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9 CHAPTER 9: COLUMNS

9.1 First-Order versus Second-Order Analysis

A first-order analysis is based on the initial geometry of the structure, assuming elastic

behavior. On the other hand, second-order analysis considers the influence of lateral drift,

cracking, member curvature, shrinkage and creep on the forces in the structure.

9.2 Sway and Nonsway Frames

9.2.1 Nonsway Frames

Structural frames whose joints are restrained against lateral displacement by attachment to

rigid elements or bracing are called nonsway frames, shown in Figure 9.1.

According to ACI Code 10.10.5.1 a column in a structure is nonsway if the increase in

column end moments due to second-order effects does not exceed 5 percent of the first-

order end moments. Moreover, ACI Code 10.10.5.2 assumes a story within a structure is

nonsway if:

c us

u

l V

P

Q

(9.1)

is less than or equal to 0.05, where Q is the stability index which is the ratio of secondary

moment due to lateral displacement and primary moment,

u

P is the total factored

vertical load in the story,

us

V is the factored horizontal story shear,

c

l is length of column

measured center-to-center of the joints in the frame, and

o

is the first-order relative

deflection between the top and bottom of that story due to

us

V .

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 2

Figure 9.1: Nonsway frame

9.2.2 Sway Frames

Structural frames, not attached to an effective bracing element, but depend on the bending

stiffness of the columns and girders to provide resistance to lateral displacement are called

sway frames, shown in Figure 9.2.

Figure 9.2: Sway frame

9.3 Effective Length Factor k of Columns of Rigid Frames

The effective length of column is the length of a column hinged at both ends and having the

same buckling load as the column being considered. Thus, the effective length factor k, is

the ratio of the effective length to the original length of column.

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 3

The ACI Code R10.10.6.3 recognizes the Jackson and Moreland Alignment Charts, shown

in Figure 9.3, to estimate the effective length factor k for a column of constant cross section

in a multibay frame. The effective length factor k is a function of the relative stiffness at

each end of the column. In these charts, k is determined as the intersection of a line joining

the values of at the two ends of the column. The relative stiffness of the beams and

columns at each end of the column is given by Eq. (9.2)

b b b

c c c

l I E

l I E

/

/

(9.2)

where,

c

l = length of column center-to-center of the joints

b

l = length of beam center-to-center of the joints

c

E = modulus of elasticity of column concrete

b

E = modulus of elasticity of beam concrete

c

I = moment of inertia of column cross section about an axis perpendicular to the plane of

buckling being considered.

b

I = moment of inertia of beam cross section about an axis perpendicular to the plane of

buckling being considered.

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 4

(a) (b)

Figure 9.3: Alignment chart; (a) nonsway frames; (b) sway frames

indicates a summation of all member stiffnesses connected to the joint and lying in the

plane in which buckling of the column is being considered.

Consider the two-story frame shown in Figure 9.4. To determine the effective length factor

k for column EF,

Figure 9.4: Two-story frame

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 5

) / ( ) / (

) / ( ) / (

2 1

2 1

L I E L I E

H I E H I E

EH b BE b

EF c DE c

E

+

+

and

) / ( ) / (

) / (

2 1

2

L I E L I E

H I E

FI b CF b

EF c

F

+

ACI Code 10.10.6.3 specifies that for columns in nonsway frames, the effective length

factor k should be taken as 1.0, unless analysis shows that a lower value is justified.

The ACI Code 10.10.4.1 specifies that the influence of cracking along the length of the

member, presence of axial loads, and effects of duration of loads be taken into

consideration when calculating k by using reduced values of moment of inertia as follows:

Beams --------------------------------

g

I 35 . 0

Columns------------------------------

g

I 70 . 0

Uncracked Walls --------------------

g

I 70 . 0

Cracked Walls-----------------------

g

I 35 . 0

where

g

I is the gross moment of inertia.

As an alternate to using alignment charts to determine k, the following simplified equations

are used for computing the effective length factors for nonsway and sway frame members.

