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Works Cited

Primary Sources: "2012 SportsCenter Intro." SportsCenter. ESPN. 2012. YouTube. 8 Mar. 2012. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6G-UMPutYEo>. I used this video to look at SportsCenter as it is now compared to how it was in 1979. ESPN Debut with Founder Bill Rasmussen. ESPN. 7 Sept. 1979. YouTube. Jim DeLorenzo, 8 Feb. 2011. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=trm7Xf14EnM&feature=player_embedded#!>. In this video clip, Bill Rasmussen explains to the viewer on ESPN's debut how the new technology, satellite television, works. "ESPN History Highlight Reel." Careers: Our History. ESPN, n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. <http://espncareers.com/about-us/history.aspx>. On this site, I found all the information for my timeline. "ESPN Inc." Business Insights: Essentials. Gale Group, n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. This database (found through Alabama Virtual Library) led me to a company profile for ESPN as well as a comparison chart between ESPN and its largest competitor, Fox Sports. "ESPN's First Studio Broadcast." SportsCenter. ESPN. 7 Sept. 1979. YouTube. ESPN, 1 Nov. 2011. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=vKyRslWcbho>. This clip is from the very first ESPN broadcast, leading into the first SportsCenter. Evey, Stuart, and Irv Broughton. ESPN: The No-Holds-Barred Story of Power, Ego, Money, and Vision That Transformed a Culture. Chicago: Triumph, 2004. Print.

This book was written by a former ESPN chairman who took a chance on a crazy idea to start a 24-hour sports network. I found a lot of background information on ESPN in this book. McGrail, J. Patrick. Personal interview. 6 Mar. 2013. This interview with Jacksonville State University Assistant Professor of Communication Dr. Pat McGrail provided me with information on how ESPN has affected broadcasting. One of Dr. McGrail's research specialties includes branding and cable news, which was particularly helpful for this project. Rasmussen, Bill. Sports Junkies Rejoice!: The Birth of ESPN. S.l.: S.n., 2010. Print. This book chronicles the development of the idea of ESPN through the eyes of its founder, Bill Rasmussen. Rasmussen, Bill. "Welcome to ESPN Founder Site." ESPN Founder. N.p., 2013. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://www.espnfounder.com/>. This was probably the most invaluable website I found. The site is a promotional site by and about Bill Rasmussen, founder of ESPN. It provided me with several pictures, a great deal of background information about ESPN, and information on the founder. One of my favorite resources, a comparison chart of ESPN when it was founded and present day, was located on this site. Watch ESPN Logo. N.d. Photograph. ESPN MediaZone. 4 June 2012. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. <http://espnmediazone.com/us/press-releases/2012/06/watchespn-coming-soonto-espn-on-xbox-live/>. This logo was used on my timeline. WatchESPN is an interactive, mobile version of ESPN programming and illustrates how ESPN has continued to expand its franchise to keep up with modern technology.

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Secondary Sources: 1979 ESPN Logo. N.d. Photograph. The Brooks File. Gerry Brooks, May 2011. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://brooksfile.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/espn_1981.jpg>. I found a picture of ESPN's first logo on this site. ABC Logo. N.d. Photograph. Your Entertainment Corner. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. <http://www.yourentertainmentcorner.com/2011/03/ashley-hebert-gets-a-secondchance-at-love-when-she-becomes-the-bachelorette-this-may/abc-logo/>. ABC logo for use on timeline. ABC acquired ESPN in 1984. Badenhausen, Kurt. "Why ESPN Is Worth $40 Billion As The World's Most Valuable Media Property." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 09 Nov. 2012. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/kurtbadenhausen/2012/11/09/why-espn-is-theworlds-most-valuable-media-property-and-worth-40-billion/>. This site gave me information about how ESPN has driven ad revenues up for Disney and how it is the most lucrative for advertisers. Baseball: Fielding the Future. N.d. Photograph. Sportvision. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. <http://www.sportvision.com/baseball>. The K-Zone is another example of technology ESPN has embraced to keep up with the sports fanatic's home viewing needs. Choi, Chung S. The ESPN Effect: How ESPN Has Transformed Local Sportscasts. Thesis. Georgetown University, 2002. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print. This masters thesis provided information about how ESPN has changed the television and cable industries, comparing local sportscasts pre- and post-ESPN. Disney ABC Television Group Logo. N.d. Photograph. Ypulse Essentials. Web. 22 Jan.

