interbedded with muds, micritic limestone and lignite. This formation can be enhanceh by fracturing technique. Ngrayong formation consists of sandstone and carbonate and reservoir target especially is quartzsandtone. This sandstone is positioned on 600-700 m below sea level. Average porosity is 18% and almost 70% of total oil production in North East Java basin is produced in this field. Sand in this area is uncompacted and has excellent reservoir quality. However, reservoir is low, production drawdown will be limited and reserves will depend largely on abandonement pressure. This sands are present in the central deep, but the unit is carbonate dominated. Mundu formation that has Selorejo limestone act as reservoir of gas. The depth is ranged about 300 m. Porosity is ranged between 28-42% while permeability is ranged 55-903 mD with thickness is about 0-50 m. IV.3. Seal Seal rock is rock which act as seal, usually impermeable and has fine grain like marl, shale or clay so hidrocarbon accumulated under this seal cannot migrate or leak to the other place. Primary seal in North East Java basin is thick shale facies of Tuban Formation. Tuban shale provides primary top seal to the underlying Kujung and Ngrayong reservoir. Shale of the formation generally drapes over the Kujung formation (reef) and effectively capped any trapped hydrocarbon below it. IV.4. Trap Trap is geological feature which can accumulate hidrocarbon after they have migrated. Generally, traps are divided into 2 varian, sratigraphic and structural trap. Most trap in North East Java basin is structural trap, mainly is anticline with simple variation. The other type are faults and stratigraphic traps. Faults trap will give some risk, due to proper timing of forming and occurence of seal bed. Anticline trap formed on Plio-Pleistocene tectonic phase compression thrust-folding. Anticlines

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which have northwest axis direction have become the most effective hidrocarbon trap. Stratigraphy trap on this area is oriented to onlap forming from shale related to reefal limestone. On some other field, there are some stratigraphic trap like patch reef complexes with some structural control which probably initiated reefal growth. Generally, traps in this basin are cut by thrust fault rending northeast-southwest and this faults act as oil-water boundary. IV.5. Proper Timing of Migration Proper time of migration is time in which hidrocarbon migrate from source rock into reservoir rock so the hidrocarbon will be accumulated into right trap and no leaked occur. Based on tectonic history, there are 2 phase of tectonic period. Firts is Middle Miocene tectonic phase (after deposition of Ngrayong formation), second is Plio-Pleistocene. Source rock from Ngimbang formation had been mature on late Miocene. Based on this fact, first migration occured on this period. Them, second migration occured after first phase Plio-Pleistocene tectonic. On that time, oil from Kujung formation has been mature. Migrasi hidrokarbon atau perpindahan hidrokarbon pada Cekungan Jawa Ti ur Utara dapat terjadi secara lateral maupun secara vertikal. Generally, lateral migration in this basin will oriented to north direction because of some thickening of sediment northward, same with sedimentation direction.

Fig. IV.5.1 Petroleum Play of Cepu Area

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CHAPTER V CONCL SION

1. Gas in Mrapen area is classified into biogenic gas and is a product of Lidah formation. 2. Biogenic are characterized by shallow place of occurence, shallow overburden, high concentration of CO2. 3. Eternal flame of Mrapen area is manifestation of working petroleum system of Rembang area in gas form. 4. Bledug Kuwu phenomenon is mud volcano manifestation caused by everpressured subsurface shale resulting enough pressure to explode mud and gases. 5. Characteristics of Bledug Kuwu are: Mud volcano manivestation Lithology consists of mainly overpressured shale High salinity, due to connate water from Lidah formation Gas product is classsified into biogenic gas. Water and mud explosion occur periodically, depend on pressure accumulated below surface. 6. Ngampel area is lithology contact or boundary between Ngrayong Unit from Tawun formation and Bulu Formation in which contact is conformity. 7. Ngrayong member is main reservoir in Northeast Java basin, especially on quartz sandstone reservoir. 8. Quartz sandstone form Ngrayong formation are loose, have high porosity and permeability. 9. Bulu limestone didnt develop well due to its tight character so hidrocarbon will tendence to be accumulated on Ngrayong sandstone. 10. Carbonaceous shale of Ngrayong formation has good TOC, but low thermal maturity, so its potential as source rock is not enough good. 11. Most oil form Ngrayong formation is refined and extracted in Pusdiklat Migas Refinery.

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12. Drilling simulation and tool equipment are available in Pusdiklat Migas Training Centre Office. 13. Ledok Oil field produce mainly oil from Ngrayong reservoir. 14. At this time, watercut value on Ledok field is about 96%. 15. Problems in ectracting oil form Ngrayong rerservoi is sandstone character of Ngrayong which is loose, so water flooding or other enhanced oil recoovery will make grains of loose sandstone mix with oil so pipes will be plugged. 16. Main source rocks in Cepu oilfield are Kujung, Tuban, Ngimbang and Ngrayong unit (Tawun formation). 17. Main reservoirs in Cepu oilfield are Ngrayong sandstone, Bulu limestone and Kujung limestone. 18. Main seal in Cepu oilfield are Tuban and Kujung formation. 19. Main trap in Cepu oilfield is struut\ral trap in anticline form. 20. The other trap in Cepu area is fault and stratiraphic trap (reef etc). 21. Mifration timing in cepu area was begun on Middle Miocene and late Pliocene until late Pleistocene. 22. Petroleum system in Cepu is working properly. 23. Northeast Java basin has good hidrocarbon prospesct both in oil and gas.

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REFERENCES

Anonym, 2006, Indonesia Basin Summaries (IBS), The Gateway to Petroleum Investment in Indonesia, Inamata Series, Inonesia Metadata Base. Assistants of Petroleum Geology, 2010, Panduan Field Trip Geologi Minyak dan Gas Bumi daerah Purwodadi, Blora, and Cepu Jawa Tengah, Dept. Of Geological Engineering, UGM, Yogyakarta. IOG Chronicle magazine ( Indonesian Oil and Gas Information). 2001. Cepu : Will We Ever Know the Truth? (page 34 36). Jakarta. IPA Newsletter. 2002. 28 th Annual IPA Convention & Exhibition. Jakarta. Koesoemadinata, R. P., 1980, Geologi Minyak dan Gas Bu i, ITB, Bandung Koesoemadinata, RP, 1980, Geologi Minyak dan Gas Bu i , Jilid 1 , Penerbit ITB, Bandung Pulunggono, A. dan Martodjojo, S., 1994, Perubahan Tektonik Paleogene Neogene Merupakan Peristiwa Tektonik Terpenting di Jawa, Proceeding Geologi dan Geotektonik Pulau Jawa, Percetakan NAFIRI, Yogyakarta Satyana, A.H., Erwanto, E., dan Prasetyadi, C., 2004, Rembang-Madura-KangeanSakala (RMKS) Fault Zona, East Java Basin: The Origin and Nature of Geologic Border, Proceeding Indonesian Association of Geologist, 33rd Annual Conference. Styana, A.H., 2005, Structural Indentation of Central Java : Regional Wrench Segmentation, Proceeding Joint Convention Surabaya 2005-HAGI-IAGIPERHAPI, The 30 th HAGI, The 30th IAGI and The 30th 14th PERHAPI Annual Conference and Exhibition, Surabaya. Setyowiyoto, J. & Assistants, 2002, Petunjuk Praktikum Geologi Minyak dan Gas Bumi, Dept. Of Geological Engineering, UGM, Yogyakarta.

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