For columns in nonsway frames, the smaller of Eq. (9.3) and Eq. (9.4) is used

( ) 0 . 1 05 . 0 7 . 0 + +

B A

k (9.3)

0 . 1 05 . 0 85 . 0

min

+ k (9.4)

where

A

and

B

are the values of at the two ends of the column, and

min

is the

smaller of the two values.

For columns in sway frames restrained at both ends, k is taken as

for 2 <

m

m

m

k

1

20

20

(9.5)

for 2

m

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 6

m

k + 1 9 . 0 (9.6)

where

m

is the average of values at the two ends of the column.

For columns in sway frames hinged at one end, k is taken as

3 . 0 0 . 2 + k (9.7)

where is the values at the restrained end of the column.

9.4 The ACI Procedure for Classifying Short and Slender Columns

According to ACI Code 10.10.1, columns can be classified as short when their effective

slenderness ratios satisfy the following criteria:

For nonsway frames

( ) 0 . 40 / 12 34

2 1

M M

r

l k

u

(9.8)

or

For sway frames 22 / r l k

u

(9.9)

Furthermore, compression members are considered braced against sidesway when bracing

elements have a total stiffness, resisting lateral movement of that story, of at least 12 times

the gross stiffness of the columns within the story.

where

k = effective length factor

u

l = unsupported length of member, defined in ACI Code 10.10.1.1 as clear distance

between floor slabs, beams, or other members capable of providing lateral support, as

shown in Figure 9.5.

Figure 9.5: Unsupported length of member

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 7

r = radius of gyration associated with axis about which bending occurs. For rectangular

cross sections r = 0.30 h, and for circular sections, r = 0.25 h as specified by ACI Code

10.10.1.2.

h = column dimension in the direction of bending.

1

M = smaller factored end moment on column, positive if member is bent single curvature,

negative if bent in double curvature.

2

M = larger factored end moment on column, always positive.

Chart 9.1 summarizes the process of column design as per the ACI Code.

Chart 9.1: Column Ddesign

Example (9.1):

The frame shown in Figure 9.6 consists of members with rectangular cross sections, made

of the same strength concrete. Considering buckling in the plane of the figure, categorize

column bc as long or short if the frame is:

Column Design

Sway frame Non-sway frame

22

r

kl

u

100 22 <

r

kl

u

100 >

r

kl

u

) M / M ( 12 34

r

kl

2 1

u

,

_

>

2

1 u

M

M

12 34

r

kl

100

100 >

r

kl

u

Neglect

slenderness

(short)

Moment

magnification

method (slender)

Exact P-

analysis

(slender)

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 8

a. Nonsway

b. Sway.

Figure 9.6: Frame and loads on column bc

Solution:

a. Nonsway:

For a column to be short,

( ) 0 . 40 / 12 34

2 1

M M

r

l k

u

cm l

u

340 30 30 400

k is conservatively taken as 1.0.

( )

( )

38 . 32

35 3 . 0

340 1

/ r l k

( ) ( ) 38 . 32 40 as taken 1 . 42 40 / 27 12 34 / 12 34

2 1

> M M

i.e., column is classified as being short.

b. Sway:

The column is classified as being short when 22 / r l k

u

[ ( )( ) ( )]

[ ( )( ) ( )] [ ( )( ) ( )]

406 . 0

750 12 / 60 30 35 . 0 900 12 / 60 30 35 . 0

400 12 / 35 30 7 . 0

3 3

3

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 9

[ ( )( ) ( ) ] [ ( )( ) ( )]

[ ( )( ) ( )] [ ( )( ) ( )]

945 . 0

750 12 / 60 30 35 . 0 900 12 / 60 30 35 . 0

450 12 / 40 30 7 . 0 400 12 / 35 30 7 . 0

3 3

3 3

+

+

b

Using the appropriate alignment chart, k = 1.14, and

( )

( )

22 91 . 36

35 3 . 0

340 14 . 1

>

r

l k

u

i.e., column is classified as being slender, or long.

could have been evaluated using Eq. (9.5)

675 . 0

2

945 . 0 406 . 0

m

25 . 1 675 . 0 1

20

675 . 0 20

+

k

9.5 Short Columns Subjected to Axial force and Bending

Generally, columns are subjected to axial forces in addition to some bending moments.

