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CALIBRATION OF THE ORIFICE METERS

CALIBRATION OF THE ORIFICE METERS USING THE PITOT-PRANDTL TUBES


1 GOALS This paper presents two of traditional and efficient methods for: the measure of flow rate using an orifice meter; the measure of local velocity aides with the Pitt-Prandtl tubes concerning the incompressible flow of fluids in ducts, according to STAS 6563-83; In the same time, the paper presents a method for the calibration of the orifice meters. 2 THEORETICAL APPROACH The orifice meters are devices used to measuring the flow of fluid through closed conduits. The basic principle underlying the operation of the orifice meter is an increase in the velocity of flow, accompanied by a decrease in the pressure of the fluid under consideration. Thus, the quantity of fluid can be computed from the measured pressure drop across the orifice. Figure 1 shows the principle of this method of flow metering, considering an orifice plate provided with a sharp-edged circular orifice, fitted into a conduit between two flanges. Upstream from the plate, in the cross section S1 , the velocity is v1 and the pressure p1 . Downstream from the orifice a vena contracta is formed and the cross section area decreases to a minimum value S2 ; the parameters of the fluid in this section are v 2 and p2 . Further downstream the stream gradually expands to the normal flow. From the continuity equation, the discharge (volumetric flow rate) is: Fig. 1 The orifice meter principle

Q = 1 S1 = 2 S2 ,
where: S1 =

(1)

D2 4
d2 4

area of the first cross section; area of the vena contracta cross section; diameter of conduit; diameter of orifice; coefficient of contraction. 1

S2 = c c
D

d
cc

CALIBRATION OF THE ORIFICE METERS

Neglecting the pressure losses, the velocity 2 can be determined from Bernoullis equation:
2 1 p 2 p 2 + 1 = 2 + 2 + 2 2g g 2 g g 2 g

(2)

From equation of continuity we can write:

d 1 = c c 2 D

(3)

Replacing velocity v1 in equation (6.25) and rearranging the terms it is obtained the following expression for the velocity in the vena contracta:

v2 =
d where: m = . D
2

1 1 (cc m)2

p1 p2

(4)

Hence the discharge becomes:

Q = A2 v 2 = c c

d2
4

1 1 ( c c m)
2

(p1 p2 )

(5)

From practical considerations, because there is measured the pressure drop pI pII , it is convenient to express the discharge in the following form:

Q = cd
where: c d

d 2
4

(pI

pII ) ,

(6)

is the discharge coefficient of the orifice meter; is the approach factor:


E= 1 d 1 D
2

1 1 m2

(7)

The mass flow rate is:


Qm = Q = c d

d2
4

E 2 (pI pII ) ,

(8)

The discharge coefficient is experimentally obtained. Thus the errors due to the omission of the contraction coefficient under the square root and losses between sections 1 and 2 are automatically adjusted. For a specified design, the discharge coefficient is not constant; it is a function both of ratio m and an important parameter of flow known as Reynolds number (see the real fluids flow). For higher Reynolds numbers than 10 5 the influence of Reynolds on c d becomes negligible.

3
CALIBRATION OF THE ORIFICE METERS

Fig. 2 - 3D view of the experimental set-up

CALIBRATION OF THE ORIFICE METERS

4 THE LABORATORY PRINCIPLE The goal of this practical work is to determine the flow rate of the axial fan 7 through duct 6 as a function of the pressure differential due to an orifice meter. All these are performed for some air flow cases, which are established with the aid of the valve 5 (a device used in order to control rate of flow). Later on, for any cases partly there will be calculated the discharge coefficient of the orifice meter c D , and the dependency c D = f (Re ) will be established. The experimental procedure concerning the calculation of c D is based on the method of determination of velocity distribution along the flow direction. The local velocities in a section, which is situated in upstream from orifice meter, can be determined with the aid of two Pitt-Prandtl tubes, 2. One of them is placed in the vertical plane of symmetry and the second in the horizontal plane of symmetry of the duct (both of tubes can be moved along their axis). 5 COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURE For any established position x (measured with a rule 3) of one of two Pitt-Prandtl tubes, the magnitude of local velocity can be calculated with equation:

lp i = 2 g 1 ht air
where:
g

[m/s]

