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Design and Calculation of 66kV Neutral Grounding Resistor for Main Transformers in Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex(BIPC) Power

Station Located in South West of IRAN

Hamid.R. Izadfar1, M.R.Farsad2,Davood Andavari3,S.Shokri4

1, 4

Department of Power Engineering, University of K.N.T


Energy Farda consultant Engineers Energy Farda consultant Engineers

Abstract Types of grounding system for Industrial

Networks lower than 45kV and upper than 132kV voltage levels are clearly recommended in standards, but for some voltage levels in between, such as 66kV, is not specified. BIPCs step up transformers have dY connected winding, 13.8/66kV rating voltage and secondary side of them has been solidly grounded. The high intensity current of frequent Earth Faults in 66kV distributed network in BIPC, caused disruptive effects. In order to limit the short circuit current, calculation has been made to change the existing grounding of step up transformers in BIPC power station. Obviously, the insertion of a resistor in transformers neutral grounding system is affected by; short circuit current protection, unbalance voltages, operation of existing protections, charging currents, and.This paper introduces important scientific and applicable notes witch has resulted from months of studies and discussions by some power engineers and experts. These results will be good references for neutral grounding resistor calculation, in general.

This substation transforms132KV overall network of Iran to 66KV.There are different voltage levels in BIPC such as 66KV, 6.6KV,3.3KV and low voltage(400V,220,110,).most number of electrical faults in BIPC is line to ground (LG) fault in 66KV voltage levels. Solidly grounded neutral of main transformers causes high current fault. High released energy at these moments has very danger for human and equipment. For this reason, improvement of main transformers grounding system has been studied. II. SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS BIPC existing network short circuit analysis gets the following results: Maximum currents for 3 phase short circuit (LLL), 2 phases short circuit (LL), 2 phases to ground short circuit (LLG) and line to ground short circuit (LG) in 66KV voltage level with neglecting of motors injecting motors are: 22KA,19KA, 24.7KA, 25.9KA, respectively. When a LG fault is accrued voltage drop in 66KV network on faulted phase is 75% up to 100% and in medium voltage(MV) network is 47% up to 78% (depended on this fault is on witch feeder and haw much distance from GIS). There for trouble voltage drop is accrued in MV motor buses. Neutral grounding resistor can improve this subject. III. NEUTRAL GROUNDING SYSTEMS According to IEEE standard, the types of neutral grounding systems are: ungrounded system, solidly grounded system, resistance grounded, reactance grounded, resonant grounded. Table 1 shows the standard grounding systems for different voltage levels of Iran network [1].

I. INTRODUCTION BIPC has 4 gas turbine units in its power station. This units produce 13.8KV voltage. There is one transformer for each unit with 82.1MVA capacity, dY connected winding and 13.8KV/66KV ratio. Secondary side of them has been solidly grounded. Output feeders have connected to 66KV Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS). GIS has 2 bus bars. BIPC's units have been connected to one of them and the other bus bar is fed by 2 feeders from KWPA substation. There are 2 parallel transformers in KWPA substation. These transformers have 30MVA Capacitive; Dy connected winding with solidly grounded neutral in secondary side.


Table1.Standard grounding system for Iran networks Nominal Voltage (kV rms) Highest Voltage (kV rms) Grounding system

C0 =

0.00736 *10 3 D log10 d


400 230 132 66 & 63 20

420 245 145 72.5 24

effectively effectively effectively effectively ineffectively effectively ineffectively

C0=capacitance to ground in F/Feet D= diameter over insulation for cable d = diameter over conductor =specific inductive capacitance of insulation Size and length of 66KV cables in BIPC is according to table 2.
Table 2.Charcteristics of 66KV Cables
Cable Length (m) Y=(c) Charging Current (A)