These moments are generally due to:

Unsymmetrically placed floors, as shown in Figure 9.7.

Figure 9.7 Unsymmetrically placed floors

Lateral loading such as wind or earthquake loads, shown in Figure 9.8.

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 10

Figure 9.8: Rigid Frame

Loads from eccentric loading such as crane loads acting on corbels.

End restraints resulting from monolithic action between floor beams and columns.

Accidental eccentricity resulting from column misalignment or other execution

deficiencies.

9.5.1 Interaction Diagram

Unlike pure axial or bending loading, where unique strength exists for a particular section,

combined axial load and bending result in an infinite number of strength combinations

evaluated by using equilibrium equations and compatibility of strains. When these strength

combinations are plotted, a strength curve called Interaction Diagram is produced. To

plot an interaction diagram for a particular cross section, at least five strength combinations

are required, as shown in Figure 9.9. All strength combinations located in the area under the

curve are possible safe strength capacities while combinations located outside the curve are

failure cases.

Point A:

This point on the curve represents pure axial compression capacity of the column cross

section, where the eccentricity e is equal to zero. The nominal axial capacity

nA

P is given

by Eq. (9.10)

( )

y sg sg g c nA

f A A A f P + 85 . 0 (9.10)

where

sg

A is total column reinforcement.

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 11

Figure 9.9: Strength interaction diagram

Point C:

This point on the curve represents pure flexural capacity of the column cross section

analyzed as doubly reinforced section, where the eccentricity e is equal to infinity. The

nominal flexural capacity

nC

M is given by Eq. (9.11)

( ) ( ) d d C a d C M

s c nC

+ 2 / (9.11)

Point B:

This point is characterized by its maximum bending strength and represents a balanced

failure of the column section. Crushing of the concrete occurs simultaneously with yielding

of the reinforcement, or

003 . 0

cu c

, and

y t

.

Point D:

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 12

Points along the curve between points A and B are characterized by compression failure of

the section. Failure is initiated by crushing of the concrete before the initiation of yielding

of the reinforcement, or

003 . 0

cu c

, and

y t

< .

The eccentricity e is smaller than the eccentricity at balanced failure

b

e , where the

eccentricity increases when moving from point A towards point B along the interaction

curve.

Point E:

Points along the curve between points B and C are characterized by tension failure of the

section. Failure is initiated by yielding of the reinforcement, or

003 . 0

cu c

, and 005 . 0

t

.

The eccentricity e is larger than the eccentricity at balanced failure

b

e , where the

eccentricity increases when moving from point B towards point C along the interaction

curve.

Point F:

This point on the curve represents pure axial tension capacity of the column cross section

where the eccentricity e is equal to zero. The nominal axial capacity

nF

P is given by Eq.

(9.12)

y sg nF

f A P (9.12)

where

sg

A is total column reinforcement.

9.5.2 Modes of Failure

Three modes of failure are possible for columns subjected to axial force plus bending.

9.5.2.1 Balanced Failure

Figure 9.10 shows a rectangular section subjected to an axial load with eccentricity adjusted

so as to produce a balanced failure using the principle of static equivalence.

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 13

Figure 9.10: Balanced failure

The distance to the neutral axis from the extreme compression fiber is given as

d

f

x

y

b

,

_

6120

6120

(9.13)

The compressive force resisted by concrete is given by

b x f C

b c cb 1

85 . 0

The tensile force resisted by reinforcement in the tension side is

y s b

f A T

The compressive force resisted by reinforcement on the compression side of the cross

section is

( )

c y s sb

f f A C 85 . 0

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 14

In the last of the previous equations, it is assumed that compression reinforcement does

yield, or

y s

. This can be easily checked from similar triangles, or

,

_

b

b

s

x

d x

003 . 0

If yielding of the reinforcement does not occur, where

y s

< , the compressive force in

compression reinforcement is given as ( )

c s s sb

f f A C 85 . 0

where the stress in the compression reinforcement is evaluated using Hooks law, or

s s s

E f

From equilibrium of forces in the vertical direction

b sb cb nb

T C C P + (9.14)

