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B thu bo hiu la chn theo thi gian nhiu ngi dng trong mi trng fading nhanh a ng Nguyn Nguyn Minh Tm tt: K thut phn tp c s dng chng li fading. Qu trnh thu RAKE thng dng ca cc h thng CDMA (a truy nhp phn chia m) ch khai thc s phn tp v thi gian v chu s suy gim nng lc ng k trong trng hp c fading nhanh. Phng php phn tp kt hp Doppler a ng c p dng nhm tng cng hiu nng cho qu trnh thu RAKE . K thut bo hiu la chn theo thi gian (Time-selective Signaling) c s dng ci thin s phn tp theo tn s. Trong cc cng trnh xut bn ca cc tc gi nh A. M. Sayeed, S. Bhashyam, G. W. Wornell v P.B. Rapajic, B. S. Vucetic, k thut trn c phn tch trong trng hp mt ngi dng. Bi vit ny s phn tch h thng c nu trong bi cnh a ngi dng nhm khng nh hiu qu ca k thut .

I. INTRODUCTION

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) has emerged as one of the most promising systems for wireless communication recently and in the future, due to its capability of multiuser channel exploitation and its spreadspectrum virtue for channel diversity to combat fading. Both the European Telecommunications standards Institute (ETSI) and the International Telecommunication Union, while defining a framework for future mobile networks (3-Generation), known as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000), respectively, have the common preference of CDMA application. IMT-2000 in the Asia Pacific Region, including Vietnam, is developing, and study for its technologies is going on [1], [2]. The recent practical RAKE receiver of CDMA system (such as IS-95 in USA) utilizes the large signal bandwidth to exploit multipath diversity (i.e.time-diversity), but only is optimal for slow fading scenarios. In mobile scenarios, we may encounter the fast-fading environment, in which rapid temporal channel variations cause channel estimation errors and therefore degrade the RAKE performances significantly. Temporal channel variations, in fact, provide another form of diversity Doppler diversity (i.e. frequency diversity) that can be exploited in conjunction with multipath to attain joint multipath-Doppler diversity. The concept of joint multipath-Doppler diversity is based on a canonical channel representation that decomposes the channel into a series of independent flat fading channels corresponding to different (orthogonal) multipath-Doppler-shifted signal components. Diversity reception is achieved by a generalization of the RAKE receiver that performs joint multipath-Doppler processing. Furthermore, for maximal frequency-diversity exploitation of the channel, a new signaling technique that spreads symbol waveform beyond the intersymbol duration to make channel time-selective, is employed. Analytical and simulation results based on realistic fast-fading assumptions demonstrate that the proposed multiuser detectors of the system promise substantially improved performance compared to existing systems due to the inherently higher level of diversity afforded by multipath-Doppler processing. In this paper, first, in Section II, some background conceptions are introduced for easier understanding of the problems provided in the next Sections. Section III describes the joint multipath -Doppler concept and timesignaling technique applied for the RAKE reception. Section IV discusses the proposed system performances in multiuser scenario. This work is based on the publications of professor Akbar M.Sayeed [3], [4], [5], [6] and some other similar published ideas [7], [8].According to those preceding works, a model of mobile wireless channel-linear time-varying system was built with the joint multipath-Doppler diversity concept to enhance the performance of the RAKE receiver. In [3],a time-selective signaling system for single user case was discussed . My try is to confirm the extension of the system for the multiuser scenario. To evaluate the system, the comparison with other schemes dealing the same problem but using different techniques would be interesting and will be a part of my future research.

(Because the length of this paper is limited, it only develops the main concepts, more details can be found in indicated references). II. PRELIMIARIES

A. Diversity techniques. Diversity techniques are employed in practice to combat the effects of fading. The basic idea is to transmit the signal over multiple independent fading channels, while keeping the total power constant by transmitting at a lower power in each channel. Common diversity techniques include antenna diversity, time diversity, frequency diversity, and polarization diversity [9]. B. Conventional RAKE receiver. In CDMA transmission system, the signal bandwidth is significantly spread, i.e. the chip-rate of the pseudorandom codes is so big that the transmitted signal gets to the receiver in many paths with different delays, phase-shifts and attenuations. This phenomenon can be used positively by employing a special time-set receiver the RAKE receiver, which has the time-delay line to correlate those signal paths individually before combining (by Maximum Ratio Combining - MRC method) to detect the transmitted information [10]. C. Channel representation The determination of optimal modulation and demodulation techniques critically depends on accurate channel characterization. A mobile wireless channel can be generally described as a time-varying linear system: n(t) x(t) h(t,) s(t) r(t)

r ( t ) = s ( t ) + n ( t ) = h ( t , ) x ( t ) d + n ( t )