From the different types of systems, reactance grounded and resonant grounded is not useful for BIPC network. But resistance grounded system has good property for it. In this method neutral point is grounded through one or more resistance. In high resistance grounding (HRG) short circuit current is less than 10A. This system is used for lower than 15KV networks [2]. In low resistance grounding (LRG) is upper than 100A [2] (up to 1000A or more).HRG is not useful for BIPC network. Because this system is used when clearing of the first fault is not necessary. Also it is operational for lower than 15KV networks. LRG system I used for 3.45KV up to 69KV networks [3]. Iv. CHARGINC CURRENT CALCULATION Capacitance between one phase and earth, defines network charging current .For each of equipment, charging current calculated and summation of them is total network charging current. In this section, we calculated BIPC network charging current.

( mho / km)
0.000041 0.000058 0.000094

3(195)/Cu/XLPE 3(1240)/Cu/XLPE 3(1800)/Cu/XLPE

13950 3550 1400

65.38 23.54 15.4

There for 66KV cable charging current is: 3IC0 = 65.38+23.54+15.4=104.32A

6.6KV & 3.3KV CABLES

Charging currents of BIPC MV cables are very small and neglected

6.6KV & 3.3KV Electric Machines

Charging current for transformers is about [4] 0.05A/MVA Total installed main transformer capacity in BIPC is as follows: - 66KV/3.3KV and 66KV/6.6KV transformers capacity = 460MVA. - KWPA transformers capacity = 2*30=60MVA - BIPC power station transformers capacity =4*82.1=328.4MVA There for total transformers charging current with neglecting from minor transformers is: 0.05*(460+60+328.4) = 42.42A

Charging current for electric machines is equal with[4] P 3I C 0 = 0.05 * A (2) n P=out put horse power n= rpm This current is about 0.4A and neglected. Total charging current BIPC charging current is some of above sequences: 3IC0=42.42+104.32=146.74A

66KV cables charging current be calculated from flowing equation [4]

If neutral is grounded through a resistor, its current under fault condition must be more than maximum charging currents of feeders. Although all transformers can be grounded with communal resistor, it isn't suitable. Because when a fault accrues on each transformer out put, all transformers will be tripped. For this reason it is better than each transformer grounded with particular resistor. The examination shows that, in worth case, BIPC electric energy supplied by 3 transformers. There for the current through each resistance must be bigger than 50A, at least.


For producing a good protection, earth fault relay sensitivity and it setting must be so that, it is bigger than charging current in unfaulted feeders. Also it set on 10% of maximum short circuit current. Fig 3 in appendix shows one of different cases for charging currents flow with a LG fault in BIPC. V. NEUTRAL GROUNDING RESISTANCE (NGR) DETERMINATION NGR determination affected by following notes: - Maximum trip time of network circuit breakers. - Current transformers ranges. - Network short circuit levels. - Allowable maximum fault current for network. When a LG fault is accrued, real sequence of LG current must be bigger than the sum of charging current in 3 phases 1 U , Xc = (3) Ic = Xc c

200 = 1( A) 200 1 200/1*0.1(Min.tap) =20(A). Minimum pickup current Using relay 0.1-1(A) ranges will provide satisfactory pickup range 20-200A and more. VII. NEW EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION Grounding system modification needs to new equipment for installation in BIPC network. This equipment is: -NGR for each main transformer in BIPC and KWPA -equipping of all GIS output feeders with earth fault relay (50N) if there isn't enough protection under new conditions. -equipping of input feeders in KWPA switchgear and GIS with Restricted Earth Fault (REF) relay. - equipping of all input feeders in GIS with standby earth fault relay such as 51N relay if there isn't. Also some of relay settings must be modify. Because of LG fault current reduced about 20 times with respect to solidly grounding system. VIII. LIMITTER SUBJECTS IN RELAYS SETTING NGR causes that unfaulted phases voltages increase when a fault is accrued. In fault position this voltages may reach to line voltages (i.e. 1.732 times).Hence one major limiters are existing voltage relays on HV and MV levels. We must aware these setting relays and new protection must be set so that before voltage relay operation, fault cleared. IX. VOLTAGE UNBALANCE Insertion of NGR in grounding system has effects on equipment and network electrical parameters. Although using of NGR causes increase voltages when a LG fault accrued, balancing of voltage in MV and LV networks will improve. Figs. 1 and 2 compare unbalance voltages in 2 different case of grounding system on several positions of BIPC network with a LG fault in 66KV level. This figures show unbalance voltage in 66KV networks a few increases. But in MV networks unbalance voltage very reduces and reaches to zero, nearly. Hence transient stability in this level of network fortifies. Main electrical motors work in this voltage level.