Substituting , ,

sb cb

C C and

b

T in Eq. (9.14), one gets

( )

y s c y s b c nb

f A f f A b x f P + 85 . 0 85 . 0

1

(9.15)

From equilibrium of moments, by taking the moments about the centroid of the cross

section,

( ) ( ) d T d d d C d a d C M e P

b sb cb nb b b

+ + 2 / (9.16)

and

nb

nb

b

P

M

e

The balanced strain condition represents the dividing point between compression-controlled

sections and the transition zone of the strength interaction diagram.

9.5.2.2 Tension Failure

Figure 9.11shows a rectangular section subjected to an axial load with eccentricity chosen

larger than

b

e .

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 15

Figure 9.11: Tension failure

The compressive force resisted by concrete is given by b x f C

c c 1

85 . 0

where

d

x

005 . 0 003 . 0

003 . 0

+

and d 375 . 0 x

The tensile force resisted by reinforcement in the tension side is

y s

f A T

The compressive force resisted by reinforcement on the compression side of the cross

section is ( )

c y s s

f f A C 85 . 0 when

y s

.

If yielding of the reinforcement does not occur, where

y s

< , the compressive force in

compression reinforcement is given as ( )

c s s s

f f A C 85 . 0

where the stress in the compression reinforcement is evaluated using Hooks law, or

s s s

E f

From equilibrium of forces in the vertical direction

T C C P

s c n

+ (9.17)

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 16

Substituting , ,

s c

C C and T in Eq. (9.17), one gets

( )

y s c y s c n

f A f f A b x f P + 85 . 0 85 . 0

1

(9.18)

From equilibrium of moments,

( ) ( ) ( ) ' d d C 2 / a d C ' ' d e P

s c n

+ + is used to evaluate e

The nominal flexural strength e P M

n n

.

9.5.2.3 Compression Failure

When the nominal compression strength

n

P exceeds the balanced nomial compression

strength

nb

P , or when the eccentricity e is less than

b

e or when

t

at the extreme layer

of steel at the face opposite the maximum compression force is less than

y

, the section is

compression controlled.

Figure 9.12 shows a rectangular section subjected to an axial load with eccentricity chosen

smaller than

b

e .

Figure 9.12: Compression failure

The compressive force resisted by concrete is given by

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 17

b a f C

c c

85 . 0

Since the reinforcement does not yield, the tensile force resisted by reinforcement in the

tension side is

( )

,

_

,

_

a

a d

A

x

x d

E A E A f A T

s cu s s s s s s s

1

6120

The compressive force resisted by reinforcement on the compression side of the cross

section is

( )

c y s s

f f A C 85 . 0 for

y s

.

From equilibrium of forces in the vertical direction

T C C P

s c n

+ (9.19)

Substituting , ,

s c

C C and T in Eq. (9.18), one gets

( ) ( )

,

_

+

a

a d

A f f A b a f P

s c y s c n

1

6120 85 . 0 85 . 0

(9.20)

From equilibrium of moments, by taking the moments about the axial load

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 2 / + + + e d T d d e d C d e a d C

s c

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 2 / + + + + + + + + e d T d d e d C d e a d C

s c

(9.21)

Substituting , ,

s c

C C and T in Eq. (9.21), one gets

( ) ( )( )

( ) ( ) 0 6120

85 . 0 2 / 85 . 0

+

,

_

+ + + + + + +

d e

a

a d

A

d d e d f f A d e a d b a f

s

c y s c

(9.22)

Eq. (9.22) which is a cubic equation in terms of a , can be written in the following form:

0

2 3

+ + + D a C a B a A (9.23)

where,

b f A

c

425 . 0

( ) d d e b f B

c

+ 85 . 0

( )( ) ( )( ) e d A d d d e f f A C

s c y s

+ + + + 6120 85 . 0

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 18

( ) ( )d e d A D

s

+

1

6120

Eq. (9.23) can be solved using Newton-Raphson iteration method, or any available

mathematical software. When this iteration method is used,

( ) D a C a B a A a f + + +

2 3

(9.24)

and the first derivative of this function is given by

( ) C a B a A a f + + 2 3

2

(9.25)