0

(1)

where x(t) is the transmitted signal, h(t,) is time-varying channel impulse response[9] and n(t) is zero-mean, complex, circular AWGN with power spectral density No. An equivalent representation of the channel, in terms of the spreading function defined as:

H ( , ) = h(t , )e j 2t dt

def

(2)

s (t ) = H ( , ) x (t )e j2t dd

(3)

The spreading function H(,) quantifies the time-frequency spreading produced by the channel - corresponds to the Doppler shifts introduced by the channel (temporal variation) and corresponds to the multipath delays. The second-order statistics characterizing the channel are:

E{H (1 , 1 ) H * ( 2 , 2 )} = (1 , 1 ) ( 1 2 ) ( 1 2 ) ( , ) = E{| H ( , ) |2 }

def

(4)

(5) where (.) denotes the Dirac delta function. The (essential) support of (,) over is called the multipath spread of the channel, denoted by Tm. Similarly, the Doppler spread is the (one-sided) -support of (,), denoted by Bd. So, s(t) can be expressed as :

Tm Bd

s (t ) =

III.

H ( , ) x(t )e

0 Bd

j 2

dd

A. Joint Multipath-Doppler. As evident from (6), the received signal consists of a linear combination of time-shifted and frequency-shifted (Doppler) copies of the transmitted signal, and its finite-dimensional representation is:

s (t )

Tc T

^ k H ( , nTc ) xk ,n (t ) kK T n =0 =

(7)

where N=[Tm/Tc] [TmB] (Tc is chip interval of spreading codes, B is signal bandwidth), K= [BdT] (T is symbol duration) and (,) is a smoothed version of H(,).

H ( , ) =

T Tc

Tm Bd

H ( ' , ' )e

0 Bd

j ( ') T

(8)

The basis waveforms xk,n(t)s are defined as (for a single transmitted symbol):

def

(9)

and are approximately orthogonal to each other <xk,n , xk,n > Tk-kn-n = 0 (10) where < , > denotes the inner product and k denotes the Kronecker delta function [4]. q(t) is the signaling waveform..

Tc

K 1/T

DOPPLER

N

MULTIPATH

-K

By virtue of the orthogonality of the xk,n(t)s , and the statistical independence of the channel coefficients (,), the representation (7) effectively decomposes the channel into (N+1) (2K+1) independent, flat-fading (diversity) channels by appropriately sampling the multipath-Doppler plane. Note that the number of diversity channels is proportional to the product TmBd (T/Tc). Thus, for fixed channel parameters Tm and Bd, the level of diversity is proportional to the time-bandwidth product (TBP), TB(T/Tc), of the signaling waveform. This also illustrates the remarkable ability of CDMA systems with spread-spectrum signals to exploit channel diversity. Base on the concept described above, the detector structure (time-frequency (TF) RAKE receiver) for joint multipath-Doppler diversity is developed in [4], which consists of a bank of conventional RAKE receivers shifted in time and frequency to take samples. Analytical and simulated results show that even the relatively small Doppler spreads encountered in practice can be leveraged in to substantial gains that significantly improve the performances of the proposed system, specially in fast-fading environments [4].

B. Time-selective signaling A direct way to attaint lager values of TBP (so the system can yield more diversity gains) is increasing T. In order to keep data rate at a prescribed value (R=1/T), this can be done by increasing spreading symbol waveform duration (Ts) (typically longer than prescribed intersymbol duration T) and there by introducing overlap between symbols. The received signal can be rewritten:

r (t )

Tc Ts

H (T

n =0 k = K

k

s

, nTc ) x k ,n (t ) + n(t )

Ts b1 (12)

(11)

b2 T Tc

Fig.3. Time-selective signaling

b3

As shown in Fig.3, each of the symbols is spread in frequency to bandwidth B1/Tc to exploit multipath diversity by making the channel frequency-selective, and in time to a duration Ts to exploit Doppler diversity by making the channel time-selective. The reception technique is discussed in [3]. According to (11), for maximal exploitation of channel diversity, the Ts should be increased as much as possible. In practice, the amount of achievable diversity is limited by intersymbol interference (ISI) introduced by symbol overlapping and by the more important reason limited delays of Ts introduced at the receiver due to the computational complexity discussed later. IV. MULTIUSER DETECTOR