(9)

gravity acceleration; the vertical deflection of the piezometric liquid which is indicated by the manometer 4 (connected at a Pitt-Prandtl tube); the length of the piezometric liquid; a constant which is function of angle of manometer leg and the nature of piezometric liquid; (10)

ht = l t k t
lt kt

With the aim to determine the average velocity, the cross section of the duct is divided in n annular equal areas, see figure 3. In our case n = 20 . The magnitude of the average velocity can be determined as arithmetical average of the local velocities (which are measuring in the centres of annular areas) according to the equation:

m =

1 1 S dS = n S S i

i =1

Si =

1 n i n i =1

(11)

With this value of average velocity and knowing the interior diameter of the duct, the volumetric flow rate, defined by equation (1), is:

Q=

D2
4

m
4

(12)

CALIBRATION OF THE ORIFICE METERS

In consequence, the following expression for Q is obtained:

Qm = air Q =

D2
4

air m

(13)

In upstream and downstream from orifice meter there is connected a second manometer 4, which show us a deflection hd of piezometric liquid due a pressure change ( pI pII ) , for an established flow rate of air in duct:

pI pII = g ( lp air ) hd

(14) (15)

hd = l d k d [m] the vertical deflection of the piezometric liquid which is indicated by


the manometer 4 (connected at the orifice meter);

l d [m] the length of the piezometric liquid;


k d [ - ] a constant which is function of angle of manometer leg and the nature
of piezometric liquid. When the equation (14) is substituted into equation (8), we obtain the following expression for the rate of flow:

Qm = c d

d2
4

lp E air 2 g 1 hd air

(16)

From equation (13) and (16), the following express ion for the flow rate coefficient is obtained:

cD =

(D d )

lp 2g 1 hd air

1 m E

(17)

There will be determined the values of c D and the Reynolds number Re for any case of flow which is studied in this practical work.

Re =
where:

air

(18)

air =

air air

(19)

The dynamic viscosity of the air aer (which is a function of temperature) can be calculated with equation:
3

air

T +C = 0 0 Tair + C

T air T 0

(20)

The following relation can be used to determine the density of the air air :

CALIBRATION OF THE ORIFICE METERS

air = 0 air

pair T0 air p0 air Tair

(21)

6 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE check the horizontal planes of manometers; with magnitudes of pair , t air calculate air , air , air for the moment of practical work, using the relations (21), (20), and (19); with the aid of valve, establish a flow case; start the fan; read the values of the lengths l t for any distance x from table of results (on the leg of manometer connected at the Pitot-Prandtl tube). read the value of the lengths l d (on the leg of manometer connected at the orifice meter). compute ht , Eq. (10), hd , Eq. (15), i , Eq. (9), m , Eq. (11), Qm , Eq. (13), c D , Eq. (17) and Re with Eq. (18). repeat the anterior operations for another minimum two cases of flow; establish the dependencies Qm = f (hd ) and c D = f (Re ) ; Figures 4.1 and 4.2 show us a general representation of them. 2 PHISICAL FACTORS AND CONSTANTES USED

0 air = 1.293 kg / m 3

0 aer = 1.712 10 5 kg / ms
C = 111 K

lp = 1000 kg/m 3 lp = 800 kg/m3 D = 276 mm : de refulare d = 200 mm

density of the air for standard conditions of temperature and pressure: T0 air = 273.15 K , p0 air = 760 mmHg ; dynamic viscosity of the air for standard conditions of temperature and pressure; constant for gases (air in this case; is a functions of dynamic viscosity and temperature); if piezometric liquid is water; if piezometric liquid is alcohol; inner diameter of duct; diameter of orifice meter.

Fig. 4.1

Fig. 4.2

CALIBRATION OF THE ORIFICE METERS

TABLE 1

Flow case pair [mmHg] Tair [K] 3 air [kg/m ] air [kg/ms] 2 air [m /s] kt x
Vertical Pitt-Prandtl Tube
[mm]

lt
[mm]

ht
[m]

vi
[m/s]

lt
[mm]

ht
[m]

vi
[m/s]

lt
[mm]

ht
[m]

vi
[m/s]

7.2 22.6 40.3 62.3 94.3 181.5 213.5 235.5 253.5 268.5 kt 7.2 22.6 40.3 62.3 94.3 181.5 213.5 235.5 253.5 268.5
[m/s] [kg/s] [-] [mm] [m] [-] [-]

Horizontal Pitt-Prandtl tube

vm Qm kd ld hd cD Re