Assume a trial value for a , named

o

a

The first iteration value

1

a is given as

( )

( )

o

o

o

a f

a f

a a

1

(9.26)

A second iteration is evaluated using

1

a evaluated from Eq. (9.26). Repeat for more

iterations until you reach a converged value for a . Then, a is substituted in Eq. (9.20) to

get

n

P . The nominal flexural strength is evaluated by multiplying

n

P by e .

Example (9.6):

For the column cross section shown in Figure 9.13, plot a nominal strength interaction

diagram, using five strength combinations at least.

Use

2

/ 250 cm kg f

c

,

2

/ 4200 cm kg f

y

, and ( )

2 6

/ 10 04 . 2 cm kg E

s

.

F

Figure 9.13: Column cross section

Solution:

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 19

d = 55 6.25 = 48.75 cm

d = 6.25 cm

d = (55.0 6.25 6.25)/2 = 21.25 cm

( )

002 . 0

10 04 . 2

4200

6

y

Point A:

This is a case of pure axial compression load, the nominal axial load is

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] tons P

n

65 . 565 4200 27 . 39 27 . 39 35 55 250 85 . 0

1000

1

+

Point B:

The strength combination at this point corresponds to a balanced failure.

( ) cm x

b

91 . 28 75 . 48

4200 6120

6120

,

_

+

( ) cm a

b

573 . 24 91 . 28 85 . 0

( )( )( ) tons C

cb

76 . 182 1000 / 35 573 . 24 250 85 . 0

tons T

b

49 . 82

1000

4200

64 . 19

,

_

y s

>

,

_

0023 . 0

91 . 28

25 . 6 91 . 28

003 . 0

( ) tons C

sb

31 . 78 250 85 . 0 4200

1000

64 . 19

From equilibrium of forces in the vertical direction,

tons P

nb

58 . 178 49 . 82 31 . 78 76 . 182 +

From equilibrium of moments,

( ) ( )

( ) m t

M

nb

. 97 . 61 25 . 21

100

49 . 82

25 . 21 25 . 6 75 . 48

100

31 . 78

25 . 21 2 / 57 . 24 75 . 48

100

76 . 182

+

+

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 20

The eccentricity causing balanced failure m e

b

347 . 0

58 . 178

97 . 61

Point E:

005 . 0 003 . 0

003 . 0

d

x

+

and

( ) cm 281 . 18 75 . 48 375 . 0 d 375 . 0 x

y s

00197 . 0

281 . 18

25 . 6 281 . 18

003 . 0

,

_

0254 . 0

66 . 0

25 . 6 66 . 0

003 . 0

,

_

s

( )( )( )( ) tons 57 . 115 1000 / 35 281 . 18 85 . 0 250 85 . 0 C

c

tons T 49 . 82

1000

4200

64 . 19

,

_

( ) tons C

s

31 . 78 250 85 . 0 4200

1000

64 . 19

, assuming that

y s

From equilibrium of forces in the vertical direction,

T C C P

s c n

+

tons 39 . 113 49 . 82 31 . 78 57 . 115 P

n

+

From equilibrium of moments,

( ) ( ) ( ) ' d d C 2 / a d C ' ' d e P

s c n

+ +

( )

( )

( ) 25 . 6 75 . 48 31 . 78

2

281 . 18 85 . 0

75 . 48 57 . 115 25 . 21 e 39 . 113 +

,

_

+

and cm 15 . 51 e

m . t 97 . 56

100

15 . 51

39 . 111 M

n

,

_

Point D:

The eccentricity is set at 0.25 m (smaller than 0.347 m) in order to locate a compression

failure strength combination.