A. Signal model and receiver structure. As we know, the CDMA system has an advantage of bigger capacity (number of users) over the preceding systems (Time Division Multiple Access -TDMA or Frequency Division Multiple Access FDMA), by virtue of multiuser exploitation, but in turn, it suffers from interferences of different users (i.e. near-far effect)[10]. In this section, the time-frequency RAKE receiver with time-selective signaling is analyzed in multiuser scenario. With the proposed suboptimal linear detectors that are computational tractable, it is showed that the system can keep the multiuser effect, while attain Doppler diversity gains as well. According to the discussions in [3], [5] the optimal receiver structure theoretically can be achieved, but due to the exponential computational complexity in the number of users and number of symbols that overlap, suboptimal linear approaches are more realizable in practice. To develop suboptimal receivers, the signals are represented conveniently in matrix notation as described below. Consider the case with L user, signal at the input of the receiver can be written:

i l =1 i = I

(13)

bil is the ith symbol of the l user, sli (t) is the unmodulated received baseband signal for the ith symbol of the lth user, I is the size of the detection window and is determined by number of symbols that overlap, n(t) is the AWGN. In terms of the representation (11), the signal sli (t) can be expressed:

T s (t ) c Ts

i l

H

n =0 k = K

ikn l

ql (t iT nTc )e

2kn Ts

(14)

where ql(t) is the spreading waveform of the lth user and Hlikn are the channel coefficients corresponding to the ith symbol of the lth user. Let:

q (t ) = ql (t iT nTc )e

ikn l def

def

2kt Ts

(15)

T T Q (t ) = [Q1T (t ), Q2 (t )...QL (t )]T 1

def T T T

(16)

T

l=1,2,L. in terms of the (2K+1)(N+1)x1 vectors:

def T T T

(17)

i=-I,-I+1,0,I-1,I. In terms of the (N+1)x1 vectors

def

(18)

(19)

n =1N. Similarly, as with Ql(t) ,Qli(t) and Qlik(t) , define the (2I+1)(2K+1)(N+1)x1 vectors Hl in terms of the (2K+1)(N+1)x1 vectors Hli in terms of the (N+1)x1 vectors Hlik which are in turn defined in terms of Hlkn. Finally, define the L(2I+1)(2K+1)(N+1)xL channel matrix for the symbol as

H1 def 0 H = M 0

def T

0 H2 M ...

T

0 0 ... O M 0 HL ...

T

(20)

B = [ B1 , B2 ,...BL ]T

Bl = [bl , bl

def

I I +1

(21) (22)

,...bl ]T

so, r(t) can be expressed as: (23) Thus, the received signal is linear combination of the time-frequency-shifted signal qlikn(t). Base on that notation, the L(2I+1)(2K+1)(N+1) vector Z of sufficient statistics is given by:

r (t ) Q T (t ) HB + n(t )

Z = RHB + N

where

(24)

The []T forms are indicated for matrix conversion, T here is not a symbol duration.

and N =

def def

R12 R22 M RL 2

(25)

E[NNH]=NoR. (28) Recall that the lth component of Z=[Z1,Z2.ZL]T consists of the TF (time-frequency) correlator outputs for the lth user:

Q (t )n(t )dt

*

(29)

In fact, the front-end TF correlators are a generalization of the RAKE receiver and can be efficiently implemented via a bank of RAKE receivers [4]. This is the reason for referring to the proposed receiver structures for joint multipath-Doppler processing as TF RAKE receivers. The structure of the suboptimal receivers is motivated by the optimal MRC detector. The basic idea is to obtain an estimate of the noise-free correlator outputs, Hlbl and then to coherently combine them as in (11) to obtain the bit estimated for each user. Let

Y = r (t )Q * (t )dt |r ( t )= s ( t ) = HB

(30)

The nature of the estimate of Y determines the structure of the receivers. Generically, the estimate of Y takes the form: =FZ=FRHB +FN (31) The matrix F is chosen to yield a near-far resistant estimate of Y [5]. Since the noise in the estimate is correlated (the FN part), a prewhitening operation is needed. The general form of the overall multiuser TFRAKE receiver becomes: (32) = sign{Re[HHD]} = sign{Re[HHDFZ]} Where the block-diagonal matrix D performs the prewhitening and the matrix HH performs MRC. The discussions of F and D matrix coefficient counting (for Maximum Likelihood Estimation-Decorrelating Receiver and Minimum-Mean-Squared Error Receiver cases) is similar to those provided in [5]. Fig.4 shows the receiver structure: Z1 H1