I c = 3UC


U 1 (5) I R I c 3UC R 3C R Minimum current for each NGR must be 50A.Out put GIS feeders CT ratio is 200/1A. If each NGR is limited to 200A, with setting of over current relay instantaneous element on 0.1, perfect protection will produce for LG fault current more than 20A. For currents of lower than 150A, with attention to existing ratio CTs, identification of ground faults in far distance from GIS with high impedance isn't capable. Also currents of bigger than 200A, is caused unbalance voltage more than 1% in MV networks and this reduces efficiency of MV electric motors. There for selection of 200A grounding resistance for neutral points of transformers is useful.

Resistance must be installed in secondary side of transformers, where line voltage is 66KV.Resistance calculated as follows: - Voltage rating of ground resistor = 66 V L N = = 38.1KV (6) 3
For 82.1MVA,13.8/66KV and 60MVA, 132/66KV, deltastar connected transformers, the current must be limited to 200A.Hence: 38100 R= 190 A (7) 200 Using a 200/1A current transformer:


45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 66 kV Short Circuit Buses Solid Grounding Resistance Grounding (200 A)

Fig1. BIPC 66KV buses unbalance voltage

between neutral point of transformer and NGR its nominal voltage would be 38.1KV. In 1st case, although CT is cheaper but if NGR and earth connection omitted CT will destroy. Because of in LG fault moment, neutral point voltage increases to 38.1KVand CT will see this voltage. Voltage and current fault analysis is done in many papers. Readers can refer to [5] and [6].Our goal in this paper was introduction the basic and important operational notes and avoided from mention of done searches and studies.

Unbalance Voltage %

35 Un b alan ce V o ltag e % 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 66 kV Short Circuit Buses Solid Grounding Resistance Grounding (200 A)

[1] Ghods Niroo consultant Engineers." standard for 132/20(33) KV substation," [2] IEEE Std141-1993. [3] Dr.Luke, L.Henriks,"Selection of System Neutral Grounding Resistor and Ground Fault Protection for Industrial Power Systems," IEEE. Paper No. PCIC-91-51. [4] www.ipc-resistor.com"Ground Fault Protection on Ungrounded and High Resistance Grounded Systems Application Guide" [5] "Resistance Grounded Systems," Copyright 2002 Kilowatte classroom,LLC. [6] J.Roberts, Dr.Hector,J.Altuve,Dr.Daqing Hou"Review"Reviw of Ground Fault Protection Methods for Ground,Unground and Compensated Distribution Systems"scheitzer engineering labratoies,Inc

Fig2. BIPC 3.3KV buses unbalance voltage

X. CONCLUSION With NGR, LG fault current and released energy reduces. There for safety for personal and equipment is improved. Damping of over voltage and unbalance voltage in MV reduces. Adding of new equipment may be impossible because switchgear is GIS type. Also radio interferences may increase with respect to solidly grounding systems. Charging currents, voltage relay settings, sensitivity of current relay for high impedance and far away fault identification, CTs ratio,are major parameter for resistor calculation. With NGR network needs to new protections. In NGR cubicle CT is located between NGR and earth. In this case the nominal voltage of CT is low (400V).If it located



Fig.1.charging current flow in BIPC network