2013. <http://www.yourentertainmentcorner.com/2011/03/ashley-hebert-gets-asecond-chance-at-love-when-she-becomes-the-bachelorette-this-may/abc-logo/>. In 1995, Disney acquired Capital Cities/ABC and became ESPN's parent company. This logo was used in my timeline to illustrate this acquisition. "ESPN, Inc. History." Funding Universe. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/espn-inc-history/>. This site provided great background information about the company and its holdings. I also found a lot of information for my Then and Now page here. ESPN Innovation Lab. N.d. Photograph. Sports Video Group. Mar. 2010. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://sportsvideo.org>. I found a picture of ESPN's Innovation Lab on this site. This lab is where much of ESPN's emerging technology begins and is tested. ESPY Award 2012 Logo. 2012. Photograph. My Ticket Premium. 12 July 2012. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. <http://www.myticketpremium.com/espy-awards-2012-winners-patsummitt-and-the-shows-most-deserving-victors/>. The ESPY Awards are ESPN's answer to the Academy Awards. Before ESPN, an entire awards show dedicated to athletes and sports was unheard of. Greenfeld, Karl T. "ESPN: Everywhere Sports Profit Network." Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg, 30 Aug. 2012. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-08-30/espn-everywhere-sportsprofit-network>. This article showed the business side of ESPN, focusing on revenues and advertising. I used a picture from this site showing all of the areas ESPN is involved in.

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How the First-Down Line Works. 1998. Photograph. How Stuff Works. 2009. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. <http://www.howstuffworks.com/first-down-line.htm>. Photo of the first-down line technology first broadcast on ESPN in September, 1998. This computer generated line makes it easier for the home viewer to find where the first-down line is in relation to the offense. This technology, like many brought to the viewer by ESPN helps the audience feel more like part of the game. Lopes, Alexandre, and Dennis Galletta. "Consumer Perceptions and Willingness to Pay for Intrinsically Motivated Online Content." Journal of Management Information Systems 23.2 (2006): 203-31. Print. This journal article is a study on how motivated consumers are to pay for online content, something ESPN has to consider with their tools, like the WatchESPN app. Martzke, Rudy, and Reid Cherner. "After 25 Years, ESPN Still Channels How to View Sports." USATODAY.com. USA Today, 17 Aug. 2004. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. <http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/sports/2004-08-17-espn-25-years_x.htm>. This is a great article showing how ESPN has changed the way we watch sports and view commentators. It was one of the first I found drawing the comparison to preand post-ESPN. Miller, James A., and Tom Shales. Those Guys Have All the Fun: Inside the World of ESPN. New York: Back Bay, 2011. Print. This book provided great information on ESPN founder Bill Rasmussen and the evolution of ESPN. O'Shea, Dan. "The ESPN Effect." The ESPN Effect. Connected Planet, 6 Feb. 2006. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://connectedplanetonline.com/mag/telecom_espn_effect/>. This article shows one author's reactions to ESPN's debut and early days.

Smith, Anthony F., and Keith Hollihan. ESPN the Company : The Story and Lessons Behind the Most Fanatical Brand in Sports. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Print. This book discusses how ESPN served sports previously unnoticed and unappreciated. Through serving these sports, ESPN established a loyal viewership without increasing costs as much as with major sports. Weisman, Jon. "Homerun $$$ for ESPN Pact." Daily Variety 29 Aug. 2012: n. pag. Print. This article discusses the huge deal between ESPN and Major League Baseball, one of the largest contracts of its kind.