Prewhitener (D1) MRC sign(Re(*))

r(t)

Z2

Multiuser Separation (F)

H2

Prewhitener (D2) MRC sign(Re(*))

ZL

HL

Prewhitener (DL) MRC sign(Re(*))

B. Simulation result As it is analyzed above, by finding the sub-optimal solutions for multiuser case while taking advantage of Doppler-diversity, the proposed multiuser receiver offers better performances in comparison with the conventional RAKE receiver, especially in fast-fading environments. A simulation result of four-user system in a practical condition is shown in Fig.5.This uses time-selective signaling system employing time frequency

RAKE receiver with overlapping codes of length L=511,with a new symbol transmitted every 31chips. The Jakes fading channel model with a carrier frequency of 1.8 GHz and mobile speed of 90 km/h is used to simulate the channel at a data rate of 10 kHz. Single-user system performance (of multipath (conventional) RAKE receiver and proposed multipath-Doppler) has also been shown for reference. As evident, Doppler diversity gains are attained in the multiuser system as well.

Fig.5. BER versus SNR per symbol for user 1 in a proposed four-user system (dash lines)

Of course, by employing the frequency diversity stage, the proposed receiver structure is more complex, and its detection counting process requests more and faster calculuses to guarantee the transmission speed. But due to the microprocessor complexity, speed and power characteristics vs. time analyzed in [11], the computational complexity of the system (is linearly proportional to the number of users and the number of symbols that overlap) is tractable and reasonable for the next generation CDMA system. Moreover, for most practical scenarios, ISI is virtually negligible due to the excellent correlation properties of pseudorandom codes, so the one-shot detector structure can be employed at the receiver to reduce the symbol detection window size [3]. V. CONCLUSIONS In this paper, the joint multipath-Doppler diversity and time-selective signaling concepts are provided to develop the new proposed reception structure. The performances of the system in multiuser scenario are analyzed to show its effectiveness and applicability for future mobile networks. More thorough investigation of the system and its comparison with other effective schemes are next steps of my research. Finally, I would like to thank professor Akbar. M. Sayeed for his guidance and support of this publication.

REFERENCES [1] M. C. Chan and T. Y. C. Woo, Next-Generation Wireless Data Services: architecture and Experience, IEEE Personal Commun., Feb.1999. [2] IMT-2000 Developments in the Asia Pacific Region , IEEE Commun. Mag., Sep.1998. [3] S. Bhashyam, A. M. Sayeed, B. Aazhang, Time-Selective Signaling and Reception for Communication over Multipath Fading Channels , IEEE Transactions on Commun. Vol.48, No.1, Jan.2000. [4] A. M. Sayeed, B. Aazhang, Joint multipath-Doppler Diversity in Mobile Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on Commun. Vol.47, No.1, Jan.1999. [5] A. M. Sayeed, A. Sendonaris, B. Aazhang, .Multiuser Detection in Fast-fading Multipath Environments IEEE J. on Select. Areas in Commun. Vol.16, No.9, Dec.1998. [6] http://dune.ece.wisc.edu/

[7] G. W. Wornell, Spread-response precoding for communication over fading channels, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, Vol.42, Mar.1996. [8] P.B. Rapajic and B. S. Vucetic, adaptive receiver structures for asynchronous CDMA systems, IEEE J. on Select. Areas in Commun.,vol.12,May 1994. [9] J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 3rd ed. New york: McGraw Hill, 1995. [10] K.Wesolowski Systemy radiokomunikacji ruchomej 2nd ed. Warszawa 1999. [11] R. D. Carsello and fellows ,IMT-2000 Standards: Radio Aspects , IEEE Personal Commun.,Aug.1997 -----------------------------------------------------About Author: NGUYEN NGUYEN MINH 1993-1998 Student of Warsaw University of Technology, Electronics and Information Techniques Department, POLAND 1998 received Eng.& M.Sc. degree from Institute of Radio-electronics Recently is working toward the Ph.D. degree at the same Institute. Research interests: Digital Radio Transmission, Modulation & Demodulation techniques, Third Generation Communication Systems. Email: nguyen@alfa.ire.pw.edu.pl

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