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 21

( )( ) cm kg A / 75 . 3718 35 250 425 . 0

( )( )( ) kg B 75 . 18593 75 . 48 25 . 21 25 35 250 85 . 0 +

( )( )

( )( ) kg.cm

C

5852781.37 25 25 . 21 6120 64 . 19

75 . 48 25 . 21 25 . 6 25 250 85 . 0 4200 64 . 19

+ +

+ +

( )( )( )( ) ( )

2 8

. 10 3035529 . 2 75 . 48 25 25 . 21 85 . 0 6120 64 . 19 cm kg D +

( ) ( )

8 2 3

10 3035529 . 2 37 . 5852781 75 . 18593 75 . 3718 + a a a a f

( ) 37 . 5852781 5 . 37187 25 . 11156

2

+ a a a f

Let

o

a = 25 cm as a first trial

( ) 75 . 37551380 25 f

( ) 12 . 11895750 25 f

The first iteration value

1

a is given as

( )

( )

cm

f

f

a 15 . 28

12 . 11895750

75 . 37551380

25

25

25

25

1

+

( ) 5 . 2619416 15 . 28 f

( ) 13646417 15 . 28 f

( )

( )

cm

f

f

a 96 . 27

13646417

5 . 2619416

15 . 28

15 . 28

15 . 28

15 . 28

2

( ) 75 . 37237 96 . 27 f

( ) 13534547 96 . 27 f

( )

( )

cm

f

f

a 96 . 27

13534547

75 . 37237

96 . 27

96 . 27

96 . 27

96 . 27

3

O.K 0024 . 0

85 . 0 / 96 . 27

25 . 6 85 . 0 / 96 . 27

003 . 0

y s

>

,

_

( )( )( ) ( )

( )

tons

P

n

32 . 228

96 . 27

96 . 27 75 . 48 85 . 0

1000

6120

64 . 19

250 85 . 0 4200

1000

64 . 19

1000 / 35 96 . 27 250 85 . 0

1

]

1

,

_

+

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 22

( ) m t M

n

. 08 . 57 25 . 0 32 . 228

Point F:

This is a case of pure axial tension load, the nominal axial load is

( ) tons f A P

y sy n

93 . 164 1000 / 4200 27 . 39 .

Point C:

This is a case of pure bending moment where the nominal flexural strength is calculated as

follows:

( )( )( )( ) tons x x C

c

32 . 6 1000 / 35 85 . 0 250 85 . 0

tons T 49 . 82

1000

4200

64 . 19

,

_

( ) tons C

s

31 . 78 250 85 . 0 4200

1000

64 . 19

, assuming that

y s

From equilibrium of forces in the vertical direction,

0 49 . 82 31 . 78 32 . 6 + x , and x = 0.66 cm

0254 . 0

66 . 0

25 . 6 66 . 0

003 . 0

,

_

s

, which means that the compression reinforcement is

stressed in tension, a contradiction to the equilibrium equation.

tons

x x

x

C

s

,

_

1

]

1

,

_

23 . 751

023 . 116 250 85 . 0

25 . 6

6120

1000

64 . 19

From equilibrium of forces,

49 . 82

23 . 751

023 . 116 32 . 6 +

x

x

0 23 . 751 533 . 33 32 . 6

2

+ x x

( ) ( )( )

( )

64 . 12

829 . 141 533 . 33

32 . 6 2

23 . 751 32 . 6 4 533 . 33 533 . 33

2

t

+ t

x

x

x = 8.568 cm, and the other root is negative (rejected)

CHAPTER NINE COLUMNS 23

m t

M

n

. 472 . 36

100

25 . 6 75 . 48

568 . 8

23 . 751

023 . 116

2

568 . 8

85 . 0 75 . 48

100

568 . 8

32 . 6

,

_

,

_

+

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

Figure 9.14 shows the resulting strength interaction diagram for the given cross section.

Figure 9.14: Strength interaction diagram

9.5.3 Design Interaction Diagrams

The design interaction diagram for a tied or spirally-reinforced column is evaluated by

carrying out three modifications on the nominal strength interaction curve, shown in Figure

9.15 as follows:

a. All nominal strength combinations on the curve are multiplied by the strength reduction

factor . This factor is equal to 0.65 for tied columns and 0.75 for spirally reinforced

columns.

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